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Teacher Education

Programs and Online

Learning Tools:
Innovations in Teacher
Richard Hartshorne
University of Central Florida, USA

Tina L. Heafner
University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA

Teresa M. Petty
University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Teacher education programs and online learning tools: innovations in teacher preparation / Richard Hartshorne, Tina Heafner
and Teresa Petty, editors.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Summary: “This book presents information about current online practices and research in teacher education programs, and
explores the opportunities, methods, and issues surrounding technologically innovative opportunities in teacher
preparation”--Provided by publisher.
ISBN 978-1-4666-1906-7 (hardcover) -- ISBN 978-1-4666-1907-4 (ebook) -- ISBN 978-1-4666-1908-1 (print & perpetual
access) 1. Teachers--Training of--United States. 2. Teachers--Training of--Technological innovations--United States. 3.
Teachers--Training of--Computer-assisted instruction. 4. Teachers--Training of--Research--United States. I. Hartshorne,
Richard, 1971- II. Heafner, Tina. III. Petty, Teresa M.
LB1715.T4236 2013

British Cataloguing in Publication Data

A Cataloguing in Publication record for this book is available from the British Library.

All work contributed to this book is new, previously-unpublished material. The views expressed in this book are those of the
authors, but not necessarily of the publisher.

Chapter 4
Virtually Unprepared:
Examining the Preparation of
K-12 Online Teachers

Michael K. Barbour
Wayne State University, USA

Jason Siko
Grand Valley State University, USA

Elizabeth Gross
Wayne State University, USA

Kecia Waddell
Wayne State University, USA

At present, there are very few examples of the preparation of teachers for the online environment in
teacher education. Even more unfortunate is that less than 40% of all online teachers in the United States
reported receiving any professional development before they began teaching online. While some virtual
schools provide some training to their own teachers, in most instances, no such training is provided to
the school-based personnel. This is unfortunate, as K-12 student success in online learning environ-
ments require support from both the online teacher and the local school-based teacher. Clearly, there is a
need for teacher education programs to equip all teachers with initial training in how to design, deliver,
and – in particular – support K-12 online learning. This chapter begins with an examination of the act
of teaching online and how that differs from teaching in a face-to-face environment. Next, the chapter
describes existing teacher education initiatives targeted to pre-service teachers (i.e., undergraduate
students) and then in-service teachers (i.e., graduate students). This is followed by an evaluation of cur-
rent state-based initiatives to formalize online teaching as an endorsement area. Finally, a summary of
the unique aspects of teaching online and how some initiatives have attempted to address these unique
skills, before outlining a course of action that all teacher education programs should consider adopting.

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-1906-7.ch004

Copyright © 2013, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited.
Virtually Unprepared

INTRODUCTION are consistent with those provided by traditional

teacher education programs, but there are other
In the United States, the first K-12 school to be- necessary skills that are largely absent (Davis &
gin using online learning was the private Laurel Roblyer, 2005).
Springs School in California around 1994. This At present, there are very few examples of the
was followed by the Utah eSchool in 1994-95, preparation of teachers for the online environment
which primarily used a correspondence model, but in teacher education. Even more unfortunate is that
did offer some online courses (Barbour, 2009). In Rice and Dawley (2007) found that less than 40%
1996-97, the Florida Virtual School (FLVS) and of all online teachers in the United States reported
Virtual High School Global Consortium, which to receiving any professional development before
were created using state or federal grants, came they began teaching online. While some virtual
into being (Clark, 2007). At the turn of the mil- schools provide some training to their own teach-
lennia, Clark (2001) estimated that there were ers, in most instances no such training is provided
between 40,000 and 50,000 virtual school enrol- to the school-based personnel. This is unfortunate,
ments. Almost a decade later, Picciano and Seaman as Aronson and Timms (2003) indicated that K-12
(2009) indicated that there were over 1,000,000 student success in online learning environment
students enrolled in online courses, while Watson, required support from both the online teacher
Murin, Vashaw, Gemin, & Rapp (2010) reported and the local school-based teacher. Clearly there
significant online learning activity in 48 states, is a need for teacher education programs to equip
and the District of Columbia. In 2006, Michigan all teachers with initial training in how to design,
became the first state in the US to require that all deliver, and – in particular – support K-12 online
students complete an online learning experience learning.
in order to graduate from high school (a move This chapter begins with an examination of the
that has been followed by other states, such as act of teaching online and how that differs from
New Mexico, Alabama and Florida). Finally, teaching in a face-to-face environment. Next, we
some have gone so far to predict that the majority describe existing teacher education initiatives tar-
of K-12 education will be delivered using online geted to pre-service teachers (i.e., undergraduate
learning by the year 2020 (Christensen, Horn & students), and then in-service teachers (i.e., gradu-
Johnson, 2008). ate students). This is followed by an evaluation of
Wood (2005) stated there was a “persistent current state-based initiatives to formalize online
opinion that people who have never taught in teaching as an endorsement area. Finally, we sum-
this medium [i.e., online] can jump in and teach marize the unique aspects of teaching online and
a class, [however], a good classroom teacher is how some initiatives have attempted to address
not necessarily a good online teacher” (p. 36). these unique skills, before outlining a course of
Roblyer and McKenzie (2000) indicated that action that all teacher education programs should
many of the factors that make a successful online consider adopting.
teacher, such as good communication and class-
room organization skills, were similar to those
for any successful teacher, yet Davis, Roblyer, EXAMINING ONLINE TEACHING
Charania, Ferdig, Harms, Compton and Cho
(2007) discovered “effective virtual teachers have Many of us can think of instances where we thought
qualities and skills that often set them apart from poorly of our professor’s ability to teach. Perhaps
traditional teachers” (p. 28). Some of the skills it was due to poor preparation, a lack of content
necessary for teaching in an online environment knowledge, or an inability to explain complex

