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Arranged by:

Damayanty Sinambela
Bilingual Biology Education

Faculty Mathematics and Natural Science

State University Of Medan
Bokashi is an organic fertilizer that can be used as a basic fertilizer or
supplementary fertilizer derived from the fermentation of organic materials such
as chaff, sawdust, straw, animal waste and others that can be combined as needed.
These materials are fermented with the help of activator microorganisms which
accelerate the fermentation process. The mixture of microorganisms that is used to
accelerate fermentation is known as an effective microorganism (EM) which also
serves to suppress odors that appear in the process of decomposing organic matter.
In Japan, bokashi has been used since the 80s. Bokashi has been used by Japanese
farmers in traditional soil improvement in an effort to increase microbial diversity
in the soil and increase nutrients in the soil.
Based on the type of fermentation, the process of making bokashi is grouped into
two types, namely: bokashiaerobik and anaerobic bokashi. Table 1 describes the
advantages and disadvantages of the bokashi type.
Table 1. Advantages and Disadvantages of Bokashi Aerobic and Anaerobic

type Excess deficiencies

Aerobics Aerobics 1. can be 1. Organic nutrients
mass produced can be lost
2. Short fermentation 2. the fermentation
mass temperature is above 50
Anaerobic 1.Nutrients of organic 1. Processing errors can
matter can be cause poisoning
maintained. or pollution

Organic ingredients used as bokashi ingredients, usuallygrouped as follows:

1. Rough ingredients, such as: rice straw, litter, grass, weeds, sawdust, rice husks,
peanut shells, fibers, seaweed, and plant debris;
2. Fine ingredients, such as: rice bran, corn bran, wheat bran, flour
corn, tapioca flour, and wheat flour;
3. Faeces of livestock chickens, cows, cattle, goats, horses, buffaloes, pigs and
4. Selection of the right ingredient composition determines the acquisition of
bokashi quality ones.
The general composition of the materials used in making 1 ton of good bokashi is
as listed in Table 2.
Table 2. General Composition of Bokashi Making Materials (1 Ton Scale)

Material Proportion / Volume

Proportion / Volume
Organic matter 80%
Cattle manure 10%
Bran 10%
EM 1 liter
Molasses or sugar 1 Liter or 0.5 kg
Water sufficiently

Effect of Bokashi on Plant Growth.

Bokashi can be used 3-14 days after fermentation treatment. Bokashi
it is very good to be used to increase plant growth and production, if bokashi is
applied to the soil it will function as a medium or feed for the development of
microorganisms,while increasing nutrients in the soil. The availability of nutrients
that can be absorbed by plants is one factor that can affect the level of productivity
of a plant.Basically, the type and amount of nutrients available in the soil must be
sufficient and balanced for growth so that the level of productivity that is expected
to be achieved properly.Bokashi has sufficient micro nutrient content and is very
necessary for plant growth with the characteristic that nutrients derived from
organic matter require microbial activities to change from organic complex bond
forms which cannot be utilized by plants and will be formed into simple organic
and inorganic compounds that can be absorbed by plants In its use, bokashi can
increase nutrient concentration in the ground. In addition, Bokashi can also
improve the air and ground water system. Thus, the roots of the plant will develop
well and the roots can absorb more nutrients, especially N nutrients which will
increase the formation of chlorophyll, so that photosynthetic activity is increased
and can increase the number and extent of leaves. This relates to the ability of
organic matter to improve the properties (texture and structure) of soil and soil
biology so as to create a better environment for plant roots .As for the nutrient
content in bokashi fertilizer is presented in Table 3.

Bokshi Fertilizer Elements percentage of nutrients

H2O (%) 8.50
KCL (%) 7.60
C organic (%) 26.90
N Total (%) 1.25
C / N (%) 21.5
K (%) 1.44
P2O5 (%) 1.02
In this regard, bokashi also increases the activity of soil microorganisms which are
very helpful in the process of organic matter remodeling, so that nutrients become
available and the absorption of nutrients needed by plants increases and allows
plants to experience better vegetative growth and development.
In conditions of sufficient plants will be nutrients, then the rate of photosynthesis
in producing assimilation is increasing.

