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Literature review


Domestic violence against women in Kersa, Oromia region, eastern Ethiopia by W.

Shanko, M. Wolday, N. Assefa and A.R. Aroe

According to world health organization (WHO) multi-country survey in
2000–03, the highest current rate of violence was in rural Ethiopia where
54% of women have experienced intimate partner violence . Literate rural
women who were married to an illiterate spouse had the highest odds of
physical harm, verbal assault , sexual violence and so on are common.

General objective
Ethiopian women’s are face different kind of violence in their life time ,
some research reports are indicated that 54% of women’s are experience
intimate partner (domestic) violence in the country.

Specific objective
Assessing the knowledge and prevalence of intimate( domestic )
violence among women in Kersa district of Oromia region and identify the
types, perpetuators and triggers for violence.

Statement of the problem

Intimate partner violence is common in rural areas of Ethiopia. The aim of
this study was to assess the knowledge and prevalence of domestic violence
among women in Kersa district of Oromia region and identify the types,
perpetuators and triggers for violence.

The sampling technique

The researchers used systematic random sampling technique
The data collection
The researchers prepare close ended questionnaire addressed the women’s
knowledge about domestic violence.

The procedure
Data collectors made house-to-house visits and conducted interviews with
the selected women in their homes.

Data analysis method

The data were analyzed using SPSS , version 16.0. Proportions, chi-squared
test and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to describe
the data and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Discussion and results

Some surveys showing that women in developing countries are experience
higher rates of violence than those in developed countries . Community-
based studies in Ethiopia indicated that 50%–60% of women experienced
domestic violence in their lifetime however ,domestic violence is a common
practice in Ethiopia especially in rural settings. In rural areas of Ethiopia a
study conducted in the year 2005 revealed a higher prevalence of domestic
violence in the community 54% of the total population. 858 women of
reproductive age from January to February 2008 were participate on the
research. The study subjects were recruited from the source population in
Kersa woman aged between 15–49 years based on their age and thus only
337 of the 849 women 39.7% are recognized that violence against women
was an issue in the area but the remaining women’s had no idea about the
violence that have done on them as a crime, even if they know it is a crime
they do not want to take it the case to authorities because they accept it as a
norm, fear to lose the marriage or because of literacy.

Researchers were found that violence against women around this research
area has big problem specifically on their physical , psychological and
societal life.

The researcher’s suggested possible solutions to the problem like
encouraging and facilitating to report violent incidents to the legal system ,
awareness creation and forming coalition of all the concerned bodies to work
together with the local and regional women’s affairs to protect women
against future harm.

Group perspective
One third of all women experience violence within their lifetime, most
frequently Perpetrated by their intimate partner. It impacts women’s sexual,
reproductive, and mental health, and increases the risk of chronic disease.
Ways to reduce intimate partner violence are less obvious, though.
Especially in rural areas, electrification is frequently said to foster women’s
development and contribute to a modernization of gender roles.

“ all members in the group believes The presence of domestic violence

against women in Ethiopia ;unfortunately no one knows how bad it is.”

Every year countries around the world host more than 1000 events related to
the march 8th international women’s day .women’s rights advocate groups
,schools ,hospitals ,banks , charities and individuals all have something to
say or do to honor the day women celebrate their political ,economic and
social achievements. But every year, the day comes and goes by only to be
followed by the next abuse against millions of women in many parts of the

Finding out the true scale of domestic abuse against women in Ethiopia
looks bleaker now than it did in last 20 years. For a start, the last
comprehensive study documenting domestic abuses against women
throughout Ethiopia was a 2008 study conducted by Ethiopian lawyer’s
association (EWLA). Among the key finds of this study is the depressing
fact that the” police did not consider domestic violence as a serious crime,
and the act isn’t registered as a separate offence …and it is not taken as
seriously as crimes such as theft “in other words the police have not as much
of an account, much less comprehensive data, on the full scale of domestic
violence against women in Ethiopia. That complicates the suffering of
Ethiopian women whose stories remain out of sight and hence out of
solution. Owing to that currently no one is able to tell if the trend is on the
rise or simply more stories are finding their ways to the media than it was
the case before.
according to most cultural context in Ethiopia husband’s act of abusing his
wife is considered acceptable for two insignificant and yet powerful reasons
“failure to give birth and suspicion for infidelity” and “behaving as
controlling and non-domestic women” according to this study, most women
do not report case of violence by their intimate partner” primarily due to the
fact that they may be stigmatized and ashamed by the community. In some
cases, it may result in life of discrimination with consequences like difficulty
in re-marriage’’

Culturally women in Ethiopia are exposed to harmful traditions abandoned

centuries ago by many countries around the world. and “the traditional
tendency that places women in subordinate position to men has led to culture
of justification of accepting intimate partner violence against women.”

Ethiopia has signed and ratified both the 1979 UN’s convention on the
elimination of all forms of discrimination against women (CEDAW), and the
1993 declaration on the elimination of violence against women , which
recognizes violence against women, which recognizes violence against
women as a violation of human rights . but CEDAW data on governments
behavior towards women shows that although ethiopia’s law is in agreement
with CEDAW provisions” there is spotty enforcement ; the government may
or may not signal its interest in challenging cultural norms against women.”

Hence, all members of the group agrees on the existence of Domestic

violence against women and it was relatively high in different parts of
Ethiopia. Therefore the possible solution can be using appropriate health
promotion information activities and tackle associated factors of domestic
violence against women to prevent and control the problem. and save
women from being victim.