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TIMBER TOWER

RESEARCH PROJECT
BY SOM

Greenbuild 2013
WoodWorks Education Lab

Benton Johnson, PE SE
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, LLP
benton.johnson@som.com

© SOM 2013
Learning Objectives

1. Understand how a high-rise timber building can be designed to satisfy the


intent of the code.

2. Recognize that the structure can be designed to support multi-story


gravity and lateral loads while having minimal impact on the architectural,
interior or building service designs.

3. Realize that the structural material quantities required for high-rise


timber structures can be comparable to reinforced concrete structures
with the proposed system, suggesting that high-rise timber buildings
could be competitive with conventional high-rise construction.

4. Appreciate that use of the SOM-developed Concrete Jointed Timber


Frame system allows engineers to apply tall building engineering
fundamentals to the creation of a more efficient structure with a
significantly reduced carbon footprint.
Session Agenda

1. Sustainability and Tall Buildings

2. Research Project Overview

3. Design of Gravity Load Resisting System

4. Design of Lateral Load Resisting System

5. Non-Structural Systems

6. Carbon Footprint Comparison


Research Project

Deliverables:
-11x17 Sketches: 33 pages
-8.5x11 Report: 68 pages
-3D PDF of Structure

© SOM 2013
Basis of the Research

2013: 7.0 billion Total -- 3.5 billion in Cities

2050: 11.0 billion Total -- 7.0 billion in Cities


Basis of the Research

Source: David Dodman, Blaming Cities for Climate Change?


An Analysis of Urban Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories, 2009
Basis of the Research

Houston Paris

New York Tokyo

Melbourne Hong Kong


Basis of the Research

© SOM 2013
Basis of the Research
Basis of the Research

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Technology

www.structurlam.com
Research Project Overview

© SOM | Hedrich Blessing


Research Project Overview

+417ft

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Research Project Overview

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Design Process

What makes a ‘successful’ building design?

-Marketable

-Serviceable

-Economical

-Sustainable

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Successful Design
Marketable Serviceable

Economical Sustainable

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Proposed System

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Marketable

24ft Average

27-29 ft
27-29 ft

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Marketable

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Marketable

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System Marketability

26’-3”

12.2” 24’-2”

Need ~13.5” th. panel


Too much material, not economical

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Floor Structure

We must reduce amount of materials used in


the floors, what choices do we have?

-Reduce the span?

-Add interior columns / walls?

-Use beams?

-Boundary conditions?

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Floor Structure

© SOM 2013
Floor Structure

© SOM 2013
Floor Structure

© SOM 2013
Floor Structure

© SOM 2013
Floor Structure

We must reduce amount of materials used in


the floors, what choices do we have?

-Reduce the span?

-Add interior columns / walls?

-Use beams?

-Boundary conditions

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Floor Connections

Typical Floor Section

Tension Rebar

Typical Framing Plan

Column to Slab Connection

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Floor Analysis

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Floor Connections

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Floor Connections

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Floor Connections

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Timber /Concrete Material Properties

140-
135p
710psi
si
= Side = Cut
Face Face

C=1,400psi C= = Cut
425psi Face
T = 0psi
C = 2,500psi – 3,400psi

T=700psi T = 500psi – 2,150


psi

Select Structural 5,000 psi


SPF Concrete

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Proposed System

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Proposed System

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Proposed System

Total Lumber:
= 12,000 yd3
= 3.9 million board-ft
= 1,700 miles of 2x4

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Design Process

What makes a ‘successful’ building design?

->Marketable

-Serviceable
-Tall Buildings
-Timber Buildings

->Economical

-Sustainable

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Serviceability in Tall Buildings

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Serviceability in Tall Buildings

raam-bling.blogspot.com
Proposed System

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Serviceability in Tall Buildings

raam-bling.blogspot.com

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Serviceability in Tall Buildings

Link Beam Deformation

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Serviceability in Tall Buildings

Link Beam Deformation

eastsidetreeworks.com

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Serviceability in Tall Buildings

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Serviceability in Tall Buildings

Compression

Tension
eastsidetreeworks.com

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Serviceability in Tall Buildings

© SOM 2013
Serviceability in Tall Buildings

treesaregood.org
Proposed System

By Volume: 80% Timber, 20% Concrete


By Weight: 45% Timber, 55% Concrete

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Serviceability in Tall Buildings

Expected Differential = 2 to 3”

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Design Process

What makes a ‘successful’ building design?

->Marketable

->Serviceable

->Economical

-Sustainable

© SOM 2013
Sustainability

© SOM | Hedrich Blessing


Sustainability

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Sustainability
Steel: Concrete: Wood:
Melting Iron Cement Production Kiln Drying
Sustainability

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Sustainability

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Sustainability

Carbon Neutral Energy Sources

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Sustainability – Carbon Sequestration

1600
1400
Million Metric Tons Carbon

1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
1990 1995 2000 2005 2009

Source: USEPA (2010). Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions and


Sinks, 1990-2008, p. 7-14.
Sustainability – Carbon Sequestration

1600
1400
Million Metric Tons Carbon

1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
1990 1995 2000 2005 2009

Source: USEPA (2010). Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions and


Sinks, 1990-2008, p. 7-14.
Effective Use of Timber

Total Mat’l = 1.12 cuft/sf Total Mat’l = 1.14 cuft/sf Total Mat’l = 1.30 cuft/sf
C02 Footprint = 75lb/sf C02 Footprint = 30lb/sf C02 Footprint = 20lb/sf
© SOM 2013
Design Process

What makes a ‘successful’ building design?

->Marketable

->Serviceable

->Economical

->Sustainable

© SOM 2013
Concrete Jointed Timber Frame

© SOM 2013
TIMBER TOWER
RESEARCH PROJECT
BY SOM

© SOM 2013