Virtually Unprepared

concepts in terms a novice could understand. In who are becoming isolated from the rest of the
other instances, we have all had excellent teachers class.
who motivated us to do our best and helped us get In a synchronous course, students interact with
through a class that we never thought we could. the teacher and other students in real time; they
Currently, more and more people are able to say are separated by distance but come together during
the same thing about their online teachers. Some regularly scheduled periods. One could consider
of us have had excellent online instructors and the courses to simply be traditional courses medi-
some of us have had horrible online instructors. ated by technology (Barbour, 2011). Synchronous
Students enrolled in online courses encounter courses are the most similar to traditional face-to-
a variety of formats for delivery of instruction face courses, although the course may have both
(Kaseman & Kaseman, 2000), and thus the skills synchronous and asynchronous elements. Instruc-
required of teachers will vary. In the independent tors must have the capabilities to effortlessly work
model of instruction, students are primarily self- with the new communication technology and be
taught, progressing through the content at their able to integrate synchronous activities with any
own pace and completing much of the work of- asynchronous events or discussions that occur
fline or through database-driven online systems. when the class is working offline.
Students will take assessments throughout the On the surface, it would appear that the skills
course, but there is little in the way of feedback required for teaching online are quite similar to
from the instructor. In this delivery model the those for teaching in a traditional format. Teachers
teacher has little interaction with the student, in both environments must carry out procedural
and therefore does not need much in the way of duties (e.g., grading and attendance), provide
communication skills. In this case, unless the students with feedback, manage behavior, and
course is prepackaged, the teacher needs to be cater to the needs of both low-achieving and
skilled in the technical aspects of delivery and high-achieving students. Davis and Niederhauser
the organization of the course. (2007) discussed several similarities between
In an asynchronous course, students work the skill sets of online and face-to-face teachers,
through the content when it is convenient for among them the ability to stay organized and to
them. Asynchronous courses have little to no communicate effectively with students. In fact,
live or real-time interaction with an instructor. Davis and Rose (2007) found that most online
However, that does not mean that there is no teachers teach in the way that they were once
communication between the teacher, student, and taught, and they transferred their teaching style to
classmates (Zucker & Kozma, 2003). Teachers the online realm. However, to simply say that the
need to provide feedback on assignments, and skill sets are exactly the same would be incorrect.
students must often interact with one another via Several problems exist with defining the skill
discussion boards or group assignments (Friend set necessary for successful online teaching. The
& Johnston, 2005). However, unless the student first problem is obviously identifying those skills.
is taking an asynchronous course with classmates Easton (2003) stated that online instructors needed
in a brick-and-mortar school, the potential for advanced skills in the management of instructional
student isolation is still present. Therefore, online activities and assessments, as well as stronger
instructors in an asynchronous environment must engagement skills. In a traditional classroom, all
be able to provide opportunities for interaction of the students are in one area and can interact
when convenient for the student, provide authentic with one another based on proximity. In an online
feedback without ever coming in direct contact environment, the experiences must be engineered
with the student, and be able to monitor students so that students separated by both space and time

Virtually Unprepared

can have engaging interactions with one another. course. Collis (1999) and Barbour (2007) provide
Morris (2003) believed that online instructors design principles for online courses. In addition
needed to be tech-savvy and have a genuine ex- to the instructor, another adult is often involved
citement for teaching in the online environment. in the monitoring the student (Davis & Nieder-
Instructors also needed to be very familiar with hauser, 2007). This facilitator is often located at
the curriculum. The technical acumen and excite- the student’s physical school. Research involving
ment could be helpful in overcoming technical the role of the on-site support teachers (Roblyer,
problems with a content management system and Freeman, Stabler & Schneidmiller, 2007) showed
the loss of enthusiasm that could arise when the that based on surveys of online teachers, the
problems are frequent. most frequently reported problems concerned the
The second problem is validating through facilitator’s ability to monitor student progress.
research whether such skills are truly unique to Because of the importance of these facilitators to
online instruction. The aforementioned skills the success of students, the skills necessary to be
are based primarily on anecdotal evidence, and a successful facilitator need to be researched and
much of the research that has been done on es- distilled into teacher education programs. In the
sential skills has been narrow in scope (Harms, following two sections, we will look at attempts to
Niederhauser, Davis, Roblyer & Gilbert, 2006). prepare teachers on the skills necessary to design
Clearly more research is needed in this area to online learning, teach online or support students
validate which skills are essential to teaching learning online.
online. Without strong empirical research backing
principles of online instruction, teacher prepara-
tion programs may do more harm than good by EXISTING PRE-SERVICE TEACHER
teaching pre-service teachers faulty methods for EDUCATION INITIATIVES
teaching courses online.
The third problem is translating this knowledge Existing pre-service teacher education initiatives
into training for pre-service and in-service teach- for future teachers that attempt to support K-12
ers, as it appears that online instruction will be online learning are faced with a variety of chal-
an inevitable part of teachers’ duties in the future. lenges such as a lack of research and few models to
Smith, Clark, and Blomeyer (2005) found that guide their development. Other critical barriers to
only about one percent of K-12 teachers have been effective pre-service K-12 online learning teacher
trained to teach online. Barbour (2011) stated that education arise from constrictive geographic regu-
most online teacher training is gained through lations around the teacher certification process
professional development, and this professional that vary from state to state. Such policies and
development is mainly focused on the technical procedures are more suited to traditional brick
aspects of a content management system rather and mortar environments and complicate the reach
than pedagogy. of K-12 online learning’s broad development. It
The training for online teachers is only one is generally agreed that teacher education is cur-
aspect of the success of online learners, since rently unprepared for the burgeoning demand for
more than one person is often responsible for all K-12 online learning (Kennedy & Archambault,
of the different aspects of delivering online cur- 2011). Given such consensus, how has pre-service
riculum. The instructor may not have designed teacher education prepared teachers for K-12
the course, and thus online course designers must online learning? In this section, we will examine
be able to create quality online courses rather how a small number of universities have attempted
than simply digitize materials from a traditional to prepare their students for K-12 online learning

