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R E S E A R C H

METHODS IN
ARCHITECTURE
S E S S I O N 2
ARRS18 USTP CEA-Arch
Maria Rallah E. Villaseca

Ty p es o f R es ea rch i n
A r c h i t e c t u r e
Types of Researches in Architecture are always unique to the
researcher. Each research proposal embodies its own
research design. This is what makes every research output
unique and creative and this is why it is copyrighted and
subject to legal sanctions and subject to plagiarism if copied
without proper citations.
Study
Areas/Fields in
Architecture
research range
from design to
theory
including
Types of Architecture everything in
research can range between, i.e.
from qualitative to construction or
descriptive, or design
simulation. This is technology.
what makes the
research design
unique.

Groat and Wang. (2013). Architectural Research Methods. John Wiley and Sons
“What is the
purpose of your “What human
inquiry?” condition can
you improve
through
To begin with research, we try to answer: architectural
“Can you
improve it
by creating
solutions?”
“What is the purpose of your inquiry?” a new
design
theory?”
This is usually answerable by identifying aspects in human “Can you
“Will you be
life that you wish to solve/ alleviate through new designing a
improve it
through
architectural solutions. The solution can be manifested new
technology?
creative
design?
through design, as in a creative output in technology; or a ”

unique form of design process, as in new design theories.


Which has more impact? Subjective or objective researches?
The right side is
more objective
(quantitative)

According to
Joroff and
Morse’s
framework,
the left side
of
architecture
research is
more
subjective
(qualitative)
“at its most basic level, this
terminology assumes that quantitative
research depends on the manipulation of
phenomena that can be measured by
numbers; whereas qualitative research
depends on non‐numerical evidence,
whether verbal (oral or written),
Qualitative studies require non-biased points of view experiential
in order for it to be valid and of good quality. (film or notes about people in action) or
artifactual (objects, buildings, or urban
Quantitative studies, while highly numerical, tend to areas)”
become obsolete especially in the field of
architecture where creativity is difficult to quantify On a methodological level, the
and the human data is always changing. quantitative paradigm is seen as involving
a deductive process of inquiry that seeks
cause‐and‐effect explanations,
whereas the qualitative paradigm
necessitates an inductive process of
inquiry
that seeks clarification of multiple critical
factors affecting the phenomenon.

~GROAT AND WANG


Hard Science Soft Science

Philosophical Field of Study

An investigation on
existing knowledge and
data
THE PARADIGMS OR “MINDSETS”
OF RESEARCHERS
Positivism/Postpositivism Intersubjective Constructivism
“Reality is out there and if we can Research results and data is highly Data is always unique to the
take enough samples of reality, we dependent on context. For specific sample set. Research is
can scale it down into a laboratory example, there are many different seen as something similar to
where we can analyze it more cultures and societies so data of “couture” and data or output
easily. Whatever results we gain research in one society is not should be produced by the specific
form the study (the small scale) can automatically applicable to another people who will use the data
lead to the representation of the
big scale”
Is it possible to combine qualitative and quantitative methods
in one research design?
An introduction to EXPERIMENTAL CORRELATIONAL
research methods that
can be used in 1. Often uses a control 1. Focuses on naturally
Architecture as presented group and has a focus on existing patterns
by Groat and Wang. COMBINED STRATEGIES causality. 2. Measurement of
2. Formulaic and precise specific variables, one
These strategies are constant, another flexible
introductory and not (relationship or causal
limiting. comparative)

QUALITATIVE

1. Studying the data in its SIMULATION/ LOGICAL


natural setting PROTOTYPE ARGUMENTATION
2. Interpretation of a
phenomena based on 1. Simulation of real-world 1. Arguing against
meaning that people (data) HISTORICAL threats, i.e. fire drills. principles or theories of
perceive design through the use of
3. Focus on respondents 1. Brings into view something
4. Use of multiple tactics.
logic
from the past.
5. Critical importance of 2. Subject to Interpretation.
Inductive logic 3. Narrative
4. Cultural turn
Examples: (metanarratives sought from
Ethnographic studies
contextualized histories)
Phenomenonology
(hermeneutical, first-person, and 5. The Spatial turn
existential)
Grounded theory (validation of
known facts through numerics)
Group Challenge (Quiz 2)

(1) Identify the potential strategies that your group will probably employ based on your chosen
research topic.
(2) Read Groat and Wang (reference) discussion on this particular strategy and report your
synthesis about why this strategy is potentially appropriate to your study. Defend your POV.
(3) present three additional researches similar to your chosen topic or your strategy and build your
case as to why it is necessary.

Answer in 1000 words. Attach full studies. Deadline Dec. 18, 2017 Friday 5PM
REFERENCES:

Groat and Wang. (2013). Architectural Research Methods. John Wiley and Sons