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Course Number: S-EP08-01.

01VCT

6.6L Duramax:
Engine Diagnosis

Participant Guide Revised: 09/14/11

© 2011 General Motors Company, All Rights Reserved


Caution
Danger: In order to reduce the chance of death, personal injury and/or property
damage, carefully observe the instructions that follow:
The service manuals of General Motors Company are intended for use by professional,
qualified technicians. Attempting repairs or service without the appropriate training,
tools, and equipment could cause death or injury to you or others. This could also
damage the vehicle, or cause the vehicle to operate improperly.
Proper vehicle service and repair are important to the safety of the service technician
and to the safe, reliable operation of all motor vehicles. If you need to replace a part,
use the same part number or an equivalent part. Do not use a replacement part of
lesser quality.
The service procedures we recommend and describe in this service manual are
effective methods of performing service and repair. Some of the procedures require
the use of tools that are designed for specific purposes.
Accordingly, any person who intends to use a replacement part, a service procedure,
or a tool that is not recommended by General Motors, must first establish that there is
no jeopardy to personal safety or the safe operation of the vehicle.
This manual contains various "Dangers", "Warnings" and "Cautions" that you must
observe carefully in order to reduce the risk of personal injury during service or repair.
Improper service or repair may damage the vehicle or render the vehicle unsafe. These
"Dangers", "Warnings" and "Cautions" are not exhaustive. General Motors cannot
possibly warn of all the potentially hazardous consequences of your failure to follow
these instructions.
This manual covers service procedures to vehicles that are equipped with a
Supplemental Inflatable Restraint. Refer to the "Warnings" in Dangers, Warnings and
Cautions in Supplemental Inflatable Restraint. Refer to Supplemental Inflatable
Restraint component and wiring location views in Supplemental Inflatable Restraint
before performing a service on or around Supplemental Inflatable Restraint
components or wiring. Failure to follow these "Dangers", Warnings" and "Cautions"
could cause air bag deployment, personal injury, or otherwise unnecessary
Supplemental Inflatable Restraint repairs.
In order to help avoid accidental air bag deployment and personal injury, whenever
you service a vehicle that requires repair of the Supplemental Inflatable Restraint and
another vehicle system, we recommend that you first repair the Supplemental
Inflatable Restraint, then go on to the other system.
June 2008
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
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AW-2
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
How to Complete the Audio Setup Wizard

How to Complete the Connect Audio Setup Wizard


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Follow the directions.

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AW-3
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
How to Complete the Audio Setup Wizard

Choose your microphone or


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Follow the directions.

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AW-4
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
How to Complete the Audio Setup Wizard

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Stay silent until the test


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AW-5
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Introduction .................................................................................... i-1

Module 1: Fuel System Diagnosis .......................................................... 1-1

Module 2: Fuel System Testing (Supply Side) and High Pressure Side . 2-1

Module 3: Glow Plug Diagnosis .............................................................. 3-1

Module 4: Variable Nozzle Turbocharger System Diagnosis .................. 4-1

Instructor Name:

Help Number: 800-825-5886, prompt 1

This manual contains information about service for 6.6L Duramax diesel engines and
their components. Always refer to applicable vehicle service information and
appropriate Dealer Technical Service Bulletins for additional information regarding
system operation and diagnostic/repair procedures. When this manual refers to a brand
name, a number, or a specific tool, you may use an equivalent product in place of the
recommended item.
All information, illustrations and specifications in this manual are based on the latest
product information available at the time of publication approval. General Motors
reserves the right to make changes at any time without notice.
No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in
any form or by any means (including but not limited to electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, and recording) without prior written permission of General Motors
Company. This applies to all text, illustrations, tables and charts.

© 2011

TC-1
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Introduction

Introduction

i-1
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Introduction

6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis

Course Goal

Upon successful completion of this course, you will be able to apply concepts and
procedures to diagnose and service concerns on the 6.6 Liter Duramax Diesel engine
and its components.

