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Synchronous Machine

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus


Synchronous Machines

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus


Synchronous Machines

• Synchronous generators or alternators are used to convert


mechanical power derived from steam, gas, or hydraulic-turbine
to ac electric power
• Synchronous generators are the primary source of electrical
energy we consume today
• Large ac power networks rely almost exclusively on synchronous
generators
• Synchronous motors are built in large units compare to induction
motors (Induction motors are cheaper for smaller ratings) and
used for constant speed industrial drives

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Construction

 Basic parts of a synchronous generator:


• Rotor - dc excited winding
• Stator - 3-phase winding in which the ac emf is generated

 The manner in which the active parts of a synchronous


machine are cooled determines its overall physical size and
structure

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Various Types

 Salient-pole synchronous machine

 Cylindrical or round-rotor synchronous


machine

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Salient-Pole Synchronous Generator

1. Most hydraulic turbines have to turn at low speeds

2. A large number of poles are required on the rotor d-axis

N Non-uniform
air-gap
D  10 m

q-axis S S

Turbine
N
Hydro (water)

Hydrogenerator
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Salient-Pole Synchronous Generator

Stator

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Cylindrical-Rotor Synchronous Generator

Turbine D1m

L  10 m
Steam d-axis
Stator winding

 High speed N
Uniform air-
 3600 r/min  2-pole gap
Stato
 1800 r/min  4-pole r
q-axis Rotor winding
 Direct-conductor cooling (using
hydrogen or water as coolant) Roto
r
 Rating up to 2000 MVA
S

Turbogenerator
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Cylindrical-Rotor Synchronous Generator

Stator

Cylindrical rotor
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Operation Principle

The rotor of the generator is driven by a prime-mover

A dc current is flowing in the rotor winding which


produces a rotating magnetic field within the machine

The rotating magnetic field induces a three-phase


voltage in the stator winding of the generator

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Electrical Frequency

Electrical frequency produced is locked or


synchronized to the mechanical speed of rotation of
a synchronous generator:

P nm
fe 
120

where fe = electrical frequency in Hz


P = number of poles
nm= mechanical speed of the rotor, in r/min

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Synchronous Motors
P, Q
Motor
Vt

• A synchronous motor is the same physical machine as a


generator, except that the direction of real power flow is
reversed
• Synchronous motors are used to convert electric power to
mechanical power
• Most synchronous motors are rated between 150 kW (200
hp) and 15 MW (20,000 hp) and these machines are used in
heavy industry
• At the other end of the power spectrum, we find tiny single-
phase synchronous motors used in control devices and
electric clocks

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Operation Principle

• The field current of a synchronous motor produces a steady-state


magnetic field BR
• A three-phase set of voltages is applied to the stator windings of the
motor, which produces a three-phase current flow in the windings. This
three-phase set of currents in the armature winding produces a uniform
rotating magnetic field of Bs
• Therefore, there are two magnetic fields present in the machine, and the
rotor field will tend to line up with the stator field, just as two bar
magnets will tend to line up if placed near each other.
• Since the stator magnetic field is rotating, the rotor magnetic field (and
the rotor itself) will try to catch up
• The larger the angle between the two magnetic fields (up to certain
maximum), the greater the torque on the rotor of the machine

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Types of Synchronous Machines

• Salient Pole type

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Brushless Excitation

• On large generators and motors, brushless exciters are used. A


brushless exciter is a small AC generator whose field circuits are
mounted on the stator and armature circuits are mounted on the
rotor shaft. The exciter generator’s 3-phase output is rectified to DC
by a 3-phase rectifier (mounted on the shaft) and fed into the main
DC field circuit. It is possible to adjust the field current on the main
machine by controlling the small DC field current of the exciter
generator (located on the stator).

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A brushless exciter: a
low 3-phase current is
rectified and used to
supply the field circuit
of the exciter (located
on the stator). The
output of the exciter’s
armature circuit (on the
rotor) is rectified and
used as the field
current of the main
machine.

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A large
synchronous
machine with
the exciter
and salient
poles.

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Cylindrical rotor

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MMF wave form

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Realistic Machine

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Voltage Regulation

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Circuit Model of Synch. Machine

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Determination of Synch. Reactance

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OC Test and SC Test

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OCC and SCC

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• http://www.ece.umn.edu/users/riaz/animatio
ns/listanimations.html

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Nature of Armature Reaction (AR) in
Generating Machine

Demagnetizing Magnetizing Cross-magnetizing AR


AR AR
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Connecting to Infinite Bus Bars

Phase Sequence of machine (abc) is


matched with those of bus bars (ABC)
Machine frequency is nearly equal to
bus bar frequency (speed is close to ns)
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Determination of the Synchronizing Instant

Δf = Difference in Frequencies


Machine Phasors rotate slowly with respect
to bus bar phasors at 2π Δf rad/sec
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Synchronous Machine Operation
(Generating Mode)

Equivalent Circuit Phasor Diagram

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Synchronous Machine Operation (Motoring
Mode)

Equivalent Circuit Phasor Diagram

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Power Angle Characteristic

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Operation at Constant Load with Variable
Excitation

Phasor Diagram of Generating Machine at


Steady-State Stability Limit
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Operation at Constant Load with Variable
Excitation

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Operation at Constant Load with Variable
Excitation

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V-curves

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Compounding Curves of Synchronous
Generator

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Synchronous Condenser
Synchronous motor under over excited condition operates at a leading power
factor. Synchronous motors are therefore employed in large power
installation for overall high power factor of the installation.

Power angle =0, and Ef and Vt are in phase.


Motor draws zero power factor leading current in overexcited mode and
draws zero power factor lagging current in underexcited mode.

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Consideration of Armature Resistance

Generating Mode

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Consideration of Armature Resistance

Motoring Mode

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Power Flow Equations

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If above results are defined in terms of angle α (as shown in impedance triangle)

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Capability Curve of Synch. Machine

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• GENERATOR CAPABILITY CURVE
• Reactive Capability Curves
• Armature current limit
• Field current limit
• End region heating limit

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Reactive Capability Curves

• Synchronous generators are rated in terms of the maximum


MVA output at a specified voltage and power factor (usually
0.85 or 0.9 lagging) which they can carry continuously
without overheating.
• The active power output is limited by the prime mover
capability to a value within the MVA rating.
• The continuous reactive power output capability is limited by
three considerations: armature current limit, field current
limit, and end region heating limit.

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Armature current limit

• One of the limitations on generator rating is


the maximum current that can be carried by
the armature without exceeding the heating
limitations.

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• Therefore, in the P-Q plane the armature
current limit, as shown in Figure, appears as a
circle with centre at the origin and radius
equal to the MVA rating.

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Field current limit

• Because of the heat resulting from the power loss, the field
current imposes a second limit on the operation of the
generator.
• The constant field current locus may be developed by the
steady-state equivalent circuit.

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Salient Pole Synch. Machine-
Two Reaction Model

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Phasor Diagram of Salient Pole Synch.
Machine

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Power angle Characteristic of
Salient Pole Synch. Machine

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8.15

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8.16

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Hunting in Synchronous Machine

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8.17

A 500 V, 3-phase, mesh-connected motor has an


excitation emf of 600 V. The motor
synchronous impedance is (0.4 + j 5) W while
the windage, friction and iron losses are 1200
W. What is the maximum power output that it
can deliver? What is the corresponding line
current, pf and motor efficiency ?

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8.19

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