Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 123

I

I

, ~

. • J' r

fplj Ef>a 9 -

5 , " .

...

47

uluI>.

'0

59

• '''1' ~ ~. ~. iJ ~ ~,~",,,,,,, •••••••••••• 'f"'++'1'+..,+. ...... "'"'''''''''''''~''''''I!I''''''''' ~ 'I 'I''I.~",;p ... ~ ••• ,. ~ •••••• ~ •• II!. ~l!!! !,!! I ~"i!"i i

• 1.~.:.tl' O~~ .

75

~'J.I~ ~>tll ~,.l]

·04

85

....... "!! ~"'o!' ~'!i!i ~.""!I .. ".' ••••• II! II! II! •• 't~. !':'!i-li i i '" ••••• "'''' ~ ~,,~ ~ ;;,~,jo'l'.''''''.'"",",,, ••••• II!. "I'''!'. '!'''!!,,!!-!!! I ~ ~;;,; :.~ .; .

. .. ..... .~, H'", t , a do ,I:>J I

,,·,······.iJ't~,'t .. ;,.,. ..... !I,.n"",., ... ···~.'!'toi+ ...... iI ••••••••••• "'~"'''''t'++..,+.., .... ~ .. , ... ''I',..''I'''"". .. , .. ,,.,..... • ~ V

113

~

I

\

..

r "'" r "'"
I
I 1
~,J.LJ f J 'JL''Y ,f F
-
I
..J \.._ J I

J

~

.... '''''1'_ t ":~ ....... ":!_··t - . ,t ,I'"; ~ ,tt J Ci. - t·1 d~I:z.·h4~· - 4..b.:t, ~_: .c.sJ;\lC J~ ~4.· .. ~2'A::i~

_. ~

II: ~ ~~tJ~' ~~.oL;.

(SJ'Q-c- . J~ &',_y:. -

...

II: ~ ~l:iJI~J..JJ ~ u~J.W,1 ~

...

!

._

r-JAl.a~ (S~ J~ ~~, ~_;~H -

- ....

.b lb;..'il - _;:JJ; lli:-.tOl-

... . ~t .... - .t. ", tf

r.,sJ,.U:.. J~ n ~ ~, ,lJA JJ~' =

-



. 5'

!

1

i (1 ti./2)

- --__;;;".----

:1-i10 + i./1) l~ ./2

3

./2 I,

'~--+-l

3 3'

m +j + P j j3 .jp ' ... IM"_"~ ~] F . ~~ IJjJ,e,~ c" b.J a. ~ ~2 21 ~ (a + b] +cp)(.a + bj2 + cj)

Zl ;; a2 + bZ +c2: - (ab + ac + be) ~,] ~ ~1 al + b3 -+ c3 - 3aJbc: == zl (at + b + c)~u ~ -y

[: ~ z3 - 3ahz '* 013 + b3 == 0 ~lJWI J.;.b. [';;;;'1.11-3 ( b ,~ e , as [:'~'=Th)

j2 JJ.SJI ~'~ .. 1

..

f~(~~"7lr ,~~

~ ( ~ - ~ )+ 2 ( - -i )( 4) i

1 ../3,

~- 2, - 2,1

j3- JJJJI ~~

j3 ~j2.j ~~

p' ~ j ~JJ' JJ\;' J!I_y..J I ~' j3 ~ Ilj 12 ~i j3, ~j ,j: <Wu

1 3

','''' .~ I' :t + .. ~1 ~,"_

= J r :::::;"4' 4" .... iW

1 + j + j2 J~ I ~ l-a.

~ l~ j. U:'~

1 ' ·2 1 • -:+J t·J ~ lli + J + I

= 1 + 2 Rdj)

( l'

== 1 + 2;1 - 2 )

!

1 b=--

J2-i

.s

~~I~.J~J~ Th+iV2

,a.:;;;:---

1-1/2

1

-1' J,io,' -1 ~ -'

b=---

I+i/2

ab , ,a+ro~~:~~.J,.aJII,~~~I~~1-2

1

1 1

b,;;::;-. --

1t /2-i

b=~=

,Ji-i

1

i

b=~~, r;)' .1- Iv.t,.-I-

b=---

i(/2-i}

i

b;;:;--i./2+ 1

1

ib=-~~ '1 " "'2

, +1\1~.

a + b J~ ~I JS..r.tJi ~

~J.l J}ll,J lj.uJ I ~

l+iv1'2

a+b~ + ,,_ --

1,-i/2, l+iV2

(l +i/2)2 +fu(l-L.I2) (1- i /2) (1 +i/2)

1

(1 + i .../2)2 ~ 1 + 2. i ../2+ :2 i2. =1+2iV'2~2 ~-1+2:i12

i (1 - i V'2) = i _yI2i2

= i+./2

(1- i vI2) (~+1./2)::: 1 - {11../2)2 ;;;; m -v2

=3

-1 +2i./2+i+../2 a + b ~ ~~-.....----

. 2./2+[

- ~,_....-- + :1 "_. 3 ....

3 .

./2 -1



abJ~.~I~'1

l+i/1 1 u..JI

a.,b;;~--

l-it./2 l+iv'2

6

,3

2 .:'

z .... z+ 1

Z -

Z,· 1

y == lln(z) J x = Re(~) e-~

3 ~ .' 1

Z=z+2+-,. 'Wq:~=I-

z = 1

Y.1 X ~~ ~ Im(ZL Re(Z) J.J,:i;. '-:' ze IRJ r:« IR~ y" x~~J~-2

.. _-_.- .~ .. ':'

'" " .. - ~ .. _ .

" 3 (z + 2 Xz - 0 + 3

z+:2+,_,. ;;;;; . ,

z - 1 z - 1

Z2 + Z - 2+ 3

-

z -I

7.2 + Z + 1

=

z': 1

_ 3

Z;;:z+'2+- -0- Z - 1

3 Z=z+2+-, -1 z~,

. 3

=(x +iy) + 2+ ~ z - 1

1 1

z-1 ==Ot+iry}-l 1

- (x -1) + iy <x - 1) ~ iy

~

2 2- '(1 - 1) + Y

(x-l)-iy

Z =. ( X + 2) + iy +- 3. ~ ............... ~-

(x - 1)2 + yz

3(x~1) ( 3y ,),

:: X +- 2+ , ,+ I y ~ , -, " i

.- , (x ~ 112 + y2 "'" ' (x - If + i .,

_ 3 (x ~ 1)

Re(Z};:;: x + 2 + ,', " .,.z,'

(x - 1}2. + Y

" 3y

1m (Z) = Y - . " '"

(x - ti~+t

Y.,"',"'" X ~ ~I J;.i~ -2

~~. , -

~ {1m, (2,) =0 Im.(z) ~ 0

j

7

x

+

+

a2 + (abo + ac)j + (ac -t be +- ,ab)j2 + (b2 + c2)p + bcj4

"~'~&J',4'-J",-,j'J'3-1 ,-~" " ,_.,_,,-, u}ll - " U' I ~'"

2,1 = a2 + (ab + ac) j + (ac + be + ab) P +- bZ +- c2. -+- be]

~ a2 + bZ + c2 + (ab + ac + be) j + (ab + ac +- be) j2

~' a2 +- b2, + (;2 + (ab« ac + be) 0 + p)

'~ J + j2:= -llJ'}.i 1 + j + j2 == 0 wi L:w.J' zl ;;;;;; a2 +- ~ +- c2 - (alb + ac + be)

Zl (a + b 4- c) ~ [a2 + b2 +c2 ~ (ab + ac + bcj] (a + b + c)

22 , 2 .... ... .

a + b + 'c - ab - ac - be

x

b3 _- ..... 2 ali)'

+

:3 C

I, .. • .. ul 3 [~i -

lJ;.ll J:I W I J L;.uJ' Ii .~. ~.J.k I:JJ:I:o Z ~ z3 - 3abz + 8;3 + b3 ~ (z + a + b) (z + aj + bP) (z + aJ2 + bj)

~~ zJ' - 3abz + a3 ... b3 == 0 ~ (z + a + b) (z + aj + bj2) (z + aj2 + bj)= 0

( I

z + aj2 + bj = 0 Jl z + ajl + bj2 == 0) z +a + b :;:: 0 ~i

·2 bi ." b-·2 '1· _. b •

z = - aJ - .~ jll z;;;;;; - aJ - ~ ..j' z:=; ~ ,a ~ \:F1

,~ [: 0~l.lW!6lAJ;h~uJl S := { - ,a- b .- aj - bj2 , - ajl2 • bj] -

* * * ;+;

z+2i z= 1 + i ~ (x - 2y) + i (2x - y};;:: 1 + i

~ {~~~

( 1. ] ..

~. (x ~ y} ~ 3' - T )

~ z =..:. + (_. -!-)i

3 . 3

S == {2_. _ ~... I'} .'. J .~: 1,·1, _ L. 4 ..... """"A :.U ... J. l:;J L ..

- . -3-3· .':!"t"!""""" ~ '-'. ~ "'t-'

• ',II u ..... ·•

~11:lI1 ·djJWI Ja..-2

(Y'E IR J X E IR) z ~ x + iy : '~1 .. ~":: L:J.k. IJ..1i! Z ~

z + 2 (1 + i)z = (x + i y) + 2 (I + i) (x - iy)

== x + iy + 2 (1 + i) x - 2iy (1 + i) ~.x + iy + 2.x + 2ix - 2iy + 2y

~ (3x -I- .2y) + (2x - y) i

z402(l+.i)z:;;;i

·.H

U ;,

{2 3} ~~. - "J

.. ~. '.. . .~. _ .'·oJ

S - 7 - -,- 11 ~ - _ - ~ '" •

z+2z=z+2z ~z+2z

== (X - iy) + 2 (x + iy) ~ 3x +iy

i (z + Z) + Z + 2z:~ 2ix + (3x + iy) ~ 3x + (2x + y) it

0.j1



-

i (z + ~, + Z +- 2 z, == 3 ¢:>

3x+ (2x+ y)i:= 3 ~

{ 3x:;;;3

, 2x+y=O

(x,y)=(l,-2)

S-·~ {I 2'·} LLL ........ ,._,

.. -, -. 1 .rr .... ,.,.....~ U~ ~

* * * *

~G.lII~jLalIII[: ~.~ .1

iz~ + (1 + i) z + 1 ;;;; 0 -1 6

z2 + 2: (1 - i) z- 1 = 0 -2

Ii

J~"1I4llJLJI ~ ·-1

: ~ uJ.,':?I 4!J J 6J..1 .Jf~-#I

L\ ::; (I + if' - 4i ::: (1- iY

i+ z Z =-;-- 1 - Z

4-

y::;; Im(.Z) J X . ..;; Rerz) y.., X iJ;'i ~ hn(Zh Re(Z) J~ -1



z - i + 2i ," '. 'I"~ .= ~I'

Z ;;;;;; ----,-~ ..., ~

i <z.

2i = -1 -+ -. - . i-x

1. 1

r -z ::: i - (i + iy) 1

--x + (1- y) i

-x - (1 - y) it

i

2 2

X + (1- y)

-x 1- y ,

~ 1

X2 + (1 - y)2 Xl + (] - yt

~ -~ _ l-y

-, - ~ 2. 2 i + 2 . ----:-"--- ........... --,.

l-Z X +O-y) l'+(l-y/

2 (1- y) 2x;

Z~ -1 + _ - I

. X2+(I_y)2 X2+(1_y)2

2 (1 - y)

Re(Z) :;;; -1 + ·2 . 2

X +(1-y)

2x

Im (Z) ;::;:; - ---:::--------;:

2 . 2

X + (1 - y}

E.;_,lbll ~~.I 'J:~ -2

Im(Z} =.0 -2x

. =.0

x? + (1- y)2

d x·=O

* * * *

~tJ I ~':J' .. d_~ . .u It ~ Jb..

z+2iz=1+i -1

z ... 2 (l + i) z;;;; i -2

i (z + z) + (z + 2-z) =: 3 -3

5

'.

.J.J~II aJs611 ~ -1

(y € IR ". X € IR) z == x + iy . ~ y~ I.J~ Z ~

z + 2iz = (x - iy). + 2i. (x + iy) ;: x - iy + 2i x + 212 y = (x - 2y) + it (2x - y)

8

~-J'" j 4JJla.l1 Ja. ~ 1

L:uJJ • IL~ I'J.JJ;:. z -« J

I --.;-... ~'

_AI 1 4 '2 ZI"+=Z ~1

-- . = (Z2 - i).(Z2 + i)

~. (1 + i~ = 2i b;JJ

I

2, 2 (1 ,)2

Z -]=:Z - t'. +1

[ ../2. ,] ,[ ../i (1 ,.]

=: _ Z - 2 (l + 1) I Z + 2 + 1)

../2 (1 I')

Jo a::::T ·.'1 + u

t:J. + i == (z - a) (z. -I- a) (z - b) (z + b)

2.4 + i = () ~ Z E -{ -a, a, -b, b] iJJ!

~ ltJ~ ~ ,LJ]j, J til4_; s = {~.at a. -b, b}

../2. . J2,

b =' 2 (1 .~ 1) J a =2 (1 + 1) ,~

[.I;~.~ i,.~r -2

: ~~ .. lL.lh. IJ.1c. Z ~

.. -

4 Z

-- 1 =0 16

Crl~~

Z -ES 2

Z E {-2a, 2a. t-2b , 2b}

~ 4J..;.b. ~~ iJj!

"M

S t = { - 2a , 2a , - 2b t 2b}

Ji . if}

b = 2 (l- i) J a;;: - 2 (1 + i)

* * * *

Z2 = 1 + i : ;ij,JtJ I II: ~ J=.. -1

'i'!.

: 4 :llIltlJW ~ III: ~ ~ ~2

{z2 - 2- I z I - 1 - i) (I z I + z2) ~ - I z I (z2 + 2 I' z I + 1 + i)

8

,

1-

21, z·;;;; +1

~lJ~1,I 4J J W ~ J.:::.. -1 W~'..t~ z~

.... ...

.u..u. y = Im (z) -J X. ~ Re (z) ~

(x + iy)2 = 1 + i

(x 2 - y2) + 2i xy := 1 + i

{ 1.2 _ y2 ~ 1 2xy~ ]

- (1 '+ fu) + (1 - i)

Zz = 2 i

- em + fu) - (1 m i)

z]· = 2 i



~,

~llU djJW,1 J=. .. 2

~ .

.,JA ~CiJ I :ijJLuJl ~ I ~ I Ar = (1 - i)2 + m

=: - 2i + 1

a ' J~ ~J-li J4 (.)L ~

(y E IR.J x .~. IR) ~ =;;; x + iy ; 6:~' 1.:.Jlc. tJ.lC 0 ~

2 ., 1.d..._ . ..iI

,!:J.! =: 3 ¢:;} 1 - 2i:::: (x + iy) ~

l - d ........ ( 2. _ 2) + :a xy -x y . _="'.

{ 2 2

¢::) x,-y=l

2xy ==-2

{ 2- 2...

X.'. + ..•..... (.=Y i= 1 x2 (-Y1 =:-1

xy-c O

X2 Xl' '0' .~i II 1.1 fR . -. - . '. - .=, 'Y,ju.,I"U . u.i ~

>!iI;

1- J5

p = 2

: i~ "i.~"ll J.i.lL.J.1 o,lJ, iJ~ 1 +,/5,

«=.. 2

1 2

X :: (1.,.

2 ~

Y -.

- - '_

l xy c O

{X. = fd. .r o.-., .' • {.' X= ~ .. h. CI

, .J~

Y= - fi3 'Y== JJ3

A. i JW' &..)-"1' J~ 0 ~ ;-;;. ~ H i L.~,j! ~, ~C;J I (bW.I 1.;J..r... w!=i ~

Zl = - (l - i) ~ Fa + /-iii i :;;;-ill-;-;;' +O+f.ii)i ~~-1 + ;;+(1- J-j;)i

1- v'S

~ = 2·

* * * *

Z4 + 1:::::.0 4JJL.J.1 II; ~ ~-1 It ~ z4 + Hi = 0 .ij.J IA,U J.,1:.. rz: jliu, j -2

7

9

9.

,,'-'J'! [; ~ [: ij.4 ~'; s $:J

If z , z' e II: g (z ..... z') ;;;; g (z) 4 g (z')

/

(\I a E IR ,'';;j Z E ~) g (at) = a,g (z)

~ b " a, ,w~.JiL ;. IJ~ ._~ ~. <U~ 04~ 1

.... I~ ~ . ...:. .. !r..,I' ~ ..

bJ awIJ~I~j

r'~ 'i Z E II: g (z) ~ az + bi ~..11 *

{. a (1)::: a+ b g (i) ;;;:; ai~ bl

{,'_ i g (1):::: ia-r ib g(i)=ai-bi

2i a = i g (1) + g (1) ull - 2.a= - g (1) + is; (i) (j1

1 •

a=;;; 2" ( II fill) - i g (i) ) c.,s'

1

a = 2. ( g (1) - i g (i) )

~

b =2 (g (1) -+- ig (i»)

VzeO::

(iI (z) =- az + bz 'J~, ~ u - .. ~

ll;Jk IIJ,J.i:. z ,·.<.1: - ~

(y E IR J' X E LR) Z - ~ x + iy ~.lI

~JI~~~~~

g {z)·= g (x + iy)

= g (x) +. g (iy)

=: x g (1) + y g (i)

1

a:::: 2 (g (1) - i g (i) l

g (i) := ai - bi J' a + b :;;;: g (1) <U..u

g (z) = x (a + b)+ Y eai - hi) u,j!

~ a (x » Iy) + b (x- iy)

== al. + bz

* * * '*

Zl Z· 1('" I n - ~.~ I -2'

.J ~~,J'~'" ~.~~ ~,~

10

e-';''i . IN' ~,I~ n,~ z;;;; (I + if + (1 - i)~

z' == (l + if - (1 - on

Z~ ~ -! ,t. c, - Z • • . - 1 ~ -z ,W~ z..~ ul~-,

~_:i:.l4 JJ.c. Z J..uJ I -1 b=l-ij a=l+iF

z;::;: .an + bn l:i...11

~

I' I

I 1

:

I

,

10

x2 + (-0·:;;; 1 2" 2 i x (-Y)=-'-4

xy > 0

:2 ' 1 -' IR

X -X-4=O ,~.b~1 -,,~#

; ~ ;:IJWI b'u IJ~

f x~- J;. 1 y=- FP

~ '-.r

~ JJ~ I ijJLalI JJ.6.. ~~ ~~, .)1 bl4_,

S :: {.J; + iJ-r, , -.ro. - i ~ }

~letj;UJW.1 .~ -2

tl J I..l i ~ ,*,.J,:. 0 wi ~)l:.. rJ:U.., ~ I~~ IIJ.k. z u4 ~lt w 1 ~ o'l..:.~ "J z2 +- 2 ~ z I + 1 + i ,J I z I + z2 .,,) b)U

..

:1 zl + z?'

: I~JJ ~ ~1l:JJ1 ~~'PL:... ($~I.~ w~ I z I + z2 g II z 1 '* 0 wi ~ z2 + 2 I Z II + 1 + i i' - 2 I z I - 1 - i 2 if ,

~--~~ - --2

~ z I + .zl - ~ I z II . - z2 -.

z2= 1 +i ~ • ,[j. z'2 = 1 + i . lS: 1.11

u.. u .•

z2 + 2. II Z 1+,1. + i = 2 (1 + i) + 2 ~ z !

== 2 (z2 + I .Z I )

z2 - '2. I z I - I - i;;;; - 2 I z I

2 1" ~

z == -+ 1 .J'

z=o

~." I d. • I ~I_ - ' .. < ... ' I.~rl Jh .... II

vA ;yJI£OI" .6J.A. u..,- cI..c.~ ~ u,; ~ ". ~ ~Y'-=V

S .... {a ~ -·a • O}

., 1- fl' P=2

* * * *

I Z 12 +1 Z· 12 ~ II 2afil2 <G..u

II 2 an 1'2 ~ 4 ,I a 12n ~.J.l,

=2:11+2

w1A ~<Jj n ~~ Ij!

I Zl 12;;;;;; 2D:+2 - ((_ l)k. + 1) 2B+l

~ 2n+l.fl - (-1)1.)

I z' 11= evil )n+~ j 1 _. f-l t '«lou. .:,li csJ,;-A n :,.(s: loll

"-'~ ft - . ~ ,.

I z' 12:::::: zn+2 ~ 2M1 :;;;:;2R+l

lz' II ~ (..;2 )f'i4 1 <L.u.

* * * *

11

~= -v'3. + i

-1

2

-2

-3

I z I := 2 d1~. ~.,. . 1 .~

,I< ,! * ~1.JJI .

~

arg Zz =arg 2 - aIg (3 + i. /3 ) [in] U;JI *

r;( 'It 'It)'

::. 2: v 3 I. cas ~ + i sin _:_ .

. 6 6 .. '

1C

a.Ig 12 ;; - 6 [2n ] ~1

:1 12r-

I~r ;_ ~~*

I 13+i/3lr-

4

- 9 +3

1 m

b := a Wu ''''ii == 1 - i ~ b ~~J

Z = Z lJ1 z = bfi + aP uJI

d - - II .1,'

z." 0 ... 1... ~'..uu

'J' ~

b ~ 1 ~ i .J .a;:;;: 1 + i t-,·;,.

Uu z" ~ aD - 'b'l ~JJ z';;;;; ~n _ bl1

:: -aD - 'I)h

== (aY!); - (b)~

~~ b ~ a",-a :::: b wi ~...,

i::;; - z'

~ z.l· - b" an

(jll . - ._

Z JJ;AJ 1.J.~-2-

b;;;;;; 1 - i.., a= 1 + i ~ ~!-i Z=Z01 ~

i Z 12;;;; z2

== (all +bll:¥,

:::: afn -I- b2n + za[l b~

;;;; (a2)D + (b2JR + 2allJ b!l

b2 == - 21 i, (12 ~ 2i lliJJ

~ "

an btl::: (ab)B

~ [0 + i)(l - i)]I[I = 211

. 2 (Z·')n 2- ')ti. 2 2n

I z i ~ L -+ ,(- 1 + _ .

= 211 (in + (- iY~ + 2)

~,!-i (n ~ 2k) r.,J,) n olS; loll ifi= (_ i)R

~{i2~

~ (- il)k

:.U ,~~ .. n :its: Ij.l c,u

....... tw' ~'~Ij'o..",iAJ ~ ". V-

i z I'z:;;;;; 2}1 (2 (~1)k+ 2)

= 2n+l (-l),k. + 1) .

H,.F 1 j.

lz I ~ ( J2 ) .. I(_i)k + 1 L,iJ! .

4J..u iD:;; - (- i)n ~.i-i ~J_,l n wAS: iIJ.!

I z 12:; 2ft+-l

n

k=2" ,~

~ z I;: (./2 )n+ 1 ~.j!

Z·n .'::. fl' . 1'1 1_ (joJ.P.l J,~ .J. ~

Z'!J~ ~~ ~1<L_,bk~~~~ iJ~.~J.=,..j~~iU.l~I~

. '_fi b· n " ze a -, "

"

i

b=i-i .J .a.;:;;l+io:~ 2an::::z+zi ~ I 2 aD. 12 ;;;;; I z ... z' 12 uJ ~

"La i E i IR. z e IRw'l ~.J ..

'-',. .,_;t

(1 + i) a J~II b~,", .)~ -2

I (1 + i) a I = 11 + ina I ~J.l *

~./2

arg (1 + i) a::: arg ( ill -+ i) +arg a [ 21t J

,....-------........ -

~.;U *

!II' - _

. rx I( v'2 ../2)

1+1=V 21-Z-+i=z-

.~( 1[: 1C)

;;;; " 2. cos -:r + i sin -. - '.'

"iI' 4

n

arg (1 +i) == '4 ![211:]

ull



G. l-"1i~.l" ~'I' -3

J2 --_

z= (l + i) a+ T {J + iv'3 fa l\;~

._ 'K.

arg (1 + il3 ) a:;;; 3- ~ (1. [ 2n, ]

~ (1 +i .,13) a = ,/2 (cos G - " ) + i sin G - a ))

I~JJ·,'o;. ·C;JIJI~.·· .. I 'I-·-

~ t..U""';:;',.,.I .:",........~

~ ~ _"

Re(z)= h( cos (~ -~J+oos(: + a)) wJ,~ = vIZ. 2 co's (: )cos (Cl- ,~)

Im (Z), ~ /2 ( sin (~ - a )+ sin (~ + a ))

- ( 1e ) t«

:= 2../2 cos (1, - _;_ ... ' s.~,1i' _:. . 1,1

24""£ 24

r:. ( 1C ) (. 7'1t 71C),

z ::;:::_ 2 v 2 cos I ex - 24 .. ' . cos -:- + i sin ~ .' wJl

'. .... 24 24

.' '

1& 1t . j, 1 3n; 251t

2." < a~ 24 .... ·' -c n ,,'-II .e' ~ < · ~

I" ........ 2.· 4 .... u « 24'.· • I

w _~!J

_ ." r: ... (-.. '1t)( 31n . 31lt)

Z - -2 -r 2 COB a - "4 cos -24- + i ,~w. _ 24 ."

* * if: *

Z3 J.w I i;,JAc.,J..) ~ -3

iZ3 f == 1. +tan2 Ct Lli~ *

1

==

1 l,z31=-- -

- cos <X

_ 2 cos' c

_ .' E ~

4.l..v 'ODS a. > 0 w!J -"'2 <: ex -c -2 0i '~.J

Z3 :::::: ill + i tan « ~~ *

]

::=: -- (cos 0:+ i sin CIt) rosa

*' * * *

12

($,ji:,l1 .!~II ,J~ .. ,,;,J a::: cos a. -+ i sin 0. ~

J2 z:;;;(l+i)a+ i (l+i/3)a

(1 + i ./3)a ..l..aJ1 :;JAc.JJ~ .,}.,1.::0. -1 o + i) a JJ .• ,H :;;~JJ~' J~ -2 z JoWl '~.JJ~ 1'l'~·L'l.li-3

(I + i /3) a JJ.JI :;~J~'-l b==(l+i../3).a .e-'4!

:lb~::::ll+i~lIal = ,.tr:;"3 I a I

iiI~_A. ~. ~ a ~ == 1 ,." .• l-i I 0 i == 1'. ~ L,_.

-v ........ '" 01 ~

'1(l+iJ3fil=2 ~ilbl=2

arg b == arg (1 +- iV3 ) + 3l'g a [ 21iC] 1.li.1l *

_( 'rr . n)

~ 2 I cos 3 + i sin "3

arg a ~. - arg a

i[ 2'Jl] b;~

[ 211:] lSi

oii

arga""'-Ct

'I

'1[:

rug b:= '"3 - ct [21t]



I..? ,

12

l+futana Z4=, .

1 -Ran ex

oG..u .

cos {.It + i sin ct'

_-----

008 O~ = i sin a

( _ ,.. )2

:;;;; cos a + 1 sin u.

( 2 .2)"2·'

= ;cos C( = S.ID fl. + 1 '" .sm ct cos (It

;;;;,cos: 2 CI. + i sin 2.a

~

Z4 = U j 2a. ]icJ~! z4.;;;;; [1, 2 Arctan x] ~!i -a ,::::; tan x ui ~

* * *' *'

14

'I

IR" i"1 -- ~~' I, ~ '1 " Z' .<.f .J

(S"~ ~ Ji ,,='~ JJ,c. , ~-.

2 arg (z + I z 1)=. arg z [21t"] u1\~

:L~,: ... :,~.~,~~.ik~J~ ZV zl~-2 ,i

1

a~ (zl + Z2);;;;; -2 (aJg z] + erg 7.'2)

2. arg (z + ,I z I) = arg z

,[ 2n:] [2n:]

[ 211: ]1

'2.

{z+ I z l) -

--~ :::;; z+z+2Izll Z

= 2. Re(z) + 21 z II

0~1[:' ~ X J$J - Re (X)S: IX I

JI"II L_.·. ~~1.:i:U. , ~ ~t""~' '"

(z+ 17.1)2 '" --z~- E IR+



,#1

~Ul~ ~,.iMU ..lJ~";~ ~I JS..J;JI ~~I , 11 :: (1 + i /3 ) (l + i) -1

I

i 13

'I

(x e IR)

m+xi Z4 = '1- Xi

Zl J..b.lJ (jifiJ I J( ,_tJl -1

I Zl I ~ 2 -/2 ~ 1 I z] I ==d 1 + i v'3 H 1 + i I ~JJ

fUg 2:1 ;;;; ,arg (1 + i../3' ) + arg (1 + it)

1& 1t

~Y4

In: = 12

[2n:] ~4, [ 2n.]

~' (' 71(; 71&),

z] = 2" ,J.. , cos 12 + i sin 12 ,,'



':PI

11- i/31 I z2 ~ = 2 11 :+ i I .

,arg ~ ;;;OMS (I - i./3) -alrg 20 +i)

1C 1[;

3

4

7 'it ~-12

[211: ]

',:;:: [../2", 2 _ 7, 'It,,'-,]i ~.11

~ - i 2 ~ 12

Z- , .. lili, ~ ;'1::: ~ t' 1,1<'", ,D.,D., t 'I -3· .. ·

3J...lA.\II.I~ ~'"

~

I, I

71& (' 1[; , 1t )'

== 2 cos '24, • ((IS 24 + i sin 241

Jt 1t

--, <.C«.-

2 2

13

G.tmdU~' -2 IZll::=I~:11 wi~~,*

I a IS; IZI i + I 21; i ~ ~ a;;;;: Zl + Z-.2 U:..1I m

I a I :S; 2 I zli ~ ,~j!

I b Ii;;;;; I zl ,I ,I ~ I u.u b = 1.1 Z:2 ~JJI

I b I =: I Zl ,12 "-4.9'

I a r2 :;; 4 I b I uJ I



-2

a

b;;;;

LL.il,-

",

- -

z'l Z2z2z]

=--~+--+2 Iz212 I zt IF

2Re(z] zz)

- ---=-,~+2

I zt r

u~ ([: ~, z JSJ -Re (z) ~ 'I z I u1 ~ .

Re(zl~) + I Zl ~ 1220

Re (Zl 'l-z) + [I Zl 12 z 0 g;']

I ~ 1= II ~ I .J ~ 11 Zz I = I Zl I I ~ ~ u1 w..

b_;i '2 e IR"" a

~JJ~,'L..JIJI~~~

arg b == 2arg a [ 2ft]

~ 1; II a 12 S; 41 b I ,uj~~ *

arg b:::, 2. arg a [ 2n 1

oII:~,. z2 + az" + b _'0" ~~ I ,III ."j '7~ ... "'

--._,' ' .' '" ,,' - c' "'IJJ~ u~ "-.1Y ""'1

-2 'z b ,'~ I I •• " 22 z]

Z + ' + - = 0 iI'JI.&U.I~, ....:::.. J -

a2' , " a. a

,~!-t arg b ~ 2 arg a :[ 2n:] wi I~

2 a

!l} I S; 4 ~1

I a 112- <"" 4 i I!.. 'I • 1- I

" ~ -~lv'u~J

z, _ (', Z:,l J"',

-_ - 1 <tM.;

a ,a "

{I a. 12. s 4 I b II

, a.Ig b52arg a

[21t ]

* * * :+::

u~ ! zi I = I Zz I uil'YJ (zt +~)2 zi Z]+ zl Zz _

-~-.... +2

zl~ - ~Z1r '

_.

~zl +zl ~~,~zl + Zz zl

;:2Re(Zz i1)

{z, + Zzl == 2 . Re (Zz z.)+ I II 12

- 7_ 2.

~ """'".f I zl I

ulli It ~ z~ -Re (z) S lz I! ,u~ ~

I Zl 12 + Re ( ~ z'l) :2 0 1'1' I 11. -Zl I + Re (~ -Zl) ~ 0

2 arg (Zl + Z:2;) - arg zl Z:l ~ 0 [ 21t]1 ~l

2arg (Zl +~).~ arg zl + arg ~ [ 2x], {j1

1

.¥g (ZI + Zz) == 2 (erg 21 + aIg Zz) [ 1t] <G..u

* * * *

w1 ?!""H,I-2

i.lJWllb,,lJ, ~~ ~ Zl ~ ·1!C~'0r~ bj a,,"'';7'"

, h2".,e_, IR:_ . 2 • ~ I 1

...;;; ~.,.. ~ arg b ~ • erg a 0-'1 '~'-i' .-

a

15

{_' la r s 4: Ib ~ erg b "" 2 arg a.