Session 1 Objectives

 Describe Duramax Fuel System and the Duramax Engine Management Control
System diagnostic procedures
 Describe Fuel System (Supply Side) and Fuel System High Pressure Side
diagnostic procedures
 Describe Glow Plug diagnostic procedures
 Describe Variable Nozzle Turbocharger system diagnostic procedures

Strategy Based Diagnosis


 Step 1. Understand and verify the customer concerns
 Step 2. Check that the vehicle is operating as designed
 Step 3. Conduct the Preliminary Checks-visual and operational
 Step 4. Perform the Diagnostic System Check-Vehicle
 Step 5. Check the Bulletins, Recalls and Preliminary Information
 Step 6. Perform the Diagnostics
 Step 7. Re-examine the Concern
 Step 8. Repair and Verify the Fix

Special Instructions
The diagnostic charts in this courseware are for reference only. Refer to Service
Information when servicing the Duramax Fuel System and its components.

i-2
MODULE 1
Fuel System Diagnosis

© 2011 General Motors Company, All Rights Reserved


6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 1: Fuel System Diagnosis

Module 1 Objective

At the end of this module, you will be able to describe the procedures for diagnosing
concerns on the Duramax fuel system and the Duramax engine management control
system.

NOTE: Refer to Service Information for correct procedures when diagnosing


concerns on the 6.6L Duramax diesel engine or its components.

Tech 2 Data Parameters

 At key ON, engine OFF, fuel rail


pressure should be 1.1 to 1.8
MegaPascals (MPa), or 160 to 261
pounds per square inch (psi).
 Higher or lower pressure could cause
a drivability issue that may or may not
set a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC).
 For 2006 and newer engines, at key
ON and engine OFF, fuel rail pressure
will be close to 0. If it is not, DTC
P0191 may set.
 On all engines, minimum pressure
Actual Fuel Rail Pressure must be 10 MPa (1450 psi) to start.
 On LB7, LLY, and LBZ engines, actual
fuel rail pressure should be 25 to 35
MPa (3626-5076 psi) at engine idle.
Actual Fuel Rail Pressure should be
equal to Desired Fuel Rail Pressure.
 On the LMM, LGH and LML engines,
actual fuel rail pressure should be 35
to 40 MPa (5076-5802 psi) at engine
idle. Actual Fuel Rail Pressure should
be equal to the Desired Fuel Rail
Pressure.
 A complete list of data parameters is
in Service Information.

1-2
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 1: Fuel System Diagnosis

Engine Misfire Detection

 A misfire is the failure of the cylinder to provide adequate power.


 The misfire detection diagnostic will run after certain conditions are met. The
parameters are specific to the emission regulation requirements of the vehicle. The
parameters include:
─ Engine Run Time (typically 10 to 30 seconds of continuous engine idle)
─ Coolant Temperature (must meet a certain threshold)
 Misfire detection lasts for a maximum of 30 seconds.
 The Engine Control Module (ECM) monitors fuel rate adjustments. DTC P0300 will
set if the ECM finds that cylinder adjustment rates exceed acceptable levels. A
misfire with no other DTCs may be caused by an engine mechanical issue or by a
fuel injector concern.
 Diesel engines are compression−ignition engines. Service Information will direct you
to test compression during misfire diagnosis to rule out engine mechanical concerns.
 Some engine mechanical concerns may relate to the:
─ Valve train
─ Head gasket
─ Piston failure

 Notes:
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

1-3
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 1: Fuel System Diagnosis

Fuel Injector Balance Test

 Balancing Rate information and the


Fuel Injector Balance Test are useful
when diagnosing customer drivability
concerns such as leaking fuel
injectors.
 Misfire detection does NOT identify
leaking fuel injectors.
 Misfire detection looks for a POSITIVE
balancing rate, and leaking fuel
injectors typically cause a NEGATIVE
balancing rate.
Tech 2 Cylinder Balancing Rate  The Duramax engine management
system can compensate and may
cover for a weak cylinder.
 For idle concerns, balancing rates
may be more helpful than the Cylinder
Power Balance test.
 This test can be performed at any
engine RPM or at any vehicle speed.

 Notes:
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

1-4
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 1: Fuel System Diagnosis

Video Outline: Fuel Injector Balance Test 

 Misfire detection will only detect insufficient injector fuel delivery. It will not detect
continuous fuel delivery.
 If a misfire DTC is not set and you suspect insufficient injector fuel delivery, you may
perform the Fuel Injector Balance Test, which includes checking the cylinder balance
rates for specific customer concerns. Note that there is a different procedure and
different values for automatic and manual transmission vehicles.
 For this automatic transmission-equipped vehicle, begin with the engine running at
an operating temperature of 82°C (180°F). Ensure all accessories are OFF.
 Apply the brakes. A noticeable hiss identifies the brakes are fully applied.
 Place the transmission in DRIVE and let it idle for more than 30 seconds.
 With the conditions met, record the balancing rates.
 With the DRIVE balancing rates recorded, test the vehicle again with the
transmission in NEUTRAL and record your results.