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their pre-service teacher education initiatives. • Theme within a regular methods course
This discussion is not exhaustive, but is fairly (12 hours of training)
representative of the initiatives underway (and is • Field experience in a K-12 online learning
pretty close to an exhaustive listing). program (5-24 hours of training) (Davis,
Teacher Education Goes into Virtual
Schools (Iowa State University) The variation that occurred in the way each
of the pre-service teacher education programs
Iowa State University, in collaboration with the integrated the K-12 online learning curriculum
University of Florida, the University of Vir- was welcomed by design as researchers sought
ginia, Graceland University and Iowa Learning to gather data on the effectiveness of these vary-
Online, developed the Teacher Education Goes ing models.
Into Virtual Schools (TEGIVS) project; the first Field experience in an actual classroom is a
comprehensive attempt at designing a national foundation in pre-service teacher education pro-
model for pre-service teacher education with an grams in North America.
emphasis on K-12 online learning. The TEGIVS
project sought to identify and develop online “The field experience in Iowa matched two pre-
teaching competences that would be valuable for service teachers with one virtual school teacher.
all K-12 teachers to support K-12 online learning The pre-service teachers were enrolled in a one-
in the traditional setting, to develop tools that credit course that allowed them to work with the
permitted engagement with K-12 online learn- virtual school teacher via guided observation and
ing practices from multiple perspectives (e.g., with the online K-12 students via virtual interac-
the online student, the online teacher, the online tions. Pre-service teachers used reflection jour-
course developer, and local school site facilitator), nals, discussion forums, and interviews to reflect
and, ultimately, to build a national community of on their practicum experience. Through the study
K-12 online learning practice amongst peers who and their involvement in the virtual school field
might constructively critique and challenge the experience, the pre-service teachers experienced
model (Davis et al, 2007). a growth of understanding about virtual schooling
The Iowa State University model for imple- and formed new personal theories regarding K-12
menting the actual K-12 online learning training online learning.” (Kennedy & Archambault, 2011)
took on various formats within four pre-service
teacher education degree programs in four dif- The Iowa State University model attempted
ferent states (i.e., Iowa, Florida, Virginia and to offer an authentic field experience in a K-12
Missouri): online learning environment to provide these pre-
service teachers the opportunity to be mentored
• Secondary lab & lecture (4 hours of by a teacher comfortable with facilitating learning
training) in this new environment.
• Elementary lab & lecture (4 hours of While federal funding for the TEGIVS proj-
training) ect spanned from 2004-2007, TEGIVS’s K-12
• Theme within course on distance educa- online learning lab tools still serve to encourage
tion (45 hours of training) pre-service and existing teachers to reflect on
• Unit in instructional design course (12 these topics even as technological tools advance
hours of training) and public policy changes (see http://ctlt.iastate.

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edu/~tegivs/TEGIVS/homepage.html). These an option to education majors to complete their

TEGIVS tools allow pre-service teacher to explore student teaching in this innovative environment.
archived scenarios around issues of Internet safety, According to Beth Miller, Outreach/Partner-
cheating, and assisting students who cannot take ships manager with FLVS, the virtual pre-service
a class due to an illness or even their location are interns are paired with lead or cooperating teachers
addressed; use a tour tool for observations, and (i.e., certified teachers employed by FLVS) and
offer a discursive portfolio tool for supervision and share in the responsibility of teaching high school
mentoring. Likely the greatest impact of TEGIVS students who are enrolled in FLVS courses. The ex-
is the continued availability of these curriculum perience parallels the traditional brick-and-mortar
materials that can be used as a model for future internship, with the main difference being that
initiatives. However, as others use these materi- instruction occurs online and not in the traditional
als, Demiraslan-Cevik (2008) advised them “to school setting. Pre-service interns plan lessons,
help yourself to our resources and adapt them to communicate with students, and assist with as-
the ecology of your program, while also forming sessment of learning, supervised by a university
partnerships with Virtual Schools that parallel professor and the FLVS lead teacher. Pre-service
those you have with traditional schools” (p. 11). interns are required to report to a computer lab at
their university for observations by their university
Student Teaching Partnerships professors. Additionally, FVLS uses technology
(Florida Virtual School) to monitor student teachers’ work in much the
same way that student teachers mentor the work
Long before K-12 online learning’s mass appeal as of their FLVS students’ work. Finally, feedback
an educational delivery option, FLVS was provid- is ongoing between the FLVS administration, the
ing online opportunities for students in Florida. The lead teacher and pre-service intern in a variety of
success of FLVS’s K-12 online learning activities ways. The program is designed to meet account-
placed the organization in a prominent place to ability concerns, so at any time the university or
affect change in teacher education programs in FLVS can demonstrate quality assurance through
that state. Unlike TEGVIS and other universities artifacts and data around the activities that the
who struggle with the challenge of identifying student teacher has undertaken. Given a structured
K-12 online learning environments to have au- approach to curriculum planning, lead teachers
thentic experiences for their pre-service teachers, know exactly what to do each week and student
this partnership involves pre-service teachers teachers are required to create products (e.g.,
directly with online instruction. In the Fall 2008 slide presentations, reflective journals, etc.) to
the University of Central Florida (UCF) formed a demonstrate their time on task.
partnership with FLVS to establish a pre-service The focus of the virtual teaching internship
student teaching internship that aligned to the experience is for pre-service teachers to develop
Florida Educator Accomplished Practices (i.e., transferable skills, pedagogical strategies and
state teacher benchmarks for teacher education), perspective to their future teaching career – in
National Council for Accreditation of Teacher either online or the traditional classroom environ-
Education’s Unit Standards, and International ments. Talking with parents, providing feedback
Association for K-12 Online Learning’s National on graded assignments, deep content knowledge
Standards for Quality Online Teaching. UCF’s for effective multi-student differentiation, tech-
virtual teaching internship – and more recently the nology skills, and time management are practical
University of South Florida since 2010 – provides transferable skills essential for either setting. We

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can assume that the desire to have a separate online desired employment as developers and teachers of
student teaching experience is based on Davis et online courses and those who aspired to employ
al.’s (2007) premise that “effective virtual teachers online activities in combination with classroom
have qualities and skills that often set them apart based instruction. The course was approved and
from traditional teachers” (p. 28). This would be taught for the first time during the 2006-07 aca-
further supported by Davis and Roblyer’s (2005) demic year; however, enrollment was restricted
assertion that some of the skills necessary for to pre-service teachers in the intermediate-senior
teaching in an online environment are largely ab- (i.e., grades 9-12) program.
sent from traditional teacher education programs. According to Roulet’s course outline (syllabus)
for 2009-10, the course:
Online Teaching Course and
Practicum (Queen’s University) “aimed to critically examine present and pro-
posed uses of the Internet/Web in teaching and
In addition to the growth K-12 online learning learning; to collaboratively construct images of
has experienced in the United States, K-12 online what effective online learning could be; and to
learning is also used in similar ways and at compa- increase understanding and skills related to the
rable levels in Canada (Barbour, 2010). For the past development, presentation, and delivery of online
25 years, Queen’s University has had at least one content and learning resources.”
elective course on using computers or information
and communications technology (ICT) in teaching Beyond the formal course content, students
and learning. In early 2006, Dr. Geoffrey Roulet also participated in an online teaching practicum.
– in response to increased web-based instruction During these practicums, many of the participating
by some teachers and school boards as well as the online teachers were themselves in the initial stages
development of online courses by the Ministry of of online teaching careers, and welcomed assis-
Education – submitted a proposal to create a new tance from these Queen’s University students with
elective course entitled “Teaching and Learning the design of web-based learning environments
Online,” described in Table 1. and online interaction with their own students.
This course had two goals: Teaching and Learning Online was a half credit
course, meaning that the course ran throughout
1. Using online tools and resources to enhance the full academic year (i.e., September to April).
classroom based education Additionally, there was a three-week practicum
2. Teaching online requirement. Dr. Roulet indicated that enrollment
in Teaching and Learning Online was generally
The purpose of the course was to address the low, but sufficient to make the course viable from
interests and needs of pre-service teachers who the 2006-07 academic year to the 2009-10 aca-

