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terms, the word must be Pre-Greek. Furnee's discussion of this variation runs from 8c. C / ss K / aa
p. 115 till p. 200. Even if we allow for some mistakes, it is clear that there is abundant dentals
evidence for this phenomenon. 9. t / ss T / aa
5.2 Prenasalization 10. t / st T / aT
Before a stop, a nasal may be present or not in Pre-Greek words. E.g. Kaxpue; / The analysis of these variants is not easy, and I mainly present the data here. A
Kuyxpue;, KOpU<p� / Kopuflpoe;, aUAaPll / aUAaflPll, etc. The phenomenon is extremely question that needs to be explained is why exactly s or t are involved in the given
frequent, but its precise origin is not known (prenasalized consonants?). variation.
The most complicated instance is 5b, where we find KT/aK. In fact, the most
5.3 Nasalization complicated phenomenon contains most information, and can be solved best. In this
A consonant is replaced by a homorganic nasal: Kl8u<p£U£lV / KlVU<p£U£lV, <PAll8<:ovTu / case, one expects a cluster with k, i.e. a consonant before or after the k. One of the
<pA�VU<pOe;. two expected clusters must have undergone metathesis. As Greek did undergo a
5·4. Labial stops / m / l}
metathesis TK > KT (and no metathesis of aK or �), we may assume that precisely this
There are three interchanges: labial stop / fl labial stop / F and fl / F- phenomenon was operative here. Thus, for an earlier stage we may reconstruct an
' interchange aK/n. This interchange can be easily explained by assuming a
Labial stop / ,.. (Fur. 203-227). Examples: appVAll / lipfluAU n.pl.; papplTOe; /
consonant, probably unknown to Greek, which resulted either in a or in T. In my
papfllTOe;; KUfllV8le; / KUplV8le;; AUKapUe; / AUKaflue;; flUaTU� / PUaTU�; aKoAUfloe; /
interpretation, this must have been a palatalized dental, i.e. /F/. For instance,
aKoAUpOe;; <papfluKov / <poppuv-ra; a<papuyoe; / aflapuyoe;.
afluaYEAu / afluy8aAll was probably *amutYgala, represented first as *amusgala or
Labial stop / F (Fur. 228-242). Examples: T€811nu, 8anoe; / 8uuflu; KOpUAOe; / *amudgala, the latter yielding *amugdala. A less clear example is Asklepios, who was
KuuuA6e;; Kuaaupae; / Kuauupu; Kpaflpoe; / KpUUpOe;. called A(l)aKAumoe; or A(l)yAumOe;. It could be that the name was *AtJklap-, giving
,.. / F (Fur. 242-247). A difficulty here is that Greek did not preserve a F in most *A(i)sklap- or *A(i)dglap-. In the latter form, metathesis did not operate because
cases, so that we often just find zero, and the F can only be reconstructed. This gives **Agdlap- was not tolerated in Greek; the dental was then simply lost. Needless to
rise to a certain degree of uncertainty. Perhaps, we have to reckon with the say, it often happens that only one variant is found. The strange feature or phoneme
possibility of a development 1j > b. Examples: Puauflvl-aTlle; / Puauv-lue;; KplflvOV / may also be dismissed altogether, as in 8lK£lv next to 8laKOe; and 8[KTUOV.
KPlVOV; flE8tflvoe; / F£8lflvoe;; alyuflvoe; / alyuvoe; (also alyuvvOe;). The evidence One might suppose that all variants in this group are due to a palatalized dental,
comprises 8 or 9 words in - flvoe;. It is found six times word-initially: e.g. fl�AOV / but this is not evident, as consonant clusters are rather rare, and as there are no
�AOV; flov8uA£UW / 6v8uA£UW; note flEpO\jl / Mpo\jl (e'lpo\jl), where the latter forms suffixes beginning with a consonant (except n, r, etc.). We may be unable to
could continue *a-F£po\jl / *e-F£po\jl with a prothetic vowel. Note further Kuufloe; / determine what exactly happened in each case.
KUflllXu, which perhaps continues *KuF-ufl-, *Kufl-llK-. Type 4 is treated by Fur. 2633• Since Pre-Greek did not distinguish voice and
aspiration in stops, these often vary; so if we speak of kt or KT, this also includes
5.5 Stops interchanging with a(G), with stop + a/T or with G + stop
realization as X8, such as in flopox80e; below. If we consider the variation with labials,
This kind of variation is quite complicated. I distinguished no less than 10 (or even
as in pt/ps, it is clear that we are dealing with a labial followed by a dental. The dental
15) different types9• They may be represented as follows (C = consonant):
could also appear as s, so it is clear that the phoneme concerned was a palatalized
a. labials b. velars dental, which I note /F/. This means that we are dealing with a group ptY• In the same
l. C / Ct n / nT K / KT way, with a velar we have ktY•
2. C / Cs n / \jI The example 8t<p8EpU next to 8t\jlapu is well-known and clear. Furnee further
3. C / sC (n / an) K / aK gives yvuflmoue;· XUAlVOUe; (H.) beside YAufl\jlOl' XUAlvol aTofluTOe; (H.) and
4. Ct ! Cs m / \jI KT / � compares mlAov with Dor. \jIlAOV. His example 6moe; 'cooked' next to o\jlOv is less
5. Ct ! sC KT / aK evident.
6. Cs / sC (\jI / an) (� / aK) Among the forms with a velar, there is no problem with flopox80e; / flopo�oe;. The
7. Cs / ss U aa best known example is 'Ep£x8£ue; (also 'Eplx8£ue;) next to Ep£xa£e; on Attic vases. I
8. sC / ss aK / aa have no opinion on 'Eplx8ovloe;; it may be a Graecisized form, and in this case it is
unimportant for Pre-Greek. See further the ethnonyms L'luTuA£-mol, L'lllAo-mlle;,
fUAll-\jIol, Au8£-\jIOl and Tpuvl-\jIOl. Other forms are less clear.
9 Since the word 'i'LTn'tKLov / 7lLCnaKLOv 'pistachio' is probably an oriental loanword, there are no good

examples for an interchange aa / aT.