Iz111= I ~ 1

[21t ],

c~ I J.i1~1 ~~I -1 b

arg-. iiiiiiiO [ZIt]

, 1

a

<=> arg b -arg a1 ;;;; 00 [ 2-1t]

u..u arg a2 ::: 2 arg a. [ 2:1t ]

b o+

-.-E n~ 2

a

~ ag b == 2aJg a

[ 2m; ]

14

~ 2 ( cos ( - ~ )+ i sin (- ~ )) ; [2;- :J

(' 4ft . 4'11[: ).

:;;; - cos T + i sin 3" .

[ 41t]

;;;::- 1 "3

u a ct

1 + cos a + i sin a == 2 corl 2 ~I- 2i sin 2 cos 2

_ 'Cit [ « JI

. . _ '. " .n :- n n I

(1 + cos ct +r sm a) ;;;:: 2 COB 2 1; 2 .'

Ct [ net]

n n

.~ 2 cos 2, _ _ 1, 2 1

** * *

(' ):w

. _ 1 +iJ3 ..... zl - - 1 '

, - 1

-1

.2.4

. '(I: J3-i]i

'Z_ ;;;::; .' t - '.

-l '2. .

42

Z.= ,~j2-J3 -1,)2+./3)"

-3 I.. -

-2

-'3

[ 1C]

i -i= J2;~4 J

[ 1C]'

1 + i ./3 "L 2, "3

_l_+_i v'3~ ..... ·~3 _[_ .. 2_" .. ! + !]-

1-1- .. /Ii' -~:.J "'t,

" 2 _

[-7ft],

~I_ /2, '12 '

18

16

~n E IN

1 .

if + - = 2 cos nS wfl +~:";'I

__ II

a

~..;ID I J?.!t';11 ~~l INUAII~ n~ JAZ2 ~ 2 cos <xz+ 1 = 0 t1JI....JJ ~I j:a11

.6.. ' = 0082 a-I

=:: (i sin ex)2

a == cos ot - i sin a.J1 a =:: cos a + i sin a ~

\in E IN

t'l= [1 f -a] .,,1 a = [1., a]' 4!JJ an = [1 j ~na.]1..,1 an .... [1 f 00.] ~ Re (arl) ~ cos. net i)j!

I

eP +-n ::2WSDct G.u

a

1

ff + _ := 200 s n a u .. Li JIl:iJ 4.J

n -

a

*' * * *

17

:

,I

- [ n 1C]

. .-cc • n _ ,. n

,(v'3 - 1) ~ 2, ~ _. 6 c

-2

, • • . ..,n 2Jl. n (. Ct ).' [ 1 nu] AI

(1 + oos ('.( + 1 sin Ci.) = cos: .. 2' .1., 2 ~

(u e IR)

u1J~ II ~l_u,tJ; I ~ ~ 1 '

15

: ~ t;J, (JJL.l1 Il:: r;. JiitJi z6 + z5 + z4 + Z3 + Z'l + z + 1 ~ 0

19

(1 ) ~.Lil....JJ JJ~ ~ z5J z4J Zy' Zp 1.1 ~,i ~ -1 (2) z3+ z2 - 2z - 1 == (} : il..,l L&J. II 'II: ,r.; ,)!~-:2 1[:* ; ...... j-.~ .'. a'(" J -i .....- "'~ ~

\

ulS U!L:O" IJ~ (1) (J'J~' ~ a wi ~

4rr 21t. I

2cos 7.J' 2eos"7 wI rrj.y;,ilI' ~

1 (2) ~Jka..Jl ~ a + a

me »~ 2 cos T J

6x 4ft

<Q ,J 1 ~-A:;:U 'oJ 0) 8 '7.J 00 S '7 J

I

J-,J-i I ij,JW I.)J~ l..JJLi.:;,J;;.u:....;JI~WI~.)..l1j~.jJ~ Z[;J .... .J Zz;9 1.1 i~.ll

k € {O, ... , 6 J ~ Zk¢= 1 ,j ~ -1 ::: 0 <I.l.u

{L ... ~6} ~.I~ k~ ~ - 1 =: (zk - 1 )(( + ~ + ~ + ~ + ~ + ~k + 1) t;.J.I

6 s . 4+ 3+'7!+Z +1-0

·lk. + ~ + zk - zk .. ~k ~,,-

{I) ~J6uJ JJ~ Zk wJ!

(1) ~J~ ~ zt>j .... J ~ zl u;t.A JIl1Lu

~ ... :t j do-- ,1.111, .;.. 1"1 - ~1-2

.~ ... >;&. ... .,I. :,-- ...:,.J~

1 b=a+- ~ .. ",

, a

3 :3 1 ( 1)

b· = a + ~ + 3 ' ... 3.=1= - .. i

:3 ,a .

a

3 1' .

.... a +~ +3b

a3

2 2, 1

b' =a +- + 2

.. 2

a

ll.i ,I ~. ... ,wt)

]

2 r. " .. __A__:_.I ....... _. (. 11). ~j., 1[' ,,11 I,~ a:,. J"' .• '

( ) ;JJ'~ ~; a +--; ~Qo..t JL ".I ... ~ ~ ~

j-,~ "'I r~J:·-w

\;- .

{I 6}' I • k .' c ,I

, ~ ... ,.: 1 iJ"'l' ~ ." ~

71C]20

~=[fi~ 12

[ 20 7f!C]

== (~) ,20 .. 12

[ 10 " SJt:]

::; 2 • 10ft"'"' 3""

../3 ~ i../3 1. 1- 2 :iii:l~2+71

11[; . 'Jt

== 1 ~ cos 6 + i sin "6

',2,1t c •• 1t '.' 1iC

;;;;;; 28m 12 + 21 SiD 12 (;OS 12

1[: (' 1t It)

::; 2 sm 12 i .. , cos I2 - i sin 12

1t[ 11:]

; 2ism12 L, - 12 I

.•. 1[: [ 1tJ'[.1&]

~ 2 SID IT 1 '2,: 1, - TI

1& I[ 51&J-

= 2,sin 12 1" 12

.24 [ 51&]

~:= ( 2 sin t2) 1, 24. 12

(' 1(:)2:4,

~ ' .. 2 sin 12. [1; IOn:]

.ZE .. ,1& 2 s m 12;;;;;; 1 - DOS 6

2- ./3

2

1r: )12 ~:=(4 8m2 ]2'

= (2 -./3 )12

Z3 J.aJJ ~~, J<.r.ll ~3 (j2- Jj -1 j 2 + ./3l~-2./3 - 2i = -2(./3 + i)

;;;;;; -4[ i . ~]

'3 ~ ( 4 [ I, :])"

21[ . '1tJ

== (-4) __ 1 , 2] . 0"

11 [, 71C]

~-4 ,1'"2"

21[. 1tJ

:;;;; -4 ] ,- 2"_

.,112,] .

="'Ir 1

* * * *

16

.')._

. ~'A

T I I I

• .;1

(.) .

. ""

(J"" ,



;;..1 I

'I;ro' *

~. ",,101011" t n "2:

~U,;L 'tc.~" ~J.:..J ~/ .

_ .. '. Z I·:.~I -::11 ~~~ .... ~...._ ~ (C ') -.<-:1

~ ~'r£"" --'~ "~

I z - a i :: 12z - (J. 1

~=--'~ -:- II .L I . _ .~"J I' i..b.i.:i M .<'-:1'

\z~~.~. ' 'W-

lz - « 12;;;;; (z - a) ( z ~ a) == (z ~ al( i - 0:)

_.

= z z - «2. - az +«a.

;;;; 1 2.12- (az+uz) +aa = I z 112 - 2. Re ( a z) + I a 12

I 2z ~ a 12 == (2l, = a) (2 z - c.x) ~4z-z~2az-2o:z+aa = 4, I z 1,2 - 4 Re -( ex z)+ I (X. 12

M E (C ') <=> I z - a. 12 = 1 21, - a ~2 w·J 1

¢::> 4- I z 12 - 4 Re ( a. z) = I z 12 - 2 Re ( a z)

¢::> 3 1 z f- ==: 2 Re ( a; z)

y ~ Im (z),J x = Re (z) e-'~;

b :: Re (0:) J a = Re (a)

Me (C') ¢:>

. a z ~ (a - ib)(x + iy)

~ (ax + by) + (ay - bx) i

3 (,2+ z... 2'(' +b-) . x Y);:"i" . ax y

(2 2 ) (.2 2, _ )::

X - 3ax+I'Y--3by=O

(. a.)2 '( . b )2.' a? + b2

x--' + y--. ;;;;;

3 - 3· 9

1 j 2 1 _ v a+b 3 .

* * * *'

21

~ -.-.)

(O,·i. j) F-~~F,"=,~~~I($~.JJ

di~M z ~'~~.bllJ~ ~~ J.b. -1 i z -1 -:i

-,. E IR

z + 21

.~ .I.'.LI' ~llj';'i-l- 2' Jt-:;;"1 Z ~ rr .Ii::I.,ij;.,jJ .~~ ,J,J,.::...-'.

(it + 1)( z + i - 1). E iIR

~~"i I t:;,J"?- t. ~ ~J.:ro.j -1

-.2'1'." III I- 0'" '. I 'z -'.' « ' .. 1 '

~~ .... (.)A ~ ~

z - 1 - i z - (1 + ill' 0t J;,%)t

z + 2i. - z- (-2i)

. . . fin: 4ft 211t 1 .:,~,~~ .vl. ~~o(.. ~'. J ~,~ 'i co' s ~ .• cos - .; co s ~7' 0"~ ::.' (]

' ........... -;- ...... ~ ~r.;- ... 'il' .... - 7"_" . 7 ~.

6'Jr 41C 2n:

~ ~,~ 'lf~~ Y 200s 1" .j 2 cos T J 2 cos '7"

r ~~)b.~ (2) ~.J,W~vj ~~ a

a A b ~ 1." b E Z* J' a e Z cJ I;;;;; b '~JJ

("aJ3.(aJ2 (·aJ'

1). + I C6 .. ~ --21)' -1 = 0

a3 + alb - 2 ab2 ~ b3 =.0 ~j

a\3=b(b2+2ab-a2) J b3~a(a2+ab-2~) ~i'~ b I 3,3 .J a I b3 ~

I b I = l.j I a I ~ 1 w~ a A b = 1 ~l I~~ , -, ~~ 1~,4J~ 1" -1 J:.Ii(2)(JJW.~ys:ii r=-l .J~ r;: 1 wJ1

~ .J L~~~ ':t co s ~1t ,J co S ~1t -,J 00 S ~; w!J ~ ~14.J

//

~/

__.... -4

(O~ i '. j) F-J.4~F·~·f:.S.JLJI~j 1

JA:..: Z ~.~:i.:J ull" W I ~~ JJ.:o. -1

..

(iz + l)(i + i . 1) E IR

Ji..~! z LtLJ ~ I .l.,J;.ll ~ .1,.1::1. -2 Iz-al=12z-al

* * * *

iJb'iI·~~1 ~~ -1

Jb1 z 4i=J' ~I b.i~II~~ (C)~ (iz =I- l)(i + i - 1) E: i IR

z ;'+W ~,I ~ H.i'. M ~ y = Im (z)", ,x;;;; Re (z) ~

(iz + l)(z + i - 1) ~ i z"i + i (i - 1) z +<z + (i- 1) ~"i.I

~ i I zl2 + (-1 - i) z + z + (i - 1)

;;;; i I z ~2 + (i - z) - i z +- (i - 1)

;;;; i (x2 + y2) - 2 Y i - i (x + iy) + i v l == (- I -+- y) + (x2 + y2 - X - 2y + I} i

~ • ':'f,.

(1'1 -I

, , , ,

17

----7

AC :i~ ... 'lU~'~ c- a

---+ ---t

AB + AC 4d?111 ~_,.a b + c - 2a <U..u

-----t ---i- _.

AB+AC;t:.O

B A .~

• ... .""~ _. -. -c' ~"I

;',Li, 4JO .• 4," '.:L.!:i ~ C J .j ,-,,' - .!J

of",.,l'.. .. Ii'" ~-

b +c- 2a~O .~

I,:~q .•• c. ~ - I ..Y~ -2 ~ ,~J-G~ ...

~ ~ --+ ~

AG + BG + CO =0 LY.lI

~

AG ~IJ.:JJA g - a ~~,

~

/~-~ BG J.~,,? ~;u J,=J ~ g - b

~

CG~~'i1_l ~"""" g - c

(g - a) + {g - b) + (g - c) == 0 ~jf

1 •

( b ) '_if"',:-I g= 3 a+.·.·+c 0;;'

(6.) ~~I u-I! G ~~I: -1-.3 1

g-a ='3 (a+t.+c)-a

1 _ .

= ..."... (a + b + c - 3 a) 3

1. 2a\

= 3" ,(b+ c -.IJ

z-a

~~~,e IR wj! b+c-2a - .

Ge (A) ~

(A)'· 4· .... 11 ~.1.~ .. :j,-w

~;;,r; 'II

Z-i;l

M IE (6,)·~ b +c _2a'E IR

<=:>. 3 k € IR z -a = k (b + c - 2a)

~ :3 ke IR Z ~ a;;;; 3 k (g - a)

1

g - a ~ 3 (b + c - 2 a) .. U t~ ~ ,~ ., I

M. e(D. )¢:>.

3 k' E IR

M:E (AG)

(AG) ~:;;,,!11 r.F" (A) iJJ!

23

~ ---t .

(0; i , j )1 .. L;~!uJ.4~rW-~~~I~1 I!

,~IJ:ilI~ z'.j ZIl!dz:ia.I~I04~ M' . .s M~-l

~ ~ i .

det(OM ,OM')= c2 (z'2-zi)

~ lJlI J vk -2i.J 1 + iLt. t:b.l ~.I ;y. eel bi:.. B" A .)!:4*1 Z ltLJ~I~.dlii M~

~ .. ')

AM d ~ 7'~J I ~ JA Z - (] + r ~...J

-ito

S,M iij~;,I~ ~ _,... Z - (- 2i)

z -1 - i -- ~ ~ M B "I

-~ E IR <=>, (3 k e 1R AM:::::kBM, J;;c" u.j.

z+2i

~ ME (AB)I-{B}

~LJ~) B:ib'i:.i~ ~ ,?"~ (AB) ,,,.!ii ".,11 ~ J!.J-JI, .~y?!1 ,u}i ~l::J4.t

(3x -y -2=0 ~ (A13)~1

¥liIl a:c.~'1 ~,.bj -2 Z.:=(iz.+l)(z+i-l)~. ~J.k.I,j~ z~ y = Im (z) J x::: Re (z) ~

i z + 1 =::1 (x + iy) + 1 lli..J:

== (1 _ y) 1- ix

z + i-I:: (x + iy) + i ,_ 1

;;;;; (x - I) + i (y + 1)

z == (x - 1)( 1 - y) - X (y + 1) + (x (x - 1) + (1 - y2) ) i ~ Re (Z) == (x - 1)(1 - y) - x' (y + 1) .. wJ!-------

z.« i 1R

~ Re(Z)=O '~

.~ (x - 1)(1 ~ y) - x (y + 1) ::;;; 0

~ x-xy-l+y-x.y-x=O

{1 - 2x)y == 1 1 Y=~ I - 2x

{I }'

";J X 'E IR - 2 .

1 f(x) = 1 _ 21.

r

* * * *

22

z -, a

b 2aElR

_ + c - ,

(A)' 'J. I,~ G,-~i,~·-i

- ....... V lUI W'. ,,,,~,

(A:\ ~ - .- t.1 J~ -,_. I ~ ..

~.)~t I 4 ?'=:FLJ I 0 ~.Ii -1

b + c - 2 ,a;;;;; (b - a) + (c ~ a) ~~

.............,.

AD ~~I J=J~ b - a ~JJ

18

1 b=~ b

1 ,J ,a:: a~

(1 1). __

ME (AB) ~ (z~ a} . b ~ -a- - (z ~ abl (b - a) ~ 0-

a-b ~-

¢:::} ab [(z c a) + ab (z ~ a) ] == .0

¢::;> z ~ a + ab z - baa ... 0

,~ z+abz==a+b

_ .

. M E (AB) ¢::> z + a b z ~ a + b uJ!

$: * * *

,~I:~ ... • - ~ ... _I~ -"''\. ,~ ~ II .•• "';', _.I Ii r---"' .l..4~ r-""' ~ ~.JjJU.J' ~u

~a~i"-liiA.# C (c}.J B (b) ,Jo A (a) WI J:;*i : we:;; 1,:,.1 bi";,_, IJl't" )l..Q)'I w~ ABC ~j 01 uu ~1

,. "_ .,. - _ - .,,.;

2a : (1 + i /3 ) b + (l - i/3 }c

24

2a = (1 - i .J3 )b .... (I + i /3' ) c

i

J

~rll~,WI~t!-~, A~~tJIrJ.li ABCI .... I~JlwJ~-2 II 2a:::: (1 - i)b - (1 .... i)c,,1 2. a == (1- i)b + fll + i)c : wts: ~.l!

t~YI ~~ ABC 1,"JllI -1

0~ ,IJ,!Ui,; Ij!.t ~"i j~,~ ABC

{ .----7 ---t 1C

.. I (BC, AC) '" T [21l;J

, CB=AC

{ <.DC, A.-. ~ .. ) ~ - ~ [2'11:]

CB:;::/lC

{. erg :(C. -a).'. ~ = ft 1[2x]

c·- b 3

Ib-c~=I'c-al

J {

..;1' .

=s (: ~:) .... ; [2~] ~T

Ib-cl:=llc~al

c-a [ 1tJ

-.-.= m,--.

ru. '"3

c -011

c-a [ 1(:J

-= 1 - c -b :' 3

¢} C - ,,= ( ~ + i "7) (c - b)

~ 2c - 2a~ (1 + i.j3) (0- b)

~ 2a = (1 + i v'3 )b + (1 - i ./3 ) c

c.-ft_[ 1C' .. J

~- 1---

c- b "3 _

( 1 ../3J

¢::> c - a=:; 2" - i T (c~ b)

¢::> 2a=(1 -i/3)b+ {1 +i /3}c

iC' t: I I'.~ ~. I' I .. I ._ "'I' r * AB·· I:C "

W~J~.DII.ii..:J J. t~~· <iJ~ ~"., WJ•

,~,L..J I ~L~oJ ,~li ,A_BC ,#.,.1:;1 I .-2

w~ I~! bAA" IJ!~"WI ~,~ A~ ~ljll ~La ABC

'{.. -(Aii- .. ,0-' , -;;""'-C)";;; -; [21t) J1 {<.A.B ' , Aq .. ;. [2It]

AB =AC AB=AC

u-k z" b , a 4JWI ,~I 'L~'~ M,,, B j A ~ ~2

. ,c) l_,:;J II I

~~~ i -_ __"

det (AM j AS)= 2" (z- a) (b ~ a) - {z-a) (b - a») u~~

O 'B- ( 1) A··C··z) 'I ~'II .1, e-. z .<~ I .• - .. ··1"· . ',' 3'

.j' ...."'Z....J .. ' . '., ~ '-"PI' ,- Wo4 . u-" ......... 'O.! ' ~ -- .

,t.."f.""~iiJ.4~ B (b)" A(a)~~~ lal,=lbl=l,J a#b

_.1' ~ "~,., .. P • -. M· (z) .<v:. L,~_ <t:i~ '.~ u!.ll~·'1..J-'" .... - ~ '"""t"" -~~

:M 'E (AB) ~, z + ab z ;;;; a + b

II

~J~ ~ ~t.r;'a lo~ I' ~ 1

r)'J~' ~ M ~" M o~J~~ ,tF.JJ (x \ Y ')J (X; y) U:.1I z ! ~ X j + i Y 1,J z ;;;;;; :x "*' iy L:,-,JJ'

z Z • == (x + iy)(x t - i Y )

= (x x' +- Y Y ') + i (x I Y ~ x y ')

. ---t -----4

detl(OM:, OM')=x v' -x' v.

--i> ~ _

det.(ctd, OM!) ;;:: - 1m (z z ') 1 _ _

Im(zz):;;'2e, (z z' -z z') 1

1 "'" _

=: - 2" i (z z' - z i )

~ ) 1 -_

det (crvL OMI) == 2'm (z i - zz ) ~

¥l:ill ~..,JI~I ~~I ~2- Li.;_~L~~l~, DJ C~~_,:l

---)' .....-4

AB=OD

~ ~

J AM;;::OC

b~ aJ-i D~J zva ~ C~ IU;..:J ~J.I ~ J.J,)'I J ~ I ~j

~ '---t ~ -)

det (AM l AB) ~ dd. (DC, OD)

1 -.~_

="2 i «(z- a)(b -a) - (z -a) (b - a»

~ ~ i

det (AM:, AB ) .~ "2 «(z- a) (b - a) - (z - a) (b ~ a)) u~!

JJ~ I J2:bjll -·j-3

---t -----:--+ i (. (. 1) ( 1 ).). ~JJ

det (OA tOO);;;;;; 2 '. z .z--z-z.. ~

';;;;;; 2i (z,2_-z. 2.)1

. ". Z Z .

~O

Me {AB)

.:liU ,:: ... l-.~q-u

~ ~ .

~.JJ. z l+bJ~I~Jbl; M~

----+ -----4

dei (AM, AD) = 0

(z- a)tJ -a,) - (z- aXb - a) ;::: 0

19

rz-'Ul-wV' ~2

~ DJ C;,II..:i:.b.i:..~ .......

!!Ii. w Wf ~

----+ -) AM=(D

- ~~

,j AB=OC

DJ..JJA Z - ii,j C~.>' b - a ~~ . ~.JJ ~J.,~~ J!t)...JI.~

~----+ 1 --

AM. AD;;;;~ (b - a)(z- a)+ (b -a)(z- ,a))

1 ..:.~ ~-'

== 2 ((z,-a)(b ~ a) + (z -a)(b - an

~ .....---+

Me Cd) <=> CM . AB, = 0

¢:;t. (z -c)(b -a) + (z - c)(lb - a) =-0

1 1

b=l) Ja=-a o1l.u l bl= Lj I,al= I !U:.JJ

. 'M ~ ("'), ( 1 1) --

"'" \L.\ ¢:> (z- c) 'b - a:-I+ .(z,_ c)" (b - a) ~ 0

a- b

,~ :_ -b- (z - c- al'> (i-c):= 0

a:

' .. j~

(J "'

~ z- c -abz,+abc~O

(AB) 1. (CD)

~ ----i'

AB, CD=O ~~

(b - aHc - d) + (b -.aXe - d~ = 0

b- a c-d

~ '-d+~=O

c -_ II) - al

(I b - a I :: 1 d'l)

1

b -a :, -. _ - w~ W::. b-a

(AB) 1. (CD)

cJ L:;J I 'L .t. ":~ I -.,..,

I~ ~

H ibi\ll J.;J h~ r ~ j.:J I .tJ ru I, J ~ II ~H'""".j H vi (AB) ~ ~.~, ,\.!;<~,I Ji ~ c ~JJ' :~..I.IoG.;

(1)

c - abc::: h - a b h

AH

b-a ~_ (b-a) ~

AB

1 (c -a) 11:

~ ar. g.". '.b.'.: ... _ ~..... 2 [21t)

JI

.I~!I ....

"1:.. - 1

I;}-a

11,'. arg !(C - a)= _ x

b -9..' . 2

I ~~~ ~ 1=1

b ,R.

'[21t]1

c - a.

~'--~l

b -3 - ,

....... '1'1' Ln. ,.. - - I hi II"· A • '1 I'. Ii • I ." AB·· C'" ... I

: u u. ,..l ~ ..-.....u;J! Lt-"L...Ii.IiIiI , '~~.j .. V",~..J' I ~UI '.:. uJ •

2a = '( 1 - i) b + (1 + i) c ."i2a = (1 + i) b + (1 - i) c

·25

c~a --·=~i b=a

c-a

6- a- 1

c:',a=ib-ia

~11p.1~r. ~~.-1 ~ltlJl~ M~cJ Mo~,a~I~, (x'.y')., '(X.y)~

Z I = X j + i y' s z:= X + i Y ~J1

z z '= (x + i y)(x ' - i y i) ~

~ (x x I + Y Y ') + i -( - x y · + X ' y)

~]O ~

OM, OM: I = Re(z z ) 0j!

I

=2 (zz' + z z)

(~l + 1) a= i b - Co

2a = i (-1 -i)b- (~l -i)e

¢:> 2a == (1 - i) b ;+,. (1 + i) c

c-a

·-;;;;;-1 ¢:> c~a=-i(b-a) b-a

¢::>' (-1 - it) a;;;;;: - i b - c <=:}. U + i) a =: i b +c

<=> 2a = (1 + i) b + (1 - i) c

* *" * *

M I(Z ') J M (z) l.t'bi;II.)~ .• j.-1

- -~ ----+ 1 - -

OM.OM'I. =T(z:l +zz) ~ .. ~~

M(zJJ B(b)J A(a).b~.H~-2

----+ ~ 1 --

AM. AD == 2 ((z- a) (b - a) + (z -a) (b - a» u1c.~

I a l == I b 1== 1.J a;!!: b ,"~B (b), A (a) Ltib;~,H ~ -1-3

~,~ 0(11 ~. C (c) .).a·jL1,LJ (AB:) vk ~..,~I f:i'LAI CA) ME '(Li) ¢:) z - a, b z = c - a bcu~ ~ I ~ M (z) '~'!''''~ D (d),,J C (cL, B (b),,J A (a) . .bi.:J1 ~ '":'

l a= b 11=lc.-dll=l

(AB) 1. (CD) {:::} (b - a? = - ( d - c ¥ uL~

. .

I a I = I b U a;f bl!";.e-: C (c).J B (b), A (~) l..i;11 ~ ""1!.

(AB) ~ C 4 b'n Il ,(j~ Lbi.!.JJ H

I

.'

AH. ~ ~l ('.1 -I- ..... c .,_. a~b_C)' AD 2' b -.a .

.. ~ .. ~I (J"~

c,

I

20

-ilf "i~

"ita e· - e

pe ~.--~

. -1"1 '1~

e - e

elY = eia ei"l. J~

oU.u,

_--

.iV:i:~ ,e . -e

i1 io:; e "e

. . rEi i(~o:)

~ p e . e

e'- 219 - e.· . .;(. rfl(l\ ..• II -- =" • V".) ,wJ~

[21t] ~

.... ( ... C ..... - a) .... _ (1..- D

aIg-·-- §~

c,· b - 2

.:

,[ 11: ]11 • i ~~La

o~. :t!

~J. i;lI ~wll olL:iJ -2

.. ... ""

~ . ,~I ,u-a :ibi\ M (z) ~

ME (C)

i z -w I~r

II 12 2,

rz vw ~·r

. - 2:

(z- w) (z, - w) == r:

- - 2

(z- w) (z - w) ~ r

• .. .... it

Z z- w z - w z + w w ~ r

*' *' * *

~t .. ,."J...l~ ~I.~ ~(£JLJI ~I

~ r-"~- g

a;#. b " .. ,:% ~ I ,U-a ~ B(b),j A fa) ~

(k>O) MA=k.rvm '~:,L~ M1..i'LI' ~ E J.J.::,..-l IN* ~. ll~ n.J ~,~.;#.~...Iie. ,~.:l.l.Q. &" r ~ -2 ~! U"~ J (z, ., a)D + 8 (z - b);D. ;;;;;; O~IJWII .:u~ ~ 01 V:;-:

- • 1Ij"-~

27

(B) t::.-, - ~J J.J~ -1 ~ -

[t\B]h bi! ~ bLJ.J-' (E)u~ k== 1 W t5: IJ!

k . ~ 1, • ,',' .~. :

y-.Il u . ...,...~

ME (E)

~JJ, ~~ ~ ;fbi, M (.z)~ ¢:$ MA~kh4B

(=? 'Iz-al=k!z-b~ $} l z - a. 12 ;;;;;; k2 ~ Z ~ b ~

21

.h-a

b~ a E IR oi~,

- -

h.-a

::: abo ~b .. a-

1 b:;; b

~

,J a=·_ a

, II b I ::::::: 1 J I a I = l~Y

(2) h + a b h ~a + b ,~i h ~ a == ~ all (h - a) ~ vi ~ w~ li."b (2) oJ U)~L."4l~ t:;'E'O'":'.J 2h~ a+ b To-abc

2(h ga)=b-3+C.,a,bc

* $= * *

arg (:~ :)= erg (: ~-~)

u~Li~1 ~M (z)~ ~4.i,i ~-2

~i . ~i_", . .....L.J.' . ~I_ .. ,_.~"'." 'I;"

,;- ~ r----- J.4.~ ~ ~ (j .. ,~

(r > 0) r If.c.L...J.~ fi{w) u'jS.,ra,~I;;I.il11 (C) ~

W1J~IUA M(z)~L~.uil~.-1-1

M ~ (C) ,<=> :3 ee 1R Z= VI + r [1,9]1

.bil D Cd)." C (c) '" B (b) '" A (a) ~~ Lj! ~1ri'"i-' 'c"'~ 7 .~!i ee) J! lf~

:1 26

[tt]

Me (C)

~.¢~ 4?£i.;~1 ~~J ~1~1

: l.l;,l). ~J ~ UJ.l M (z) ~

~ .Q1vI;;;;;r

<F} Ilz-wl~r

~, 38E IR ~ 38€IR

z - w;;;;;r eiB _ . ·"e ze w+r e"

l:ir ........ 'i I - :( -_ .. T

~lw)J JIj....JI ~ (C)~. iLi;, DJ. CJ B.j Aul w-O_;&i b ;;;:;; w + r eiP" a :: W + r ,eia ~JJ d ~ w + r ell.. J' 'C == W + rerr

~i;' .:io ... d.,li:;.1 ,~ lJ· ~.j (X < .. ~

. :i.y .]0:

C _ it r (e~ ,e )

c • b:=:' ll' il~ . , r (e - e )

I

_--

~ ~

(0 ~ i. i j) ,"h-G\IV.J.4~ rJa.l ~ I ej',ibJ I ~I ~

~I ~ M ,iIl .. ;n11 J=J ZM ~J4 j.t.,jl, bOU ~,..,,) -: 1;.1..1l L,~li.. •. ;~lJ.,l tit,.. P,., N., M J ~ ABC ,~ ~'l,:aIl ~[ACL [BeL [AB] ~ ABC c=AB,J b-AC" a~BCe~

c b·

z., = -. -_ '7'_ + - zo.' ~~~-1 --u'\iI c+ b -,,; c + b ,e'

ABC oru.'4 i1.bJl.~';IJJ' ~.)A' n u4'-2

1 •

z; = b. (azA···. + Ib zB + c.zd' ul ~

-u,a+ +c t •

OilS: IJ! ~ l,jl t),Ii....Gy~ ~~ ABC o.till 01 ~ -3

,

28

--) ).........,.., ~ ___" ~

OA+OB+OC ='~+ON +OP

~Jil ~L....:aI~~11 -I A

BN c CN~"b

BN AD CN~ PC

b

BC=cBN +BN ~!l BC=BN +NC~1~,

C

zH = Zg :::: b ;: c (lc = zD) ~

c b

~ = b + c Zc + b + C zB ~1

-,

~~I ~L..alt.1 Q~I --2

---:t An ----+

All;:::; -. AN ~. g, ~ [AN] ~.JJ

AN ..

A .

,0!-i ANC~I ~ C ~~J1I ~IJlI, , ....... 11'"'" (Cn) wi ~

CN i An CA

ON; cA AQ ''1 Nn- eN

CA+CN

AN ;;: CA Ail w!iAN := AQ + aN u1 lw.-J

22

' .. ---.' 2· .. --

~ (z - a) ( z - a) == t~ ( z - b X z- b ) .

~ (1 - k2) l z (2 - ( a = ]c2 b ) z - (a - k2 b) z + I a 12 ,- liZ I b 12 ~ 0

-2 a-k b

ct=~-

..

~

,J

r::;;:-,··- ----

1 - k'-

M 'E (E) ~ II z r - a z - a z - r = 0

-

~ (z ~ (1.)( z = a) = II z 12 - a z - (i z: + ! a 12 ~.lIJ

M E' (E) ¢;:} (z - ci) (z - a) - II a 12 ~ r =: 0

~ Iz~·aI12·=10'..12+r

hi 12 _ k2 ~ b 12 1 - II?

~J.I

..

,. ".1' j,:11 , O!. j,~ _I' ~.~ I: .~I Q. " .. :c:'O:; ""I wJ ~~ - ~.. .~

'- ... "" . . -

Me (E)

.... 2_( .. ·k.l. a-b. 1).2

OM: - - I

. t - k2 !

kl a,= b II

fiM= .