Balancing Rates Cylinder Power Balance Test


 With the transmission in DRIVE, a balancing rate between plus or minus 6 mm3 is
normal. In NEUTRAL, plus or minus 4 mm3 is the normal range.
 Next, if the balance parameters are in specification, you should perform the Cylinder
Power Balance test. It’s located in the special functions. You’ll find the supporting
diagnostics in Service Information.
 This test shuts down individual injectors while the engine is running. If a cylinder is
contributing power, turning off its injector should cause an engine running change.
 During testing, listen and feel for a drop in engine speed since the data list can be
misleading. This is what it should sound like.
 The cylinder balance chart will help you isolate the source of the malfunction by
asking you to perform a compression test.

1-5
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 1: Fuel System Diagnosis

CKP and CMP Relationship

The ECM uses Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor and the Camshaft Position (CMP)
Sensor information for:
 Start-up
 Engine speed
 Engine stroke

 If the CKP Sensor signal is lost at


any time, the engine will not run.
 DTC P0335 sets if there is no signal
from the CKP sensor.
 DTC P0336 sets if the CKP sensor
signal is out of range.

Crankshaft Position Sensor

 If the CMP Sensor signal is lost while


the engine is running, the engine will
operate normally.
 If the CMP Sensor signal is not
present at start-up, the engine will
not start.
 DTC P0340 will set if there is no
signal from the CMP.
 DTC P0341 sets if the CMP signal is
out of range.

Camshaft Position Sensor

1-6
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 1: Fuel System Diagnosis

Duramax Diagnostic Tips

Concern Cause
 Abnormally loud engine ─ Loss of pilot injection / over-fueling
injector

 Excessive black smoke from ─ Disconnected air duct after MAF


exhaust Sensor (2001-2007 MY vehicles)

 Oil residue in Charge Air Cooler duct ─ Closed PCV System—Normal

 Air filter restriction on indicator ─ Restricted filter

 Air filter bent or distorted ─ Filter previously wet

 Due to pilot injection, the engine should be quiet. An abnormally loud engine could
be due to loss of pilot injection or to an injector that’s over fueling.
 Excessive black smoke from the exhaust or excessive regenerations could be
caused by a disconnected air duct after the Mass Air Flow (MAF) Sensor or a Charge
Air Cooler leak.
 Oil residue in the Charge Air Cooler ducts is a normal condition due to the closed
PCV system.
 Check to see if the air filter restriction indicator indicates a restriction and also to see
how much light passes through the filter.
 The 6-liter gasoline engine air filter and the Duramax air filter may look similar, but
they are not interchangeable. The Duramax air filter has additional support as
compared to the gasoline engine air filter, so the gasoline engine filter may collapse if
used on a Duramax.
 A bent or distorted filter could indicate the filter was probably wet at some time. If so,
it should be replaced.

1-7
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 1: Fuel System Diagnosis

Donaldson Air Filter

Donaldson Air Filter—top view Donaldson Air Filter—Installed


 The Donaldson Air Filter was introduced in 2006. It was used in LBZ and LMM
equipped C/K truck applications.
 The filter cannot be inspected using the light method. Instead, use the restriction
indicator.
 IMPORTANT: Do not install the filter backwards. A backwards installation would
allow unfiltered air to bypass around the filter.

 Notes:
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

1-8
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 1: Fuel System Diagnosis

Module 1 Summary

 Described Duramax Fuel System and the Duramax Engine Management Control
System diagnostic procedures
─ Fuel rail pressure data
─ Engine misfire detection
─ Fuel Injector Balance Test
─ CKP and CMP relationship
─ Duramax diagnostic tips
─ Donaldson air filter

1-9
MODULE 2
Fuel System Testing (Supply Side)
and High Pressure Side

© 2011 General Motors Company, All Rights Reserved


6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 2: Fuel System Testing (Supply Side) and High Pressure Side

Module 2 Objective

At the end of this module, you will be able to describe how to diagnose Fuel System
(Supply Side) and Fuel System High Pressure Side concerns.

NOTE: Refer to Service Information for correct procedures when diagnosing


concerns on the 6.6L Duramax diesel engine or its components.

Fuel System Diagnostic Procedures

 Primary diagnostic procedures for the Fuel System are:


─ Fuel System Diagnosis (Supply Side)—testing is the same for all Duramax
applications
─ Fuel System Diagnosis High Pressure Side
 These diagnostics cannot be run on a scan tool.
 These procedures should ONLY be run if directed by Service Information.
 Refer to Service Information before performing any troubleshooting or testing for the
Fuel System or its components.