Table 1. Course description for Teaching and Learning Online

FOCI 291: Teaching and Learning Online

Candidates explore the organization of curriculum and course content for online presentation, construction of learning objects, leading and
moderating online discussions and the development of course websites. Course sessions involve classroom meetings and synchronous and
asynchronous online interaction. During alternative practicum placements, candidates work with teachers designing and leading online
courses or with classroom teachers building learning objects and course websites. http://www.queensu.ca/calendars/education/Program_Fo-

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demic year. However, in the 2010-11 academic Brown, a Professor of Education at Memorial
year the course was dropped from the schedule due involved in the Centre:
to low enrollment. The course will again not be
run in 2011-12, and with Dr. Roulet’s impending “The first thought was that we would develop a
retirement it is likely that the course may not be graduate program. However, the Associate Dean
offered in the immediate future. When asked why of Graduate Studies at the time did not support it.
student interest in the Teaching and Learning On- Without her support, it was felt we would not be
line course began to wane, Roulet attributed it to: successful in getting the program through Faculty
Council and the Academic Council of Graduate
“[a] general attitude towards ICT…students have Studies within the university. Reluctantly, we de-
considerable experience with ICT, but largely in cided to develop an after-degree undergraduate
the social domain. They have not generally used diploma. The Associate Dean (Undergraduate
ICT for intellectual activities other than pos- Studies), although not a strong supporter, did
sibly looking for information on the Web. Thus, not oppose it. Mr. Boone had been successful in
students see limited potential for ICT use within obtaining external funding for the development
education and feel that they have sufficient skills of this Diploma, so we moved ahead with it. In
to employ the Web in the ways they imagine using hindsight, that was a mistake. Teacher Certifica-
it in a class.” tion would permit this diploma to count towards
a fifth teaching grade, but to obtain a sixth or
Roulet’s assessment is consistent with the senti- seventh teaching grade, a Master’s Degree was
ments expressed by Davis and Rose (2007), who required. Many teachers already had a fifth
believed that most online teachers teach in the way teaching grade as they held two undergraduate
that they were once taught, simply transferring degrees (a B.A. or B.Sc. plus a B.A. (Ed) or B.Ed).
their teaching style to the online environment. That being the case, there was no real incentive
for them to do the Diploma. Rather, if continuing
Defunct Diploma in Rural their education, they would be wiser to complete
and Telelearning (Memorial a Master’s degree.”
University of Newfoundland)
However, in 1999 the Diploma in Telelearn-
Prior to Dr. Roulet’s course, the Centre for Tele- ing and Rural School Teaching program was
Learning and Rural Education acted as a catalyst officially launched for teachers already holding
in the Faculty of Education at Memorial University a Bachelor of Education degree to better prepare
of Newfoundland for research and development them for teaching in small rural or remote schools
with a special focus on small schools in rural and in Newfoundland, as well as other jurisdictions.
remote communities in the Canadian province of The program ran from around 2000-01 until
Newfoundland and Labrador. In the mid- to late- at least 2003-04. The diploma comprised of 10
1990s, there was considerable interest in rural courses (i.e., 6 core courses and 4 electives from
schools and solutions to teaching in rural multi- a list of 11 possible courses). Of the electives that
grade classrooms as the majority of schools in students could take, there were options for them
the province of Newfoundland and Labrador are to participate in a three week, six week, or nine
rural. Then Chair and Managing Director of the week field-based experience in a rural school
Centre, Dr. Ken Stevens and Mr. Wilbert Boone, environment that may or may not have included
initiated the program for Telelearning and Rural as distance education or telelearning component
Education (Brown, 2000). According to Dr. Jean (See Table 2).

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Table 2. Diploma in telelearning and rural school teaching program

Core Courses
ED4900: TeleLearning in a Rural School Intranet
ED4901: Effective Teaching Strategies for Multi-grade/Multi-age Classrooms
ED4902: Special Needs in the Context of Rural Schools
ED4903: Leadership Perspectives in Rural Schools
ED4904: Contemporary Educational Issues in Rural Schools
ED4905: Resource-based Learning in the Context of Rural Schools
Elective Courses
ED4906: Career Development in the Context of Rural Schools
ED4907: Curriculum Connections in Multi-grade/Multi-age Classrooms
ED4908: Rural Schools and Community Relationships
ED4909: Rural Schools as Community Learning Centres
ED4910: Curriculum Implementation in All-grade Rural Schools
ED4911: TeleTeaching in a Virtual Classroom
ED4912: Student Assessment in the Context of Rural Schools
ED4916: General Classroom Music
ED4920-4930: Special Topics in TeleLearning and Rural School Teaching
ED4920: Literacy in Small Rural Schools
ED4921: The teaching of Art in Small Rural Schools
Field-Based Experience
ED4913: Field-based Experience in a Rural School (TeleLearning) – 3 weeks
ED4914: Field-based Experience in a Rural School (TeleTeaching) – 6 weeks
ED4915: Field-based Experience in a Rural School (Multi-grade/Multi-age Classroom) – 9 weeks (Memorial University of Newfound-
land, 1999)

All of the courses were web-based and sup- offered. Upon reflection, this example served to
ported through CD-ROM for those with limited underscore the belief that existing pre-service
Internet access. teacher education initiatives for future teachers
Regrettably, very little promotion of the pro- and educational leaders require wide-spread
gram occurred within the province, and no attempt support within a faculty if implementation is to
to promote the program outside the province be successful – particularly when such programs
started the demise of the diploma program. Ini- are ahead of their times, such as this Diploma in
tially 21 potential teachers expressed interest, but Rural and Telelearning was in 1999.
only 11 of them actually registered. Further, after
the Dean at the time moved to another university, Summary of Pre-Service
support for the diploma was limited among senior Teacher Education Initiatives
administration. Even within the faculty, some
believed the program was not needed because Partnerships between K-12 online learning pro-
there was a lack of research to support it, while grams and universities are essential to the devel-
others argued that K-12 distance learning should opment of effective pre-service teacher education
be integrated in the existing courses currently programming. Driven by public demand – and