11- tz I

k

OM::: AD

11- k2'1

. 4.:..J.;lf aJJ~1 ,~ ~ -2

r(z -al +s (z- b)" == OiIJWIJj~~~ (F)~ ~,.lI. z¢bJ z'¢a~.~j~(bi; M(z)~

Me (F)

{::} r (z- at::: -s (z - b)n

~ \ (.z-.a) .... ~ =_~

'z-b 'f

~,

ME (F) =>

MA :MB .... =k

11 .

[AB] ~iH bu~~' (F) (j.~ II s ~ = I r I ~i k:;: 1 ~I!i IJ! <I£L...!.~ n (a) lajS:jQ ~I ,;.1,.111 ~,(y,,;~,; (F) o!-i I s I * I r I 015: Ij!

~ k AB

III ~ k21

* * * *

29

11

L Ck cos (9 + ka) -I = 0

n

11: ;;:·0

IN* ~.~ nJ~I~'i:i .... wt .. ~ uJ Q I~';_'"

'i II

'\r;fx E IR

: ~..I.I.{O, .. ",n} ~ I~ ki.4

i (9 -+ ku)- i (9 +- k O!)

(8 - e + ,e

cos :' + k a.) =: 2

1.1 c i'e ikoc .' H) - ita

;;;::. 2. \e e + e . e )

.Il . 1:11 , .. , ,.n '.' ,.

~ .. ,~ co. g (0 +. ~I ...... ) ):: == "" ,ek 1 e~] kat ~ 1. ~ ,nk. ,_ ,_-je_~ l.k 0;, k

6 ~l - -" . 0' lb.\);,:Z; "'T f:o . nee Z + 2 ~ ""n e e z

n D

_ 1 i e "" .-.k j ()! k C".k 1 . i 1:1 "" ~.!X k 1::. - -2. e ~. l..- (e ) z + --.' e k c- re ) z- I

n 2 n

k~ k~·

n n

'" -* .. -. (._i Q!)k k _ . in 0: '" C. k ( .- i <X )n-k k

k"-ne z=e ~ne Z

k~ ~O·

i [IJ 0: ( • j 0: )l'l

;:;:: e,e + z·

n. n

2: 'C; (e" i~k i- := e" in ,ex L C! (~i)i1=kl

k;;j) k",O '-

- inG I. ... ilX ·).n

~ e ,e + z.

n

"" Ck: n k i e ~ {!'.. .-. - i 9 - i a " -

~nOOS(o+b.l)Z~ =0 ¢;:} ~. (1 +e zf'+e (l+e Z)u=o

lc,;O

HI.. ]0:; noia. .-iO:(I

e, (1 + e z) = ~ e (1 + e z)

n

~ . ..-J.<- k is n - i€l n

k l..n. cos (9 + ku) z == 0 <==> e (1 + z) == - e -(1 -l- Z;J

k..o -' .

(::). (i + ~n ~ 0 ~ z=-l

{!.lI1 [: ~ I'~)l.:.. ~ ~~ I U.lI ... JJ u~ (k ,€ 2') U '= k1t ~I~ Ij! wj! -1 JA

(k E ~ ct;idacuiS: Ij!

~

<ll.u

n

L C: 003 {S' -+ ka)zk ~ 0 ~O

( JII.

1 + ei Ct.. ZI.· _ _ U€I

. . - - e

- - 'i 0:

1 + e Z

( fi

j Ct .

l' + .,e z .J .. _ ." i(2l1 -$) -e

- i tx

1 +,e z

e-~(2e-n:) • _ .. 11 . ,~',: ,.\11 .. _ ", ._ .1 ,I" . __ .. '

.... .u.JoI~.".... ~ ""Il~ 1 ,J ••• T J Z-2J

23

ac BN=--b+c

An b

A.N-b+ eN ~

b

J eN = -- BN ll..JJ.j c

An b

AN=ab

-- b + I~~- ~

b+c

b+c - a+ b+c

---+ b + C ---:\i

Ml- AN vJ~

, .=EE a + b + c'_ _- ~

b+c

zn- z'A' =: b (z".,~ »»

-- a+- -+ c ~"

c b

i!~1 1N ~ b + c 1c +. c + b ze

1

Zo= . b .• (az, + b l--, + c.z~)

_. a++c .n, ~ C'

--+ ---+ ----+ ----. ---+ ~

tsi~ OA+OB+OC= OM+ON+OP

ZA + zB + Zc :::::: zM + ~ + zp

U.i~t~':I' ~~ABC~1 ~W1~A(2 1.1t1!J zA +Zs +Zc=~+zN+zP

(*) (ZM - zAY + (~' - IB) + (Zp - Zc):= 0Lri,~I~l

c

~ - Z-B = b -+ ,c~e _ 1.8) G:JI

b

ZM - 'ZA == a + b {ZB -z.J w i ~ .J~.JU . .l.J

:' J'II L.J ' ..

a

Zp- Zc;;;; a + ,c (ZA ~zc> "

II> c a

(*) $$ .~ (ZB - ZiJ + --- - I(zC - Zs) + _- (ZA - Zd = 0

a + b - b + C , ·a + c '-

b-)o c~ a--)

~ . b. AB + b-:---. '. Be + --'- CA == 0

a+ I +·c a+·c

(' be)" ~ .(. c a. ')~ ~

~ ----. _, AB+ .--'_' -- .AC=O

a+b b s- c 'b+c. a+c···

b c

.a+b=b+c· ca b+c==a+c:

2

C ;;;;;; alb

b2 ~ oc: a=b;;;;;c

~ {

~~~......---j;~~

OA+ OB+OC;; Cfd+ON +OP'

II. . n

L ct e- it a.l ~ e~ in 0; 2 ck (e i u),n-k: zk

k::;()' k;;;O - n

= i in a (eia + Z)R

(1 - j a;, \n

= + e ZJ

n

" AI.· . 1

£r !i...,~- SID -(9 + kot) .c = -.-.' e~e {1 + i IX zf _ -=-.' e~i e (1 + -i 'ct -.n. " ~,

k",,() n . 2.1 . . 2i . '. e z)

n

L C'n sm (9+ ka). i" = ° ............ ei€i' (1 + i ct )H - . -:i.e (1 -i « "\P." .' ',1

............. .' e z' = e . ' + e 'I.) U"'~

:k:=O

-] _;.6 ~.lll 0:: ~ l~j')6.~ ~jii!l alJW,I' iJ!-i (k E 2) a = k:Jt iJts: 'jll

~

w~Li (k E 2) et.;t; k1t W ts: Ij I

..

" I 0':

1 +e Z

3 ke {D, .. '" n-I}

3 k E {O, ... , n-L]

-2. i ct

e -z

k

2k:n; in

i.-

e II

V' k E {O, ... " • n-l}

{ z -1

SI .](l =-t

:::::: e ,'-~~- I

~ 2. i ex

e ~ Zk

k e ro, ... ,n-II}

11k E {O, ., .. , n-L]

- ,

2kn: 2H

1- 1.,-

Z.,,:= e n e. n

... .:~.';!-"'"

~~I '1l.6 ~ :L:...Jiill d:J'JWI ~ ~ : ~~

d]j!:J .... ,~L.JI ,·4.I.· . .,."7~1 ... ~.·b.)"iiJI .{1JLil. L .... I_ JI .. L· ... n 11,.

....,,-; ...-.;;~' ~ . . I.LL. ~ .~l.!o

M . ,- ~

stn (9 + klO!.) = cos (~- = €I - ka) wi ~

* * * *

24

V'k E {O, ,,+ .. ~ n-l}

~~

i~

II :r,. = e

" (. 2e .- n.)

-1 -

n '. .e

[I

~ rk. . III . k ) k 0 ~ '1"1 {OS • .,_ (;J + a z ;;;;;

k",(1

¢:::> 3 k E {O~ ,.,~, n-t l

i 'CD:

1 -I- e z

... 'I"

-1 a ""'):

1 + e z

~ ::3 k E to •. ,'. n-O

<=> :3 k e;; {O, ...• n-l}

{. z. - 1 }

_ 1(;( -x -

S ~ e . . . ,. . I k € {" Ot ... , n -1 } r

2ux

e -z

. k

'It k E;; to"~ .. q n-l}

*" * *- *'

30

n

~ c: sin(9+tu).t'=O

k .. :O

il I

I

~;JJ. {O~, "., n} ~,'I.)'A~i€'. k W sin (9 +kCi)= ;i (ei(e+k~) ~ e-i(~+kct»

_ 1 (i a . ikce - HI _ " i ku

- 2---:-e e - e . e ).

.il '

n n

~ -J:.' i k a _k _ . i n 0': ~' C. I;: ( - i a n-k k

."-'Cne z =,e, ~'!l e ) z

k~ bO

_ ._i !Hi {" ." if1.. 'In

~ e \e +- Zl

'I I



- ~ ,

JI .". \.t t .,. .• ~ - I~ -. t I'U 2·:.·· •.....

J- ,JL l ~ 4.&:.~0'7' c ~ .L:, ~ [ ( '1"'" r=; ,

'l~ ~ ~_ .. ~ __ ~~ ~~ __ ~j

n ~~J~ di-i'~ f , (.~ .. ill' d.rl!Li fi..':ll d~i/:.1~ ~WI "~ J1tf_tO'l'f dJ;.tll ~I..;l' -

- I.;; - ~ ~" • ".. •.. W dLJ. II oj ', .. d -\.C. ~ I ~

~ oM- .... v

- (GAUSS) ~fi w~ _.

(Bezout) "~.u.Ji dlA- ~ -

~ -JT~'

~~-6 ?--~. ,~J~ t .~ ,.;.JJ , - tJ..o CJ ~ ~ t....111 ~. - ~JtI'1I' J LolL ~ 1-

... v

-, -

~lj1 Jo'JoC- ~ ,I~ ~! J~ ,.jl.!~i) ~ .,£> '-i J d..;"i.& t 1.1 ~ LA t tJ fi.t.J, d.); Lt~l r ~ liJ ~ J..:.J.-=>:;

. H ~ t., .•

~I C,nn' ~

..

25

~ Jok. (x ~ y) + (x -I- Y)wli (x - y) + (x + y);;;;; 2x.:,t L.u WI~Jj ~I..~~ X + Y,J x = y tiu 404 .J~ u~J) w~l:i x + y,J x - y ,~.ll

404 JJ.LlJ ~~ I r-w 1_,iII ==2

404 J~ ~.J.JIII Fl,lIl 0!i ~~_,.i, ",.1& lOl ~J 4 404 =: 22 . 101 ~..J: 4 " 101,,J 2. UH.j 22__, 2~, IN ~ 404" 202J 4,j 2 :,~ IN ~ 404 JJ.d ~d;)Ij ~1,_,iJj ,oj,!

~.;1l ~ 4.J'J W I ,~ -3

~foU ~JlLJ)6. (x , y) ~' * tlJ.JJ ~luJ II.-.,jllt. .,.J II ~#i'-""

......... ,~ ~~' ..

{," x -v = 4 x+ s= 101

{ x-'y=;2

t. x+ y= 202

(y>00Y) x+y>x-y t.J1~lli,~



,jl

{X:; 102 ot:a..u

y~ ~OO

INl ,~ ~ ~ y ~Il:il ,I .( ,,1;1,11 W 1 ~ (102P - (100)2 ~ 404 ~1 ~ *

~I I, 1'1 '. L L "" "' *

~ 'I,JI J ~ !! J,A. UJ""'"'" ~.J l' 7'-~ u"". .

s :;;;. {(102~100)}

:+: * * *

,Llb.l ilU I ,q JN2 .', I ,- .

...- - _.J~ -, ~ !.Jo="

x.l - 3, y2 - 2xy - 21 =: 0

~jiJJ I ~J W.I, J;.

~JJ. IN~'Le~ y" X~

xl - 3 y2 - 2xy ~ xl - 2xy ~, 3y2 = (X - y)2 - 4y2

:.. (X - Y - 2y)( x - Y + 2y) = (X - 3y}{x -I-- y)

2 '3 2 2" 21 0 ....... ( 3' "')' (x ... - ') 21 . I

X - . y ~ xy~' ' ,=' __ ,x- y x- y , :::::: _;_, w . .J.!

K - 3Y.J' X + Y 0~ (]J~U 1Il,.!)G,., (x , Y) i)lS: Ilj,~ ~, (x - 3y}(x + y):; 21,J x = 2y < x + y ~j '-ll, 21 .J~ 0~Li ; ;'.~ ,:tj'J,t,.J.loL 1)1..;... (x , 'y) uts:: I~ I: ~u.

~i!i ~ -" ..

{ x-3y ~3 I. x.+y~7

{" x -3y = I x + y= 21

,{ x :::::6

y=.l

"~ {I x, = 16 ~i

"', , y = 5

Xl ~ 3f ~ 2xy - 21 ~ () u!-i. (x y):: (16 ,5) il~ 1.11 x2 - 3y2 - 2xy - 21 = 0 w;l-i (x , y) ~ (6, 1) ~IS: U.l ~. ~Jw. ~ liLt. J,b.. ~ i;l!

S = {(6 • 1) ~ (16 • 5H

, I

"

.b>O~ Z,~0:~ bJ ,a,c4 b ~a J...._.jJ ~'-~y II ~, ~IL;.. ~ ql b,~ 2a J~ ~)J j i'~ I .clg,HJ,U t::.;1L;;...;.Jo .(12

2b u-k. 2a + b JJ.tJJ ~~-..i I .~, [.,J~ ~ q3 q2~·ql +q3 ul~

1

- ,-:~tll - ,~ -~ j,*, II ~'I

~..,..-.' .~~, ~~

w~ ~. Z,II"~J.!lljj11 ~j i,~I.i,J~4

o ~ r1 <b.~ a=bql +r1

o S; [2 < b ~*;:'a- 2a == b q2 + r2;

o ~ f3 <: 2b oJ.... 2a + b =: 2b q3+ r3

bqz + 11'2 = 2 (bqh + II) b 'h + 1'2:::: b (2ql) + 2 fl

.. 'I uJ"

(1)

2b 'Q3 + 1] ~ 2 (bq, +- ll) +- b 2bq3 +[3:::::2bql + 2rl +b

"

~I

(2)

o s: 2 fl < 2b ~ 0 S 1"1 -c b ~J1 b $;2rl -e 2b ,,1 O:;;;2x1 -c b {ii O;S;·2 1'1 < b : .):J~q ,4,JWI

q2. = 2 ql r~(l) ~~'.0~~~JL..wl.II~41~!i:,)·:··H cj1 ~ rjt:_y.u:i (2) ~!Lw:tlll &~l.i 0 < r3 < 2b.J 0 S 2fl +- b <: 2b u~ ~ 'ql=Q3, q2 = 2ql.J ql =q3~j~

ql +q3=<b ~ o ::; 21'1 - b <: b (ji b:S 2Fl <.2b : ~etl ~bJl

bq2 + ri ~ b (2ql+ 1) + 2rl -b ~~ (i) ~~il q2~2ql + l·~ 2b qs + r3 :;: 2b (ql + 1) + 2 [1 - 10 ttI~ (2) ~L.~.U 'b == ql + I '~,J ql + {:lJ3 == 2ql + l ._:,Jl :;;;;qz

qI + q3 == q2 'li:JJ ~ l:J'1 I.:iK ~ : b~

* *" * *

;(2_ y2=404 ~.,iW' IN2 vi# ~.JIL.lI.ltJ.;.:.., (X! Y)W-1 404 J.~.Ui ~~,uLt..J""1..i x - y.,J x + y wi ({H' IN ~ 404 J~ ~J,jJ II .~iljiJi II J..\;;;. -2 ~.;.a.u (J,JW.II ~ ~3

2

404,j~ w~ 0Lw.ull-l

(x - y)(x + y).::;; 404 ~1 Xl - y'l. == 404 ~~ 404 J~ u~ti x + Y J X - Y ~. rp-i;..lo.k (x - y)(x + Y} 0!i (x - y)(x + y);;;;; 404 01 ~

26

n (n4 - 1) = 0 [5] (£i n + 1 - 0

..

[5] 0~li n == 4 [5] 0iS III ~

. .

n (n" - 1) = 0- [5] 0.Jl

'\tn E IN

\inelN

[27]

Uo"" 1 u~ un ~ 1 [27] L,:yJj.. !111 ~ O~, ~. u1H1 = ~ [27]'01 ~~ Ua = 1 [27] ul u-a~. IN ~ I~~ n,~.

u[}+l == 9 {n +- 1)2 ~ 6 (n + 1) + (_2)11+1 ~,JJ

== 9 n2 + 18 n + 9 - 60 - 6 - 2 (~2)n

= 9 n2 + 12 n + 3 - 2 (_2)DJ

(-2)11= ull- (9nZ - 60) ~~ t1n ~ 9nl - on + (-2f ~JJ

llu+l :: 9 n2 ... 12 u + 3 ~ 2 uti + 18 ~2 - 12 n = -2 t1n + 27 n2 + 3

[27] 01 lw.,.,

-2 u[}+ 3 == 1 1[27] ~1

Urn+1 = 1. [27] u!-i 27 n2 ~ 0 [27] c:.,1lu.,.,

'lr./oe IN

* * *' *

'Z~ ~,~ OJ a ~ ,-1 uts: til bih il! .Z~)6~. x2 + ax +- b =: 0 (JJWI ~i ~ )lollS ~,,)'4 l...~ n ... 1/112 - 2n + 3 .... i~Ob! n ~r!!!:'11 JIJ,e.YI fl;1~;_!'JI -2

6

tjilll jil~1 Q~I -1

.z ,~~ ~ x.2 + ax. + b = 0 tI.J6..U 01 u6~ IR ~ ~~~ J:J:lx1 J J..J II lolA Xo ~

xl E Z u~ Xo€:: Z.,J a e if i;li ~ XD + xl=~a~.il "",iJiJ,W, ~ b.J.J, ~ wJ.,i, x'o x] = but ~ .&= a,2 -4b

-'(x +X)2 4:

---1 -cO _. Xo Xl

= (Xl - Xo'?

~ ~ J~ f:jJA .6. cj,t-Q xl ~ Xo E Z w1~J ~IS '~.' .j"> i.lJWI6.1.a. jc!_~j). : • .11

iI.;...~. ,.;, ~ "-

(3 a E IN I a2 - 4b = a2'J1) ~lS ~J4 (J,.d.al~ .o,j_j, j~4 01 ~fo *

-a+.(l -a.-(:(.

x'] == 2 J xQ;:;;: 2 - w m vliJ.JWllI,.lA j.::.

4!l..u 4b = (a ~ ,a.)(a + a) tSi a2 - 4b == (1,1, ~JJ

- -

a+ot=O [2].,J1 a-a=O [2] ~i (a~(t){a+a) == 0 [2]

I~ w~,J.;iJ'~ L...:. u~Jj uLt~ sJ a <ti...a_J

)

27

1N~ I"p_~n~ Ion (9n·~ 1) + I ~c_~ 9 ~~ ~=1 7n+2 - 7fi ,~ 3 w"i ~ -2 I

[9] ~j

~ 9!l -1= -I [9] ~.1b Ion (9n-' 1) = -1 [9]

10[1 (9n - 1) + 1 == {} [9]!wJ!

Ion (9n ~ 1) + 1 ,J"J..JII ~ ,~i;? 9 ,~i~ ~14;J

3 J,J.JJ~ ~ 7n+2 - 7n J..J.IlI dA_, .. i~~ tJ..li -2

4l.u 7:; 1 ~3] ~Jl

7ft ~ 1 [3].1' 711+2 =: 1 [3]

:;: * * *

5

'VUE IN Voe IN V'nEIN

32n _ 2n = 0 n (n4 - 1) == 0

2: .'. .' ]i':"'_

9n - 6n + -(~2) -= 1

1£7]! 1
-
1[5] 2
_.
(27] -3 ~~'.lN ~ I~ n tAJ

32n ::: 9n ,#1 32n ;;:;;; ('32)11.

[1] v!l 9,= 2

n (04_ 1) ~ n (nl - 1)(112 + 1)

=:= n. (n - l)(n + 1)(112 + I)

n(n4- 1) =0 n (04 - 1) ==0 :[5] ~~ n -1= {II

[5] oU n-O

,.

[5] wlS U!~· [5] oLS: ~J! -

[5] ,'.#i n .~ l

n2 + 1 5: 0 [5] i.,-i ~ n2 = 4 [5] w}.J n:: 2 [5] ~IS ~.J! - n (n4 -1) == 0 [5] ~ n2 + 1 == 0 [5] {51 n2 = 9 [5], w,}i n == 3 i[SlulS I.l! - n (n4 ,-1)=0 [5] ~

r254

[7]I"iI r2 = 1

1[7],,1 r2 = 0

1[7] '.:11

u.

r2. == 1 . £7LJ.i

r2 ;; 4 [7] J1 r2 ~ 2 [7].11 r2 = 1 "[7] . .11 xl"", 0 [7] ~

~I Jl if~ 7 ~ x2 J~ ~~~I (,~,,.,i.111 ~4 ~ii..j_~ Ila.J {0,1,2,4 }

,*-~ a2~k [7] 2 ". ·[7.".·]

l'~~ a == k'

k E (O,l,2,4)-

k i {O"·1 2" iii}·

E .~. , ","it

'7 I" ",2+b·2 .. ~II- '~"!!'~~j'! e:'~1 ·-.1 • -d ~I-III L.,tl I .. ~-: ~

. ~ U. i' ,J.J.IW~~.I.·~.~~~ol:!o..i!IV'~.w~~.

~ J :1 I
I I
.. 0 I 1 2 4
! I
-
0 o 1 2 4
1 ill 2 :3 s
-
2 2 3 4 6
I I
4 4 5 6 ; 1 o ~4 . 7 ~ a2 -+ IJ2 JJ.l1I ~~~.~ ~c,,"'-l~"i11 ~4 01 J;~ I ~ ~ 1b.~ .~~ 7 ~. a2 J~ .i:~~ j ·i_A ,-,!il' 1~4 ~ ~..w:. ~ i.~ Lt a11L:,. ~ ~. .,O~~ 7.~ b2..t~~I~~O a2 + b2 "_ 0 [7]:} a2 = 0 1[7],j b2 == 0 [7]~]

~l· 71b· 2

.." ..... "-

. u!i {j,hil J~ 7 w~ ~.J 7th

:=:} 11a

,J

* *' * *

x2 + x + 2.= 0 4J,JWJ Zl4Z ~ J:... -1

16..,2 -:-8" ·-3 - iii "II ,I . '1'1 7Jr7 1'7/ . L ·2·

.... A -.. A = - V .OYJI~ .,1 I .. 0. v" ~. -~

8

~!.J"i I ;U •. d.~ I Jb -1

i.JI,.lWI Ji.,_. ~II ~~4 ~-Jlj Zl4Z~1 "~~Jw:..l.I~r.JiJ ~tiIj J,~~~,lj lltl"

x

2

" I

1

00

2

3

2

-

6~uIJ~ - a + Ct.", - a - a c:,l!

Xl e· 7t,J No e Z~,J 2 ~ ~ ~b;ii.lI ~J6.l1 wi ~ 1.lJ,j

G. I.,.; I ,,"J 'I -2

n +1/n2, - 2n + 3 '*-'P'! IN ~ (~ n ~ ... IN· k c, ~ .... ~ UP.,!· '.(,)04. .~ ~"!J

111.2 - 2n + 3 = k (0 + 1)

.02 - (2 + k)n + 3 - k == 0 ~1 :!" ~)l..,_.~. Xl - (2 + k)X + 3 - k= 0 i!JJldl oi ~ I~ .~~ ~J4 y,Jt","o.J.,ji" ,Jlj..uJ'1' ~ 4.l!8 3 - k E 7l.J 2 + k E Z 0.1 1L....,_t

3' Ct-e IN (2 + k)2 - 4 (3 - k) == 0:2 (j'.

(2 + k; - 4(3~ k) == k2 + 4k - 8 + 4k ~JJ

=(k:+4}2_24

(2 + k)2 ~ 4(3 - k)= a2 {::} (k"*" 4)2 - 24;= 07 ~

<=> (k+4P ~ 0.2 ~ 24

<=> {k+4-a)(k+4+a)=24 24 J~ ~1_U_'jl.i k + (t + 4.J k - a + 4 .~,j!

w~.J:) u IJJ.L k + 4 + a _j k + 4 - 0. ~.J~ I t~ ~ ,I~ 01 Lu,j. u~ ulJ~ k+ ct + 4·.J k+ 4 - ex ~~ 24 ,jJd U ~J:j u LG.U.lI.i k + a +4 j k +4 - ex '''-4:9 (k + 4 - ex) (k + 4 + a) = 24 .s k + 4 - (t .::; k + 4- + a u i i-;,J u!-i

!

, ,

{ k+4·-a.=4 k+4+a=6

{ k+4=ct=2

JiJ ...• . ..

k + 4 + ct;::;:;. 12

I

I

,

I

I

~.

02 - 3n + 2 :;; 0 -Ji n2._ 5n == 0 iJl! n ~ {O~i, 2, 5} 4.l.u ~. &.1-8 ~j U~I JL""':: 5J 2., 1 J Ou~ .,lLl.C.~11 ~ J.i ... ~1'1 J.L>~ c.sA n+ 1 fn2 - 20. + 3 ~ n _d.,_r .. ...J1 ~ti2!bll JI.kYI

'"

S ~{O, 1,2, 5}

* * * *

7

z: ...... ~J"~'¢. x .. c .1-1

Ii ~" .. ~

ro',1,.2,.41 j! 41"'i~ 7 ~. x-':iJ..JJ ~~jl i.a..u.iJ1 ~4·u1 ~

wlA 7L ~ b", a;fi.: ~~i ~-2 ~ tfa .J 71b



7 u-k x2 J,J.Jj ~J:li~ j ~_~r 'Lij ~ ~ 4 -1

7. L 1",,- x J..l.LII ~.:uli ~ I ~' I " . .A . .": l! r '~.I

,r,r- '"'""" ~. ~

",2 := 1'2 [7] <W..u x ~ r [7]1 LL.lJ u~ r is {O~1,2~3A,5.,6} e"'i~,, r2 E {OtlAt9,16,25t36}

28

.$;:)

- -=

3 (x - 2)~ 0

x=2

~

x~2

y:::::3

:t:: * * *

10

a A b = 1 J a/c,j b/e abzc 0,j ~ 2'*~.~~ x,~~2 c~ x tx + l)(x +2)(x +3)(x 4" 4)~

c ~""'_"i: 12.0 w"1" ~

C J.;WJ rwt:i ab J.aH -1

~ ale . .J b/e ~JJ ~ E :E~ J a E Z* '*',;"" c= ~b .j c == eta a/Pb ~. tta;; ~b u.ll

. . ~

AIR I • ."1 ~<:,,-. "I~ b }- ·'1

W]J 1..:1.:1,,;1.1 ~J"> ~ ~bVc"""" <Jl.l.1~ a. A .. =. :·,1 ~ ~

¥ ., ~ • it-" 'I;.#' .~J

(k E Z*) ~ ~ ka w':d

~

-;:· ... L": -.2 ~

15 A 8 = 1 J' m 20 ::;;;: 15 x 8 ~..u .c~, IS uU C ,"!cc'=~ 8 ,~~ ~ wiCJg(.: c ,'b+"_~ 120 wi G,4J~<u~lJJ ~

c J.1All ~Il 8 J~~

~,j U ~J,) 0 ~J~ X + ~ x + 2ul-i ~ x 0l$; Ij! -

x (x + 2){x + 4)= () [8]1

C - 0 1[8] (;:1 x (x + l)(x -I- 2)(x + 3)(x + 4) := O· [8]·~

..

x ~ 7 [8L,T x:: 5 [8l.J1 x::;: 3 ![8LJf x.:: 1 [8]i ~ X -I:- 3;;:: 4 [8] J x + 1 = 2; [8] w~lj x ~ 1 [8] ~IS: lij~ (x + l)(x+ 3) ~ 0 [8] 8/ct;g1 c = 0 [8]; u,j~

- ~

.w..u x + :3 - 6 [8] J x + I ::;; 4 [8] w~ x == 3 [8] ~,~. l:l! (x +. l)(x +- 3):~ 0 [8] ~[ (x + l){x + 3) =: 24 i[8] 8/c L'il c = 0 [8]u~ I

~ - ~

x + 3 = 0 [:8] ~i x + 3 ~ 8 [8] uP x= 5 [8LJ'~ Ij!

8Jc (:>,1 c;;.. 0 [8] u.J j

~ - ~

x ... 1= 0 [8] ~1 x + 1= 8[8] .~~Li x--7 [8] i;!LS: 1.)1

• • II ~~ - . '11'dU • I e , - ~ II '·1 • ~ I· . " ..• _ ~ .. , 1 s _. "11 L_ ...•• I .·1 1 ~L._ _ I.~ ... ,,1 =- ' .. ; . ...,.. .. I· - ,d,

.c.J.j, O~ u.:lJlllr iJ ~- U'~~' V!.A ~ .... UJI~ ~ ~-.:o..J'-I

.~.;IW.I

S ... { I , 2,} ~ ;U.Jl~l~ ~~. J.,.b. ~~. 011 f· O'i •• d.LU u,.. t,_,lJ1 IlA J..,.b.. .l:!,,J,,::,J J.lc, Wl.,.g L.:!IIJ ~).J I.~~~ ; .~

111;Hc.J J~ (~ .. ~4 r~~ ,~ ,~'II ~~j ~.) ~ a1~.~!1 ~.j L_ ,ILT. Lfih!iil:1 ·i~'Y11 .. - I '. .. ,~~ L .1.1 L • .iJJ (.L, -lIll~l!Il iJ.;I WJ ~ ~ )Il.~

. . -u ,~ IJ". f.!""J"" "'t;,'-'., .J ~ ~

~ru ItlJ 611; ~ -2·

1L1;J1 7£ 1717£ ~. ,~ x ~

~ ~

H5 x2~ 8 x - 3 :::; 41 xl - 2. 4 x ~ 3

~ ( 4 x? - 2 ( 4- x) + 1 - 4, ==(4x.-l¥--4

...... ~- _,

;:;;; ( 4 x - 3)( 4 x + ill) ,

u~ JJ~ J.J;::, 7l 01 ~.J

- -

16 xl - g x - 3 ;;;;;: 0 ~ 4 x - 3 == 0 J~ 4 x + 1 ~ 0

h> 4x=3

4x=3 ~ 4x .... 74

'¢:} 4· x = 2 , 37

.Ji 4x=-1

¢:} 4 x = 2 (- 34)

.- ~

¢::} 4 x= -4. 17

~4(x + m'i)==O ~ x=-17

4x==-1

-

{=} 4 x == -72

~ 4x:::::;-4.18

<=> 4" (x + ~ 8) == 0

¢::} x= - 18

~ 4J J W.II b.l.A J".L:.. ie.~ 0.J I S ~ {:r7 , - 18 }

* * * *"

9

{3;;:t

bjliJ. I ;j~n l;;J I ,~ -I

~~. ZI5.Zi>A~~ Y,J x~ <::>. {3 x + .. Y (~.y) ~ 4'xy

x y"".l

¢:::} {x .(.3.- +y_2 ~ 4 Yf ;= 0 . xy~T

~ y2 -4 y + 3 = (y - r )(y - '3) ~.il

{ x ... (y ..•.. -I)(y - 3) ... 0

xy .... l -

{x. .= .. -. '0 _ .. ' {I y ..... ~.. I

. ,.... JilL _ __ "'"7

xy = 1 . xy == I

{ .•.. y='1,(y:3_ x~r J \ -3x"""1

y='3 xy~l

29

1. ~;' ~) E S

. 12 l\ 12 = 1

(x , Y) E {(312,300L (120j 84)}

,cr ~ "L; .11 b.:u. J;.6.. kJ@_~ .:. ~,j!

S I;::; {(312 • 3(0) j (120, 84)}

* * * *

nlm2 ,t.:,: IN ,CJ.4 ~~ mj n ~ d = 11 Am C;'-~ -1

d .s , n .~ ... -i 12_'_'

-- ~ -d 1.)' Q.-:

n/d2 • i~;~ c I -,..; ,

--w~ -. II

3a E IN rllln 01 ~ -2 I,

d J.a1t ~li -1-1

ct. /\ ~ == 1 ",,,,~ n :::~d -.J m = ad ~ d ~ n A ill I~Jl'

(k E IN) m2 = tn, o!A nim2 ~ i 4""

«2 d == ik~t; i 0;2 &~, ;;;;; k~d ~,

aIt. r,j~ a A ~ :;; 1 W 1 ~J' aJk~u,J,!

(a E IN) k ;;;;;; aD. ~ i

ad = afJ ~1 ell d == aa~ ~, ~/d olJ. a A ~,= 1 01 !-..,;, P/ad ,u.1! 'm:1:. n 01 l.:...Rt. d ,""L!~' nd..... ,~.,_J ;1;1 ~ d

- . n III

dr_cc,_".,! ell' iJ"l k e IN ~ d ::= k . d lL.lI

nJd2 :.,j~. d2 ~ kn~:~a

,~ . ~

(n~, du'i)

n

irE IN ,J

(ft)

l d l.:uoll'

n = ,ai- .. -

d...uL . ~_w':l (k E IN) ~.. d -

n~ (-:J

n

d ;:: k '. d ~J1_,

* * *' *

xIl.ly[l ~ xJy

·'·I~.·."'·'" 1~-2 r.J '.::. --

, i

IN*~{l} ~I~ n~ aR/pn" a A ~:: I ~~ ... : 2* ~~~ ~;,J au4-1 I (to I == 10i ~

I, 1113

8/c ~I c ~ 0 [8], 0j! c~ 8 oj6JI~~(j~y1l:iJLu-

C J,~' ~li 15 JJAJ,~

3 A 5 ;;;;;; 1 " 15;;;;;; 3 x 5 ~.1l . cr' "'i;! 5 iJ L, c rd-",i~ 3 ~ j ~ c,j'1 ~fAS:! 4d!l Ji~ I ,J 1,j...,J II ~j

~ X == 2 [3] j1 x == 1 £31"i x ~ 0 [3]~.J *

x + 1 = () [3],,Jl x + 2 ~- 0 [3] .Jl x = 0 [3] c ~O [3] ~ x (x + 2)(x + 1)=0 [[3] uj!

.. 3' ", '

c r"" 'LA;! ,LJ' ~

x = 3 [5] ",i x = 2 1[5L,i x == 1 [5] J"j x :::;; 0 [5]~.11 * :~.J X ~ 4 [5].Ji x + 2= 0 (5]1.,,1 x + :3 == 0 [5]) x + 4: = 0 1[5];.Jl x ~ 0 [5] x + 1 == 0 [5] ,j'j c~ 0 [5] ~1 x (x + l)(x + 2)(x + 3)(x + 4) = 0 [5] ,j.J! c ~~.,i_ 5 0i ~ c ~ 15olio1tiJL,J

,--- -----;; w .,.". "

~ <tlU 8 A 15 ::: ~ 01 ~,J c ..l,~ 0bli 15",8 ~JJ : b~

.., .

,C ~'=I,i~ 120 ~i 8 x 15 ~.li ,JJ,~ I ,Jl;.uJ I

* * * *

~' t.I:1 i.J:.:J I IN2 ~ ~ '{.' x? - y2 ~ 7344

x A y;;:. 12

a2 - b2 == 51 ;JJL~ .. U IN2 ~J=..-1 L.. .;.ill .... 1; il' II JJ.b. ~)'-; j ,j I -2

11

~.-:::;;t I ;-HIII_ ·1,. j -, -1 4.a~. '\!J I!.'Y. LJ,;::IIo --

.]W~I~ (a,b)~ (a - b)(a + b);;;; 51 ~ia2 - b2== 51 ~..J

a - b e IN u!-t (a ~ b)(a + b) > 0., IN L:i-G vl'~ bJ a 01 ~_j 51 J~ w~& 0!""p 0;0 cJ~ u a - b.J a + b uj~ 011 a - b < a ... b iit, IN ~ 51 .l~ ~1,_,iJ1~, 51., 17-.9 3", 1 01 ~J

,{I.'. a. = 1.0.i { ~ .. ' =,=~.".".'.,... "".1 { a ~ ~~= .31'7 J,i { a.-+ hb = 15'1

b=7 ,.., v ~ 'c? a+v= .... a ." =, .

. J..t.b. ~ 01 ~ ~J.JLJj ill.i urn..".: (10.7)" (2,6, 2;) ~ Ji.,.:,U ~J : ~ ~,JWI b'u

s ;;;;;; {(26 , 25) , (10 , 7)}

G. 1,.-:'. , . .., ~ -2

I!._ .• 1. IN2• II • (x y') .. _< J

~oJ,I1 . 0-"' ~ .! .r . ~

¢;-'

3.0

'" .. - -" ..

2rr~;;;;;; (a - 2n)(b - 2n) , ... :>: 7J$ ~ ,I~~ ~lt b:" a~

. d == (a - 2n) J\ (b - 2n) t~",~_j l*~~~. Y.1 x~-l ~ I x ~ = 1 .01 ~-1

a A b Id ~lr!.n.",1 =y n~ aAb.·.1w.~=4

~.... "-'" _ .....

"

II

J )[2 I y2) x?iy'l

::} xJYu1 [1j~;'''I:-~

: .. .L i~ ' ... ~~ 11-2

~ ~-

din w~ ,~J,';' d~~ 1j!-1

dl2n w~ll. ~J)' d~llS III =y dla-Ab ~

~. + b~ iiiii (a + b - 2n)2 ~ i 0!-: -i -3

15

J.,ill tIJIr:ru~1 olti,1 -1

x2!r wi, x A Y ~ 1 0t uio~

~t';J."'"! Z ,:y,. p_j a o,:....;.'-<Aj,o;. ~J.::!' (ill x A y = lw~ ~ . ax 9= py.~ 1

1 .~ ({l_X + ~y)2: ~.J

.;:: fi" x2 + p2 y2 .... lOt p~y

4.u (t. 'E 2) y2 : k xl 0!l x2jy2: £) l' .~

1 ;;;;; x ((:(2 x +~2: k x + 2(l~.y)

l xI=i l ~

xII, .li

rW.

II x II=d

J,)' I ~ l-'XluL"i I -,~

d ::::: X A Y ~-·..;~u x21y2 01 ~.~

x y

- d A· d == 1 I~.ll

( Y )'12 ~ ( r X. .)2 ,_ .... U X?·/Y. '2 ,.", t !.w.-.,_ 6 ..•

. d... ' ft', d-.... '-'.. ..... "'"

(ji I·~ I ~ ill ~.11 ~iL..J' J~~ ~J

,f\ ~ • ~

~lt";~hHJll' -1-2

dlb - 2n J e1lla - 211 ~J,j ( ~ ,6 'Z .s a E Z) b ~ 2n ~ ~d" (l- 2n ;;;;; ad ~, 2112 ::: Ct. ~ d2 ~r(a. - 2n)(b - 2n) ::: a ~ a2 0j,~

2--2 - - d2 .

[l - f-='I.!'~.- ~.:J

"2 A d2;;;;; 1 ~ ~J~ d2 b~ ~'.,l~ d. 01 ~,

d2/-n2 ~. .,1 ~.:: - •

.. ' . '~..:u~;fo~~~.:J

din ~~ ~ ¥ !'" j.:J·1 J,y r JIIJ=l! II ~_,

cJGH I~'r" I!·J~ ~

[. l ~

w1A' d ~ (a - 211) A. (b - 2nb~._i, J.k. d 01 ~ w~sJ .wl,j.k; a. - 21~ ,,9 b - 2n u~;Jj·oIJ~ b" a,~jl

-~':t~'"" ""11 j '~I 1 ~~lil d1?2". o~ - .

a J.J.LlJ pJ.,,1i ~li. ~~.~ I o. I ~ 1 wi~~ piP!;} ':' .. U aiJjRJ'JJ. i lb. p/ofl' Li pia' ~ ~

..... P' 0' ,U u.. . L) •

pIP o~ ~b j.J,JJ£ P u 1 I~:J a A ~·;;.1 0"1 ~ ~ I~ p/P.J pIa u~!

I a I = 1 u1Jv'L:iI~J

t£. h\'f .. ~n -2,

d::: X A.Y F .'1'.*" iJ.4 ~~ y" x04 aA p:= 1 ~ y:::: ,Pd" x·:=·ad ~.JJ

al:lj~n u~li at! dfitplli dfi (§~ xD/yli'.!. ~ts:, IJ~

m •

II a I = ~ ~.,sJ J,'il Jt;..uJ1 ~.w~ a A ~,:;; ~ 01~;J

y~~llxl" ix~~d ti...u

xly

x/y

, .. u ... ~ till .. U. "E' ':l..'l

* * *' *

~J.l ~.t~~,b I J~ .P ~ -1 oli Z*- ~ YJ x'("_ j='.~o'I.t:i1 ~

Iii' __ ~_ "'!'"'"'

14

1.'. pIxy

p/x+y

1 Pi.X ... -.'

ply

~.~ ~. ~ bJ!. a~ *<tl'i~';"1,-~1-2 a 1\ b iiiii 1 .~ (ab '* a + by A (alb + ab~) ~ 1

I

,

I

I

I

pIx + Y .3 pIxy ;~'.p': V ~ ~~. y",x ~ ply ,,1 p/x 0!i pixy 06 ~.~ J~ Pw']'~ ply ~I (x + y) -x f""~ p w? pix ul5: ~.J~ p/Y-J pJxwJ~

G: l.~'''i-w"i ~ -2

(a +b + ab) /\ (a2b + ab2) ~ ~ U1i~~ P ~.Ji ~J;,t'_4 ~1J.l..eJ~ aZb 4- ab2,j a + b + ab 0~ <L.l..:.-J alb 4- abz '""' ab (a + b) ~..J

pl(a + b) + ab ..J p/ab(a + b) u.1~

t:.;JI ~ J:,"i jJ ~II ~

pia + b .,J p/ab

1'.., ~ U'l~i i"il J~~' .:.n~ JI~L~

(J"""" ~"""'u;l. ~ . .1)

plb

.,J

pIa:

~Jl ~~~Ill~ b,J uu.,,J a.A b ¢ 1 w':d'

.. .

II

I i

"

i

1

31

(2n2 ~ (a - 2n)(b - 2n) u""1) 2 k2 liz == 4 « ~ .02 ~,

k2= 2 (X~ £si

..

(k :;;;;; 2 k ' ~) if'?:'..1.J J,.k' k ~ I.£?".i;,.l~ k2 uj!

n ::;;;; k ~ d~ 1 n == 2 k 1 b ~..Juk,

a « bin

32

(.fj E 2*.j a E Z*) b ~ 2P,.J' a;;;;;; 2aF

202 :::: (2« - 2n)(2p ~ 2n) ~..tI ~~

= 4 (u - n)(~ R n)

112 == 2 (a - n)(~ - n) ~

d a-oJi p-n~

2

* * * :.&:

Z~'~kw4 ~ ~ ~YJl 2l?- 4- 5k - 2.j k + 3 0;!.J!.a.1I wi ~-1 k + 3 0:.l.u.O ~~ j ~.):h,_tJ , ~liJ II ~ k ~ ~ J'.J1.:i -2 4k2 + 11k + 4" k* -3 w1 ~fo,-3 ~

{412 + 11k + 4)(2.12 + 5k - 2)

A= k,+3

~ I... I ......... IJ.lc. A ~ t~J?"i~ ~ I k& ,_.D, L.

a. ~ ~ ~

16

dl2n i"# 1 n t:L,yi l

t-!,I) Iii [~'JI -C:'

d/2f:1 w~LI din 0,l$ J.11 dIb 0J.i. dfb ~ 2n 0i~.., dJa 0!-i d/a - 2.n w1 ~-J d/a A b wjl d/a A b ~ dlb.J dla u~ dl2n 0K Ij ~ d/a A b ~J1 ~'WI ~ ~ <W~ Jt;JL,J

........ It... n;

b_;il J ~.j'Lu:i.11 6 ~ I -'1-3 2n2 ~ (a, ~ 2n)(b - 2n)

:2 ~ ab - 2n (a + b) + 4n

ab - 2n (a + b) -+ 2n2 ~ 0' ~

(a + b - 2n)2. = a;2 + b2 + 2ab - 4n (a t- b) + 402 ~·Jl

;;;;; a2 + b2 + 2 (ab - 2n (a + b) + 2n2)

2 'b'" ;;;;;a + ,-

«(3. E Z*..J a E Z*) b == ~ (a A b)" a= a (a A b) ~~

, a2, + b2;;;;;; (a2 + ~2)(a A b)2. ~j~

~.1l ~l.uJIJI~I~.; (a + b = 2n)2:== (a2 + p2)(a A b?

(a, -+ b= 2nf ~ 11'12 (a A b)2 ,j.J! ~.!I ~y ~,~ I J_"j I J ~ I ~~ a x b/a+b -2n

2n~, a A b 0!-i b..; a f "ii~ a », b w.il ~J b- 2n -J a - 2~1 ~ 11 A lb <w"',j .dr, .. A; aAb0J~



n .,_it li-4 "'~F

(~ '[. .. ~ I ~I!illl J ty..,J' I: ~i) a A b ~ d t:JJ

(J:L.J' Jl;.J I foi) d f" Lj'A:: a »; b ~JJJ' d==,aAb~ (...:w 1 ~.Jiol ~ ,c;l!ll ,J lj.wJ I ~1) din w~ ~J~ dw[S;, IJj (~l~H J lj....J j ~ry 2n ,"'-',ii~ d,~ (d = 2& ,~ ,-.Ql) r.p.JJ d b i ~ ~ n;kO ~1 2n==k(2o) ~j! (~ E ZJ lX, E Z)- b - 2n =Pd ,J a - 2n = ad I~..J'

== 2~o ;;;:: 2ao

2k2 + 5k - 2 2](2 + 6k

2k -1

k+3

~k-2 -k-3

2k2 + 5k - 2 := (2lk - 1 )(k + 3) + 1 (2k2 + Sk - 2) - e2k - 1)(k + 3) := 1

~ f~" a , .. ~ .. "I ..... :.", 0 u',J~~.J:! ~

-.,.. ~~...J !I..;.! .... '. ..,."..-.". '"

ex (2k2 + 5k - 2) + ~ (k + 3) = 1 ~..J~~w~'~_j (k + 3) A (2k2 + 5k - 2) = 1

~J.l'LlJ dJlctJ I rwG11 (;",:Q: -2

wi ~ k + 3 ~ 4k2 + 11k + 4f JJ&IJ ~~~ I L •. !..dH ~ 1..r."4 4k2. + 11k + 4 ::: (4k - 1)(k -I- 3) + 7

d = (4k2 + 11k + 4) A (k + 3) ~ ~.il' ~ ~~"~jJi_,.i. ~ d~(k+3)l\7

'1 i\ (k + 3) ~ l,)t 71k + 3~~ ~~i.l~ ? wi II-;" d ;;;;;; 7(j~ 71k. + 3 wl.5: III wjI d ~ 1 0!i 7!\ (k. + 3) ::: lOIS: Ij!

I I, I

~I.;lH~.IJL .... U Z~~ (3 + x) A (3 y x) ;;;;;; 3 Z~I~x~-[ .u!A (*)~·.JWl.)~~. x ulS:: !j 1 .c.i ,~

3 (t E 'l'$. X = 3·{'t

(J J W. r ~.:-u. J;,b. ~.M' ~2

18

di~~1 d;-,!;,r,f ~,L;i I =1

(3 + X) 1\ (3 v x)= 3 ,.~';->: ~ ~ I.~ x~'

3 + x JJ.wJ I.J 3 A X .lJ.t:H ~H!~~ (3 + x) A (3 v x) 1.:i:!.J.l

3 + X3 3A X t~~J' '3 <U.u. 3/x ~i (3 + x) - 3 f_c_,dJ 30jl 3ia.E~ x=3a rU.:..J

rz.i;'ir u~ I -2

'Eli' (jA. I'~ x iA.J - .0!i ·ij.iW I .041 )G." Xu IS: I j.! 4.1~ ~.L..J I J Ij.J.,.jJ!¥ "'g"

{(1; E Z*) x = 3 (J,

(3 + 3a) A (3 v 30:) = (3 + 3(1) 1\ 3a ~Ji ._, (d E IN) 3 + 3(1", 3« w=J~' ~.):L .. tq~1.l d ~ d/3 if.. 1, (3 + 3a) ~ 30: ~ d ~..J' d=3 J.1 d·=l.u..u (3 + 3a.) /\ 3 a = :3 .0Jl

(3 + 3a) 1\ (3 v 3et) ~ 3- ~

~ jilll;U ,j:lc,,~JJ J=.,.. 3et e:,;i ~ I.l6J ~ ~~~~0~~l:J1..zJ-

~ ~

S ~ {' 3et I a E Z*}

* * * *'

c » 0 ,0..;%;1 .:h.:*~. I~ c" oJ a c.4-1

ac V be ;;; c (a y b) w1~j

(n> 3)' IN··. " . I .. '. I]·<;.f -2.···

-,', ~~ ~

(3n+2 - 3'fl) v (2n+2 - 211) ~i -II

(311+2 - 3n) /\ (2n+2 - 2n) r;:':;':lul-7'

~...;llf ~L~ll a4!if-1

(a E ~) a vb;;;;;; « a 11Ju..J

c(avb) =lXac

ac ..I~~jL.~b 1.,-4~ c (a v b) u~ j

" '_ *

(ki E .... u*

'. It.- ,J

be J.MJI....k~. c (a v b) wi ~ J;J.4.J be J ac.j..t.J .!I,)l'~ ~~ u.u4 --

k E 4:*) 11,:= (k' c) OJ n:; (kc) a ~..J

bJ a~J~~~~~ nlc~ n :2: c (a v b) 0:i!

f

k J~I ~ ~~~3

(4k2 + 11k + 4)(212 + 51: ~ 2) ~ k + 3 0 i ~ A E Z ~.J ~.~~ ~LUI:l>. G!-t,~ ~":,Aw~l 2k2 + 5k - 2 J k -I- 3 0i L'.IdJ ~J.I~

Ae Z ~. k+3/4k2+ llk+4

==> (4J(1 + l lk + 4) A (k. +- 3) = I k + 3 I

~JJ~~,W~Jjj...Jj~J

{ ik+31=1

I k + 3 ~ == 7 ,Ji

k E {-I O,.~4,.-2~4}