2-2
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 2: Fuel System Testing (Supply Side) and High Pressure Side

Fuel System Testing (Supply Side)

Supply Side Operation

 The supply side operates under a vacuum.


 Faults on the supply side can cause drivability concerns such as:
 No start
 Hard start
 Extended crank
 Loss of power
 Two types of faults commonly associated with the supply side:
 Restrictions
 Air leaks

Typical Supply Side Vacuum

 Restrictions will cause an increase of


vacuum on the supply side.
 The CH 48027 Digital Pressure/Vacuum
Gauge is used to identify excessive
vacuum on the supply side.
 This chart shows typical vacuum
readings during different engine
operating conditions.

Air Leaks—possible causes

 An air leak on the supply side could be caused by the following:


 Deformed or cut O-rings at the fuel supply line connections
 Improperly seated fuel supply line fittings
 Porous or weathered rubber fuel supply lines
 Fuel filter vent screw not tightened or cross threaded;
 Fuel filter not tightened properly
 The supply side operates under a vacuum, so you will not see a fuel leak on the
supply side.

2-3
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 2: Fuel System Testing (Supply Side) and High Pressure Side

Fuel System Testing (Supply Side)

Video Outline: Fuel System Testing (Supply Side) 

 With the CH-48027 Digital


Pressure/Vacuum Gauge installed
to the fuel test port the prime pump
is used to pressurize the system to
69 kPa or 10 psi between the filter
and the injection pump.
 There are no obvious leaks.
 We prime the system again to 69
kPa (10 psi) and see how long it
takes to bleed down.
 Since our pressure is not bleeding
down to 14 kPa (2 psi) in less than
a minute, we'll continue checking Installing CH-48027 Digital Pressure/Vacuum
the on-engine fuel supply system Gauge to fuel test port  
components for leaks.

 To continue, split the system at the


supply line at the rear of the
engine.
 This will require disengaging the
secondary clips as well as the
quick-connect collar. The supply
line is capped.

Supply line capped using J 44581 Fuel Line


Disconnect tool

2-4
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 2: Fuel System Testing (Supply Side) and High Pressure Side

Video Outline: Fuel System Testing (Supply Side)


(continued) 

 With a hand vacuum pump


connected to the engine's supply
pipe, apply 635 millimeters (25
inches of vacuum).
 Allow the system to stabilize for a
minute.

25 in. vacuum applied

 In this case, the vacuum doesn’t drop below 203 millimeters (8 inches of vacuum) in
10 minutes. Therefore, we know a leak is in the supply line from the fuel tank.
 Now, we need to determine if an air leak is present in the chassis fuel lines or in the
tank.
 We check the fuel lines first. To do this, disconnect the supply line at the tank and
plug it.
 Remove the plug from the supply line and install the vacuum pump.

2-5
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 2: Fuel System Testing (Supply Side) and High Pressure Side

Video Outline: Fuel System Testing (Supply Side)


(continued) 

 Apply 635 millimeters (25 inches of vacuum) to the supply line. Wait a minute for the
system to stabilize.
 We check to see if vacuum drops to below 203 millimeters (8 inches of vacuum)
within 10 minutes.
 In our case, it doesn't drop below 203 millimeters (8 inches of vacuum).
 Since most of the vacuum held, reconnect the fuel lines at the tank and the engine.

 The procedure directs us to install


a transparent hose between the
supply line and the filter inlet.
 Position the hose so there's a
vertical loop.

Transparent hose with vertical loop


 After installing components to get the engine in running order, prime the fuel system
30 times to remove air from the system.
 After starting the engine, let it idle for at least 10 minutes to stabilize the system and
purge any air. After 10 minutes, there are still bubbles in the line.

2-6
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 2: Fuel System Testing (Supply Side) and High Pressure Side

Video Outline: Fuel System Testing (Supply Side)


(continued) 

 With the fuel sender removed from


the tank, we test it by pulling 381
millimeters (15 inches of vacuum).
 Since the sender is okay, the leak
must be at the sending unit, or
chassis line O-ring sealing surface,
or the O-ring itself.