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necessity in some instances – pre-service teacher can be used towards a Master’s degree to certifi-
education initiatives that support K-12 online cates offered by continuing education divisions
learning are being given increased attention by to certificates offered by K-12 online learning
universities and state Departments of Education. programs that have partnered with universities.
While the duration, quality and availability of these We begin this section with a brief look at each of
programs vary, the pioneering efforts of the uni- these kinds of certificates, along with what classes
versities discussed in this section have succeeded and experiences are included in each.
in beginning an ongoing process of informing and
reforming pre-service teacher education initiatives Graduate Certificates in
for the demands of this relatively new method of Online Teaching
educational delivery.
We believe that K-12 online learning must not There are a number of universities that offer certifi-
simply be an instructional add-on to existing pre- cates to educators for online learning. Generally,
service teacher education programs. The time has the certificates are not limited to K-12 educators,
come for pre-service teacher education programs rather these certificates are offered to trainers in
to ensure that K-12 online learning is pervasive industry and higher education instructors who
throughout the undergraduate experience to allow find themselves in a situation that requires online
for each teacher to be prepared to fill the roles of teaching. To date, those universities that offer
online course designer, online teacher and local site training that is part of a graduate curriculum
facilitator. Regrettably, advances or developments include: Arizona State University, Boise State
in pre-service teacher education emphasizing K-12 University, University of Central Florida, Uni-
online learning as a course or field experience, versity of Florida, University of Wisconsin-Stout,
such as those described in this section, have been and Wayne State University. The certificates
largely reactionary. Clearly more work is needed generally follow a similar pattern: the in-service
teacher must take three to five courses, generally
the courses must be taken in sequence, there may
EXISTING IN-SERVICE TEACHER or may not be elective courses, and the certificate
EDUCATION INITIATIVES may or may not have some form of field experi-
ence (see Table 3 and Table 4 for the variations
In much the same way that there are few examples in the different programs).
of pre-service teacher education initiatives related Most of the courses in these graduate certifi-
to K-12 online learning, the number of examples cates can be used towards a Master’s degree in
of in-service teacher education programs are educational or instructional technology. The ex-
also quite small. The existing initiatives that are ception is the University of Central Florida, where
targeted to in-service teachers tend to focus on students in the Master’s Degree in Instructional
universities that offer graduate level certificates Design and Technology can choose between an
in online teaching with some kind of K-12 focus educational technology track, an instructional
and/or universities that offer in-service teachers systems track or an e-learning track.
the opportunity to gain an endorsement to their In addition to the variety in the length and na-
existing teacher certification. The graduate cer- ture of these certificates, there is also a great deal
tificates that are offered to educators who would of variety in their course offerings. For example,
like to learn more about how to teach in an online almost all the aforementioned graduate certificate
environment range from certificates that are part programs offer a course in online teaching method-
of a graduate curriculum and, in some instances, ology and most also offer a course in online course

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Table 3. Summary of graduate certificate programs

Number of
University Nature of Program Nature of Courses Field Experience Other
3 core courses
ASU 5 1 of 4 electives K-12 focus Yes
3 core courses
BSU 3 K-12 track No
1 of 4 electives
5 common courses
UCF 9 K-12 content Optional Leads to M.A.
4 specialized courses
UF 3 3 of 4 courses K-12 content Optional Currently on hold
4 core courses Meets state’s online
UWS 5 K-12 content Yes
practicum PD requirement
2 core courses
WSU 5 2 of 6 electives K-12 track Yes

Table 4. Summary of course offerings in graduate certificate programs

University Required Elective Field Experience

One of:
1. Principles & Issues in K-12 Online Learning 1. Technology Integration Methods
ASU 2. Methods of Online Teaching 2. Using the Internet in Education Practicum
3. Online Course Design 3. Emerging Technologies
4. Technologies as Mindtools
One of:
1. The Internet for Educators
1. Online Teaching in the K-12 Environment
BSU 2. Online Course Design
2. Advanced Online Teaching Methods
3. Teaching & Learning In Virtual Worlds
4. Educational Games & Simulations
1. Current Trends in Instructional Technology
All of:
2. Research in Instructional Technology
1. Multimedia for Education & Training
3. Measurement & Evaluation OR Statistics for
2. Distance Education
UCF Educational Data
3. Interactive Online & Virtual Teaching Envi-
4. Fundamentals of Graduate Research in
4. Virtual Teaching & the Digital Educator
5. Instructional System Design
1. Instructional Design 1. Design & Development of Online Content
2. Distance Online Teaching & Learning 2. Virtual Schools Philosophy & Pedagogy
1. E-Learning for Educators
2. Assessment in E-Learning
UWS 3. Instructional Design for E-Learning
4. Creating Collaborative Communities in
Two of:
1. Designing Web Tools for the Classroom
1. Facilitation of Online & Face-To-Face Learn- 2. Internet in the Classroom Practicum in
WSU ing 3. Web-Based Courseware Development Instructional
2. Foundations of Distance Education 4. Multimedia for Instruction Technology
5. Advanced Multimedia for Instruction
6. Learning Management Systems

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design. The majority of these graduate certificates in a public school, including charter school, un-
include a course in either the foundations or trends less he or she has completed at least 30 hours of
in distance education and/or in online learning. professional development designed to prepare a
Several of these certificates also include a course teacher for online learning.” (State of Wisconsin,
in instructional design. 2010). The graduate certificate at the University
While there is some consistency in the nature of of Wisconsin-Stout allows teachers to meet this
core courses offered in these graduate certificates, requirement.
there are few similarities in the elective courses.
Those certificates that offer students some choice Continuing Education Certificates
range from courses in multimedia to emerging in Online Teaching
tools such as gaming and virtual worlds to learning
management systems to courses that are part of In addition to graduate certificates offered by aca-
the core requirements of some of the certificates demic departments, there are a couple of examples
(e.g., online teaching and online course design) of graduate certificate programs that are offered
to a wide range of courses typically found in a by Continuing Education or Extension divisions
graduate program in educational or instructional within the university environment. There are two
technology. examples that have a K-12 focus: California State
Beyond a certificate approved by the School University, East Bay and University of California-
of Graduate Studies at each of these institutions Irvine. While both of these universities have a K-12
and the ability to apply some or all of the credits focus, they also invite instructors from many dif-
towards a Master’s or Educational Specialists, in ferent backgrounds (e.g., K-12 teachers, military
some instances these programs also lead to addi- and corporate trainers, community college faculty,
tional credentials. For example, the three courses continuing education or in-service facilitators, and
in the certificate at Boise State University can be educators interested in educational technology).
used towards the seven-course online teaching Both certificates include four courses, although
endorsement program that was only announced these are not identical (see Table 5).
by the university in August 2011. Similarly, the Similar to the graduate certificates offered by
three of the five courses in the certificate at Wayne academic departments, both of these certificates
State University can be used towards the six-course offer courses in the foundations or trends in online
endorsement in Educational Technology offered or virtual learning and in online teaching, and one
by the State of Michigan. In Wisconsin, as of July of them offer a course in online course design.
1, 2010, “no person may teach an online course Interestingly, the University of California-Irvine