~~~I k,~~y,-?~~J.! s ~ {-lO.-4,-2A}

* * * *

" ,I

;U.JL.l~ IN ~ ~,

(*) [x v (x + 1»)1 v (x + 2) ;;;; 210

IN*~.I~ x~-.l ~t;i x + 2" x + Is x u~ (*) t1JU)k.. X. ~.IS Ij! '4.l1 ~ .

IN ~ 210 J~

"

. (*) aJJWI JjJb ~;"i I' ,.,,' ~2

17

~~f dr:-2;it! ~I~I -1

[x v (x + 1) v (x + 2)] = 210 '>;':''''~ !N* 0A I~ x.~ 210 JJA1I0L...u.u x + 2,j' x v (x + 1) ~.JJ a v b, .. wl' ubll. b, at i;]j IN*' UA' b" a~~. <G)t 21 0 ~..tJ 0Lm...uli x + 1 .s x ~.!-i x v (x + I )wLQ.u~ X + 1 JI X ui ~ IN ~ 21 0 ,J~ r--L9:i. X + 2,", x + 1 J xu.1~

IN~I~x~IN ~ 210 .l~. ~l>i x + 2.J X + 1 J x 0!J (*) iJJt"",Jj)U.. x wI.$; IJ! ~~~1W-1J 70:" 42,3 35J 30", 21" l:5J 14.J 10,,;. 7..) 6 J 5.J 3,", 2 J 1 ~.1IJ IN ~ 21.0 ,J.,wl ~IJi ~ 210J l05_J X ::::; 5.;l x:=: 1 ~J

dJ.lWI .)~ )6. ~ 1 <W...u (1 v 2} v 3. =: 6G;.J - U.lblJ ,Q.lt! ~ 5~.J (5 v 6) v 7:::::: 210 ~..J S ~ {:3} ~' (*) JJJW.I JJ.6.. ~J-t;7~ tJ~ ~tiJ'4,j-

* * * *

33

1l.&.J1 J~ 641 ui ~I ~1 54 223 -1 ~ 641 01 ~-t-2 232 + 1~, 641 w1 G;iii._rA "t

21

641JJ~1 JJ.~.H -1

; <: 641.1 641 ~ P (5t.9~ JJ,c. ~.Jo; ~ L;J.J1 J~ ~ 641 u~ ~j:lil

- _

p ~ 641 JJ.L1I ~~~I ~I ~l: r u4. (p~ 2S ,#1)

p r
, 2 1 ,
I
3 2
,
5 1
I
7 4
11 3
13 4
17 12.
I 19 14
,
I 23 20 l#J~',ji ~~'i t6::~~,~~ ~j~1 J,~~'11 ~·oiill~lllAJ!~~,.J.i.:..,_~ 641 J~I ~ Y 641 '~,",i.J.:l.t;:. 641 uj!

"':'':td .-1'1 - 64'- 1 .-'11 .r;. 2'-

C...>-"- I J,J.1.I, ~ '" -_c • J,,Ji:U -I~',

54228 ;;;;;; (5 X. 27)4 ~i 54 228::: 54 (27)4 ~.jJ 5:4 228 ;;;;;; (641 - 1)4 ~,j 54 22.S..:; (_1)4 . [641] wJJ. ,641 - 1 ~ -1 [641]1 ~~ ~

54 . 228 1 _~_ 64~ _. 54228 - 1 .... 0'· [6"4'1] .',- ;'1

_ - - ~ . ,~ '. U..I ..

s- 1l:Lj,4,.uI .. 1 I - ,

G'. __ .oJ ~

54 . 232 = 16 . 54 228'=1 l 232 ;;;;;; 24228 l.J;..ui

54232 == 16 [641] LJ~li ;4228 E 1 [641] u'i 1L....._.j

5:4 ~ - 16 [641] ~ 54 = 625 l:i:JJ:_,

54 232 ~ - 54, [641] ~l

54 (232 + 1) ~ 641 ~-.9 54 (232 + 1) '50 [641] ~i

54 1\. 641 ::: 1 0!-i 5"',~ '{g. 01.J.k 641cj't Ly_;, 232 + 1 J~ I f" ,,-A! 641,uj,!

*' * * *'

bG" ac 0;..l~ d.i1~ --kt<-_Ji4 ~iJ-II c fa v b) w,~ JIl:i]L..,be v ac = e (a, v b) ~j

Zfi+2 ~ 2fi .:;;; Zn (22 = I) ;;;; 3 .211

3[1+2 _ 3D;;;;;; 311. (32 - 1)

=8.3i1li ;;;;;;23.3ll

2IH·2 _ 2n ;;;;;; 3 . 23 2n-3 In+2 _ 3n == 3. 233n.1

~.il uk J.,j, II J r~ I ~ (3R+2 = yl) v (2Il+2 _ 2.11) = (3 , 23 v 3 ., 2,3}(2n-3-y-3n-1)

.. _ .... --_ .. - .

;;;;;; (24 v 24)(2n-3 v 3U-1)

~ 24 (2n<.l v 3U-1)

~ 2n=3 1\ 3n-1 ;;;;;; 1 0~ 2 A 3:= lui ~ 2n•3 A 3['1-1 :::::: 2[1-'3 . 3n-l

0,!.i n 2: 3 ,tJ~ IJ! .jJ.! (3R+2 = 3D) V (2_fi+2 _ 2n) = 24 . 3R=1 ,,21i•3

(3n+2 _ 3n) v (211+.2 _ 2R) = 6H ~j'

.. lLW"_.I,"'~I-

~ ... 1I. ~

Ii.. - 3fi+2 - 3·IlI.- a - 2IH-2 2" ..... v -. - j _. -. t-'£u

(a v b)(a A b):= ab ~J.I U:JJ ,~'L.J II J Ij.uJ !I ~J.=o

a vb;;;;;; 24 . 311-1 . 2u=3 ab ::= 9 ' 26 3fl~I 2n-3

, '

I

24 (a I\. b) :;; 9 . 26 ~ a 1\ b;;;;:: 24 ~]

* * * *

Z*· I . I.. .• <" _II ~.~~ a" y,jx~

I 20

{' a x x e a x y a vxea v y

l x l e ly l ,~II

..

(a J\ x)(a v x) g (a A y)(a v y) l:uJJ ~, "~'':J' ~

_ ~uo~.,

4.1.u \i X , Y E Z* (X A Y)(X V Y) ;;; 1 XY 1 t~JG



ljl

I ax I: ~ I ay 1

*' * * *

34

I ,a.lr¢: I b ~ ~"1.!"': Z* ~.~Uc.~ c.., b" a~-l

u!£ C 1\ 2 ~. 1 u~ rJ.! ~i I!:~I -1

{ c/a+b {I cIa

=*

cla-b ' •. c/b

u~ ~,.LLJ~YlJ ~,j.,>i b J'~ a ~J.w'l .;bo,1 wlS:, ,I.jl <l.il ~I """17 a. 1\ b ::.= 1 => (a ,_ b) .A (a + b),;;;;; 1

'!!,_!-:i'-: Z ~ ~~ b,", a ~ -2 ct A ~ == l , 1 < a -c ~.J ap ~ 35 . S13 35 . .5.13 J..aJI ~f,:,bl'I' ~L,:ijll J,~-~ a;;;:; 35 ~1 rz-iiiH.1 ~ ~j 7Jl ~~=3

{' )(2 _~=35. 513

XAY~]

2,3

I "

'i

I I

I I

I

b J a. ~J~ d_;"-U I ~,l.ill -1-1

c I a - b J ci e ..... b wl v=.fo 2a" "'0.1' 'c(jl (a + b) + (a = b) ~ c·~ c / a ~J.I U""'--fi w~, ~-H''''''' 'tUlJ C I\. 2;;;;; 1 iJ,j l~ 2b roUl;': C ,($1 (a + b) - (a - b) td~ C ~1 G..u clb<L~ CA2::;:;i! ~1~, ,b" a ~J~d~~11l C~j!.

[.~y~ -~

d;;;;;; (a + b) Ida. - b) ".Au. a A b ~ 1 ~1 ~~ a. - b J' a + b ~ d l¥.1l bJ a ~ d ~J.I,J,:I~I J~I"'H_~ -c~ d A 2: 1 wlS I~I

_. t!'

de IN~ wi Lt.!", d;::: m w~lA a A b= 1 0i Lu.,j <I' a - b.J a + b,~ 2 ~ ~Jll.J.Ji!:. 2 iJ~ 21 d ~Li d A 2 ¢ L·.~ l,jl

~ .~ ~.

~~ U'.~.J ~ ~~J.).J~ w'~.Ji b" .a bl-i~.J w~ 2JljJL a. - rb.J a + b . d j~~ -, '-Y..'l ~IW I b.:u w!J 4G...uJ ~ I ,~

t:\_ a A b == 1 -- ( b) ( "b) I

u ~' ,a + '·I\a - . liiii ,II 0!l~b.I4J,

~~J~ ~.J:_bll,~t,_iJ~-~=2

(p e IN) d J~ l:lJi ~,I.i P W,J, 35. 513 J~ bill d ~ pIS ,,1 pl3 .J~IJ. ~._"i.J.~ P iJi L...u 35 . 513 r-'c~ p l:i:..J .p = 5 .",1 p:::: 3 {.)!-i,u~101,j,.1.i!. 5..1 3 wi I~ ~.J 5 J~ 3 Lu d JJ.a.IJ !l1Ai:l1 ~I ~U1l'1 ,~.,jll

• !!'! 'Hi. , ~ 't;.,t"

b E IN J' a E IN ~. d =::: 3<1. " Sb

3a. . 5b;;;;;; 3& , 51? A 35: 1 513 ::;:: 3inf(a,5) . 5inf(b,13)

I

I

I

3S

,tAt1 ~~ i}4 ~ !~ ~! 3.077,6.., 6600 dJli -1 6600 v 30776 J' 660'0 A 30776 ~'i~.I.i,1 -2

22

6600 J,..w I ,JI+Q':i-l

U;.JJ 2 ~ ~ o,!!i11 ~ 6600 ~i ~, 6600= 2 . 3300

~ 3 u-k ~I ~ 3300 JJalI llA 6600.= 2.3 . 1100

;; 2 . 3 . 11 . 100

:::: 2 .3. 11 " (lOP =: 2 , 3 . 11 . 22 . 52

66:00;;;;;; :f' .3 .52 .11 w.l!

3.0776 J~I ;~I'<j' -

~

30776 = 2 " 15388.

:; 2.2.7694 =23.3847

~ J.,1 .hk 384 7 J~ I j.., 3847 ~l P O:!>! P ,c.h~ J~ J.:-.~ ~!lIJJi J~ 3847 ~ ~ Ij! ~W~ QI:l-JI '?~ ~~ I ,~I J~~.p::;; 62 {j'~ p2 S 3847.)



202,437 .. , 167 ~260" .. 132,655 ...

3847 P

p

3847 p

p

I

37 103.972 ... 7
41 93i8.29 ... I 1
I
13
4,7 8.1~851 ... ~ ~
17
53 7~L,584 ...
19
57 67,491 ~ oj +
23
59 65,203 iti,.
29
61 63065 ~ ~ . 3 I
' -- 2950,9231.'

226,294 ...

124,096 .. " I

~ '~.)~ ~~d 384·7 JJ.tJ, ~~ 5" 3J 2- ui ~ I ~) 3847 .1J:J1 (~~I J~i.J~ 3847 ~,jl

~ I\'"r.;.'t~ j =2

6600 :; 23 . 3 . 52 . 11 . 384 70 I~

",,-

30776 = t:;l . 30 .5° .11° . 3847 6600 A 30776;;;;;; 23 .3°, SO . 1 ill 0 .3847°

~8

6600 v 30776..:;; 2:3 . 3 . 52 . 11 .3847 =25390200

* * * *

l' _ b1 == ! [(35 + 513)2 _ (SB _ 35)1

1 ,..5 5 13)

==T(4'_".E "

::: 3:5 513

c2 - d2 = 35 513 dj.lS,~.,ll

b;j au:.J~ ~ll e~ 2eJS13 - 35 J 2eJ35 + 5 13 ~JelbJ e/a, ~J1 2 ,513r·L\!% 2e. ~i (35 + 513) + (513_ 35) r--' "1: 2e <G...u

(0 ~ n :;:;; 13) d ;;;;;: 511 t5~ 513 i"-'-'J§.':: e~,

(0 S;.m~ 5) e = 3m. u1 ~Jll,~

e.;;;; 1 tj i m:::: It = 0 u:;,~ 3rn ;;;;;; 5fi ~

a /\ b -;;;; 1 wJ! ·4.1 C~J~ la....uli e'u4 35513 -1 J 1 +35 513 ~ 2e" ~JJ'

e' ~ 1 ':Pi 2 f' , 'Iii: 2e' <W...u

d A c.;;;;;; 1~:l! II

,rr IN2 ~,LJ§'·'I~~.:u. J,.b. J4~ ~~ ~tllt~d * S = {fa I' b) , (c , d) }

1 ' ~

b == - (5:13 - 3»),

2 .

1 5 1"'

d = 2. (3· 5 -] - 1)

1 53

a=2(3+51.) ,t."!."'"

- _!_ ('1 + 3",5 s' 3)'"

c- 2 ' "

(x, y) e S ·

{', 2 _,';- 5]3.35

x -y== ,

=>

XAY=]

=> {,' Ix 112_ Iy f;; 51335 IlxIAiy:l~l (lx~,lyl)ES

S ':;;; {(a,h) , (-a,b) , (~-b) , (-a;,-b)} v {(c~d) , (c)-d) , (-c,d) , (-c,-d)} 4.l.u

l 5 13-

J a .... -2 (3 + 5 )

c=.2.(1+3S 513) J 2

i x A Y A 10 == l·~'.r'>·: 4L:..~1 (JJt-J)6. (x , Y),W -1 I

102: = (x - lO)(y ~ 10) u~ ~ -i I 24 (x - 10) A (y - 10) ;; 1 ~) ~"\'i,,~il -y

(x.y) t;3.Jl1 ,~ J~ -::r;:. ~'4JJWI ~-2

36

b ;;;; mf (l);13).; a;;;;;; inf (a.S) ~ b S; 13" a s 5 0jI J_L.tJ j ~ ~ ~i If ,J,~~ 'iI'1 ~ 350 . 513 ..lJ.wJl ~~" ::,lJ I ~ l,_,lll u~ ~t;J'l.l.J

- ft n

~ 3~ .5b

b s {O •... ,13} .J

a e {O,1, .. ",5}

I

i

IN~ 35 .513 J.W ~li a~" ap, ~ 35 . 513 ~J.l tl:..1l ~ t.....J I ,J t~ , ¥'-,_,_D.,j

b'E {O •. 1, ... ,13) a E {O,,, .. ,5} 02-'" a= 3101 5b

..J

p. ;;;;; 35~a 513-b u!JaJ3. == 35 .513 ui ~

U A .~;;;;;; 3ft Sb 1\ 35~a S13.b :=:=3mSl'i

n:;::; inf (b I 13-b) J m :: inf (a. ,S-a) ~

n ;;;;; 0 J ill = 0 0;\lo a 1\ ~=] 0 i ~

(b .:= 13 J~ b:::: O),J (a ~ 5 -Jia ~ '0) ~

b ¢ 0 .ji a =1= 0 w~ a> 1 oi ~ .:us:...JJI~ J~, ~ == 35 s a. ,;;;; 513 ~ b;;;;;; 13 0!l a=:O.:,1S tl~ o.<~ (a=: G ¢=:} b;;: 1301 LJ~} b;;;;; O,J a == 5 wJj, a;;;;; 35 ul-i~t:;J~s

~~1~1~-3

Z2 ~ I~ (x.y)c:4 (x , -y},j (-x "y);; (-x , -y) ~,~ ~.;lll ~~ (x.y) ~I~)t.