Fuel sender removed from tank and tested

NOTES:
 Only run this test when directed by Service Information (SI).
 IMPORTANT: Start Fuel System testing on the Supply Side. Supply Side
malfunctions can affect the results of the High Pressure test.
 With the exception of fuel line routing, procedures for Supply Side testing are the
same for 2001 to present pickup applications.
 Duramax equipped vans have an electric prime pump on the Supply Side. Refer to
Service Information for the procedures.
 While testing the Supply Side for leaks using the EN-47969 hose, allow the engine
to idle for at least 10 minutes to purge any air and to allow the system to stabilize.
 Prime the Fuel System 30 times to remove air from the system after installing
components to get the engine in running order.
 The CH 48027 Digital Pressure/Vacuum Gauge has replaced the J 44638 Vacuum
Gauge. The Digital Pressure/Vacuum Gauge can also be used on all Duramax
applications.

2-7
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 2: Fuel System Testing (Supply Side) and High Pressure Side

Fuel System Testing High Pressure Side

 Fuel System High Pressure Side testing will identify an internal high side system
leak.
 You will be directed to this procedure from another procedure, such as the Engine
Cranks but Does Not Run Diagnostic.
 When performing this test, you will need to know the American Petroleum Institute
(API) fuel rating. The return volumes may vary depending on the API rating.

 Notes:
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

2-8
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 2: Fuel System Testing (Supply Side) and High Pressure Side

Video Outline: Fuel System Testing High Pressure


Side 

 The Fuel System Diagnosis High Pressure Side procedure should only be performed
when directed by a published diagnostic. It requires several tools.

 You'll need:
 Approved containers for diesel
fuel
J 45873
 J 44581 Fuel Line Disconnect
Tool
 J 45873 Fuel Return Volume
Test Kit that lets you compare
return fuel from the injectors for
J 44581
an entire cylinder bank J 45873-30
 Adapters for the test tool’s
yellow hoses to attach them to
the LLY Bosch Generation II
injectors J 45873 Fuel Return Volume Test Kit
J 44581 Fuel Line Disconnect Tool
J 45873-30 Adapters for Test Kit Yellow Hoses

 Basically, the Fuel System Diagnosis High Pressure Side procedure directs you to
measure individual injector fuel return volume.
 This will identify any leaking injectors.

2-9
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 2: Fuel System Testing (Supply Side) and High Pressure Side

Video Outline: Fuel System Testing High Pressure


Side (continued) 

 To begin, the fuel pressure relief valve is checked for leakage.


 We begin injector testing on the left bank.
 Assemble the J 45873-30 adapters
on the four yellow hoses in the
J 45873 kit.
 Remove the fuel return hoses from
the four injectors supplied by the
left rail.
 Connect the yellow hoses to the
open injector return ports using new
retaining clips. Discard the used
retaining clips.

Yellow hoses connected to injector return ports

 Each of the yellow hoses from the


injectors is positioned into the
corresponding graduated cylinder.

Yellow hoses in corresponding cylinder

2-10
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 2: Fuel System Testing (Supply Side) and High Pressure Side

Video Outline: Fuel System Testing High Pressure


Side (continued) 

 Crank the engine in 15 second intervals, with 1 minute for cooling between the
intervals. Do this until fuel flows into all of the graduated cylinders.
 Elevate the hoses so that they hold the fuel, and empty the graduated cylinders into
a suitable container. Return the hoses to the graduated cylinders.
 Again, crank the engine for 15 seconds. Measure the fuel in the graduated
cylinders. Compare the amounts with those listed in the Fuel System Specification.
These are the Fuel Injector Return Flow Values.
 If high return flows were recorded, replace those fuel injectors that had high return
flow. Repeat the procedure for the other side of the engine.
 After servicing the suspect injectors, re-assemble the components. Start the engine
and let it idle. You may need to prime the fuel system.
 Lastly, check the pump. Command the fuel pressure to 160 MPa (23,206 psi) using
the scan tool.
 Replace the fuel injection pump if the system cannot produce more than 145 MPa
(21,030 psi).