Types of EM bacteria (Effective Microorganisms)

Effective microorganism (EM) is a mixture of microorganisms that are useful for
plants (photosynthetic bacteria (Lactobacillus) lactic acid, yeast, Actinomycetes,
and fermentation fungi) which can be used as inoculations to increase soil
microbial diversity.
The abilities of bacteria found in EM are as follows:
1. Photosynthetic bacteria are independent microorganisms. This bacterium
form beneficial compounds from growing root secretions plants, organic matter
and or harmful gases such as hydrogen sulfide,with the help of sunlight and heat
as an energy source. Substances These benefits include amino acids, nucleic acids,
bioactive substances, and sugar, all of which can accelerate plant growth and
development. The metabolic products produced by this bacteria can absorbed
directly by plants and also functions as a substrate for other microorganisms so
that the number can continue to increase.
2. Lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus sp) produce lactic acid from sugar, and
other carbohydrates produced by photosynthetic and yeast bacteria. Bacteria
Lactic acid can destroy organic materials such as lignin and cellulose, and ferment
it without causing compounds toxic caused by decay of organic matter. Lignin is
polymer compounds in woody plant tissues, which fill the inter-cavities plant
cells, causing plant tissue to become hard and difficult to be overhauled by soil
organisms. On woody networks. Reshuffle lignin will affect the quality of the land
in relation to the arrangement humus soil.
3. Yeast can produce compounds that are beneficial for plant growth from amino
acids and sugar in the soil released by photosynthetic bacteria or organic matter
through a fermentation process. Yeast also produces bioactive compounds such as
hormones and enzymes, forms antibacterial substances and is beneficial for plant
growth from amino acids and sugars released by photosynthetic bacteria,
increasing the number of active cells and the development of roots.
4.Actinomycetes sp is a group of microorganisms whose structure is a form of
bacteria and fungi. This group produce anti-microbial substances from amino
acids released by photosynthetic bacteria and organic matter. Substances produced
by These microorganisms can suppress the growth of fungi and bacteria harming
plants, but can coexist with bacteria photosynthetics. Thus both species can
improve the quality of the soil environment by increasing anti-activity soil
microbes of actinomycetes, will form aggregate even in the absence of a clay
5. Fermentation mushrooms such as Aspergillus and Penicillium
decompose organic matter quickly to produce alcohol, esters, and anti-microbial
substances. This fungus growth functions in removing odors and preventing insect
attacks and harmful caterpillars in a way eliminate the supply of food. Penicillium
able to produce polysaccharides that are useful as soil particle adhesives. The
stability of soil aggregates depends on the natural state of the microbes in
increasing soil particles and containing soil organic matter. The adhesion of soil
particles will encourage the formation of good agraget-agraget so that soil aeration
and permeability is better
EM applications through bokashi organic matter can stimulate plant growth by:
dissolving nutrients from host rock with low solubility, such as phosphate rock;
reacting heavy metals into compounds to inhibit the absorption of heavy metals by
rooting plants; provide simple organic molecules to be absorbed directly by
plants, such as amino acids; keep plants from pest attacks and plant diseases; spur
the growth of plants by removing growth regulators, improving the physical and
chemical properties of the soil; improve the decomposition of organic matter and
plant residues, and accelerate nutrient cycling. The addition of organic ingredients
to the soil is very necessary
for the life of microorganisms in the soil. Organic ingredients that enter into the
soil fermented by EM. The fermentation results are in the form of sugar, alcohol,
lactic acid, amino acids, and other organic compounds directly absorbed by the
roots of plants through the osmose process. Reaction fermentation also plays a
role in:
1. Produce organic compounds, plant hormones (auxin, gibrelin,
cytokines, vitamins, antibiotics, and polysaccharides that can spur
plant growth);
2. Increase the solubility of nutrients from the parent unit so that it adds
availability for plants;
3. Adding organic compounds that are easily absorbed by plants
A good method of application in giving plants with bocation fertilizer is:
1. Spread system
Bokashi is spread evenly on the ground at a dose of 5-10 tons / Ha. This system is
carried out before and after tillage. Flow / flow system: the way the bokashi is
spread along the groove / row of plants with a dose of 5 to 10 tons / ha. Portugal
system; the allocation is given to the planting hole to be planted with a dose of
150-200 gr / planting. This gift is given to vegetable plants or as a supplementary
2. Circular way
bokashi is spread circularly around the plant (for perennials) by making grooves
curved under the tree canopy, after the bokashi is spread, the soil is closed again.
For nurseries; media for nursery namely, the allocation is mixed with sand in a
ratio of 2: 1, can also be added to the soil to taste.