JN2 ~~Jiill ,~I t..bJ l~. ~J).:.. (x , Y) E IN2 ",,~=- ~jill';t ... l;-\U J=.,. (x j Y) ~1 '_"';fo ** (x - y)(x -I- y) ~. 35 513 ~'i ](2 ~ y2:;;;;;; 35 51,3 ~J1.

(a. <~ li:Jl) ~ == x + YJ a.;;;;; x ,- y t-'c';; ex > 0 u!-i cx.~ > O.J ~ > -0 w 1 ~ Y JJ x U;:.j~ I J~ l w!J. ~, o~..l';' olJolI;. ~J ct uP ~.lfi..l~ a~ U j ~ ~~~lJ~J~ X A Y = 1 c,1 L.:..k. a A ~;;;;;; 1 ~.il.cw .... ~~I ~'JI J:I~I ~J a A ,~;;;;;;; 1 J 1 S a <_~~ a~;=: 35 513 ; uJ! ~.J ~:= 513 .J (t;;;; 35 l1;..1l ~WJ I JI~ I ~ <G!-i a:;;.. 1 .:,~ I~~ -

x + y ;:::: 513" X - Y ;:;:: 35 l#1

2y ;;;; 513 - 35.J 2x = 35 + 513 ~

• - I L.::;_· I •• - •• - •• ~" • '., I ,.::13 15 - i l.....u

0~j':"J~ ~~.,J ~u~0~JJ;i.u JJ.g..J. J~. U '-~

1 uS Y = 2: (5 -3)

x - y = 1

1, -513 ~i~~.

X= 20+3 5 )--u'

~JI JJ "J·.I J Ij..uJ I y-"'~,J (~ ., ~).; {{14,.35)1 (35 ~14) }

d := 5.J~ d == 2 o!-i d * I" dJ10 u i Lw.J

(x, y) E {(28,70l,(70.28)~(70,175)(175.7{J)} ~,J

~ ~Jw..,~:u. J,l:.. ~J-"?-Q .0!J ~~4JS == {(l4,3.5)~e35.14 ),(28,70).(70,28).,(70, ill75)(175~ 70n

* * *' *

(1) 36x - 25y =5 ~JWJ ZxZ~~

5 J~ ~L ... c~ X ~'!i 0) ~JU'}b. (x ~ yL)l.S: ~.J! ~1 ~-1 (1) ~.JI.A.!J Ja. -2

d = X J\ Y t:"~ (I) i1JU ~ (x , y) ~' -3 .dJ~.~I'~I~L.(a I D~~ ¥ q;:Jj1 Y-J x ~ .. i.·'i",-!· (x , y) J,WI ~ t.." (b 1988 J7;~J t;jJ.l ~~. ~

I: 25

LeJ)b (X. y) ~~. f,))UI.b~I-l

36x- 25y = 5L~'':'''_: .zx 7£.~ I~ (x ~ y) uStI 36x ;:: .) (1 + 5y) csi 36:x== 5 + 2.5y ~Jl

36x. ,S .... i..;! 5~..j I'

(~fiw~~.~~,j) x~ 501& 5A36=lwl~

. 5 J,JI"JL.~ ~ x,,:,J!

(I) (JJw. .. u J- -2 ~J.l,ZxZ~.I~ (x ' Y)u4

36 x = 25 Y ~ 5 ~. 3·6 x = 25 Y = 36 x 5 - 25 x 7 {::} 36 ( x - 5) ~ 25 (y = 7)

~( ::::~: ~::

......... - [.' 32·.:·,S6_ .. ·.f/ .... Y·X.·. =_ :.c.-·

36 x _ 25 Y == 5 ~ .J

~ { ~ {

3kE Z 3k'E'Z 3k,e Z

3l{eZ

y- 7= 36k x-5:25t' y ~ 7 + 36k X= 5 +25k'

:.~.2~~~ k_t" k~

y ~ 7 + 36 k- J x~ 5 + 25 k I

36x - 2Sy == 36 (5 + 25 k 1) - 25 (7' + 36 k)

::: 5 + 36 . 25 (k , - k)

37

~ .-,::11 ~ • _til. II ~I "I l' ~~. ~J~II Q~ -.-

(x - iO)(y - 10) = xy- 10. (x + y) + 102 ~.1i w~ xy ~ 10 (x + y) ~r ;jJ~.U Q'~ ~ (x , Y) 01 ~J (K - ~O)(y - 10) ;;;; 1.02

(x- 10) A(Y -10)~ 1 bil ~~ (x ~ 10) A (y - 10) ,J.J&lj' P J"i ~Li ~ ~u P ! Y - 10" P I x _ l 0 ~..J (x - 10)(y - 10) ~ p ~J l02~ P ~1 10 f 1119; P .U~, J.ji ~ P W' 4 10 ,+ i ,.i-,J x ~ 10 ~ P iyjl ~.!I pi x (.51 (x - 10) + 10 ~ P ~J . Y f ".,l~ P ~.JJ Jj.l.4J x A Y A 10=.1 :..,"i ~..;# 1.lJ." X A Y A 10 l"-I-i~a.: p uj~ (x - 1.0) A (y~ 10) ~ ] uy. c)tJ4_t

(x~y)~1 ~~

loZ ,J~JJ' u~YI wL.......lalJ L...:. 5" 2 ~JJ J~ .~l:J.,10L-u.u 5.j 1. c.J~ 102- = (x - 10)(y - 10) ~j ~. (x - ~O)(y - 10)

Y - 10. .l~ r-"""'IlJ.91 J.~ 'ij; x· - 1.0 JJ.Lil r-uli J.Ji' .l..l£ P i.4 .x- 10 ~.')' q, y - 10 ~.~ P'iJ!-i ex - 10) A (y - 10) ~ 1 ~1 ~ 102 J,Jd u~·ll Qj P u.!J (x- 10)(y - 10) == ""'02 tJ'l ~ (p = 5,j q ~ 2) ,,1 (p = 2 J q;;;; 5LJJ.!

y - lO ; q~ J X - 10= pet ~JJ

IN '. I I ·!..i.ill, 13 ac-..

U"".~~ .. '.J ~

102 ~ pOl qP w~ 102 = (x - IO)(y - 10) 0T ~. 22 . 52;;;; pet ql~ (.;1

a~~ ~2 ~.J

Y - H) = 52 .J. x - 10 = 22 ~.l!

y - H) = 22 J x - 10;;;;;; 52 ,,1

(x , y) e{(l4 t 35), (35 t l4H (Sl

i:..J'iJ ~ 4lJW.I ~ -2

Y A 10' I t. IN2., I . (x y-) ':<:.1

XA .. ' ..•. ~' .. ~ . 0.4~. ~ ... '~'~

u!J 4J)l=.. (x , y) ~I! Il! : J,SI J~I' ~ (x , y) ,E {( 14 , 35) , (35 • 14))-

14 A 35 A 10 ~ 1 .J

14 " 35 ;;;;; mo (14 + 35) ~.ll.j INr2 0A I,; ...... i.e (x t Y) ~-

d~xAYAI0 ~

x y 10 .

--r. -. /\ _- . = 1 U:~

d d d

cfot ~ .r- Ip'1~' [I, o'~ I -1

.~1 ~J .6.(p.,q):: 1 ~ j ~~ A(p • q(p+q» ~ 1 J 8(P. , q+p):: 1 d:&(p ~ q-tp) ~ * p-rq ~ dJ p.~ d ~JJI q r'C'1c~ dtjl (p-tq) - p ~ d ~ J d{p,q) ~ 1 01 ~ A(p?q) ~ d0J!

A(p.q)= 1

'.~ i d:= l'li d E IN*

~ w.-- -

o ¢ I 01~~_j & == ~(p, q(p+q») ~ * r I~-J.' Lc.....ull ~ o,~ q(p+q) .~ p ,~id;a;: r~. q(p+q) ~,J P ,~HJ_t 5 ~J.l ptq ~ rJi q ~ r ~J.l J.;1 J~ r wi ~-J ~ ~ r.l.a_, 1 ~ r ~i Ll(p,.q) r'c,,4: r w!£ q ~ r c) IS .Ij.l ~ ~ 1.1~._,. A(p, p+q) ,,,,,,i.: r uJi p+q ~ r ~LS: IJ! ~(p , q{p + q) ;: 1 g; i 0 ~ I ~j 1

w!A x(4-:3 - x);;;;;: y(x + y) ~1 ~J. y;;;:: bd" x;;;; ad ad (43 - ad) ~ bd (ad -I- bd)

ad (43 - ad) = bd2 (a + b)

0~ d~O&1L.....J a (43 - ad) = bd (a+ b)

L\( a , b). == 1 u; i

d . .J~ rw1i a J.a.l1 -~

a (43 - ad) .... bd (a + b) I~JJ bdfa-s b) ~ a~.

(X Y)

A d~ d = 1 u~ d:: .6.(x t y) w·~ ~

.A(a, ~ b(a+b» = 1 !~.ll J;"iI.J~1 ~J .d ~ awl' ~fi w~ .~1!j1_~,j

..

~.;i!1 ~LI',i~1 a~~ ~

~..JI ~.1 ~~I ~l!J~JIju.J1 ~ d ~ ca ~~ a (43 - a2 c) :::; b act a. + b)

43 - a2c == be (a + b) v~ a':;!!: 0 6i ~

43 ~ cab + d)2 + a2 C y; 1

c (a24- b2 + ab) ~ 43 wi ~

.. I h~.' ",":I. t E -

43 ~ C 4:4J. C (a2 + b2 + ab) ~ 43 ~J.I

C :: 43 ,,1 C::iii 1 u~ c e ]N* ~;lJ ~--J1 J..k;, 43 ui lw..,

..

a2 + b2 + ~'L - ~I • I".F' 4'3 . II~ '1' I

, -t . - tW;;;;;;]. 0,l:J! .... ::::= " u~ J .•

.C::::: 1 u.ll



36x - 25y == 5 "** 36. 15 (k I - k) :!::: a. .¢::} k=k!

.~ (1) ~JWII JJ.l=..~tJjl s;;;; {,(5 + 2S'k, 7+ 36k) IkE ZJ

d J~ ,;ji;( .. !fI ~j (a-3

36x - 25y ~ d~. YJ x f"-."i,:: d ~~ 5 ~. d ~~~ 36x - 25y ::i:.5 wi~. d == 5 ,,1 d~ I w!-i ds IN* ui LGdJ

(1) ,;;jJ W~ JJ.b. (b

(1) l.JJt-JI.)6.. (x , y) ~ (JJ~j Jl)·MIH ~I. x ~ 5 wV} Yj" I ",iJ ~ 5 ~~ X A Y = 1 w~ jjI x 1\ y == 1 w~) X A Y ;:::. 1 ~ X i\ Y =#. 5 w!l Y.~ "i 5 w Is: JJ! (~L.JIII J!_j.b •• 11 ~ dl4_" x 1\ y = 5) X A y::: 1 {:::::} (y l~'ui.:~ 5) oj!

.y ~ 'J 5 o.:-%! (x , y) J,.b.II ,r.r x A y:~ I <!~:~ (x , y) J"WI ~

(k E ~J y ~ 7 + 36 k ~".ll.

:~ 5 (1 + 7k) + k. ..,. 2

Y lS 0 [5] <=> k + 2 = 0 [3]

.;::::. k= -2 [5]

¢:} k= 3 [5]

k ~ 3 [5] ~~ y ~ 'i. 5~.J! !~'-'I:ad 'i 5 -J ks '4 ~% (5 + 25k , 1 .;I- 36k.) ~ ~.,,!b,U JJ.b.J1, u~ ~ k~3

* * * *

~.uJ.l1 ~ 4:: .... _:'" , .... 11 ~J~ ~";/ II d.;;'''''U ~ Li1I j.4~ ~{p;.q) q" P iJ.~ a(p.q) 0lS Ij! ot.:.i .~ -1

{'.' A (p .~ p+q) = 1

~ (p, q(p+q»= 1

'!It"".' IN* x IN* iYo I~ (x ~ y) ~ -2

(1) x (43 - x)::: y (x + y)

y x

b = - " a= cr.J d = A(x • y) c:-'''';', d-

a (43 - ad) ~ bd (a + b) 01 ~-I .d~. aui~~

c:::::: 1 w:t~1 ~ c (a2 +- ab + b2) =:: 43w1 ~,

£1-,· .':ti.-::; IN*' x IN' *. (x y)" I -' ~~I k'

.\ .. ,~ ". '. .~ _,'., [_wJ.·.L,..IQ J,ja. -...J.

8 7 ~,j i:jJJ t~~ tJ.ti

.38

26·.-.·.·

. .

I

~J ~i.)j4H':/~ ~,~j -1

d¢ I u1~.fo.l, d::,A(u2 + y2, u) ,F * p ,,=&1 ~u~ d,~

Ur-"~ p~, u,~ d. ~JJ uZ r-'"' .. ~p ,w':'! ul +v2 ~ P~,!i u2 +v2 ~ dul '-u v2 ,"! uiJ P ~i (u2 + v2) - u2 ~,~ P '4u . v ~ ,,:4; p 0,~ J.Ji .JJ4:. P' wll~.J A(utv) r-uJ: P rU.u VJ U ~ P oJl A(o,v) =: 1 ~.._jJ~ li,l.U

d(u2, +- v2, u) :;; 1 ($1 d:: 1 iJ~ J ~ 4.9, A(u2 +- ,,2 V) = 1 ,~~! '<!c': u.. :LII o'li~ *

, ~. ~ .¥"~ •

;UliIl

d ~ A(u2 + v2 , v) ~ 'v2 ,-..,L d d ~c~· V r"=H.!.L, d ~~

~ .... ,~ , .... 1ft

(u2 + v2) - v2 f ""AJ d~!J u2 + vi ~ doj lcu,J

u21k'c~iJ d~,~ Ai1l2 V2) ~ d d'i.",A V2. U2 ~ d.- jl

Q\ .." ~ ---,;: --t:I' J ~ ~ u ..

-~ ):J I' . .1 '1, ~-"'" ".€,,~ ,-'

<!.I.:.",~ '~

. "", ... ',-

8:(u2, v2) ~ lo!-i A(u, v) ~ 1 01~.,., d> .00' ~ d == i ~i il,-ud; d~, 8{u2 + y2, v) ~ 1 ,~!-iJtiHu

..

d *' 1 &1 vAfoJ d ::: 6(u2 + y2 ~ uv) F * -P ~l bl.i~, d~ u2+v2~ p,~, u2+v2 ,~d~.iI uv ~ p ~ uv, !.:aJ d ~.11 v,~ p..;1 u ~ p ,~J:.i J,Ji J~ p',~ i ~J ~4..;:i ~,:y.j Ll(u2 + v2 , u) \~ P u!A U ~-U_I!i! P &lS: lol! ~(u2 + v2 " u)~ 1(j":1 ~.# I.lAJ 8(U2 + y2 1 V) ~, P wl-i V ~ P iJlS: Il,! 6{u2 + V2 , uv) = 1 ~iI d = 1 ~,ji

(x2 + y2) Z == 26 xy ~.J.I {x2 + y2)zr '!!~ xy 4.l.u U:.JJ ~L..JI J~j...J~ .~ oj.,j!A A(x, y) = 1 cJ1 b..J .6.(x2 + y2- ; xy) ~ 1

~1' (~filli~) z,~ xy (j,j!

3t€ Z*

(K2 + y2) t :: 26

.z;;;;;; ~xy

L£' (x2 + y2) t xy= 26 xy ~

..

(1) ilJWJ J,.6. ~~, - ~

~ IN*xIN* ~ I~ (x , y)~

"". II!! -

x (43 - x) ~ y (x + y)

x

d ~ A{x ;. y.; )~,

a.= d ..J , ~

I~~~~LJI~}"I~

Y =abJ x = .. 2

aZ + ab 4- b2 ~ 43

a2 + ab + b2 ::::43 tfJWI Ja

. ~ J=.. (b , a) w~li iJ..1[.,lj ~.lfJ)k. (a" b) &IS: Ij,! b' ~j.,j asb~. IN*xIN*~ tJ'-'w- (a vb) ~

IFiJ oil - _

3 at S; a2 + b2+ ab 44Ja2 ~ ab", a2 S b2 ~JJ

a2 + ab + b2.:, 43 => 3rJ,Z S 43 0j,! ~ a2::::9

~ a$;3

I~a 1·· ... 1·~* LJ,!JI =. w~ . J!

,2 ....

b s-b =42

.<:>. b (b + 1):= 42

0,1-1, IN ~ 42 J~ ~,l~tl:U.I ~,~li.Ill.-\ ·6;j 7&, ~J

a.2 + ab + b2 ;; 43 <=> b :::: 6

a:2 + ab + b" :::: 43 # 2ft> + b2 = 39

$:} {b + 1)2 = 40 a;f2w'U~i!JU'''''~ 4O.wi ~

~ ~.~ ~ . -

2 . 2 _ '.

a +a:b+b =43

3~,~ b 2: 3"4'

<=;> I"" +. =-, .

~ b (3 + b) ::; ~4

{. b == I -.J~'

<:::;>.

. 3 + b == 34

b=2

:3 + b = 17

b ;: 6 J a = 1 e,jjf ~ (IN*)2 ~ a2 + at. + b2:: 43 iI..,WI J,.6. ~ 0J,! s ~ ~ H1,6) • (6,~1)}

(1) un;,,; LJ.lJJJII ~~I W (3616)J (t6) ~.!J'Cj'JL:iJ~,j

* if! * *

- tU' L\(u v), • ...1 L.'. • V,I U ~~ ~ U:' ... ', , 0 O=JJt:;. JSl

~. " , . jA"y .'y>~..., , _ ~ ~ ~ ~

v » uw.:J.!d ~'i~ ~.JlJ:J I'

u}i, A(u,v) =: 1 ~lS 1~!.wi~,-1 A(u2 + v2 , u)::= I

.A(uz+ v'l, y)~ 1

A(u2 + v2 ~ uv) ~ 1

(1) (x2 + y2)z = 26xy ~'Jw. ~ (Z*)3~, ~ ~2 8(X, • y) = 1.:-!;>: (1) i.lJ~)I.;:o, (x , y; z) ulS IJ! ~i ~ -i 3 t E Z (x2 + y2) t ::::: 26 w~ .6(x,.y) = I ,",~.,,: (1) iJJWi JJ.b. (x.y.z) o~1 JS,: '~1-'7

27

39

F{1,2,3} ~ i J£J S \ ~ { (dx j. dy , z)! (x , Y» z) E Si' d ~ IN* ~

I

: {t2~3} ~ iJ.~ ~JI

(x .~ y ~ Z) E 5' l

*" * * *

~ ~.d ... .,_ ' .... ~JJJ.~J BJ A_, b, a ~

... ~ !pi =F; ~ .,.; _ • ~

A=;, l1a + 2b B;:;;; 18a + 5b

b" a ;U'i~ 7A + B ~" ~i -1

19'~.~I~ n, AiJ::J~IJ$.r0~Ul.u1~'"'"'...28 19,. Ii" ~'I ~,' "il· U

;.;s-- . " "..T'"' w ~

,.......tiIl w~ L,~,~ I_"..'" .~_J1 bJ a o1J.uJ11 ~It:s: IJ.!.wi ~-2 19 1 1 ..;'I.···oc .. ,. -1 -x.. oJ· B· A,·~J.!.'IJI'<':l:'id.~ ~ .... ~.~

.J.. u..'!""";,'u·~· '_j ...,. ~ ~

89 .);1c"-;"J ~.JJJ t~ ~

~JlJ I ~t.,;?:;n ~ ~ -1-1 7A + B .~~ 7 (llila + 2b) + ]8a + Sb

;;;; (77 + 18) a + (14 + 5) b ;;;;9581 + 19b

7A + B ~ 95a + 19b

•. ,jl

u .•

7A + B ~ 19 (Sa + b)

B= 19 (Sa+tl)-7A.u..u (at E IN*) A == 19 a w,~ A~. 19 ui L......J

B = 19 (Sa + b) - 7 . 19(1 ~

=;;; 19'"(Sa + b - 7ri)

Ii B-· ~ 1·9·"1 ' '1'-

I' • ~ .. -.~ ~t~ ~

~.ll., 19~~1~ Aul~" 19~d~l),_uJJI~ B01~fo* 7 A ~ 19 (Sa + b)~ B.

B~19a

7 A ;;;;; 19 (Sa +b - a) ~ 7 A ,'L'-"L~ 19 o~!

A ,u,~'i; 19 ~.11 ~ lli~ ~ ~lfl 7 J\ 1'9-;;;;;; 1 ~1 ~J

(c(E IN*)

B:..9 A ~JJ.l~ .. U' ~"il d~~ FliJl ~l

d.~ 19 .]i d;;;; 1 ~i~J d=AAB~

-

P W:. ~ II __ ,:- I: -~_-. d .<!';. ,.--:Ii * l' ~ .... 0cJdl..:I*.,

• ~ (jI~ ~~ ~ --.~ Ui U ~.....---

B" A:~ d, d~~, "it p uY BJ A I1>c_U~~ P ~JJI

(J3 E 1N*.j ct E m* ~"'':t,::.,) B ... ~Ib A:= up ~.J_

{ S5a + lOb;;;; 5ap {_ lla + 2b = apuj!