 Notes:
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

2-11
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 2: Fuel System Testing (Supply Side) and High Pressure Side

Fuel System Testing High Pressure Side (continued)

NOTES:
 Just like fuel system testing on the Supply Side, Fuel System Testing on the High
Pressure Side should not be performed unless directed by Service Information.
 Refer to Service Information for API ratings and complete testing procedures.
 In order to get an accurate test reading, the fuel must be warmer than 18°C (65°F).
 The CH 48027 Digital Pressure/Vacuum Gauge has replaced the J 44638 Vacuum
Gauge. The Digital Pressure/Vacuum Gauge can also be used on previous
Duramax applications.
 IMPORTANT: Be sure to use the adapters for the yellow hoses with the J 45873
Fuel Return Volume Test Kit.
 If the engine will not start, engine rotation must be higher than 150 RPM.
 On 2005 through 2010 engines, this procedure can be performed while the engine is
running. If, during testing, an injector or injectors fails the test, follow Service
Information for the proper procedures.
 Typically, on LB7 engines, you will be directed to replace all injectors as a set. On
all other engines, you’ll need to replace the failed injector.
 During the injector replacement procedure, inspect the fuel line and fittings for signs
of corrosion and contamination.

IMPORTANT: Follow all safety precautions for Fuel System testing in Service
Information.

2-12
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 2: Fuel System Testing (Supply Side) and High Pressure Side

Module 2 Summary

 Described:
─ Fuel System (Supply Side) diagnostic procedures
─ Fuel System High Pressure Side diagnostic procedures

2-13
MODULE 3
Glow Plug Diagnosis

© 2011 General Motors Company, All Rights Reserved


6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 3: Glow Plug Diagnosis

Module 3 Objective

At the end of this module, you will be able to describe how to diagnose and service a
Glow Plug concern on the 6.6L Duramax diesel engine.

NOTE: Refer to Service Information for correct procedures when diagnosing


concerns on the 6.6L Duramax diesel engine or its components.

 Notes:
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

3-2
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 3: Glow Plug Diagnosis

Glow Plug Controller

 Since the introduction of the LLY in 2004, a Glow Plug Control Module (GPCM) is
used on all Duramax applications.
 Power for the GPCM is supplied through the Ignition 1 voltage circuit and the battery
voltage circuit.
 There is also an engine ground circuit.
 Each Glow Plug is controlled and monitored on its own circuit.
 The GPCM communicates through the Controller Area Network (CAN)
communication circuits.

 Notes:
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

3-3
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 3: Glow Plug Diagnosis

Controller Area Network (CAN)

 CAN communication is bi-directional, meaning communications are over the high and
low circuits.
 The GPCM uses the CAN communication circuit to communicate with the Fuel
Injection Control Module (FICM), the Transmission Control Module (TCM) and the
Engine Control Module (ECM) Module.
 Since CAN communication is only between modules on this system, the scan tool will
communicate with the ECM through a Class 2 circuit.

3-4
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 3: Glow Plug Diagnosis

Controller Area Network (CAN) continued

 Starting with the 2006 model year, communications will now be on the High Speed
GM Local Area Network (GMLAN).
 This will require using the CANdi module in order for the scan tool to communicate
with the modules on the system.

3-5
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 3: Glow Plug Diagnosis

Glow Plugs

Gold LB7

Silver LLY

2006 – newer thread position

 The Glow Plug for the LB7 is gold in color. A relay supplies 12 volts to the plug.
 Starting in 2004 with the LLY and all subsequent model years and RPO codes, the
Glow Plug is silver in color. The glow plugs are controlled by the GPCM through a
pulse width modulated 4.7 volts. This allows the glow plugs to reach 1000°C
(1832°F) in 2 seconds.
 The thread position on 2006 and newer vehicles has been moved to the center of the
Glow Plug.

CAUTION

Do not install a LLY Glow Plug into a LB7 engine; severe engine damage could result.

3-6
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 3: Glow Plug Diagnosis

Diagnostic Scenario

GMC Sierra Duramax engine


 GMC Sierra with a Duramax engine
 Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) ON for one day—now OFF
 Preliminary checks indicated DTC U0106 set
 DTC U0106 relates to the Glow Plug Control Module (GPCM).

 Notes:
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

3-7
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 3: Glow Plug Diagnosis

Video Outline: Glow Plug System Diagnosis 

 Beginning with the Diagnostic System Check for Engine Controls, everything looks
good during the Power Mode check, and the vehicle starts and idles okay.
 When checking for DTCs, we find no
current codes set. However, there is
a U0106 in history. This identifies lost
communications from the Glow Plug
Controller.
 Before diving into the U0106
diagnostics to track down this
intermittent MIL On concern, let's see
if there are any applicable bulletins.

DTC U0106 in history


 There’s a Preliminary Information bulletin that references multiple vehicle issues and
communication codes caused by chaffed wires for the high speed network.
 Since our concern only affects the communication with the Glow Plug Control
Module, let’s focus on the circuits for the Glow Plug Control Module.
 A review of the schematic and connector end view for the Glow Plug Control Module
shows that there are just a few circuits that could cause the Glow Plug Control
Module to go offline. Obviously, we'll want to make a close inspection.