Table 5. Summary of continued education graduate certificates

University Courses Field Experience

1. Introduction to Online Teaching and Learning
2. Teaching Models for Online Instruction
3. Technology Tools for Online Instruction
4. Designing Curriculum for Online Instruction
1. Foundations of Virtual Instruction
2. Advanced Instructional Strategies
3. Performance Assessment in the Virtual Classroom
4. Virtual Teacher Practicum

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includes a course in assessment (and the Univer- • Online Extended Teaching shows teachers
sity of Wisconsin-Stout is the only other univer- how to promote independent study using
sity to include such a course). web tools
The courses included in these certificates are • Web 2.0 Collaborative Instruction shows
not traditional fifteen week, semester long courses teachers how to use Web 2.0 tools to en-
that one would expect to find at a typical university. hance the learning experience for students
The courses offered by California State University, • Becoming an Online Teacher is a practi-
East Bay are six weeks in length, while the courses cum experience for teachers to partner
offered by the University of California-Irvine are with and experienced online teacher
twelve weeks in length. The certificate courses at
the University of California-Irvine do not naturally For most of that history, VHS has had partner-
lead to graduate credits at the university or other ships with various universities to allow teachers
universities. This is not to say that other universi- who complete these professional development
ties will not accept these courses, but that the Uni- courses to obtain graduate credit. These univer-
versity of California-Irvine’s Extension Division sities include Endicott College (Beverly, MA),
has yet to establish any articulation agreements Plymouth State University (Plymouth, NH),
with other institutions. It is up to the individual Framingham State College (Framingham, MA),
university to which the student may be interested Northwest Nazarene University (Nampa, ID), Sa-
in transferring as to whether they will accept the lem State College (Salem, MA), and North Dakota
credits. However, the certificate courses from State University (Fargo, ND). Essentially, teach-
California State University, East Bay are designed ers can pay an additional fee to the participating
to provide a grounding for students who wish to institution and receive two to four graduate level
pursue a Master of Science in Teaching program credit hours depending on the course. Additionally,
with an option in online teaching (MS-OTL). the VHS has partnered with the Van Loan School
of Graduate and Professional Studies at Endicott
Virtual High School Global College and the College of Graduate Studies at
Consortium Certificate Plymouth State University to allow teachers who
have completed all five of the VHS courses to
In much the same way that the FLVS has part- achieve a Graduate Certificate in Online Teach-
nered with universities to better prepare teachers ing and Learning.
for K-12 online learning, the Virtual High School
Global Consortium (VHS) also has long stand- Summary of In-Service Teacher
ing relationships with several universities. Since Education Initiatives
its inception, VHS has offered its own six-week
professional development courses as a part of its At present there are many opportunities for K-12
21st Century Teaching Best Practices series: educators to increase their knowledge, skills, and
practice when it comes to classroom instruction.
• 21st Century Teaching and Learning ex- However, this does not hold for their opportunity
plores the tools to teach using technology to increase their ability to design, deliver and
• Web-enhanced Classroom explores ways support online instruction. Certificates for online
traditional teachers can enhance their prac- teaching often encompass not only K-12, but also
tice using web-based tools the larger field of online learning (including higher

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education, corporate, and military environments). ONLINE TEACHING

While some of these certificate programs may be ENDORSEMENT INITIATIVES
applied for graduate credit towards a Master’s of
Educational technology degree, in most states there A number of states have brought the practice of
is no standard or endorsement for online teaching. online teaching and learning in the K-12 arena to
This lack of standardization has led to a great the attention of the legislature. Beyond the 2010
deal of inconsistency between programs. Of the Wisconsin bill in 2010 that required teachers to
existing programs, some are three courses, some have a minimum amount of professional devel-
are four courses and some are five courses. Some opment in order to teach online, several states
provide a field experience in a K-12 online learning have introduced some form of endorsement to
program, others simply provide a field experience their teaching certification for online teaching.
in any online learning environment, while some The earliest adopter of this endorsement was
have no field experience at all. Most certificate Michigan, followed by Georgia and then Idaho.
programs do offer courses to provide insights The purpose of these endorsement initiatives
on methodology and trends in the field of online has been to ensure that teachers who teach via
learning, along with courses in online pedagogy distance have prepared for and understand the
and course design. Most also offer instructional online environment (Michigan Department of
design principles as part of the course offerings. Education, 2008). There are a few universities
Beyond the graduate certificate programs, around the country that offer programs that lead
there are also certificates that have been created to these endorsements, which we will examine in
by the extension departments of some universities. this section, followed by a discussion as to whether
In states where there is no teacher certification there is specific a need to have endorsements for
endorsement for online teaching, these exten- online teaching.
sion programs offer little more than a glorified
professional development experience. In fact, Michigan: Educational
at least one K-12 online learning program has Technology (NP) Endorsement
taken it upon itself to elevate its own professional
development offerings by partnering with several Michigan’s educational technology endorsement
universities. These professional development initiative began in 2000 by a group of professional
courses are similar in nature to the professional educators. After review by various groups and
development provided by numerous other K-12 school districts, the State Board of Education
online learning programs, and the partnerships (SBE) made the recommendation that “all edu-
to receive graduate credit hours from a variety of cators and administrators will be prepared to use
universities and even a graduate certificate from information-age tools and learning techniques and
some university does not equate to the rigor one processes” (Michigan Department of Education,
would expect to find in a traditional semester-long 2008, p. 5). In addition, it was believed that, in
graduate level university course. Simply put, the order to denote those teachers who had greater skill
opportunities for in-service teachers to become and study in the area of the use of technological
better acquainted with the design, delivery and expertise should be given some sort of recognition
support of K-12 online learning may be greater that they indeed are highly qualified in this area.
than they are for pre-service teachers. However, The original educational technology endorsement
those opportunities vary considerably in the nature was based on 15 standards in three thematic areas
of the experience an in-service teacher will receive. that were measured by 93 performance indicators.
However, by 2006 the legislature passed a bill