R ~1

lela 4' lOb;;;; 2pp .. 18a + 5b= j3p

-.~It~~·~ d~~iINI -

~~~I 04~ ~.~. ~

... (Z*)3, I.~ (x y '7"). ,_;;;'_1

~' . .~.,_;,__;______;; .. ; .. j' "". ~

{• {x2+ y~ z= 26 xy A(x"y):=l

z =t xy

(*) (x2 -Ii" y2 ) t == 26

2· .1: ...•. II ..!., v2 +~.2 '-~ .. -'-_' (*) L.· -.l.....u:JJ .

__ U -.J~~'U..... 'j Wi ~ x . es U""

26 J~ ~lj xl + y2.~ xl- +- y2:> 1 w!l y2 ~ 1 J xL. ~ 1 uT ~~

: 0.J'l, 1 ~ l....1j~1 IN ~ x2 + yl :; 2-6 J i x2 + y2 ;;;;;. 13 ..,[ ,;.2 + y2 == 2

y2 =: 1 .J x.1'= 1 ~!J (xL, - 1) + (y2 ~ 1) = 0 gr~ xl, + y2 ;;;;;; 2 wts: ~J~* ;JU'i1 ~ ~. xy &:J~ o!i ,(xz + y2) z_ ~ 26 xy 01 ~~ ~ S 1 ~~ I J!~ (x., y • z) 0Jl 81 ;;;;; ((1,J)3) ~ {1,.-1~-l3) • (-1.1,.-13) , (-1,-1,13)}

ij < I x I S; 3 ~1 xl::s;; 13 .~~ xl +--y2 ~ 13 .0,1ts: IJ! * ~H _.;;. ~,l;t.J y2 ~ 12 ZJ~, ~ x b .. ] ~~ IJ! ~.J ~ y I == 3 ~i y2 = 90~ I x I ~ 2 0~ I.1J

I y l == 2 y;i r == 4 w~l1. I x 1=3 ~.~ 1.11

~. Sz ic:.~1 J.! ~W:. (x.y.z) ufoi ~)_J.~I ~ ~ Z,.J xy 0i ~ S2 = {(2t3, 12) '~ (2.,~3 ,-12) , (-2,3,-12-) " (-2.-3.-12)

(3~2., 12) • (3,-2;-12) ., (-3~2,-12) ; (-3.-2,42)} O<lxl:S;;5 ~~ x2S;260l-i x2+y2==26 ulS IOJl*'

I y Ii ;;;;; 5 (ill y2. == 25 0!li I x I ;;;;: lr::,lS IJ! ~

...

iJS...-.,~ I~" y2::::; 22 wli :1 x I == 2 ~I! loJl

ifi.M,;# ~~" r;;;; 17 u~ I x I ;;;;; '3 wLS~ 1.11

.~ ~ ,,~ y2 = 10 ~~, II X II E 4: ~IS' 1.11

~ Y :1 ~ 1 ~.~ r;;;;; 1 u~ I x I ;;;; 5 0l5: Il!

(I Y ~ =:.5 J I x i ~ 1) J1 (Ii Y 1==1 .s I x l == 5) .~.J! a£~1 J'! f.J o1\J (x.y.z) <Ll.u' -z ~ xy o.~ {x2 + y2.) Z ~ 26 xy .0' t..u.J " "'. s "~ -3

S3 ~ {(5.! 1 ~5) , (5.~-I ,-5) , (-5.1,-5) , (-5 ~-1,5)

(m 15.5) , (- i ,5,.--5) , (1.-5.-5) • (-1,-5,5)} {I) ~~I J.W SI u 82 u S3J! ~.~~ 6~~1.~ tJl ~Jl?--;I.I ~

A (x.y) == 1 ~ {l);U:J,!w'1 ~ (x.y.z) ~t~1 w1 ~ s.o s os ~u~q_JI~

1 -2·3 ~ if.-.,;

:. l:i;,JI " (1) :r.J.1LJ.1 J.,.b. ~~. S ! ~ (XL + Y:_)z~ 26 xy

![( .. )2 ( r y)2] .... ( ... x y y )

i~,+.-(f Z==26"(JAd

"

I:

i

I



!

(x , y ,. z) E S 1

40

a b~ == 1 i[bJ0~~b = 0 [b]:.,1 ~J x b, ::;; l.,';u .... ztbM": ...... x ~ ,I ..... " '"'\1

1 ... • ..,.--.."r. - ~'U"".

ztbl' ~ 4JlL J.#.: 0i LJ7 ~, I.iaJ,

b ~ d'.."I .. ur tL.l:i ~ a bi J~I-i-.2

{lj.2, ... .n] c)& r~l ~ a bi ,~~ b 01 ~j:ili a ~ b 'LiYJJ ~.:P ~ ........ ~.uli b A b. = 1 '~I lou

~ ~ _ . .....-;--. '. ! U ~

~~'I ~,~~, I,l.u b =d~!-i a », b == 1 of L~, aA b;;;;; b ~ a bi ~'~ b ~J.i. {t2! .... n} ~ i ~ ~ ~l!

(1,2, .. ",n} ~ I~ i W ~ b ~ a "til J..a.nI ~.l:Ji'i r ~ ~ ~4,Y tj ~,.jJ' o S; rl· -c b 0...- a b, .~ kb + r,

~ 1 f

.p tA,1 L.......,il,~ r, 1\ b .... *~ r· 1\ b;t; 1 .' i . *.,

_ 1 --u 1. w· ,~~

p/b , ,phi (l..,J p/ri A b ~JJ' p/bi.,,1 pla.w~Ui J..J~.l~ P ui ~'" a bj ("',,;;~ l) uJl (J£- ~ I.16J 1 ~ P (£1 bi, 1\ b ~ p .. , ,.'; Ij p/b, :.,lS IJ.I

• .. T"! . 1 ... ·, ¥',jII . 1 v po

.~ ..># IlbJ, a A b ~ P .. IJ pia· ,ts: IJ I

". 1---- ... U. U ..

r. A b ~ l',j1

1 .(.J -"

:i'~I~."_ ~ ~ .. tf.~n~l*

~"- ~I~'~

_ "'i'" ..

{1.2, ... ,n},~ ~iI1;'_<>,~~ L i ~

a b .. ~ k, b =I- r· [:yJJ

l l' ~

~_,!i!1 ~.J tiS' r I ~J ~ ~

b ta ()..,1ld--1Q .J.::..~J.5:J b~~~' ~t·,:!h "d •. ud l'nJ .s l'2J ]1"1 ~JJ

b . '. I .. ba 'i ' "t'l J ~H , .. ·f I . . b - ...

L.I'" '- ~ ~'cr" '~.:.c. .l~.iI t:.:~ ~nJ ••. .s b~ bi 01' ~-;J

~1-t b tA J.;1 ~,~ J.=o.I.;~"

{r1, ... -- r}· == {b·, b2 b }

..... , n· A'··' ...... ···, n·

~.j~11 d.,. I~';.U o~1 -J

_ 'IIi '"'" .."

a bi ~ rl [b]:~.lI {1,2, .... n] ~ i ~

(ab1}(ab2) ..... (ahu) == rt T2 " ... rn all b1 b2. , .... biJi == fl "'" Tn

[b] ~ [b] (;1

19a ~ p uJl 19a == (50. - 2~) P ~J 19b ~ P wi ~,Jll~J P!\ 19= 1.;1 p' == 19 u!-i ~~) ~I'..l~ 19j P iJ1' ~ b~ a ~ p '~JJ' ~_P: w,~,~ (j,ILa P A 19;;;;; 1·11S IJI

,-- ¥ .. _ _ ~ iii ..' u,

a A b::: 1 ~.fi ~ ~~. Il!-J P ~ 19 ~~~ 19 ~ ~ d J.k.II ~_,:i I ~ l;ill Js: ~4

(n € IN*) d ;;;;; 19° ~~

7A+B~ d~ B" A~ d~JJ' 19 (5a + b) ;;;;;;; k ' 19J1 ~ f '7 A + 13 = kd ~ 1 Sa + b ;;;;;; k 191\-1 ~~ n> 1 ,:;lS JJl Sa + b \ ... -.,,"; ~' 19~" l la + 2b f """2 19 £11 A I~-""~ 19 u!-, d ,1-""~' 19" A ~ ell ~i tco.:J a ~"_',,!i2 19 ~1 (Lla +. 2b) - 2 (Sa + b) ~ 19 ~ 5- (lEa + Sb) - 18, (Sa + b) ~ 190!-i, 18a + Sb e-~' 19'~) k,.J

b r ",$,1 ~9 u1' 19 1\ 7 = 1 uf ~,j 7b \'="'''': 19,,#1 n::; 1 4.u W<~Q ~ iJ.aJ' a 1\ b ~ 19011 d:: 19 0~~l:iIlu

* * * ;;..

aAb;;;;;;;l s l<h<a ~ ~'I 4 .... :_.,,011 ~I JI~~I ~ ~ b:n" ... .J b2J bi ~ iJSJ.oi~) b~,~,",j ~ ~t,JSJ b~ ~~~ (Oi A b ;;;;;;; 1 J bi < b ~JJ {L" .• n] ZIbZ ~ 4.,i~ ~ bi!{ 1,2, .. ,.,n} ~ i J!I <YI ~-1 b ~ ~ ~.IJ ~ ab, j {1,2p,,!n} i.J.A i JSl .wil ~ =1-2

. - ,,",'"

I 291

~.wr ~~.Ii'il tc..uJJ1 ~4 Ii iA:J {1,2, .. , .• n] ~ i ~ -y

b~ aOi

'?iE {1 •... .n] rjAb=l w1~*

f] :;t: rj w.~ i ~ j !jo.'t="":~ {I ,2, ... .n] L.'>A L iJSl.w1 u:: *'

{ r1,tz, .. ,,1' n} t::.~ I JJ..::o. --r..

an = 1 [b] u~ l&.'-,J

6~~j~ 176_1J~lw'r.~-3 (~IJ.,fiHJ"i I ~~ I )92 ~u '~,Jll5:i t~~ ~

b, J~.JI ." . !~:;, . '-1

1 - ~

3XE .7JbZ

:1 X E . .l'

x b.=] . 1

[0]

./

f

"

v

'-

41

2abxy < 0 ~l 1 - (a2. x2 +b2 y2) <: 0 '~

xy <00.)1

o :-:; rJ. < b """1'" X ;;;;;; kb + a ~,.lI

o .~ .~ <.: a ~""L!_'" - Y ;;;:;; k. 'a + b

w!J ax+ by e I 4t

a (kb + a)- b (k 'I a + ~) = 1

1 ~ (k - k ') ab + an - b~ ~i o :.S; P. < a.j 0 S; a <: b l.:i..JJ -ab < O'.a - b~ <.ab ~.J ~OUJJ ~~'il 4=" ",au uA~,yII, Ua - b~ ~,!-t 0 ~ oa - b~ < ab w~ l.:i! -

..

; ~ ab u-k 1

aa. - b~, = 1

0< aa - b~ + ab < ab uP -.ab < (1;1;1- b~, <: 0 vIS: U! - ~[4 J.A aa ~ b~ + ab ,u!i 1= (k - k I' - 1) ab + '(Xa - bP + ab wi ~ ~ ab ~ 1 JcJ.tJll ~.t .. LJjj,"1 tAb,d.11 aa - b~ + ab = 1

aa + (a - ~) b ~ 1 'i1 a -<~, 0!la.> 0 01 !~, (t (a - ~) <: 0 1,J:,,.1l ~ 1 ~'.»fl JJ~~ Jt~1 ~l!2J' ~ -c a. ij"l (fi._-. ~ 111.,., aa-b~~l u~Li~tl4d-

ax + by ;;;;;; 1 ~ z' "...... VJ X .'~ .~ .t_ •• <ll,j,1jj a A b == 1 ,,·,7 low.

~ ~ ~ J,_ ~~- -~ '.. ~

IN ~ IlJ a 4-:~ ~ ~ ¥" .j-:J' I JJ~ I JiI,;...J I ~ o ~ ~ < ~ 0- Sa < b Jaa - b~ == 1 0..:->: ~ ~ ,~" I b II:: 1 ~ - b~ = 1 w~ a = 0 ~IS I'jf ~ ¢ 0 ~.JJ JilL.., a ~ 02Jj! : ~IN ~, p& (l.·blyo ..... J.::!,..k'o~:1

~ IIj - • -...J' 1I.o.J";' .~.- '"!I'ii - ,,,

~.J ~W I, J~ I y,,~,,#>;Ja A. b ::::: 1 ~.1l

00 « ~, < a." 0 <. a <: b -J ua - Jlb ;;;;;; 1

a (nu) +h (-n~)~n '~

ax+ by en ~ Z: .... :'""~ v , X ·.~.I

.. '"' ~~....,--------- J..J ~

ax + by; a (no;.) + b (- nf;) I~.ll b I(y + n~) = a (nc - x) ~l a ly + n~ w!J a A b ::: lui'~ aJ b (y + n~) ~.

an (b I ' .... bn) = b1 "' .. b n [b] <u"',j

(all - l)(b1 ."". bn) ~ b wJ! ~'"'{L .... t n] ~ it ~ b A bi:;;; 1 r~JJ b /\ (hI .... , bi]) == 1

aD. ~ 1 ~ b ~J.l' US'fi w~~,

an:: 1 [b] wj!

':. J .. ': -3 ~

(1 < b < a,j a 1\ b ;;;;;; l ~JJ) b;;;;;; 6., a == 17 IU,l:;.I, Ijl JS-J b ~ 6..bii ~I ~ 'I~J.':! hI! :li ...... !--J 1 .,l.io.l£ ~ I ~ ~ 3J 2,., 1 ~.iJ (3, u...l~) b l:4 u-1~ 1 ~J.:o. L, Id:~ ~~~~, ~~'Jl;wJ,~,J

M 7351 [6]

(173c'P. ~ 1 176 == 1

[6] ~" [6](;51

* ;+: * '*

card SIl S 1 ,w~ n < ab ul$ Ill! ~i ~ ~ card Sn ~ 1 w!-t (a ~ l)(b - 1) ~; 11 < ab u'~ I,)! <G~ ~ -.,I

30

.1

l x b-c a, .... .: .... : ZVo~~ bj a~ a x + by = 1 "~'r: ZiJA,~~ y:, x ~-1 :xy< 0 0L~.~ -i ~ j ~4 P3 b ~ x.J~ ~~}! I ;t4c_UioiJ i ~L., a~' ~ a~ -yJ~~~~1 CCa - pb ~ 1 0,i ~ IN ~ 'f}.j ex ~~ ~~ (j.!i at /\ b = 1 ~,~ Ij!oCii S;ii'llllil -2

0. < ~ < a '"' 0 <: a < b.J eta ~ ~b :;,::1 '!::'r:

,I

ax + by = n tl",W I }N2~ .. ;:-:: .. 1, a. A b ;;;;;; 1 ~iI ~,;L --3

lfJ~ 4.L~ Sn j,4) ~ y..y. (fiE IN*~;;_) ~:) .J.J,.::i,,j ~~, ~~ Sn u i 4':' -i casd S. :2 1 :.li D ~ ab .'.~ I,JI ~i ~ --..,.;

n I§,#II ~.., .........

,.I~' .b.;UII =1-1

a2x2 + b2 y2 + 2ab xy :::: 1 ~ ax + by ;;;;;; 1 ~~

2ab xy ~ 1 - (a2 xl + b2 y2),#i $£-- ..;:A I:JA,J, II. b I = 1 ~ by = 1 oil .X == 0 ul! IIJ! x :;6, 0 otl.u

b2 x2 < a~ x2 u,!l b < a ~i k.,J b2 x2 + b2 ~.2..( a2 x2 + b2. y2 oJJ

y •

1 - (a2 x2 +11';''2 y2) < 1 _ b2 (x2 + y'2) .~

1- b2 (xl + y2) ~ 0 u'~ ~ (x2 + y:2) e IN* 01 ~'"

42

Card S :::: rna] =[n~] + 1 J~

n b a~

Card S. ~ 1 "j> [ :0 J- [~: ] "' 1 ,,1 ~

n

0< ~ < 1 ab

tl..u. 0 -c 11 < ab ul~;a:. net n~

o < - ~ - <: 1 ($1

b a -

Card Su

w!l :[n~J- _, n.~ + n

b _ a

= [no: _ ~~JI + 1

~ b a _

= 1

[an"]_ ['~. n]_ ,

- - ~ -0 .J

b a

[an] _ [13. nJ;e 0 s

; b _ I R-

[n(;lt] [n,~]

CardSn ;; b -_ a~'

Card S =:; O· ". I.~"

. ' " n .. ' (.)~

~n ,

~- ,d:., IN :i(" fJI *'

II'" ,--w~ - -- •

a

n~ , [nf1]. _

-.::;:; ~ +1

a I a '

[no~] .. '. n.n.':'- <b _ = b

[- not] [np] ,net n~

--~<~-~+1

b I a b a

- .Card Sn 0( 2 ~,!-i 11 <: alb 01 ~

Card So s 1 ijJl

¢lrul ~t~'.lli 'CJ'~I-J

(a - ~)(b - 1) ~ n -c ab u~u6fo Card Sn $1 ~JJ~I..uJ,1 J'Iy.J~ ~J D < ah ~J.I

Car-d Sn = 1 ,,"I Card 3D: ~ 0 cst 5n ~0 ~L:~ wi ~ .u..u (a - 1 )(b - I) < n -c ab ~J.I ab + 1 <: n + a -it- b < ab + a + b

ab < m LYJJ' :<. ~u m;: n + a + b Li_,j;",€u I_:d

:n~,. ..

ax + by = m ~lJlJJ J:,.b. ~ <r Sm .~~ <; ... '1 .... ,' IN~ y" x01~~~~ ax + by = a. + b + Il

a (x - 1) + b (y ~ 1) ::: n ~,

::lIke Z

3 k ' E ~ n a - x = k 1 b ~JJ j:J.4J, k == k 1 0~ a (nu -x) =:; b (n~ + y) U 1 ~.J

{:x == na ~ kb

I Y= -n~ + ka

is ~ {,-. na. - X. '" kb - . n~ + y::;; ka

- n~ + ka 2:! ij

,J

no: - kb z 0

m1~ net

- < k <: ~($.i

a - - b ~

( [n~ net])

CardSfi =: Card Z n a' -b ' 1

~n

-~ IN a·

I,

_. [n.IP.·.·. n .. C(]- _ .s r. -'-~b'-~ - a···

C~...;3'1 S ::::: 0 (l.:,

ru..U -]1 U

[net.] [flt3]

Card Sn ~ l)- "i"".

~nE IN ,uts: Il! *

a.

:.Li

.... ' ..

[ n~ na] {n~ (net]}_

7J n ,a ~ b- ~ ;;;;-1 a" .. t _ b I

I-":if . 1"'1"'--"'11 .;. \~I-~ lJ,J- r-~~ ..

III

,~·;.A.. >. 1 'I- n ~ ab 'j' ~

"'""'"U - -.'b e . {S _-~.~....--

a.. ~

an ~-n

b - a ~ 1

an ~n.

-.- ~ 1. +- ~j

b a

[a."n] .... __ [~ .. n]

~. ;::: 1+~-

b a

[:n ]~[ ~n]

rna] [nP]

CardS = i1i.. - ~.'

~ -- n I!J _ a ~

43

"-jJI

u.

.l~~~ 10~1L.u1~1~~~~ X = 28 x 75 y

X~ 3wi~.;m-l 1 + x + y ~ 3 0i l.t-;l

X=8 - x -s y [11] .:;1w-2

XJ~IU~U 11" '3 Ll:,.t.I~, .. i;;,~ y" xF6.i.~'-3

II

1 + x + y J~ ~IJ 3 J.l.JI-l

X:: 28 x 75 Y 0t" X JJ.t." ~ 3 ~..J 2 + 8 + x + 7 + 5 + y ~ () [3 ~-" 22 + x + y = 0 [3] (;1 1 + x + y == 0 [3]1 w~ 22 =, 1 [3] oi ~.J 1 + x + Y J.Jal' I ~ 3 0J!

~ X := 28 x 75 y W:.JJ X ;;;;; 2 . lOS + 8 . 104 + X . 103 + 7. 10'2 + 5 . 10 + Y

~ 10.:-1 [11] ~..uJ

1 03 == -1 [11] J 104 == 1 U 1] J 105:= -1 [11]

HY=1 [11]__, X = 2 (-1) + 8 + x ( -1) + 7 + 5 (= 1) + y U 1] 0J!

X~8+y~x [11] 'if~

~ ~~"''''Y I -,3

, X.lW r""Li 3 ~J.I 3/1 + x + y 1~.J.l J,~ I ,J l;.uJ I ~.J

J3~' Jlj....J1 ~<G,~{X=O [11]1 ~1) X ("Ida.: 11 wi ~d'

8 -~+y=O [11]~.ll

o S Y < 10 J O:s x < I 0 ~.!l 1 ~ x + y + 1 < 21 <U..v &~I~ 3 ~ 4_,,_._,,6.11 ~WI JI.,\.c.Ylr ~ 18" 15", 12.J 9", 6" 3 wi ~ ~·'111 20 .. 1 v~

"-"';:- ~ ......



I + x + Y E {3, 6, 9', 12~ 15; 18}

~ O~y<lO J' ~10<=xS;,O~..1l -2 <. y - x + 8 < 18 18", -2 ~,~~l, 11 ~ :r~",_".iJI ~li.H ulJ.1~,n L...i 11" 0 wi '~

y - x + g E {O,~ 1 I} 0!-i

y - x E {-8 ~ 3} 'f1' I:

x + y ~ {2, 5, 8, It 14, 17} ~~.J.

rl ~ ~.~J...J ~, ~) ~JJiII ~ ~ y - x.j x, + y ~.;I~~ 211 ~.J

: oG.!A (~,"Nb~\

I" ...... ~ .. -..J:J

X """ Y e{2,.8~14} w,!l Y - x =: -8 WIIS: IJ,! -

Y E. {-3,0,3} 'i1 2y E {=,6, 0 t 6} ~

Y E {0.3} bJ..a. Y ~ 0 0i !~"

(x- ] ~ y - 1) E Sri o!-, Y ~ O.J X ¢ 0 wl.s: IJ,! *' Sn;#. ~ c..u by ~ a + b + n u~ x ~ 0 jL5: jj! * u,ilo ab -II- 1 < a + b + n < ab + a + b w1 ~J ab + 1 <: by < ab + a. + b

1 a.

a + b -< Y < b + 1 + b (J'I,

1 S; Y - a ~i a < y ~ ab + b (y -a) =: a + b + n. ~, by == a + b + n ~.;J a (b -, 1) + b (y = a - 1) ;;;; n ~ i

(b - 1 , y - ,a - 1) E S n ~

Sn '# ¢'uJ.l -J1j y:= 0:. IS: Ijl <t:iiUUi JllL *

_ • u ~ _ ~,. _ .

(x - b - 1 , a - 1) 'E S[I

Sl1l¢~ w..; Card S = I u~,![jL.'J

n - .. lf ~'.

* $: * *

u~ IR~ x~ ~<wl~Q ... ,;-l x (x + l)(x + 2)(x + 3) + 1 = (x2 + 3x + If

~I JJ.wJ1 teet:. ~ .wfl ~.n ~ 3 ~ IN ~ I~ n:fi& -2 31 u~ n~L .... ~

- - ,_ -

lOx 11 x Jl2 x ] 3 + 1 =: (131)2

~~I di ... 2.:J I ~ Jiz..~1II' -1 IR~I~x~: (x + 1 )(x + 2) = )(2 + 3x + 2 ~..11 x (x + 3) = x2 + 3x.

~JJ~J X=x2+3x+l F (x -I- l)(x. + 2) ;;;; X + 1

x (x + 3), ~ X - 1

I I

x (x + l)(x. + 2)(x + 3) '* 1 == (X + l)(X - 1) + l ~X2

x (x + m){x. + 2)(x + 3) ~p 1 ~ (x2 + 3x + 1),2,

ojl

u •

::i .~~ll -; .. -!'d Ii: :>'11 2 _~ ~U.~.I~.- .•

12 = n + 2 ,J 11 ~ n + 1 .J' 10:;;;;;; n l:I;.J.l 13 = n + 3 .J

X ~ 10 x 11 x 12 x 13 + 1 t''':;;

X ~ n (n + l)(n + 2)(n -I- 3) 1- 1 i;.Jl~.J ~.11 ~W II J 1j.&.J j~,J

X~(n2+3n+lp

131 ::: n2 + 3n + 1 ~JJJ

X;;;; (31)2 4.1..u

10 x l l x 12 x 13 + 1.:= (131?

;.jj

"-" iii

* * * *

44

~Ji;;U 4UJWI.J..;.. -2

x < l1,t.,:-=,,:: J'Nf ~ I~ x ~

xxx ;;;;; X u2 + xn + x

~ x {nl + n + 1)

-~-

aaaaaa =a , 1 U 111 ~.!lJ

aaaaaa == a (n3 -I- 1)(n2 + 11 + l}

~~ (xxx)2;;;;;; aaaaaa uJ! x~ (112 +, n + 1)2= a (n3 + 1)(n2 + n + 1) x2(n2+n+l);;;;;;a(n3 +1) (jl ,.2 (n2 + n -I- 1) ;;;;; a. (n3 - 1) + 2a. ~1 x2 (n2 + f.i + 1) =;;;: a (n- I )(n2 + n + 1) + 2a ~i ~ 2a::;;; (n2 + n + 1) [x2 - a (n - ])] ~i (1) ti2 + n + ll2a ~ Za < 2n ~ 0 < a < n ~JJ

2u < n2 -I- n + 1 ~ 2n S; 112 -I- 1 ~~

2a <: nZ + n +- 1 w..i! ~l:.. (1) ;.)~j ~I ~1 2a iL'-~; 01' dl:'S:-At ~ n2 + 0 + 1 .w..u IN ~ ~ ~, .-;1 (JJWI,!,'u0.J!

* *' * *

y ~ O,J x;;;;;;· 8 wj!

X+yE {5,11,17} u~ y-x~3 ~lS:1'-11- y E {4~7.IIO} (ji 2y € P~t14;20] ~J Y E {4,7} 0~li Y < It} ji L,_,J x'E{],4} ~ (y ;;;;; 7,., x = 4),Ji (y;;;;; 4" x .... I) w.J! (x , Y) E {(8.0),OA),(4,,7)} ~,!-J JtJ~ -

* * * *

33

~d_~'lfl~,1 n~ lU111 ~ (ri2 +. n + 1)(113 + I) ui G!~-1 O<a<ll~ ]N*~,I~a~-2 "

!oL '!II

--

(xxx)2::: aaaaaa ;JJW ~ IN ~ ,J=..

ii..::.., _;,;;;,U ~L£:iJ. J 6~ I -1

111111 = n5 + n 4 +. 03 + Ll2 + 11 + 1 G..j

= (n15 + n2) + (a4 -+ 11) + (r13 + [)

= n2 (n3 + 1) + n (n3 -I- 1) + (n3 + 1) =: (113 + 1)(012 + n + 1)

111111 ;;;;(n3+1)(n2+n+l) .),.11

45

, "" ~
I o~11 A'=> '}/ I ul 3
I CJIL!)., n
- ~ ,
'fI'
\._ ~ JLLUH -' ~'~j .t.,J I ~JL?> 11, -

, ..... t" 'r i~'" ... t. I .. "'I.

u-4 ,L., (,S' Ltpa ~ • ~f ",;II) i ~

...., '"

.. , L'" "J If...... ~, •

o .IA ':>,:a, (.S..j~ 4 ~ .....0 _,J1 _,

..... .

~~JJWA~q-

...

47

U.~I~,JJ ljAoJj'iIU~-:II~.J": B6~~Jl.Ll..::...I~I-3 "n~S~"i1

• ,.., I ~ _. ~ ,I - ': I . J' .. j - C .. 11-1,,1 ::1";;. n'~" .. II' - n

~ u -l <W.bi I,l. J' ~ ,.d.LI ~ I' .• _&J.lo ~ .. H.bIJ!..I -J.u , .. o~ , ..... ~ ,

..,,----------- ...... ~ _ rn I!..'''' UJ ~ 'i_... !II ;po", ~ ._,-- ..

n I •. , ... -.~ , ~ " , ~ I -. ~ I" " -n:1 ~..)~-. ob.;!~~

CardQ=nl .~

A 6.1.::J1 J~j ~'~-2

... ...., 2", 1 ~!.J.lII~~~lolj~'f'IlJ~ ~.~i'~.J~.~11 ~~

1 P (N = n !.

B Q~I J~I ~~ -3

J..u.. ,",U, n I. -1" ~ n·~ I t£I. \.. 1 r , "1 ,.u.,J:..u . l,Jj I ~ I . .l! ~ 1:11

"-",., ~....... ."",,,, ~ ~ ~~ "'''' tJ-- • u-. ~ ...

( 1) I ," ~il'l I ... il. I' n -i.,- ·di 'n - .. ' . ~.,' .--'-'-Ol.,.il~ ~!~~~J I

P (B} :;;; (n ~-~)! %, Card B == (n - 2) fuj!

P (B) = .. 1 <;1

n (n - 1)

* '* * *'

~lJI!;~~I~'=---I'~ .(n >- 2) n J! l,u.. WJ-6;";' n ~ W'-i~ ~ J)6li ~~ ~ l:iJJ 4 JJ.lli .,.,,11 ~. ,~fi r-£..) ~ 1L...b.i ~7 ~!jJ j r-IJ ~fi ,~ ~ I Jl~' '";"' LI'% I Jj¥ Ili.fiJ I

4



__ILl! JLua":llu~,

~ .

,~ n,~,. ...... "t...I .>_,'o'",J 4d.U.:i .,I=tM-.1

...,r= a;" ~--~- -'r' -...;-....., ..

~~~'~I J~~ A! ul! {l , .. ".,.~D-l} ~ I~ k ~ * " k ~ l&L:Jj~, I J~ 'i 1 ~ fiJ I r-i.);J k _,.,. ~ ~ I ,ofll f"'';'' : . .:;..i:J ~ Ak ~ "J.j~ I ri.J ~ Lab; ~ I ~1!iJ I&~ j t',.;" : 6JaJ I A~.J A:::::A1 uAz U' .... V ~-1 ~.11 <.J!lL,,?, , ;1;_4 ~ A..l.J .... .j Ai 61.J.::o.)I10i Lu..., P (A) ;;;: P (Al) + , ... + P (",,1)

n-i

=2: P (-\)

k-1

k0A ~,~I ~Jt;fll.)I;1;''i ~~I n -k lli..\l

n-k

P(~~ ~

n.- k

-

n (n- l)

,",lc.A;:,~~J.,f. n~~~ .. l.jJ~ lN~ I~ n,~

.~IJ~'i.fi n+ 1 ~J I

~ ~ ~iJ.;~I~~JSy .... "J·i&.lI~" -lokJ-A ~-1 1 ~ u.,.lll

~ ~J&~~~.~fi~~~I.IJJ1J1 J.~JA ~-2

~ ~ I~··

i(.t~

I, I

~I ~ ~ ,~fi ,.'>I..U-l

,J.i.1 ,~~,~ '.e:' 11. ~.' ',lJ.A _ I~,""",-", Ji ~1 ,~, UJJ I.~ ~ ~fi ~ wi

v. ....... ~ .;o.,~ - ,,-... v---;::;; _' ...... - ""

;:.1~;'J5. n+ 1~~ ~

. • ~ - . -§.' . " J,)J~ 'IC' 2: ,I· ,j

, .......... 1 .. _1,- .. ,. ~I .... ,...l~" •.. &. '1..I.l.J.I

~ ... ~IV;:,'_.. - ~ n T.II

, I I

2- "2 n (n -1) n (n + 1)

Cn + C~:t] = 2 + 2

2

=n

-fi" •. ~. I .,. L .. i . - I. "1' '" ll~.! - I - •. ~ .. I' • ~ <: . - I

¢t". [~~, ..... ,o.~. J.j ~.!iJ,.::o...,ju ,~~ ~J' iJ'-l(J-" ~u

..:. -";p".~Ir,;",;or-- ~ . , _. '~ ..... ;po ..,.. ... -.. II-

P (A ) = 0 .~!~~-! Y'~6;;:;4 ~ lo.:i.::..,I"l.2,;j 0.0 ~~ B;j A.cfi:J P(AuB)=P(B) .jj~

2

t:.~ I ~,JL 'l:;t ~ 64=i1

P (A u B) ::::: P (A) + P (B) m P (A n B) ~JI -u P(A)=Ou1 ~J

w •.

P (A u B) = P (B) - P (A n B)

P (A n B) S; P (A).u..u A nBc A li;.1l

P(AnB)::;;O ~~ P(.A)::=O 0i~.J P (A nB);;;;; .0 ~ P (AnB) ~O ~.iJ~ P (A U B.) == P (B ).,j.J!

(n~2)n J.! 1 u.aW~U·.l~=l1~w~~

Jjl:..I·' -, =- ,1:llI LH':,jU~ 1- II..U U_l~~'C 'L ~ ~ . _Ij .' ~ ~.~ . ~. ~ .. ' w- ~ .

~J.Jo~~~ II ufi .J...u..-l

~~~loll~'~lJ)· A 6~IJ~I~I-2

" 2 1._: .... ~ d ... ':11

. n.., ... J:J ~...,...

3

48

6 J! 1 ~ (.Uj" ~ .b.~,JS~". Jl:.".r,,;_, WJ..:I.[ ~j'; ,~~ ! , J.l2.J j r.:iA t:A '~ lU., .);s-,_t.iJ l J.,;.l j ~;.) ~ J.g, ~ J ~I

~ J Jy14 ~ ,~ y_"j ~~J r ~yJ! ,crjJ 6

"U~J) ~~lwIJ~r: A~J..>J[JI~~I.y. La

ACJ.uJIJt~1 y~

cJiy1il~ .JjJ~~.J: ~~j'T_L"U ~~~.14~).j o~~'il~,y. 01 ~JJ~j-.l;J't.rJ:~~I'~~4,4).lo~~~lufi~ ~ ~,~w~IJ~~j P2~

: {1" •. ,6), ~ i~ ~,.11

Q1 ~ uyJ..I JW:..~~ Pl ~ {L2, ... ,6} ~, I ~ Pi::: PI ({il) t,;'j

P], P2 P6 LL.JJ

I =-2 = .. ··';::6 ~-

P'l p} + , ; - + P'6

T - l-t- 2+ ... + 6

,~,

Pl 1

T:;;;21

ViE {l.,; " .~6}

1

P" - '"1

i - 21 u v;

A = {(2,2}.(2A)!,(2,6), (4,2),( 4A)j(4,6),(6,2)~(6,4)j,(6,6)}

A jA OJ) ~' P ({ i,j}) ~~ P (i.j) \~, .A~, I~ (iJ)~'

P (L j) ::: P 1 ({i}) X PI (on ~.J1

1 i

;;;; 6' 2l

246

P (A) ~ 3 . 6. 21 + 3 . 6. 21 + 3 , {) . 21

2 =7

* * * *

n:2 2.!;:-..: IN ~.I~ n.~ ~~,- ;sl~;fi n + 2,J#>~;fi n ~&J-"_'''''' ~ "'~ .c ~I. W,I,,'''~.J-" ~ I.;J _ ~

~1~~~fi~~IJIa:;¢>.11 Pll~ n;rJ~JJ.p_., ,u+%~-l

., I!l ,.

1 1 -, '2'

.. , ~ ~I '

n, <-- .(.) ,~,-'

r[l _ 2 .

~J Pn~t.fJ n~~ ~-3

7

PnJ~"11 ~~-1

. = oIj

~ l.u,." ~ u?.f. '~1,; ,~t~ ~ . &~~ ~ bfi 20 + 2 ~~ - ._. - 20 + 2', '.~ :._1' iLlt ~I

~ _ .~c.>'~ ~ -.j~

1'1.-1

n-k

~ (A) ~ l -n l--"=="U-_ '_"t )'1

k=l '\

:.j!

'-' .

] '"

~ _ (: '1) £.J (n <k)

nn- _ k;.;1

1

= n en _ ]) { (n - 1 )+ (n - 2) + ... + 1)

~ n (n - I)

~ x ~,....-=-

n (n-l)· 2

1

P (A)= 2 <U.u

,

* * * *

S={l, ... .n] ~,IN*~I~ n~ ~ 4J s ~ I~I &1 ~~J S t:.~1 iJA ~~,;.:.. ~~ J1i}..:J, : ~CiJI6l.:l.::o.,~1 .):,"1"'1. S ~ ~~ AW' - JL.:k..~1

,

'-

• Aw_t._·;' ~~' J: ;;", ~ ~jJ' r I>.Y;J j. : E

I" 5 "A ~ ~~ .;,,:,;.;.1 ''fJ.l' .!',):;Jr : F

'-4..1:. sliJ I ~.'.Q .. ?-,U jA .;~ ~ .;.1 ,~.:J 1 <~.~.nJ A thta:l" : G CardAj n4U:J~ E6~jJW=..[ ~I-l

0.:9 F ~~rJL.b.I~I-2

- ,

E o,~1 JW~J ~~ -1 S~~j ... I~I,j~~ 2n~...J~ ~l;:l~':il J~.J-A 2]) u~, S ~ k?'-JI';"~ wi ~.J . A ~~ I .~ 1.i7-' ~ ~ J':";; ~ J.i (i1 ~ A w~....; ~I .. ;:'41 ($jJ j .. ._F.J' -

. -

A· . j~, .J' II, I.... '., j (k c - - d A) '2:t Ii .. .,

~ ~~..r:"'.,J~:.il ~~~-~I J~JA '_ ;;;; ar,_ ,_ u~ %

Zk __

P (E) = - = 2 k-n w,J!-

2~

k;;;;caroA~

Fb~1 JL",::.?o1 ~,~-2

~lWl ll-:! ~ fol J,i, .. ~~ jJA ,wi iJJ..: fol t;~j ~~I~, A ~ .J.~ j.A. (k ::: card A) Zn-k ~JJJ E ~ A ~i~ {I ~ ~ ~ C otl;> A U C ~~I J.1A.),I~-;;';!! Qlii~~' 21l•k (' 1 )k

P (F) ;;;; -_ ~ _ -, <!..l..u

2[1 ,2,

k;;;; crud A ~

riB E .9(S)

G o.b..HJ~1 ~.~

A n B == 0 ~, B C AI4;.ll

I,

I,

_,.. A ~ !la..b,Il:i, I>~ )iL~'i! or..;:.~~J J~ (k:;;;; card A) 2n;k ~~J (,C.; I.ill ~~ 1

* * *' *

"if nE IN*' - {1,2} "n+l 2: Il]n w,j!,

'~<~

~ < Illz J' ~~ I':;; (~)m>2 ~~!~,

'\I n E IN* - {t2} u3, S; uti wj!

ug<Uz "

• pl. L '·1" .' ~ ~ - 3·" 'I" ._ J ~~~ I , ..

~J . 11 ~,V'l' n d=~I1' _J-!;, u;fil if UI "'9

* * * *

~~, 3 (£J-b"i ljA -~,(] ~J J. ~ k ,"'_ 'D IJ.ko n .;c~

- ... PI' ... "!!'i-' .... _ ~ '!I'l~"""""" ~I

WJ"l"~ I~ t.fi n + 1 ~"t1J J! 1 f.J.4 W~ ¢I=.A;!': ifi n u-k

~ 1 ~ ~fo ~lj ~u,t.c ~" n + lJl 1 ~ "UJ.hl' 1 ~ ~ UiJ.f. ~ W-cl.ol'Joi II" : A 6~ I J~'I ¥'Ci1"" I -1 "n,:,A ~.)t~wfi;,'~fivk~I": ~~II B ~:~2 B ~J.:JI JI~=";;AJ Pi ~I ~i ~;~dj p,~,~~ O,dn}'~~--Y

8

A ,~~'I J~-I ~,~ ~1

0.' _"r;: n~ .. : .... ,· ... ~~'~,uw,<Jli.;,I~ .. 4-(',·_, __ 111 '_"'_"'___' •• : ...... ,".t':;: -< _ _I ... ,'~.- __ -~ - II -

~ ",,!,V"'-'¥,i'..,~ .. ~ .... ~,-~ .. ~ ~~~ ~~·v~-~~~~

~'~.fi, n+ l ~~~..JI~~~,Jj~~ ~ o~~'il J~-J-" c~+2- ~JJ

c2 c2

'P(A)=~ +~

" - cin+] c;fiTl

n. - '1 n~ 1

= _ .- _ + . n

2 (2n - 1) - 2 ~ n + I)

2n2 -1.

(A) ,',.)!

.P .. --.' = ..... ~

4n2 -1

B o~l ,JI"j I ~L- -i~l

: Ak 6~!1 ,;f'-1 {l, ~n-l}.J.4 k,~ ~ Ji.I

"n -k , k LucA~1 ~fl' tAl.;" B ::::: Al U "j 'U A~l 1U:.il

""II k E ,{ l"",n-l}

B :;;;;; Al u ~.; ... u Au. ~

n- 1

,Q!. =~-- ~ 2

wU;i ...... I II'." .~A.:. .....0, Al 61.1=0.'11,:.1 i-.&

_ ifr' • ..;;;;-.il: .a.a. ~ oJ """'"' '"~

P (8)= L P (Ax)

k:l

{l",,!.n} ,~II~ k~ n -kJA 4dJ,~fiJ (k <0) k~ II"e~J~:fo ~.:J card At ~ 4- uj!

. l (:2n + 2) ~

C2n-t:2 ~ 2. t 211 !

;;;;;; (n + 1 )(;2n + 1)

2 (n + 2)(n + 1)

Cn+2 =2

2 n(n- I)

__j C-:: -

n 2

50

n (n- 1) (n + 2) (n + I)

~'-==-+ ~~~-

2 2

Pn' ~ ~~~~~~~-

(n + 1)(2n + 1)

n (0 - 1) + (IiI + 2 )(n 1= 1)

-

'2 (n + 1)(20 + 1)

n2 + n+ 1

-~--~

2'2 3 1 n +n+.

2 1

n- + n+ '

Pn =: 2

2n.· + 3n + 1

I'

1

... <: - '<=)

Pn. . 2

<=> 2n2+ 2n.+2 <: 2n2+ 3n+ 1 <=> I<n

1 .1-_". ...' "~I ~ 11'1 ,. "j' ~

',B 'n' ",",' ~. W loa d ' ...... t06. ~ ji' .0 .W!lY- U ' ,

.{' .... 2 ..r.;-..., •. -

n J..wl ~ ~3

M

~ ~ ~,.,.JJ (l\.~~ ~U;ill ~

IN ~,j~n~

:r?+n+1

Un;;;;;; :2 -

2n- + 3n + I -2

11- + 3n -4'" 3

Un+! :::: .:2 _-

2n + 7n + ,6

2

n + 3n+ 3

~~~-.<~~~-

:2. . c 2 -

2n + 7n + ,6 2n + 3n + 1

(n2 + 3n + 3)(2n2 + 3n + I)- < (nz + n + 1)(202 + 7n + 6)-

:n2+n+l

z 3"0-

n - ne<_

, 1 + ~

2-$;n'< 2

n=2-

J.;":II .~L.L;l1 a~ I' ~1 '~,_,J.~.~' ~ c.i9J'i__I.o:1 , ~.~.fi 11.~ ~~ ~ Q~ ~ A ~ {l~·" .. .n-L] ~ I'~ k &4 ~.fi n-k ~0 ~ ~ .~..f. k ~ J,.. .. ,: .. ~;H ~ ~fi n ~ ~" : Ak .c.~j J .. ;'t_;'i

.. ,~ A ~ At U Az- U ... ,,,. U' A .. ~ LL.JJ

I· '111.=1 .... -

n-l

p :;:L P (~)

k=l

0Jli ~1~lwt' ~",~~I~;':fi a-r-b ~JJ O~.tS:.4j I J..k:.;A C:+ll =

Card~. ;; c:. . C:""

]l·l

p:= 2:

k=l

~I!!'~' ~'lL_~ j 611i1 -2

- ~ .

