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# 2.

1 Introduction to DE
2.2 Concept of Solution
2.3Separation of Variable
2.4 Homogeneous Eq
2.5 Linear Eq
2.6 Exact Eq
2.7 Application of 1st
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.1 INTRODUCTION

##  nth order differential equation :-

2.2 CONCEPT OF SOLUTION
• If the solution of nth order ODE contains n arbitrary constants, then the
solution is called GENERAL SOLUTION of the differential equation.

## • A solution of nth order ODE without any arbitrary constant is called

PARTICULAR SOLUTION.

## •The functional relationship between the independent variable and the

dependent variable (such as y = f(x)) which satisfies the given differential
equation is called the solution of the differential equation.
2.2 CONCEPT OF SOLUTION
Exercises
1) Given that y  25 y  0 . Show that

## b) y  C cos 5 x  D sin 5 x , C and D are constants is also a solution.

B
2) If y  Ax  , prove that x y  2 y.
2 2
x
1ST ORDER OF DE
 There are 4 types of 1st order differential equations:-
i) Separable equations
ii) Homogeneous equations
iii) Linear equations
iv) Exact equations
2.3 SEPARABLE DE

##  Simplify the solution

2.3 SEPARABLE DE
 Example
Solve the following differential equation:
dy 4 x
 3
dx 3 y

## Find the particular solution of the following DE when

y(0)  2 :
1 dy
 xy 2

e x dx
2.3 SEPARABLE DE
 Example
Solve the following differential equation:
dy
 (1  e x )( y 2  1)
dx

## Find the particular solution of the following DE :

dy
y  tan 2 x ; y (0)  2
dx
2.3 SEPARABLE DE

Exercises
Find the general solution of each of the following separable equations.
dy ( y  1)2
a) y ln x dx 
dy
x b) x 2  y 2  y ; y ( )  3
dx
dy sin x
c) cos y
dy  sin 3
x cos xdx d)  ; y(0)  0
(1  sin y)2 dx cos y  1

e x  1 dy y 2  1 dy x 2e x
e) x
 f)  ; y(0)  0
e dx 2y dx y sin y
2.4 HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS
 • General form: dy
 F ( x, y )
dx
 •Method of solution:
1. Show that F ( x,  y)  F ( x, y)
dy dv
2. Substitute y  xv and  x  v into the general form of
dx dx
homogeneous equation.
3. Separate variables x and v to form separable equation.
4. Solve the separable equation.
y
5. Substitute v  into solution in step 4 and simplify the
x
solution.
2.4 HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS

dy 2 xy  3 y 2
 2
dx x  2 xy

dy x2  y 2

dx 2 x2

## Example c: Solve the DE

( x  y )dx  xdy  0
2.4 HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS
dy x3  y 3
Example d: Solve the differential equation 
dx xy 2
with condition y = 2 when x = 2.

dy x  y  2
Example e: . By using x  X and y  Y  2 , solve 
dx x  y  2

.
2.4 HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS
Exercises
Verify that each of the following equations is homogeneous and then solve it.

1
( y  2 x  y )dx  xdy  0  dx  sinh 1 x
2 2
a) Hint :
1  x2
b) ( xy  y 2 )dx  x( x  3 y)dy  0
y

c) xydy  ( x2 e  y 2 )dx  0
x

dy 4 y 2  x2
d)  ; y(1)  1
dx 2 xy
e) ( x3  y 2 x 2  y 2 )dx  xy x 2  y 2 dy  0 ; y(1)  1

## f) y4 dx  ( x4  xy3 )dy  0 ; y(1)  2

2.5 LINEAR EQUATIONS
dy
 General form:- a( x)  b( x) y  c( x)
dx
 To solve:-
dy b( x)
arrange the eqn. to form  p( x) y  q( x) where
1st, p ( x ) 
c( x) dx a ( x)
and q( x) 
2nd, obtain the integrating factor:   e
a( x) p ( x ) dx

3rd, multiply the integrating factor with 1st eqn with  to become
dy
  p ( x) y   q ( x) 
dx
4th ,The eqn can be written in the form of
d
 y    q ( x) 
dx

## 5th , Simplify to y    q( x) dx

Finally, the general solution of linear equation is
1
y
  q( x) dx
2.5 LINEAR EQUATIONS
dy
Example a: Solve the equation x  y  x3
dx
dy
Example b: Solve the equation  y  2e x
dx
dy xy
Example c: Solve the equation  2
dx x 9
dy
Example d: Solve the equation  y tan x  cos x; y (0)  1
dx
dy
Example e: Solve (1  x 2 )  xy  1
dx
2.5 LINEAR EQUATIONS
2.6 EXACT EQUATIONS
2.6 EXACT EQUATIONS

 Solutions

f
 b) Write x  M
f
N
y
c) Integrate w.r.t x :  f   Mdx
f ( x, y)   Mdx   ( y )

e) General solution : f ( x, y)  C
2.6 EXACT EQUATIONS
EXACT EQUATIONS

## Example : Solve the differential equation

sin xdy  ( y cos x  x sin x)dx  0

2 2

## Example : Solve y cosh( xy )dx  [ x cosh( xy )  y ]dy  0

where y(0)  20
2.6 EXACT EQUATIONS
Exercises
MATHEMATICAL MODELING USING FIRST ORDER
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

##  The Population Growth and Decay

Newton’s Law of Cooling
 Newton’s law of cooling can be stated as the rate at which the
temperature T(t) changes in a cooling body is proportional to
the difference between the temperature of the body and the
constant temperature Ts of the surrounding medium.
dT
 T  Ts 
dt
 This situation is represented as the first order initial value
problem

dT
T  Ts  Cooling  is decreasing
dt
dT
T  Ts  Heating  is increasing
dt
Newton’s Law of Cooling: Solving the
differential equation
 First order initial value problem:

 Separate variables:

##  Apply the properties of natural logarithms and

simplifying:
Newton’s Law of Cooling
Example: A pie is removed from an oven with
temperature of 350°F and placed to cool in a room with
temperature 75°F . In 15 minutes, the pie has a
temperature of 150°F . Determine the time required to
cool the pie to a temperature of 80°F .

Solution:
Newton’s Law of Cooling
Newton’s Law of Cooling
Example: The temperature of a dead body when it was
found at 3 o’clock in the morning is 85°F. The
surrounding temperature at that time was 68°F. After two
hours, the temperature of the dead body decreased to
74°F. Assuming that the normal body temperature is
98.6°F, determine the time of murdered.
Solution:
Newton’s Law of Cooling
Newton’s Law of Cooling
The Population Growth and Decay
The rate of change of the population is proportional to
the existing population.
The Population Growth and Decay
The population of a country is growing at a rate that is
proportional to the population of the country. The population
in 1990 was 20 million and in 2000, the population was 22
million. Estimate the population in 2020.
The Population Growth and Decay
The Population Growth and Decay
Suppose that the number of cells in a bacteria culture
doubles after 3 days. Determine the number of days
required for the initial population to triple.
The Population Growth and Decay
EXERCISE
 Exercise 2.5 (page 65)
 Tutorial 2(page 68-69)- question 9 to 14.