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that required students to have an online learning to demonstrate knowledge about effective
experience in order to graduate from high school. online course design with knowledge and
This necessitated an update to the educational understanding of issues related to acces-
technology standards. sibility and adaptive technologies. Finally,
The revised educational technology standards professional studies in online course de-
included 19 new standards measured by 84 per- sign prepare candidates to demonstrate
formance indicators under an additional three knowledge of social, ethical, legal, and hu-
thematic areas. man issues surrounding the use of educa-
tional technology teaching and learning as
• Online Technology Experience and it applies to online course design.
Skills: Program will prepare Candidates to • Online Course Delivery: Professional
participate in an online learning experience studies culminating in the educational tech-
and demonstrate knowledge and use of an nology endorsement prepare candidates to
online learning management system(s), demonstrate knowledge and understand-
adapt online tools to support effective on- ing of: best practices for online delivery of
line instruction, understand internet safety instruction, effective online course tech-
issues as well as knowledge of social, ethi- nology management, appropriate online
cal, legal, and human issues surrounding assessment and measurement techniques
the use of educational technology in online and tools, modeling, moderation and fa-
teaching and learning, and be able to apply cilitation skills for appropriate online
to principles and practice as they relate to communication with timely feedback, and
technology experiences and skills. thoughtful accommodation of student’s
• Online Course Design: Professional special needs in an online environment.
studies in online course design prepare Professional studies culminating in the ed-
Candidates to demonstrate knowledge and ucational technology endorsement prepare
understanding of pedagogical issues re- candidates to facilitate collaboration and
lated to teaching and learning in an online incorporate teaming activities in the online
environment, and develop and implement environment informed by knowledge of
curriculum plans aligned with State con- social, ethical, legal, and human issues sur-
tent standards that include methods and rounding the use of educational technology
strategies for applying educational tech- and can apply to principles and practices in
nology to maximize learning in an online teaching and learning as it relates to online
environment. Professional studies in on- course delivery. (Michigan Department of
line course design prepare Candidates who Education, 2008, pp. 21, 24, 30)
are certified experts in the content subject
area being taught, to demonstrate their At present there are 12 universities throughout
knowledge and understanding of how to the state that offer programs leading to the edu-
develop, design, and implement strategies cational technology endorsement, and in most
that encourage active learning, interaction, instances students can use those courses towards
participation, and collaboration in the on- a Master’s degree or Educational Specialists Cer-
line environment. Professional studies in tificate in educational or instructional technology.
online course design prepare candidates

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Georgia: Online Teaching descriptions it is not apparent where the required

Endorsement field experience is contained in the Georgia State
program, where it occurs in the Field Experience
Georgia was the first state in the United States in Online Teaching and Learning course at Geor-
to have a specific endorsement in online teach- gia Southern and the Design and Delivery of
ing. The criteria for this endorsement are that Instruction for E-Learning course at Valdosta.
the teacher must already hold certification in Because the participants in these online only
qualifying areas, and that the teacher must have certification processes are already certified teach-
an online practicum before being awarded the ers, the emphasis is not as much on educational
endorsement. In addition, the awarding institution strategies and pedagogy as it is on the incorpora-
must follow guidelines that include the following tion e-learning strategies into the teacher’s own
three thematic areas: teaching style.

1. Content Knowledge, Skills, and Concepts Idaho: Online Teacher Endorsement

for Instructional Technology
2. Online Teaching and Learning Methodology, In Idaho, an initiative to create an endorsement
Management, Knowledge, Skills, and for teaching certification to reflect the study of
Dispositions online teaching and learning has recently passed
3. Effective Online Assessment of Teachers, the state legislature (i.e., November 2011). The
Students and Course Content endorsement is comprised of ten standards, which
are further divided into 53 different knowledge,
Within these three thematic areas there are 10 disposition and performance indicators.
different standards and 57 competencies.
At present, three universities in Georgia offer 1. Knowledge of Online Education: The on-
programs that lead to this endorsement: Georgia line teacher understands the central concepts,
Southern University, Georgia State University tools of inquiry, and structures in online
and Valdosta State University (see Table 6 for instruction and creates learning experiences
program descriptions) that take advantage of the transformative
Note that the Georgia State program is one potential in online learning environments.
course longer than the Georgia Southern and 2. Knowledge of Human Development and
Valdosta programs. Also, based on the course Learning: The online teacher understands

Table 6. Summary of Georgia endorsement programs

University Courses
1. Theories and Models of Instructional Design
GA Southern 2. Pedagogy of Online Learning
3. Field Experience in Online Teaching and Learning
1. Integrating Technology into School-Based Environments
2. Evaluation and Assessment for Online Learning
GA State
3. The Internet for Educators
4. E-Learning Environments
1. Course Management Systems for E-Learning
Valdosta 2. Resources and Strategies for E-Learning
3. Design and Delivery of Instruction for E-Learning