 There’s a female terminal that looks


to be the root cause—terminal cavity
#52—a pink wire. That's the Ignition 1
voltage for the Glow Plug.
 A drag test confirms the cavity is
suspect.

Terminal cavity #52 – Ignition 1 voltage

3-8
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 3: Glow Plug Diagnosis

Engine Data Sensors–Glow Plug Controls

Engine Data Sensors–Glow Plug Controls

 This schematic shows:


– Both communication circuits coming into the Glow Plug Control Module (GPCM);
– The ignition voltage and ground circuits for the GPCM;
– The battery power feed for the Glow Plugs themselves;
– The Glow Plug circuits are located between the Glow Plug Controller and the
Glow Plugs.
– The Glow Plugs are individually controlled and monitored by the GPCM. This
makes it possible to set a DTC for each individual Glow Plug and its
corresponding circuit if there’s a fault.
 Refer to Service Information and Preliminary Information for current diagnostic
procedures.

3-9
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 3: Glow Plug Diagnosis

Module 3 Summary

 Described DTC U0106 Glow Plug diagnosis:


– Glow Plug Controller and Circuits
– Controller Area Network (CAN)
– Glow Plug Characteristics
– Engine Data Sensors – Glow Plug Controls

3-10
MODULE 4
Variable Nozzle Turbocharger System
Diagnosis

© 2011 General Motors Company, All Rights Reserved


6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 4: Variable Nozzle Turbocharger System Diagnosis

Module 4 Objective

At the end of this module, you will be able to describe how to diagnose a Variable
Nozzle Turbocharger system concern on the 6.6 Liter Duramax diesel engine.

NOTE: Refer to Service Information for correct procedures when diagnosing


concerns on the 6.6L Duramax diesel engine or its components.

Variable Nozzle Turbocharger

 The role of the Variable Nozzle Turbocharger (VNT) is to improve acceleration,


especially under load.
 The role of the variable position vanes is to change boost pressure independently of
engine speed. Poor acceleration under load is a serious concern.
 The turbocharger vanes are normally open when there is no load.
 The Engine Control Module (ECM) commands the vanes closed, if needed, to force
exhaust through the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve. It also commands the
vanes closed if needed to warm the engine coolant faster.
 The ECM commands the Vane Position Control Solenoid Valve to direct engine oil to
a hydraulic piston to rotate the unison ring that actuates the vanes.
 The ECM provides the sensor with 5 volts on the reference circuit. It also provides a
low reference circuit. Movement of the sensor from the Open position to Closed
provides the ECM with a signal voltage.
 When the vanes are fully open, the sensor should show 1.0 volt. When the vanes are
fully closed, the sensor should show 3.5 volts.

 Notes:
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

4-2
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 4: Variable Nozzle Turbocharger System Diagnosis

Diagnostic Scenario

GMC Sierra Duramax engine


 Customer brought GMC Sierra with a Duramax engine into dealership.
 The Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) is ON.
 The vehicle has poor acceleration.
 Preliminary checks—DTC P2563 has set.

 Notes:
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

4-3
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 4: Variable Nozzle Turbocharger System Diagnosis

Video Outline: VNT System Diagnosis 

 Beginning with the Diagnostic System Check for Engine Controls, everything is within
specifications.

 When checking for DTCs, we find a


current code set, a P2563, identifying
Turbocharger Boost Control Position
Sensor Performance.
 The diagnostics ask about other
specific DTCs, but no other DTCs are
set.

DTC P2563 Tech 2 screen

 Then, we attempt to reset the P2563 DTC using the Freeze Frame/Failure Records.
In this case, P2563 sets again.
 The diagnostics direct us to install an injector test lamp between the turbocharger
vane position solenoid high and low control circuits.
 We continue by commanding the turbocharger vane position solenoid ON and OFF
with the scan tool. The test lamp changes from dim to bright.
 Since the test lamp flashed, this indicates that the ECM and the control circuits are
functioning within specification.

