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The effect of friction has been significant for various engineering practices. It has

always been considered in many problems because it affects the behavior of an object

especially in fluids that flows through a pipe. The amount of mechanical energy that is

lost due to friction has always been dependent on the properties of the fluid as well as

the scope and variation of the piping system that is used.

The experiment used a piping system with a uniform diameter which leads to the

friction dissipation affected by the density, viscosity and the velocity of the fluid, taken to

consider the uniform diameter of the piping system.

Friction factor is being recognized to describe the frictional dissipation of the fluid

used in the experiment as it flows. At constant relative roughness and low Reynold’s

number, it is easily understandable that the friction on the fluid is very high, thus,

making the friction factor high. Now, as the fluid approaches its turbulent state, the

resistance on the fluid itself reduces, thus, making the friction factor decrease.

The data obtained in the experiment was analyzed and computed, taking into

consider that the diameter is constant. As for the flow state 1, the energy loss due to

pipe friction,hf, is (insert hf flow state 1). As for the flow state 2, the value of hf is (hf ng

flow state 2). And as for the flow state 3, (hf ng flow state 3) is the computed hf.

Although the objectives of the experiment are all achieved, the data and results

are still inaccurate due to the errors that were committed during the experiment. While

conducting the experiment, presence of air clogged pipes will have a huge contribution

on the errors in the experiment. Furthermore, there are leakages in some point of the

pipe causing the pressure of the fluid to be unstable and inconsistent.

Therefore, precautionary steps should have been done while conducting the

experiment. Always make sure that the pipe is tide enough to avoid leakages on the

piping system. Flow rate should always be consistent to obtain an accurate and

consistent data in this experiment. Readings should be taken repeatedly to minimize the

errors that may occur. Parallax error should always be avoided, the eyes should always

be perpendicular to the scale reading.


 R.V. Giles. 1994. “Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics.” (Third edition), McGraw Hill


 Laboratory Manual Malayan Colleges Laguna