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how students learn and develop, and provides colleagues, parents, and other members of
opportunities that support their intellectual, the community to support students’ learning
social, and personal development. and well-being.
3. Modifying Instruction for Individual
Needs: The online teacher understands how The requirements for this endorsement state
students differ in their approaches to learning that the teacher must already be certified in his or
and creates instructional opportunities that her field of study. The teacher must take 20 credit
are adapted to learners with diverse needs. hours of courses in the study of online teaching
4. Multiple Instructional Strategies: The and learning. As well, the teacher must either
online teacher understands and uses a va- take an eight-week online teaching internship or
riety of instructional strategies to develop have at least one year of experience as an online
students’ critical thinking, problem solving, teacher and be able to document that experience.
and performance skills. With an announcement in August 2010, Boise
5. Classroom Motivation and Management State University indicated that it was building
Skills: The online teacher understands indi- upon its Graduate Certificate in Online Teaching
vidual and group motivation and behavior to provide in-service teachers three options to take
and creates a learning environment that advantage of this new online teaching endorse-
encourages positive social interaction, active ment (see Table 7).
engagement in learning, and self-motivation. Under the competency-based options, students
6. Communication Skills, Networking, and have to illustrate that they have met all of the
Community Building: The online teacher performance indicators in the Idaho K-12 Online
uses a variety of communication techniques Teaching Endorsement Matrix (see https://sites.
including verbal, nonverbal, and media to google.com/a/boisestate.edu/idaho-online-en-
foster inquiry, collaboration, and supportive dorsement/idaho-k-12-online-teaching-endorse-
interaction in and beyond the classroom. ment-matrix).
7. Instructional Planning Skills: The online
teacher plans and prepares instruction based Ontario: Qualification for Teaching
upon knowledge of subject matter, students, and Learning through e-Learning
the community, and curriculum goals.
8. Assessment of Student Learning: The on- Outside of the United States, the Canadian prov-
line teacher understands, uses, and interprets ince of Ontario is the only jurisdiction where there
formal and informal assessment strategies to is any kind of recognition for online teaching. The
evaluate and advance student performance Ontario College of Teachers is responsible for
and to determine program effectiveness. the accreditation of teacher education programs
9. Professional Commitment and in the province. Recently, the Ontario College of
Responsibility: The online teacher is a Teachers created an “Additional Qualification
reflective practitioner who demonstrates a Course Guideline Teaching and Learning through
commitment to professional standards and is E-Learning,” a thirteen page document that is
continuously engaged in purposeful mastery much more extensive than the online teaching
of the art and science of online teaching. endorsements in the United States and is intended
10. Partnerships: The online teacher interacts to provide a comprehensive capture of the im-
in a professional, effective manner with portant aspects of the professional development

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Table 7. Boise State endorsement options

Population Paths
Complete the following courses:
1. Internet for Educators (3 credits)
2. Theoretical Foundations of Educational Technology (3 credits)
3. Online Course Design (3 credits)
BSU Students
4. Teaching Online in the K-12 Environment (3 credits)
5. Advanced Online Teaching (3 credits)
6. Social Network Learning (3 credits)
7. Internship (2 credits or evidence of one year of online teaching experience)
The endorsement is intended to be competency-based, which means that students can demonstrate their
competency in meeting the recommended proficiencies through a combination of course completion and
BSU Students
other PD experiences. In this instance, the submission of an e-Portfolio (i.e., EDTECH597: Endorsement
Portfolio) is required to demonstrate that the proficiencies have been met.
This option would apply to teachers who have been teaching in the K-12 online environment for several
years, who have participated in PD training through their employer or in PD workshops, and who have
In-service Teachers perhaps completed some graduate courses related to online teaching and learning. The submission of an
e-Portfolio (i.e., EDTECH597: Endorsement Portfolio) is required to demonstrate that the proficiencies
have been met.

for teachers interested in teaching in an online classrooms. But is this really the domain of teach-
environment. The qualifications cover ethics, ers who teach exclusively online?
multiculturalism, pedagogy, instructional design It is predicted that by 2019 half of all high
components, assessment, and also has references school classes will be taught online (Christensen,
for further reading. Upon successful completion Horn, & Johnson, 2008). Recently, the market
of the program, candidates receive a certificate analyst Ambient Insight (2011) estimated that the
of completion. It is not clear from the document current level of participation in K-12 online and
whether certification is mandatory to teach online blended learning was four million students. There
or which Ontario universities offer programs that is a need to be prepared for the online environ-
lead to this qualification. ment, but not just for a few self-selected teachers.
Since it has been shown that most online teach-
Are Online Teaching ers have previously been teaching in traditional
Endorsements Necessary? classrooms for many years (Archambeault &
Crippen, 2009), the question should be how will
With all the push toward online teaching and all teachers be prepared to utilize these pedago-
learning, perhaps teachers who wish to provide gies in their practice?
these services need to be trained to utilize the Online students can find themselves in a variety
unique environment of the web. It is a changing of course models. In these models the teacher has
presence and becoming ubiquitous in education differing levels of engagement and responsibility.
today. Teachers who teach online must be able to In the independent model, the course is primarily
create engaging online learning in an environment self-taught and the teacher mainly provides tech-
where the student is physically (and, in some in- nical skills so that the student can complete the
stances, psychologically) distant from him or her. course. In the asynchronous model, the teacher
In terms of communication alone, teaching and must provide feedback on assignments, moderate
learning online is very different than traditional student discussion boards, and generally sup-
port and guide the student. In these instances,

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the teacher must be able to communicate well course is delivered via distance or not. As well,
in situations where communication may never teachers need technology skills for instruction,
be direct (i.e., by phone, chat, or in person). The whether it is delivered face-to-face or online.
teacher must monitor the students to make sure Successful teachers use non-traditional teaching
they do not feel or become isolated, and if this methods. Communication skills are a necessary
does occur the teacher must have the tools to help part of the instructional process. These skills are
the student overcome this learning challenge. necessary for every teacher in service today. The
Finally, in the synchronous model the teacher and profession needs to have these aspects of what is
students interact directly in a real-time setting; now considered the domain of online instructional
most often during a prearranged online meeting practice incorporated into the traditional teacher
time. In these instances, the teacher must be able to preparation curriculum of all teacher education
implement many of the same skills they would use programs. We are doing a disservice to all our
in a real-time classroom environment, only with students and teachers if we do not demand this.
those interactions being mediated by technology. In much the same way that all teachers should be
In some ways, the online environment has able to integrate technology into their teaching
its own issues—the teacher has to be both tech- (which means that endorsements to technology
savvy and be able to guide students. The teacher integration are redundant at best, demeaning to
or facilitator at the school may not have access a professional at worst), all teachers should be
to the student’s progress or success, so the online able to design, deliver and support instruction in
teacher must be vigilant in keeping the student an online as well as a face-to-face environment.
engaged. Online teachers may not have designed
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online learning: An annual review of policy and Asynchronous: Not in real time. For example,
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Teachers College Press. K-12 Online Learning: A generic term to
encompass all forms of distance education at the
K-12 level delivered over the Internet. This in-
cludes full-time cyber schooling and supplemental
ADDITIONAL READING virtual schooling.
Synchronous: In real time. For example, a
Cavanaugh, C., & Blomeyer, R. (2007). What
telephone conversation occurs in real time or is
works in K-12 online learning. Eugene, OR: In-
said to be synchronous.
ternational Society for Technology in Education.
Virtual School: A supplemental K-12 online
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teaching: Research-based strategies and prac- tional or brick-and-mortar school, but may also
tices. Columbus, OH: Allyn & Bacon. be enrolled in one or more online courses.