~I~~ ~1Ji ~L;.~~~~I ~I.fi.I'I.WJS.:i·bt"i ~KJ ,.1.:o.!J~. ~~II

;:0 I ,A_H i e n , v">~u,1 t.:.~.1 C n ~,.J.l

~. ~. ~ - - a ~-

jS~~'j,§. n~~~II.C:

~ ... ~j'-3·· .. t - _01 i

u~ ~ ~ u.,J'.;1 ~i UJJ l$1 JJJ;~I' ~ .~ .~:~.,lJ olfiJ' I 0 ~ ~,

"'

p+q;;;;;;l

11-1

L ·e C~k +Cll + en = C'i ($i

-_ a b .a' b - a+1> ..

t~ ..

* * * *

.w~ ~ .0 < n <: fill "~Jt-""'": IN ~ iJ..l~ m_j n ~ .;.fin~~lJ4=i~~ m.u1! l~W.Ylbfi m~ : ~~~ fL ...... m}.~ k ~ ~ .~~ .. 'k ~~"i~. ~i ~~ Q'fl~ f-ll)~·; Ak "~~, olfi1lt[j;)~ ~~~ts:_,A k' : Bk {I, ... .m] .~ ,~ k w4 =1

10

-JI

w- •

4

== ---,,----:-

n(2n+1)

0.

P (B) = L .. ' 4 u!-i~W~J

K;;:l n (2n + 1)

40:

- n (2n + 1) 2 (n- 0 - n (2n + 1)

n J~I d Ali ~L-I

.. ;;

uj! n == 2k + 1 ~. ~J.;i, n ~..J 4k.

P (8):= (2k + 1)(2k + 3)

~ L..: iA,ytl1 (~l. \. > .. t ~,.I.w I iJ' tI:a I • .~ .... ~ =KIk ~ " ~

4k

l\ = (2k+ ll)\2k+ 3)

l\+1 4 (k+ 1)

'~ = (21: +3l2k + 5) .

(k + 1 )(2k + 1)

=

k(2k+ 5)

(2k -;I- 1 }(2k + 3) 4k

u._ ..

.ri.-t:] .

_- < 1

Uk

(k+ lX2k =I- 1) k{2k+ 5) . -c 1

~ 2k2 + 3k + 1 < 2kl. -I- 5k ~ 1 <2k

ilk+l <: Uk w!li % .,'-a _, ~,~ "1'1 '~.)~' I (.j i ,~ ~ ~~ll:i (l\ ~>l \J tall <!l.u

[1]. <.ru., . k - ~i.

* * * *

,j.~IJ,,~~~IJt..;;,>11 q~-2 c.;+c:

9

'~1~"": IN*~J~ ll.J ]N*~~~ b~ a~ () <:: n S; inf (a.b)

~ ~I •• ~ I",~;fo b.j'~ I ,_.;,;~ ,;fi a.~ J:JJ:>.~ ~

'I.fi n ~t, ,~I~ c.iJ~' j ~~J.lH~~IJ'~.~ p~-]

n -1

1 "'_ k- k •

P ~ ~ L Ca, C~·· ol.~

~m kg1

51

("'11-1 K-l

P (Bk) ;;; 0 0!-i k <: n 0ts: Ll! «111 ~U1ILu C~·l

p (~) ~ k~l ~!A k ~ n 015: LlJJ

em

e>Y-4"Go tl].,)I~ unJ .•. J up ~J~! O.i..::i. X~ 1 S ksm ~~.j k ~ sup (ap n" un) C'A:' XE Bk ~49 ujl LilJ.l .. ~W~.Y I (_uS. Q ~

'- .;. Ii" '"

'\I X E n 3 k E {I, ... , rn] X E Bk

.Q C. Bl U' .... U Bm ~.J u!J \if k E {I, '''; m] Bk c n w'1 ~,j fl~B1V .... V Brn ~~16'..1.;::,.H""",, Bl U ... ·. U Bm wj~.

h .. /JJI 4"?f;;11 o~l· -~ i*j'~1r-: {L, .... .tn} ~cJ.l~. ].1 1~ Bi nBj ¢'¢0i ~~ X E B. n B. ~"').-J X. _:; l.._w I ~J,::o.. '~J:::! ~,J

. 1 . J - ~.. Ii"~' .....

X~~rll.;l '~J"'J' al~ ~ ~1$.1 {Ctl' .... ,.~} .~~ ~il:5: i u.l-i X E BjJ X € Bi W' ~ ~~:l i:t: j Wfi JH~ I~J i=j ~ ~ - ~ ;1I . ...,4\.q Bm"; ... J B2J Bl ol.1.:l.~I.J.jl.

r. j""clI"iil <r

B ·B·· .. ' B···· ~"

~ J#.I. 6~ 1. U . - 2 .... Um ,:,;jJ

P (B1 U B2 ..... 'U Bm) == 1

~- ..... ~.J~ BmJ ... _, B2J B16jJo.;:;,.~·101~

m

L P CSt) :=; 1 u!-i

kel

n·] m

1: P (8.) + L P (l\) = I

k=l k~.

52

'1 I

P(Ak)=O~~ ~i~ k&,£" l.~l p (At) J~'!JI~I ~

.D,_,ffi.J k ~':l'~ P (B'k) JJ.a;.!: ~~qo~l~ Bl uRi 'U P' uBmwL:!~ -1-211 Ii

w,li i ¢ j ~,{1r .. .zn] ~ L i~, ~ oGL,:~ 7 I

B "-'·B· -0 ·.i 11 j-

In

ell ~ cn• 1 .' _._ I

-m;;;::: £...J k,.j 01 ~"'-HI ~

k.~1:i

k J.wl ~ ~.,~~ ~i-l ~~I.;.lfl·1 r'~i UnJ"'''' ~ "1 ~ :.t:s: 1.1lbi·b L:d.~ Ak o~l~

._.. ,~ w II- . •

'tiE {I, .... .n]

(Xi S; k

{aI' "T, an} C {I, "', k) ~'1

car. d {-IV N l < card .{i L '""' k}~ ...

. .~1; =+;q u-..nJ - . ~ . .._.,

n sk ($1 P (At) * () ::} n S;.k 0.1! k-c n => P(~)=O~ n~l..9'" J' 2 J 1 ~ P (At) .... n 4J:..l ~ k ~ u~ jtJ4-J

P(A ).··JlAi ... Y·lu~-~

k. •

P (Ak) = 0 ~.lJ J:. W ~ J 1j.;.;J I ~~" .. _ ~ lAk < n ~I~ I:).!

k~ n0i ~~ .,),d,.qM,. k~~.~ n,j ~lL:i):";;1 ~ IJ~ bib '.l!Ji..",~ Ak6"1.= •. H~ (ld .... .s 1 rI.iJ"i!I.~ ~I' olfll ~J)

Cru:-d~, ;:;; c: <U.a.j

,

II

P(Bk)J~':JI~~~

"k' '-. ~.ft ~" ·'1 -I ('~~"..._,: ..... ~ .";": C1• c.~1 ~

~ •. '. ." ,,-, ~'.Y""' v-:-..,...--,J" . ill: . ft

=l ~. . . _:.".. ..

Bk== ~ nek_ t:.:U p (B.) ~p (Al{) ~

w1 ,Wt:. P (Bt) == 0 u!i k -c I1 ~iS l.1l ,~,j! o s P (Bk) .s P (Ak) ;;; 0 (P \Ak) ;;f.; 0 ~.il) k z n iJ1 ~.~

- ) tu.1l

P (.~) = P (1\ n em ~-

;;:: P (Ak) . P (Cr/At)

I .1

~.J. J.,i iuii ~ o~~r 5 l¥JJ .ui-i ~I ~,a,'~j ~~, W,i ~-J I',~,~

~~I J'~"1lylr"'; -1-2

~ ,

~ Al &i ~ Jia..4.;# Al l:i:.J WI' 1=,), !! ~ I JJ~ I s,fo] j • : 6.J.::J I "'"' At t~,.llJ' , ~ I'~ 5 ~,oljS: lO'w~1 ,.,j,.,L , .p1,A±' b'(' ,~1 ~

"i" "':t .. "',B ~ ~ ~

5 1

P (~ I A1); 100 ~ 2 (l..,,J

- [1:i:.:i.u..1" I -, G. --- - , ~

~ Az~Al nA2~.1J

P (1\)= P (~ nAt)

;;;; p (~ I Al ) X P (Ai) i I

;;;;' (l ~ PeAl») P (AzI A])

P' (Az)= (1 - 151)x, ~ oj,! 3

=: 11

A3 ~,J.:JI J~I ~~ -3

~ ~=AlnA2nA3~.J

- -

P(A3) ==P(A1 n~). P (A3! Al n.~)

~ - - -

=P'(A1)·F (~! A1)P (~I Al n~

6

== 11

p (Az ! AI) = 1 - P CAz I A1) 1

= 1 ---

:2

1

;;:;; 2

~,~ I.;-=- ..;.I_fo 5 ~ C! 'fi 9 ~,~ Jj..u.....cJ ~ ~ ~I,.;.:: r:.t;.fi ~ ~, 5

P (~ I Al n ~) = ' 9

~J~I ,c,IJ.=o,.~~n oy.~i -4

I -<:.' i:l ~ y e . .<;"" ' •• < ~.... ,j" I I < t:: 1[_ -I ",

"" ~;!I~ UJo' ~'.),~ 01 ,~ ;,: 'qd~ #!,~ Ci'~ ,_J ~ ~ J.j.1l....::J 01 ~

l1J110,Ji9,,18~~ ~1..!3''':~ All.J AIO-' ~ AsO~~~II~, P (Ag) ;;;; P (A9) = P (AIO) = P (An) = .0 oJ,!

*' * * *

53

m

'c' n, -1 - cn "{,,j

~ 1.1 -m 0,.;'

~]l

* * * *

~e I. " .j lW.:..1 ~ L....:J.~, ~ LI.:,J ~ Cj B", A ~ P (A n B) ,i:- 0" P {A):t, 0 ,~ii ~~-1

P (AnB n C) ;;;;P(A) P (BfA) P (CIA n B)01~ 11 ~llS' ,Ij.! ,_biju IJ,l ~ BJ A ~~.::!:;~, -2 ,

P (A u B) ~ P (A) P (B) + P (A)

~ -::: t I ~ j~. I ~. I ~ I -1

-~ -1J~ ~~, .

P (A (lB n C):; P -( (A 1'1 B) (l C) l:w;.il

== p' (A nB). P (CIA nB)

P (A n B) = P (A) P (BfA) ~.iI".

P CAnE. n C) =: P (A) P (B/A) P eGA nB) ~J

Cj~1 jllS::U!I' ~I~I -2

~,JJ, ~ B,J' A: (p):v~I~·~

(P) ¢::> P (A nB);;;; P (A). P (B) ¢:} -P CAnB):= ~ PCA) P(13)

{=> P (A) + P (B) - P (A nB)=P (A) + P (B) - P (A) P (B) ** P (A u B) ~ P (A) + (1 - P (A)) P (B)

~.p (A uB)= P (A) + P(A)P (B)

P (A u B):: P (A) + P (13.) - P (A. nB) ~1 L.Jc_ P (A) :; I - P (A) s

uJ~~ s, Au,jl P (A u B) =: P (A) + P (A) P (B)

.1

II

I

* * * *

~!.,,_i,,, ~~lcI1,j. ~~~ ~I'fi 5:J ~.~ 01'.;.5 6 ~ Jj~. ~ JJ~I ~ e,.lfl' ~ j)k..l WJ~~IZI4J

I

: Ak o~4 {1 t 2t .. 't Il},~ k J~ ~~; "

:1

I I

U'~'!'>Uj ~,I~ ;fi Jjj ~.J,~ k' A16~IJL..hI~I-l ~~ A1Wi ~ ~~~IJI_r;1 ..... i~l-i'-2 Az6~11 JL .. :i§>=1 ~-;~±1"1~ -y

A3 6.J.:::J1 J:l.~1 ..IJ,.::..-3 .Au,", A10J ~ As 61~'iI~JSJL.,:;.;-.1 ,:~.R'!'_""I' -4 I

12

Ai o~1 ,J~I ~L- -1

I ,,5· I. ~ - .. ,. - II ,'- c:: }']I h .i

~~ ~llJ~'~:J~ '~.;Ij

:ii' _ '. "::- t . I ': ... III. I ·;'1' --2 ~~ ~II ~UoI -'.

~ "" 'Ii

{ ~ n-l}· 'I· -" k '.<.1

J., ...• , ,-. UoA I~ ~

~~ .. N=B u...tI

~ k k ...

Bk+l ;;;;; (Bk-irl n Bk) U (Bk+l n Nk) ~~_,.

P (Bk+l) = P (Bk+l n BId> -t P (E'k+l n Nt) ~

;; P (13k) P (Bk+l1 Bk) + P (Nk) P (Bk+l1 Nit)

'bfi h,J ~I,.;.:: ifi a + 1 ,~~ uk+l &~I ~~~,:&.fo ~J ~ b+l .s ~,~, ~fi a ~ ~ Uk+ 1 &.1i,..,.! ,I ~, fo II,~ 'bfi ~.J ~, • ~ I~ .1> !,...j~b.fi a+l

p (Bt+l IBk):;:: - lb' 1 <ti.u

a+ .... +

a

P (~+1 I NIl;,) == a + b .... 1

a+ 1 a

uk+)= a+ lei + 1 uk + a+b 4- 1 (I-uk)