4-4
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 4: Variable Nozzle Turbocharger System Diagnosis

Video Outline: VNT System Diagnosis (continued) 

 Next, Service Information directs us to


test the resistance of the turbocharger
vane position control solenoid. The
reading should be between 3 and 7
ohms.
 Next, we check for infinite resistance
between the solenoid terminals and the
solenoid case.
 Service Information directs us to
disconnect the X-1 connector at the
ECM and test for less than 5 ohms of
resistance on the circuits between the
ECM and the turbocharger vane
position sensor.
5V reference circuit–less than 5 ohms

 We check the sensor signal, low reference, and sensor 5 volt reference. All circuits
checked good.
 The diagnostics now focus on the turbocharger vane control position sensor.
 Next, we remove the turbocharger vane position sensor from the turbocharger. With
the ignition ON, observe the scan tool turbocharger vane position sensor voltage
while slowly depressing the plunger at the end of the turbocharger vane position
sensor. The voltage decreases smoothly from approximately 4.9 to 0.2 volts.

4-5
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 4: Variable Nozzle Turbocharger System Diagnosis

Video Outline: VNT System Diagnosis (continued) 

 Since the sensor and wiring checks


are within specification, Service
Information directs us to focus on the
vane position control solenoid.

Tech 2 Output Control menu

 Command the turbocharger vane


position solenoid from 0 percent to
100 percent while observing the
Vane Position Sensor volts
parameter.
 The voltage does not change.

TC Vane Position Control Solenoid


parameter—unchanged

 Service Information now directs us to


remove the vane control solenoid
valve from the turbocharger to
inspect it.
 It is important to note both sets of
slots on the side of the valve.
 There are three possible positions.

TC Vane Control Solenoid Valve

4-6
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 4: Variable Nozzle Turbocharger System Diagnosis

Video Outline: VNT System Diagnosis (continued) 

 If the slot is open, then the valve is in


the Open position.

TC Vane Control Solenoid Valve—Open

 If the surface of the valve occupies


the slot, then the valve is in the
Closed position.

TC Vane Control Solenoid Valve—Closed

 If you can see the serrations on the


valve in the slot, then the valve is in
the At Rest position.

TC Vane Control Solenoid Valve—At Rest

4-7
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 4: Variable Nozzle Turbocharger System Diagnosis

Video Outline: VNT System Diagnosis (continued) 

 Since there is no power to the control valve, it should be in the At Rest position. In
this case, we see the smooth surface portion of the valve in the slot.
 The valve seems to be in the Closed position. Therefore, we test the control valve.
 After connecting the ECM and the control valve to its connector, turn the ignition ON,
with the engine OFF.
 While depressing the button at the tip of the valve, use the scan tool to command the
valve ON and OFF. As we see at the slot closest to the button, the valve is not
responding.
 The turbocharger vane control solenoid valve must be replaced.
 Diagnosis is completed after the repair by ensuring the DTC does not return and no
other DTCs have been set during the procedure.

Video Notes: VNT System Diagnosis 

Video Notes:
 When diagnosing VNT concerns, follow Strategy Based Diagnosis for the most
efficient service. Use the scan tool and the DMM for diagnosis.
 The Engine Control Module (ECM) performs the Turbocharger Learn procedure
automatically during each ignition cycle.
 However, after a repair to the turbocharger has been performed, the Turbocharger
Learn procedure must be performed manually using the scan tool.
 You will need to turn the ignition OFF for at least 30 seconds after the enable
conditions have been met. If this is not done, the DTC may reset.

4-8
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 4: Variable Nozzle Turbocharger System Diagnosis

TECH TIP

 It is important to note both sets of slots on the side of the control solenoid valve. If
you can see the serrations on the valve in the slot, then the valve is in the At Rest
position.

TECH TIP

 If turbocharger failure and replacement is required, refer to Technical Service


Bulletin #03-06-93-001: Diagnostic Information on Turbocharger Malfunction Due to
Lack of Engine Oil for LB7, LLY, LBZ and LMM Duramax Diesel Engine for the
correct procedures. Also, inspect for possible cam bearing failure or a restricted oil
supply hose.
 Do not to twist or bend the oil supply line. The oil supply line is a plastic tube with a
steel braided covering. If the supply line is twisted or bent excessively during VNT
removal or installation, this could kink the plastic inner tube and create a restriction.
This restriction could result in a lack of oil flow to the VNT and, eventually, a VNT
failure.
 The oil feed location on the LGH and the LML has changed. It is now at the left rear
of the engine valley.

4-9
6.6L Duramax: Engine Diagnosis
Module 4: Variable Nozzle Turbocharger System Diagnosis

Module 4 Summary

 Described DTC P2563 VNT System diagnosis:


─ VNT and its function and operation
─ Vane Position Sensor Circuits

4-10