m a

Ux,+l = a+ b + Ii\: + 'a+ b + 1

~~~1-3

~-11 . {I, .. "" n-I} U. I.~ k ~

1 a

Uk+1 :;:::: a.+ b + 1 'Uk +a, + b + 1

1 a a

~ a+ b +- 11\ + ,3+ b - (a+ b Xa + b ... 1)

a 1 (. a).

Uk+]'~ ,~+-b=a+b+I'l\- ,a.+b

a vir = IL\ - a" + It>

1

V,,_ == v

"' ... la.+b+l "k

V' k E, [L, ... " n-I}

\i ke {I" .. .n-l ]

* * * *

~ ~ ~ ,.i'I~ 'bfi aJ' ,,',).;: i.J. a ~ ,u4- ~ ~~ IJ! ' &~I0A '0':', ~~ l,;.,U ~ ~ t} : ~~I ~Jcit~IJ! ~~f'L.!.!:~1S: Ij1J~I~~f'I~

.~ l;J 'I ~.H$_j..1 "fi

15

0jl
~
I
I
(ST

y;:l cr' d !1~.Jrli Jo'lJ 6 J! 1 ~ W..)A d A-*"I d ':" d ~,.1'; ll:.iI ~ 1 .uJ I ~ I.ll.-.:.. 11,j!-i! d J;J I ~). 6.., 6J 4.1' 3,J 2., 1 d 'I J_;lJ I rrY r=: ~ ~ IrlJ 1 ,~ 1,~ J- ...... ~r-I ,,j,lt ~'" , ~..u JJ;c. ~ Jcu!!o~ t I~,J~ ~ t· ~ ..<' ~ " .... ."d' J t~';i li~_,l ~

~1j"._. u. _\'! -..,.;r--·~-~r ...r-

Ii 5 ,y,J,,'i' I ~) I ~ ~ ~,I JJ;a.l1 U 1 lc.k

13

.. IL t I J ~ o.j I \.,.JL-c..

~ .

"~-iJ t4-t"I" J.-.=.l' v;J~' I t~' : ~.1:J 1 B ~ "~YI~) I ~ ~ J=,,,,,'" I ~ JJ.tJI,,JA 5" :bJ.:J1 A,~ A ~ {(5,1) ; (5,2) , (5,3) i' (5,4) . (5;6)} ~.lI

~e;J'li ~Jj ~ ~ d P JjlJl ~_.Hji rJ.-J' ~ cardA=5~

,*,~ (x.y) ?r.Lti~1 ~~>" Q~IS..,.'~I WJ' n ~.J Y E {t2,,3,4.,5.6) J XE {1,2t3,4,6} c·ardn~30~

5 _ "I

P (A) = 30 0J .•

2

P (An B) = 30 ~ A,(\ B == { (5,lL (50,3) } tl~~"

2130 2 . Lii.·' J WL,

P' (BlA) = ~- =- (,)~-- .; ;!J

. 5130 5

* * * *

.,'

~ I~,J ul Jj~11 ~ i.fi ~L~ '-.I"OcIEi • ,~IJ~ 6';;'

.~ ~ U2 JJ~'I .~ 'i.§. ~~ ~ r-:i U2 JJ..u.I~1

• I. __ ~~ u·· ,_ -' 1,.= < •. ". lll··~'· .. , ... _~I'I

~~.J' I n-ll!J~ (..;lAb..)""~(J If~ ~.J U3~!

t1n J.J~ I ~;.~ ~I~ ~~ ~IJJ~' I ~~~il ;fiJl" : Bk 6~14 {I, ... .n] ~ k.),~JS~'; ." ~~ UtJJ~1 u.k ~ P (Bk> t·o; {I, ... ; m} ~ k ~ U1 ''t.o.uo;o.l-l

,w!A {L , ...• n-L] ~ k~:~ ~1~1-2

1 .a

11. • = I ,u,_ + -

~K+~. a + b + ill - ~ a + b + 1

14

Ul ~,~.H ~~-1

~f' L;',!~:6j£. .a.~. Ul ~ I ~~.fi iii. + b ~J.l ~I_,bu ~~jll:';~~~1 a 1~J1!J Uli JJ~lu .. ·d,~LJ;;-S~Il.:i.i.i~..J

a Ul.=~. . .a+b

54

;, U Ii ..... I ;1 ;<!~..;_ il . ,"", .. j Al ~IJ.QI.~ I 011 ~. "

,""",Ii' I. ~ .I: ~ "_ _ _ '4.l

Di

P (B) = 1 - L P (Ai) ]",1

n

= 1- ~. P" /-i1

l=]

llh,tl' IN*·· I. ~c [IJ,' .. c .... ,I

~ .. ~ ~ --~

1 1

Pil+1 :::;:; '"2 ~-2 '(PI + , .. + p~)

1 t

Pn == 2' ~ 2. (Pl + . T. + Pn~l)

1

Pn+] ~ I'n =~, -2- Pn '~

1 PD.+1 = -2~ PIll

"rf n E IN*

:r - Jlit I ~'L II ,,.U .. II "'~ 3·.'

~_ .. ' _'. ~~.' ~~I~ L_

. .

... m_,1 z., 11o,j: ... _yJI.,~I,~~,.u,~II~~6;tl:lu'~,~ n~I~'-J ll-1,_,1

'In == P (AI U .•..... U ~-l) ~,

=p (AI) .... , .. + P (~~1)

.... PI + " ..... + Pfi~l

tu.1l ~' L7;J111 J~. ~'.' .. .1, '.' ,. , . .,. -l:t'-~ ~

1 ]1-1

Pn =2; (I-I, Pi)

i~l .

n

Id?·=i~2p ~

" " I ' !l

1",,1

q ::: 1 - 2p.. ;, .• :iJ

m -- n"",~

mD

.. ,( )

Pn ~1.··-2-'

'.' L-;;.:,+"II ~J ~ _ .

:[_ ,I' ~

'. q'. .. = l ~ :2 p. LL..ll

., -n n ~

* :;: * *

.~.'~ n

Pn+l

P:n ,~ P (1\) ~1J P'v' Plo"~~'~l =1 u~lJ iN*~ n~~~,i¥I:-1-2

1 ~.

= ~ (l~L p.,

2 . ~

,_ j ... :a

I'iI = 1-2p w1uy-i

"'iln, - 11. _.

PIJ~1Iy~-1

I . ~' .. '.<: .. ' a' L.'.' ,t' .... ':!:' ",t' . _I I .' .. , ~'. it .::_-' 2a~.Jl

~~ ,~,.."... . ',.._ ~ ~ Or ~

a 1

~ji

Pl ~ 2a =' :2

1>2 J!~"1I~~ ~I;;e. ..Jl~',r-l ~,~t'~ Jj~~ ~I ~~~J6fil~ ~~Aln~ %

P2 ~:p (~ nAz) ~ P (Al ). P (A:. I At)

-.! '"

~ (I _.p (Al» P (1\ I Al)

1 .. ~

=2.- P (AzI A])

.. "'. •• ~.al'! ... c, - .1 .Ia~,~ :.I,j; <l.J111• ~L~ .. ,~ •. ~-::'~' -'I LJo'!.~.~ lift ~ ~

~--.n. 'F~ ~'!;,,;i'!I" 'Io!iJjII' ~ ,!-,,#iJ~ ~ .. -_" •

~;ti!.I~':FyJ I Q L.-1 ~ ~ ~~2

IN*iJA j~ n~ ",1.,0:: !b .... s 2,1 l~~I;~~~~lfi:I~ ~+1= ,Xl ~I-Az n .... n t\) n ~Hl ~ ~JJ., .B ~'Al;': Az n .... n ~~

Pn+l .... P (B n ~+1)

~P(B)P(A .·IB)

. - •• "11+1

I ~ 'I' ~ -.' III rl ~ I '. U .. 11 <III ,,~; I

W~ ~~f J! w~ .i,S' ~~JI ~ ~ I ~ . .)-'" ~ I ~'

P (B) = 1 ~ P(B)

== 1 - P (AI U ~ u ...... u Aa)

55

• ..ll

u-~

C6~IJ~1

B=~ vAl U~ ~.jJ I&.i 1 ~,j~ I~ I ~ y, ~ A3J ApAo '''',:"""

p (C) ;;;; P (Ao) -1-, P (A}) + P (Az) ~J

(l)ll""l('l)1l l(l)ll

::: '--. +e. - +c ... -.' .

2 n·2.'· 'n,l,

( 1 JR [. n (n.- 1) ]

;;;;; 2: 1 + n +- 2 _I

2 2

n. +n+.··

;;;;;---

2~+1

• II .... 1'1' I' '!!~ 1"1 ~.... B' A

,u~ J~..Iii::I.Ii.&J' .l,.,·~:9"1I.A :,j' '.

P'(AnB)~P(A) "P (B)

·i J.:o. Icj :ii 1l:iJ.~ WI " 1;." : .!;...l:J I.,_A A n :8, A nB=A1 ('$1

P (An B) = P (A1) 4J..v

n

:::::: -

. n (.. 1 )fl+l

P (An B)= P (A) P (B) ¢;;} -_ ~ ... 1 - -. - .1 - .... -

2llJtI-1 2n

n. {2n-1 - ])(n + 1)

(:::) ::::: --~~~

¢::> n + 1 ;;;;; ~-l

~, ~ d;j~1 (t1n)~2 ~'Ill:U1 ~2j un. =: U + 1 ,~ 2;rt= 1

[];;::: 2,"';=": 1N' ijA, ,~ n ~ un+l -Un::: (n + 2 - 2]1) - (n + 1 - zn.-1) ~JJ' "00& 1 - (2TI - 2n-l)

= 1- 2fi-1

ul1+1 - Un -c 0 u!J (n> 1) 2n-l > 1 01 ~

~, ~ll:l, (un)n~2 ~ till I ~ u3 == OJ Uz == 1 ~JJ

\;f 11 € IN*-{ 1,2,,3} Un < 0 <G.y

~ BJ, A~~i~~1 n;=~~jlf' 3u.li

Ct 'iii irYl C_" A '-+4' ~ ~ I n d_~ ~~, -3 AnC=A1 nA2 ~JJ

. . .( 1)11 .'. ( 1 )11

P (An C) :::: c!. 21 + C! . -2 .'

.1:, ~ •. '~

_ [ n (n. - 1)] (.' 1 .. J .. n

- n+ -

- 2 Z

n(n+ 1)

2!ll+1

J~I .~ uli)U.., filU wi ~JW . (n ~ 2)~, n Ud.c F

,~ " d 1 I .. ..II i .. f. d _. II

'\.U,'L£,I .r.-!J'~ ~ ~u ! I

•• , I n~'l .... , 1,1 e . '

.~!I.!.I Q:';=!~I ~

" B I ~ _ _ . v. ~ -,:~ .. -1'1' • ~. (::.-:;" • A'.

~~ J,;i,,,J' ~l(I;J , \!I._uII, ~ •

";~J£"il ~ lL6J1 :"lJ, F·: B

"~llQ'~""~UWI A.uF": C C." B.J A 0 ~.l.:.. ~ ~ J L.l:...1 y.Hl~d -1 ~, BJ A w CI~ I ~ <t'Y"'--=J· D i~, ;.1.1:0. -2 , ~ C."J A.Jfi~'1 -_-<, .t .. ,>-; n4l-4Li JJ;.::..-3

' ... w ~"P"i"

16

A ~~ I J L~:; .. QoJ -1

tL'lW IG.l.a ~,~ ~ Got;2::111 J~ k.,~ :t1W ~ ~.lA Jy"i J.,I& _,.. n - k ~JJ 1

;;~" Jw.:..~..,..,. 2 0,~ttW:1 ~,lA J,! ~L4:i1 JL,',;,j ~.~.fi1ll w~ ~

J.£W 1.o.J.A J 1 .!ly '-' t; tlIl 7.tWI.r.l.i~i iw, k~~1 u .: Ak~~' J~jt~

A== Al vAz U ... , ..... V~_l

n-l

P' (A) = P' (AI) + . , " + P (i\.]) = L P (At) K:::Il,

UiWI :.lA Jl;~ k ~ lc.:U:J ~~I C:. ~~

, . n n-I

_(l.).·.Y' ..... t

-- ~, £.,.C

2 ' II

'b:l

= ( ... ~)nl[±. c! =c~ +,~]

2· k""O _

= G)H [ (1 ~ 0"- 2] 1

=1- ~

id

B =;= Au U Al ~.ll "#J it. W I ~ J.J, J' I.ib'i J:S" :o~ ,-'"" Ao ,!~, ·Z~1.J61.:;j,4J:;W~tt;:;": G~I..;A At

;·,U,~. ~I ~'" ~ At '. A ~J":..U w1 ~

._.. ..... .,.,,. ~ o,J.iI::ao.... •

P (B) :: P (An) + P (AI)

(l)n (-l)H

= T, +C;l2'

n+l

:::::;: ---==

56

,i 'p<", .J IC·2

.~~~J:j ..l~y "2n-trn. ~

m + n- k ~ m wh k ~.J .bU ~fi ~I ~ ~---,;j 4..I,!-i k s:; n wLS: IJl ~_jiJJ n < m w.lLJ.c. m + n - k ~.) ~ jJ.:a.I;j;')5. ~, ~ J4?~ ~ _ : ~t11 J!.-'l:JI ~,1 dJj

1 2 3 .... ".... n

1 2 3 ........ ,'. n UTi .. ". m .... m+n

~ l.;Ly.;.J ~ 0 IfiJ ~ t[j) ,I~II----t-----,t,-! -.......J-II--~- .... --I--

C' rd A' r! 'C1 J:,A,"

ar, 'k=;~' "1 ~

=: 2

, 2: (2n + m) !

Cln-rm :: 2 ! (2n + m • 2) !

(2n+ m)(2n + m-l)

-

,2

.~W ~~ ~ J..k:. ~ C2 ~,JJ'

• 2n·rm ~

k I~~olu lli b~U. ;'fi:~ I ~ ~~ <u!J k > n .ui l..:

m + n - k < m b!-i k > n w·~ ~

: • ,1~'I·b~i'i'"

.~UI ~1..L.iro

m ~ k ~1 m + n ~ k ~ n : ~.,J"i I (f WI

m + n ~ k lq~:..'~J .b.:il ~fi ~I ,r; ~y J.!IWl ... l.A ~.

C ,,1 ,', 1

ard ~ == C1 . CZ oll.u 'I

=: 2

2 Pk;;;;;; 2 C2h+m

4

== {2n'" m}(2n + m - 1)

k<ffitj1 m s- nv ko n : ~~I4J'WJ ill + n ~ k ~J blQ ~J.::o..L,ifi ~I ~ ~_y aJW,lolA, ~ Card A, ' ;;;;;; c! "ell . jl

• Ii: , W ••

=1

2

...

(2n + m)(2n 1- m - 1)

4

.OU mskw~ IJ,I :~~.

l\. :::::; (2n + ill )(2n + m -I)· '~

_ " , , n (0 oF 1) t .~- 1 n? + n + 2 I

,P(An C) = P (A). P{C) ¢=} = 0,j.

z'" l 2n-1 . il+1

~ n (0+ 1) 2~f = (n2.+ II + 2X21lo] - 1)

$=> n (n+ 1) 2n-1;;: (n2 + n ... 2) 211•1 ~ (nl + n + 41 t='> n2 + n +'2 ~ 2fi

.~ ~ .~yJ. j (v n)122 ~ IZJ I .#' V:n =: n2 + U + 2 - 2]1

iI.~.;IL n ~ 2 .... ,:",: IN.~ r~ n~ v n-s l == (n + 1)2 + (0 + 0 + 2 - 2il41 .

;;;;;;; n2 + 3n + 4 - 2. 2:11

V ,1 - V _. ;;;; 2ll! + 2 - 2~ <i'~A,~ .. '

n.J..JI. n '_, '-V

=2{n+ i _2n~1)

··u n~4·lSjJI

rJ. W '.

n-Z '

= 1 + (n- 1)+ c::i +2: C~l

k;..2

n ;?:: 4 w,1S I~I 2n-l > n + 1 ~

_- :fI'

n';a: 4 ~,'IS Ij!vn+l - vn < 0 wo)! I.s.bJii..lc • ..cJt:i, (v,) .',. tJ ~ Ii ~

.,. II n24 ~ ,

v 5 ~ Ooj v 4 ::::: 6,J v 3 ::= 6.., v 2 :.:: 4 ~JI .~ C"', A~ lfl~.J ~~I n4"';!-iilf" 5 2J,,j!

! .....

* * * '*

I\. ;;: (2n + mX2~ + ru- 1)

k > nuts: .IJI,Pk ~r·...._,

til ,.," •

17

Io?J.;£tn '*' lU n -c m ''';~ . ,IN* ~ ~~ lIlJ n u.4 ~fo n+ID_j n JI~ 1 ~ W~" l,-.$:-l Glfi n,~ ~ ~

m +nJll iJ..ti W~~.I~ ,

I'

~ I ~~.fi .l.=..1.J u t ~J' ~Ily_~.~

~ lL .J~,I Air, c.uJ4 {I, ., .. ,m+n~l} ~ ~ J5: ~~ "m-m-k 4-oLiJ ~.j,j k t6-aiJ';fi~~r p~ ... ".~ m-n-L] ~ I~ k ~ -] At6.·.I.;:o·Jr JL.:k.1 Pk ~ : :,lQ, k S; 11 ;'il!i 1')1 ~l ~ -1

.......... 1;,,00" 1=1 _ ..

4

i

I

V k E {I, ... , n+m-l ] Am ... D-k;;;;;;; Ak ui .r!;.fJ1 ~

~ I "fJ"iJ t~ ~.fi ~ ~'r : :6~11 A ~-2 "n +m

Ao~IJw.a..I~I-1 ~fl! ~, 0A 6~1J ;fi. .~i LJ& A o.i:J1 Jlw..11 ~'c", ... 1 -y .~~~,I

k < n 0lS: Dl P'k J~Yli ~jo-1 ... i-1

.. _-' .. -~ UJt .~,I .,-"_, .. <,q, .• -f~ ".u 'L ~I ~ ~I " il .. ~.!. I..J-I~ ~ ,J ~ ~.~ Qo4 ~J""' .. U. 1£'..:1 1.£ ~ . '-' .

. ~ 2n+,m~~

57

3n.+ m- 1

P (A):: (2n + m)(2n+ m~ 1)

11

P (A) ::; L Pk

k~l

40

- -::c=--~==:=;~~~~

(2n+ mX2n + m- ill)

3n + n + 1 - m

~ (2n+ mX2n + m- n

3n+ m-l

-"':"':""""-~~--=

(2n+ mX2n + m- 1)

3n + m - 1 - •

P(A):: : VUlWI,~~,.,J:~,

" (2m + m}t2n + m ~ 1) ~ '...

., I~ "_'". ~~ •• J I ~.~II~· b'<": ,oJ.=J II B·,<·I

p~~ .-,~ ~ -_.~ .r: ~

_ P (Ar1B) ~JJ

Pa (A)- p (B) .. ~

t~ ut"I' 1'';11 ~,I ~fl ~ ~ ~ &~ IL; ~fi.. : o~ I _,... A t"I Bl.:i;JJ "m +- flJ~,~filj~, nJ l~~I'~I~I~lrU) : ~ ~ J~I Bk~~~ {I, ..... n] ~.~JS~'; "m + n - kJA I' ,,~ I oJ'll II ~JJ ky.., ~ I ~fill ~./ A n B := B 1 U BZ U " .. u Bn ~~ ,', lJi i ~ J'~, {" 1.. .. " .• n} " "" i, i I<t B,,n B I .... 0:. ~ l.w, I,'

~.. ~..' . ......-.J.:J Vo'"I l J' k.' ~

P (Afl 8) = P (Bt) + P (B2) +" .. -IF P (BII)'

n

- L P (Bl)

1.::=1

{ I n l" I .' lJJ',.< J ' .... ~ '~'~. ~ .. ~

'jl

v ~

Ca-d B == C 1 '. C 1

11 niill

'~n (n+m)

r I ' - ,< " , I' .. ,<' ' ... <"~ II .,. '. ••

~""'~iII!.>'" m,+IlJ,~~b~ n~u~!..J:!..:u

P (B'" := n (n +m) :.~I

,) " 2 ~ ~

C2n4Jf1

I

_--

n+ m

58

~n+n-~' Ak~'J..:J~~~~

{L ... , n+m-I ] ,~ I~ k &¥l

'k 4-iJ ;fi:j m + n - k ~~ iJ.fi,~ ~r : oJ.;;Jl.,... ~Hl-k l:.:.Jl ~n-k;=At ~

T;f k E {It .... , m+n-I]

Aal~ I J;L,.:'\a-! ~~ -11-2

ill + n~ k + (m + n - k), u1..b}J,j

m+n-l 2

..

~

A ;;;;;; (Al U Az U u Act) U (AQ!+l U U Am"'~lA) ~.J

{o.+l, ... +'" m+n-l ] &.a II~ k ~ 1 ~ m + n - k ~ a ~ (1.+ m s: k S; m-n-l ~JJ ,O~ 2~ ...... , m+n-I] ~. k jQ ~JJ ufi.:, ~ £ !'~I JJ~I JIJ,.-JI \!c •.•• ;o._J Ai{ == At;~, (k: 1 == ,m + D - k) { L "',' a} ~,k I ~ ~J:

A=A1 u~ V ".,,,. UAu~Ij~ 0!-' i:;tj <!,~"""=;j {I ..... " (Xl &0 1 i Js:l! ~ n Aj ~'~ wi I~.J'

0:

~ 1: P (1\)

k=l

(i:

::; L Pk

k"']

~ m c n-sl

a.~ n ~,t..bL.i. m < n + 1 ~~~I w!i n < m w' ~..J

a<m ¢;;) m+n-l<2m

¢;;} n-l<m

n,~ (1< m ; ,JI

'"' .

IJi Q';

P (A) ::: L ilk + I. Pk

,k",l ~,n+J

4

'i k e 0, ... ,D }

Pk= (2n + ,mX2n + m- 1) 2

P'k ~ (20+ mX:2n + m - 1)

n 4 ~ 2

P (A) = L (2n "2n" 1) + L (2n I "Xi . 1)

1;:",,] I " + m)( + m - I, k=n+l ',' + .m,n + ill -I

4n 2 (a - (n + 1).., H

:= (2n + m)(2n + m=I) + (2m.+ m)(2n + m -1)

4n + 2«l~ n)

- (2n + m)<.2n +- m - 1) 2 (n+ let)

- o(2.n + m )\2.0 + m - 1 )

4

'\.._....._ __ ~ _...... ___.;I.J\.,....__~

: dJJW~ ~~,JJ'~ a X2 + b y2 + C xy + d x + f Y + g = 0

~~ l)U~ JJJ,Lu ~

~

59

. _ (6.)

K 1-' ____.~-~-- ..... M

B,

H

o

A

1

, ~ ~J~' L, K ,u.a JU~ i"~i.:: "ill (Db q:1iLh; 4C!rljn K"F~

i

! [0. ~[ ~j~ a~J (FK)

, .. ,! .... : M JdlJl (C) ~y~.~Jd J~L;;.·;

1\1F' 1

1\1H ;;;;;; cos (.(

(D) ~ M iJ .. i~; II ~-u-J' I .b:L...J.1.jA H ~.~ ~,

I

(C) ~~I il-J:L

(.AB) ~ M d:.1.i:.U 'i~ II . .bi.uJ.! II w£I CA),~ Mibo.1I ,15~!1 bi_. .u K

- ,

Me (D

<=> 2BA. MK=M1 MA

~, Mi(::::::2AB

2 AB ,!.:$)J "'~l::I.J (d) ~Jj A (i~ ~I (f) o~ 2 AB < 1 wlS: i;J! - (.6.) ~'~ A 4.3JJt ~ (f) 0J.i 2: AB == 1 0lS jj! - 2 AB ~).I 'D..w:.L::a.J (.6.) ~>U A G..J.: JJI~ (D u~ 2 AB > 1 u~ ~,jl -

* * * *

.,1 ._jj ~ l.&.b.i.~ Uj.-...!_A:>- J~ ~.~ ,LJ';';,;d:;~"_:L!; B~. A·.·< ~'':''I

_ .... _."" "W_''''! ~ -..J.I- ~I ..

:\t.'j"": K., F~I.)~,

-----}~ -----+ ~ ~ ~

BF-eBK ~O .J AF+eAK= 0

(AB) ~ ~~~I~, K~.JUI f'~i;'tJI' (A)~.j' J__, (Ll) ~ ~~ I le.Lo"i4 H.;, ~I ~ a.b;;~1 M ~ -] . (AB)~~~II~bi'H MF2 - e2 M:H2 ~ M12 + rpl - eZ 11{2 ~1 ~

e ts:;;:)Jt..1c4-'U (8-.) ~-u F <G~ ~ll' ~~I (E) /fi..:J-:2

. l.i . ~ _"': .... 1 i . . M ., <'-: I ~ •.. ~ ~ t •.

w.o ,~~ (.)-"-' '-'"1t"'" .... , ~

ME (E)

22 . ~ ~

~ MJ- = (8 - 1) JA. JB

(d.)

HI-' ........ ---

K

A

J

3

1

-_ ~>~

cos a. = 1 u!, ('t = 0 u lS:.IJl MF = MH ,.\~~ M.l.:J:J II ~~ ~ (C) ,il ~.j ((D) ~ ~baq~'<j~11,i.u~.u v" H) (D) ~-lJ F <t:l~~ (C)4.l.u :rr.

.~. 0 -c cosn < 1 0!Ji 0- < (£ <. 2 .:,lS: ~~,!

B

1

cos C(

*' **' *

2

.

'" M' n <::'11 - cn .~ ..

~ " .. .IaJUI1 u...~ . '. ~

""'" ~'L~

(AB)~~~116b9"'4 .IiJ~liw.o4-bi:h M~~l M E (D ~ 2 AS . OH ::: MI w1~, .AB ~. ~ (n, ,i_II..J-,_h a;i;. i it I -2

'h"!', , ... , •

""~I~,'~I-l

'I'I..A __ Q

-,.;F •

. :& . 2 .---I'''''_'''' . .~ ..........;.

MA -ME ~ (rvtA- MB), (MA+MB)

~ ----7'

=BA. 2 MO

--='.I ~ ~

![.AB] L_i,-01.:,,", O,jY :M.A.+ MB;;;;;; 2 MO u1 ~

u1-' (AB) ~ M Uj;.JI {j~ I .bL.u.U jA H w 1 ~.J'

---)- ----;< - -

BA" MO=BA. HO

fvlA2 ~ JvlB2 = 2 BA . HD w.J!

M E <D ¢::} I MAl - MBl J:: A1vl <i.l.u

<=> 12BA. HO I~AM

** 2 BA .'HO ==AM

60

j,iIS:iHo lfil -'1-1 .~I~it..ii M~

~al:i.'i (AB) ~ ii-J..i-, cj!S ~j!;G"l (f) Jl ~=~ oJ CAB) ~ ;rbi;~wi &~

~ ,

.;fi.- ..># I~ F E (AB) v!l (r) J l

(AB) ~ (HM '),J 0~1~ {FB)_, (MM') ~Jl

.,,-_ ~

tv1M ;H ~ FBA <G..u

MH

sin e = - ---, 0l!

MI\1l'

Me (r)

¢*. MM'!::: }.tW ~ MH =:MF' sin e

lvIF 1

~. :MIl ==~e Sill .'

(T) t:. -., - q ~ -,W

.1/ ~ ~ .. , 'II

.;~\: ... : M.bi:JI ~~ ~ (f) L1;J.l

MF I

MS- sdn,l)

1 sin e

. .' . 1(; .' L....,

o < H' -<:2 ~ i .'iJ

1

--.> 1 .d.l.u

sin €I

~~II ~~~.; (AB) ~J,j F ~J.H J,JlA.~ (OtJ·l!

- -

(r) J,J~I 1lt.u1J -i-2

(AB) ~ {jJ_,-. (AP) u·'i ~.J' ~.J (AB)" (f) J,l.l,J1 b~ F ~.iI (n'J.,1I~~~~I~ {AF)~!J.

(AB) uk 14I.(S~ 1.bl.uJ.1 ~ A ~ (AF) 0-t> ww..s.; S' J S .0,jl

SF SIF 1

. ~ ~

SA = StA =~in €I ,~~~

SF =~SA ~, SinS

61

~ _;. .1 ~ ~_j ) I~.lj J M.F ,..:.t.11 MP2 ~ MJ~ + JF-"2

u~ MH;:: KJ 0i ~J MP2 - e2 MH2 = MJ2 + Jp2 _e2 JK2

Me (E)

H":ooll • 41,,0.; 1\1 '·('"::1 ~ .~ V"'"'"

(.A)~. M··.·· H.,i;lI . .J --II.bL..J.j H

D.,. (S-.:J!"""""

-_" ...

(AB) ~ M Jbi~J'Il}~1 ~I J

MF

.~ -~e

MH

.¢;} !vIP - e' MHl ;; a.

C:~~JJ.YIJ~I~" M 'E (E) {::} MJ1 + JF2 - e2 JK1==~ 0

'.

¢:} MJ2 = e2 JK2 - Jp2

I I

--iI --t-l"

. 1 +e ;e 0 .s AF + e AK := 0 ~.J.l

(F, 1),J (K, e.) ~,;:;.11 r.:'{:: hi :11 E7".>" AoG.o.J

----,'t -1 ~ ~

AJ .~ -. (IF + e IK) ~j'l e+l

-) -} 1 2. , ,

AJ . B1 == -- (IF- e- lK) <Li..u

1 - ~

Me (E) ¢:} MJ2;; (r? - nAT .. Bi W~~~~J

* * * *

I'. . I

AFB¢lUI'~B~IJlluu~ 8'. A~~,IJ'I~Li.~ AFB

~I &:.~1:a"i M ~I

H ~ (AB) cl..i: (AF) 'r:a~. ".cJ1 ~l,lL, M ~ JUll,:J.j,,,11

..

M I.~ (AB) CbiJ (FB) r:ii.cuJl ~'~I,", M ~jlJ..l r!ii",11 I

MM:'i ;:: MF !~\:'__~1 M bi1tJ I.~ (f) .;.~i. i

u,,!l~.1 ~ M ~ ~<w1 ~ -1-1

4

,I !

.'

I

--) sine----t

AS I:=;: AF

sin ,s + 1

_". sin H -5> • ~

AS = - AF u,il ,*',:,- . .1

..j ,-

8i.n6-1

(F) J),~' r :fi y> J-J.=,. ~

(n J.;J~ ~.~ j :U.,l6,H..t~ -3

[FF '] . ..l.A:;"6 O.Jlt'it;;'_!i~ F J F ~ (E) [1/lnU ~1,~tl~ .. U 2aJ, F 'J P a;l:ik~' (E)~-1 :.,U (E)~. M'<- 1_ .• - ot.:Iir:;u

!II" - ~~ ' .. ,

.a 2 1 ..-::'l:

FM. FI M :' - Mu + a - "'4 F'P'

il L...l.:.J, ~~ y;':i.--.. J~ k ~ -2

~, M. bl;1I ~~, JJ.gj.

MF. F'M + OMz:::;: k

CJ'il_l jlIliSj~ o4!i1 -1

l:.:.J.I. ~I iy. :l·bi< M~ Me (E) $> FM+P'M=2a

¢:;>. FM£ + F 'M2 + 2 PM , F 1M ::: 4a2

~~1..wJ~JJ~~~G,~, [FFI] "-LA:," Owi ~

.u.u F-M2 +F' M2 ::;; 2 M' 0- 2 + 2_ F" ~

- - - . 2 I'"

- . 1

Me (f) ¢::;> 2FM. F'M=== 4a2 .. 2 Mcf·- 2. FF

1

,......._ PM 'F'M' '-2:2 'Md-- - F'F,2

-- .. ' ... " - a -. I .' =4" ..

MF F '-M··· + ,0' -M··· 2 ~ k .. ·M· I '!:.Ii 1 .. ",_"_"'__A ('F) ·<'~t

' .. : , I .. -, -W.l'''''~-. _- ~,.~ -, -.~

(FM+P'M2) = FM2+!F 'M2:-+2FM. FIM :;;::2M02 + ~ F I p2 + 2FM. FIM.

2 (M' 01 FM" F 1M)' , 1 F'..4l

:=:',1:- +"', '_ + 2F

Me (F) ~. (FM+'P'Ml =2k+ ~.F'F2 "'" FM+P'M= j 2k+ !p, pZ

* * *" *

~ ~

~1~(Ot it j )~J.4~~~j~I,r.j-

B (O~2)" A (2.0) Ii MA -1vm 1:= 1 .t'r--! M.u:;] I ~~, (H) .~' (H)~I~,~.~-l L'';u [AB], i·An" n~-2

~~ ......,; .___,. ~ l---it

lIivlll. ... l_ "" u_v=O~l~ V" '1' u;:;;~n . .t .

...:L . .' ~,. v· ,DA ZLU\.

~ ___,.

(0" i ,j) fJ",J.' ~ (8) 4.l .. ~ ~~,

(H) ~_;.-ll b~ l.;-tA1 I ~' I~ -3 (H) ~~IUj7i'iII.4.

-----t -1 ~ SiF=-S'A

sine

J

.---j l~'

SF=-SA sin ,9

----i' sin a ___, ------t sin e ----7

AS' =. AF.; AS = AF wj1

sin B + ill ,siD.e -1

en J;JlfJ I ~.)-IJ.-~

[SS~] , if i 0,\0 0 U;.iJ . <0 J.;J.lfJ LjSJ-A 0 ~

-7' 1 ___,. -~. AD ~ Z(AS +AS')

sin e (- 1 1 )-'

;;;;;;-_- + ·'AF

2 l sin 8 - 1 sin 8 + I .'

sin e 2 sin e ______.

== -r- 2e"AF

-,cos .

----lo

.... _tm2 e . AF'

~ .. 2.--}

AO~ - tan" ,e. • AF uJl

(r) J"J~ ;..)-'A+.-.;,11 :OJ W ~ -3

~. (r)J,l~i,~I(J',jWI

2-

Y ='1 2 Z

a ~ c

I

a::: 0·· 'S' 10. - . . ,-.~

c=a., -- ,J

sin €I

(CD J..,j~ I fo,y.,jA 0.)

, 2. ___, SID'e ~

=tan e. PslF + AF

sin e - I

cos EI

/

tanS

,a:=~PF ~

cos H

2

1 .. _ 2 2- a.

a:--c-=a. --~

. sin2e

20 cos '0' .2

=~ ,a

• :2 e sur' .. '

:2 ~a

tan2 e

, ,

2 x

(tan a.--:.. . J .... 2

-AF

cos e - :

* * *' :$

62

i

~ a=-Z F-

c::: ja2 + II ~ .j2 ~.lIJ 2/2 ,,",~J.11 ~~~ ~

: W, oL..J~' tllJ~ ll:.J.!-

../7

x+TY=o

(H) ~~II t-1W:.l1 -,4

* * * *

----t ......

An,O} .:.(.bi·,11 ~ lO. i . ]1 ) ~ ~ll ~ji"4U ~

,i<,;;-">o;,M ! .. un ~ cn ,~B >(0 ! 1)., MA +:ME, ~ 3

[AS] ,L.N·,~ n'~ -i

---+ , ---iiI ~ ~ ~ 1 ~

II v II : l.j u , v ~ 0 ~ ~ v ~,J u::: QA DA ~

~~.

ffi j U ~ v) rl-jJ.~ {f) (J;JL~ ~

(Dt:.y?J I o~ .. ;:!1 -2

7

63

(H) a:c.,JA? 11 d 't !~,b -1

~, M.bilII ~~ ~ (H) ~JJi II MAm, :ME, I ;;;; 1

(AB >- 1 ,uy) BJ, A b ti,m' JJl.u (H)- ~

~ ......,-.,

(0 ~ i ~ j )~bJJ ~ n ~1"l.::.,J ~_""' U, 1) ~J

nA.~ ,/2 !$'l flA.= j ~2+ 12 ~

~~

(D.! III ! v) rbll ~ A ,r; I..1=J (;J:j ~ (.j2 ) 0) ·0j!

FI,~ B ~Ii~~ ~~ (-J2.~ 0) u!J [AB] ~,,,,,~."'l .Q W11~",

~ ~ -

~ ___,.

(:0., u ,v)

~ ___,. . -

(D. j III t v) r!4-;"J i J.4~.U F,I J! ~I ~

~JJ •. _""!: .. J I, "11 'l'~ M ,(x y .. ) .(·'~I

~- ~, ~ ~ . ,_,. " U""""'

MA~ Jr,.. -./2 )£+ i MB ;;;.;;;. +.J2 )2 + .;

,MA - MB~ /('l_../2)2 + y2 - jr;< +.../2)2 + l ~,j

~~ofo.J' X=x2 +y2 + 2 MA~MB~jX-2JiX. - jX+2../2~

~'

ME (H) $} ~ l-dA.- ME 1==1 ~ I MA -MB j2 = 1

Me (H) ¢:>

-- 2

(j X ~ 2,V2x -ix + 2/2 x) """ 1 ~

j'~.' 2. .. 2

~ 2X-2_ •• X -8x .:::::: 1

$:>. 2 j X2 - 8 x2: 2; X ~ 1

Me (H)

2 .. 2 . 2: .

4 ex -8 x ) = 4X - 4X + 1

-32x_2 =: ·-4 X + 1

~32x? =~4 (xl +~' + 2) + 1 281.2 - 4T' ~ 7 ~ ()

--iii .....,.

.~ (D.~ u ~ v) r-kL' ~ (H)~J~wJ!

28 ",2 ~ 4 y2 - 7 ~ 0

~ ~

. JtU j<.jJl ~\j"£i (n ~ III ; V)r1;iJJ~ (H) ~JLY

i.?' yz

--, __ =1

G)l (~J

~~

en, u ~ v) FIJ.!~'.~

~ {B} -)' ---.l' .

<l.;;,.JA-a.~ .: • y'::u! (0 i J')~ J,.QI~ ~!L.I .' --~ ... P

"0 ., ~j-- - "-r--' y~ ~'O.O'''''O.;I'

'''''J-'~2' M (x t y) llil 2 ~2 + 3- y:2 + 8 x- 12 y+ 8 = 0

(E) ~~;jH,,1.;'~4jJ~ ,JJ,.::o.-l I 8

(E).~~1-2

~L ~

(E) ~~ b.~1 ~!L1.J I J~-3 (E) ~_.7.J r -4

- . ~ .• t I ''l'~ i - 11 1

b;.) '_";;' -\m- T "'UIJ.II1J.,. -'

~JJ .. " ".-::c .... ~ " dbi. M··· (x , y') ...• <~ .. ~

~ ~ lJ'A. ,.' .. ~

2 .• ·2 .... . ..

2 x + 3 y- + 8. x - 12 Y + 8. ~ 2 (x2 + 4 x) + 3 (y2 - 4 y) + 8

:;; 2 (x +'2)2 -t 3 (y - 2l- J 2 .. 0

2 (x + 2)2 + 3 (y ~ 2)1 ::: 12 (x -11- 2 { . is - 2)2

~ 6 + 4 =1

M.E (E) .~

64

~. ---i!

~ ~ ~~u,~

(0, 1l.l ,v) f·,l;_idl _,..,6J.lJ FI ~l~' ~

~..J, ~~ ~4k.l_; M (x , y) ~

:MA. 2. = ex -../2/' + y2

2 '2.. ' ..

~ (x + y + 2) - 2/2 x

2. . 2. _2, r;;

l\.m. = (x +y + 2) + 2" 2 x

MA;;;;; Jx- 'lJ2x . J ?vm.;;; jx +2J2x.

Me (D ~ MA+;MB=3

M A2 J..rn22· . - -

{;;;;} fi. """ JI:l'llJ . + . ··1v1AMB ;;;;; 9

$;0 2 X + 2jX2- 8x2.:;;;;; 9

](Z + yZ:'5; I 4x2 + 36yZ~ 9

2 . 2

4x + 36y ,;;;;; 9

1111.' 2; 9

x-;;;;; 4-

=>

2. . 1 y:=; if'

, 2: 2, 10

.\.=} x+y!"'4

=> Xl + r s 7

ME <0

~ _"

~ (0:, 11 ~ v)FJ ~ (f) ijc\lY, ~.Jl

(f) 4.c;.~ I ~ ~ I -2

----t ----7

~JJ fQ t U ~ v) ~ I ~

(x+4i :1I?

---:} ~

(-4, 2) _."... (0. i , j ) r-hll ~ I"-.:A:.~IJ::..I r;.U ~:r Q i_Li,11 ~

~ --iI

~ (M) i1J~ (0., i ! j) ~I ~

X2 y2

~-=1 12 (./3/3)2

bj,!f!tl' ~"I.WI -,3

~ ~.

(Or i ,j) r-Wj~,!~l~

(H)J.,I-4J' bt) Lu B (-1,0)" A (1 , 0) ~.lf,-

j -. . 2/3 ../3

c= ..•.. al+b2=~ ~ b=~3 J a=l~-

- 3 - .

. ~ ,'.. . (2v'3'Ji .. (·1 2v'3 ) .

(H) ,~JP. I..w .D .. - --- 0"' C. ~-. .0 :.jl

. 3 ' .-J '3 ........

, .

J3

J' x=---

. 2

-

o

* *" * *

~ -'l'

ror' (E) ~iJ,~, (0., il j)

X2 y2

--+-.'=]

(../6)2 22 -

_I,lal (E .• ) "jl (:_~ . lJ •

-) __,.

(ft· j)' . ,~1. ... _1 j . II -.~ .. -'11 ._ .... ,,~ ••

l..l." 1 I. r--'" if. ~ ~

~..w~. D {O~ -2).j C (0 t 2) J B (- ./6 ; O) ,j A (/6 ! 0) t.:.ll: (E);~~I 0< b < a ~.JJJ b = 2" a ==./6, Ch' (E) ~'il t~ L... F' (~/2 j Oo).j F (12 ~ 0) z_,j! x;;;;;; -3./1.J x:= 3~ : lu .o~J iJJ~

J3

3 - _,.a.~.;i Ill> ~~

(E) ~,~~ ~ w...1 -4

* * * *'

~ --)

(H) p.J j (0, i , j) ~~l.W.~~ ~ . ., .,,,11

c.:~! M (x t Y) .bi::J' i£~ ,;:2 - 3 y2 + 8 x + 12 y + 3 == 0

(H)r-.uUi~~"\'~J~-l 9'

(H) ~ 1!-;;-;LJ.il -2

(H) ~~ ~.J .... .J.I ~I~ II .J.1:Io. -3

(H) ~~~ lr~l-4

- , I

b,) '4 j,;,..t_,1 (lJ W ~-1

'tuJ.l - .~ .. .1 ~ •. 4W; M-' (x y')' (,,~I

•. ~ + ~ t..!-"',.- ·A ~. (..)-'"'"

x2 ~ 3 y2 + 8 x + 12 y + 3 ;;; (x2 + 8x) - 3 (y2 - 4y) + 3 = (x ,+ iIlYl - 3 (y - 2Y - l

65

(F ).. ~_ ... J.tl ~- .~.. . ~ p. (·1 .0) o ~ b~f.:r' . t _ .•.

.J:I J ;ij ,.d~ ,IF" X = -1 ~ ~

: lli.il (0, i , j )rkU ~ 0l!

~J~J~~ x :;::O,jG~~. F(2, 0) u¢Ow1 ~fo \1:

--t ~

~ cn! i, j)r-W-I~. (r.J ~J.l~ U:.1I

X2 ~

-+-=1

2 2 ._

a b

j 1 2

c;~a - b

~. -....t

.# j (0; ~ , j )~. Jo.,Q~ f' t._! ¥.J ,,,,j,1I ~I ~

I~!r-:' M. (x , y) WI ~ (ra) (tx2 ... y2 - 4x + 4 ;;;; 0

[0, 1 [ . ~,' o-~. " • .) U'" .• ,.... J.,.I.ii;. a..!,u.::..

- ,~ ....... ''''' .... "" ....

I

'I

I

4' .('1 1,\

;;;;;; , (1 - et.) _,_ - - I

. 1.2 0'. ).

\.[Jt -.

2 (1 - a)

_---

( .2 (1 ... -.- 0.;) J,.

F1 - . _ 0

, .j

ct

('2 (1 .. -. (1) .. ) ..

F ; 0

.C(

(raJ ~~I h.:~J... j a&~ ~ .1.J.::..-1 Jf.,lJ 2;~ {ru)·~~!i [O,l![~. a ~ ~ (.ii, ¥I -2 0~t:i I~!

10

2 ",

X:.;;- - J X~ -

(l ct

N .~ I ., (r·) ~ ~.~ l"ld ~·I ~'I - I 3

v". ~ 1..4~ ..-, .• e", .. , . -, tilUlI "i. ,. u 01 ... ,"""'-- ~ , ~1.4 ~ '.

_.... .... Ct .. ... _."" -'_10; ~~

~ ]0,1 [J~.H c;

~ -'jo.

~JJ (0, i , j) • I .. q , .,g' l.1

- - 'F""'" ~ (,..:I •

4

.J x~_

ct

~ (rQ)~ ~ (I' (j!) .~~lt..:. ~.~Li (l ¢ a. ~IS 1,1! -

,~,¥," .w~ Li ~;-u ~~ (riX) ~ u~ [0,1 [~ u ~ ~ ~~ ~ W'l.u :I<

---iio --l>

(0, .1 , j) tJ1ccLl ~ i~1 :. . .l.J ~11.J.:::..~~.j-A (2 j a.)

.......:; .......)-

1(0., i ~ j ) ~ J.:J~ I lilA (JJ~ ~ x;:;;; 0

(r,,) ~1:I.jJ ~LllI ~ .J.P.I11f" F (: -2.0) \l,).>1 MI (;i16.~~ (L\)~

~J.I • ~,~. ;j_bil M (x , y) ~tW

{ x= 4.· .. ~2

. ct

y~O

{

ME (d) .¢:> 3 a e 10~l[

4 a·-x+2

y=o

( 2: 4 J... 2: '

(l. x -~x.. +y +4=0

0:.

( 2)2 2( ·'1 - C()

(t(X- Ct .. +Y·~4 ... 7 I

J!...tII ~ . ".7'<~ r.r-,J

(. .2 .. )2 'I.. , 1 -.fX.

x-- +-=4 _- _-

2

ct 0:. (it

(-2 _) ~ ~

.... a ' 0 ... -y (0 ~ i ~ j. ) f I~ II ~ tt£i~~i ~ I [,J:) ~H n J bg,U .#

~.......-t

(a., i ~ j) rhlIJl~l~

: ~ (r a) (!J~. ~JJ

y2 -- + ---==1

I-a 1-(:(

4- 4.', 2

O!, ct

{ 0.·.<_ ... 4 <1

~. x+2

y=o

Y=o J

l-o~>O.j

1 - Ct

> {} &J.i 0 < a. < 1 ~

wlt41!iJ I ~JJ I" b~i -2

-r -)0

~ (0, i , j ) ~ I ~ (I" 0) (j:J~ ~.l1 *

y2 ;;;; 4 (x - 1)

---t ~

: .~ (n, i I j) ~,I ~ (ro) t1.lL-. n (l ,0) ~bi;H ~

(JP; 2~) y2 == 2pX

~ --i'

:~.JJ (0, i , j}~ I ~ <G!-A u.u

66

~ ----f

~ J..g~ (0 j U ~ v ) r-J,.J I u1li.:..~J'

~ ~

(O.ll "Y) ~'J,~~j,~

X·l 'I J2 '.' (r" '), ~ .

- "'T Y ~ 0 ~ '.', -"A/ ;U,J~ ~.11

2 ... ../2 '. '., . ' ".,

X + AT (-Y) == o~luk'.·YS:::;~.J

~i:;;J1 d':I/"'I~ ~iJi!'...oJ'4 .J~~Jdtb1U S W

{X,' I' ;::::,X

Y=e¥ I,

u d.ir-:il14 ~~lj O~.)W (A) f,.!ii,IlllU ,tI~ iilJr ~lLlll Jj.~ I.J-'" s 14!..u

s Ji~4 4.:i~ M t (X 1 ~ Y') .s ~1 ~.j_Li·; M (X, Y) ~-

ME (r,) ~ X2+A·1:y;;;;O u...~

,', ,../2

""""" X,2 "1 ('"V1 .

'>=' . -A.-2 ~1)==O

~ Me (r)

-A

~__,Jj+U ~ L!..iJ -S

Xl ;;: - 2Y ~ (0 .; ~ -; ) rld' ~ <r,) ~'Jlw &!-I J,. ~ 2V2. u~ Ij!

~ <,

...."

......

J

j

/.

.I /

/ ,~

/ tu

/'

/'

/

,,,

II

67,

B (3, O)J A (2., 0) ~~,#, .A iJ-A ~ [AB) r;4~ ... i I ~~' (A) wJ! ~..J

* * *' *

~ ~

.J~ Js: ~_;, (0, i , j) F- J.4~.~ y~1 ~'J u=i

. ..

c~ M(x.,y),UlO (r",)~~4 lr~~~

x.2 - 2 xy -I- y2, + A (x + y) =: 0

.....". ----i'

~I JL , .. '<-: (0, i "j) FI ~ (rA) aJJ~ 0,1 ~I -1

(x - y)l + A, (x + y) ~ 0

~

u ~'6 "!'-"w JJ.,:.. . .,_ 2

11

·rkl,l~

I'

--t ~

; ~ (0 ,'~ "v )'

'~Il.&~,~ (rk) ~~I ;j"'~,k-b :en~" .. 1 _,_3 tlJ.}J.:o.l ... '~ S ~t~ Jl~ (r),,) 6~' ~ (F _I) ui ~ -4 A. == 2/2 wlS 1.)1' (r_0" (fj;_)o,t;:,,1 ~5

l.:Y.iJ " .~" l l -, ,a,.i; M' . (x ' y) .. ", « ... ~ft"1

y ,~~ -. '..,' (..J-'-"

ME crt,) ~. x2 ~ 2xy + y2 + A. (x + y) =: ij <=> (x - y)2 .... II. (x + y) :'0

---i! ~

~j ~ ,_!N (0 j :i '! j ) r-l2.lf ~ ,(r,) (JJ~ 0J!

(x ~ y)2 + ,A, (x + y) == 0

~:,~-:'nll: ..... dd,;i; M ,<'-:1

1* ~ v--" ... ~

-=l>~

(0. i ~ jl) f1.J1 ~ 1,:V;~,.\.:o.I,~ (x j Y)

---i! ......".

(0, U ) v ) ~,~ 1~t'\~~J,:;.1 tJ,) (X, Y)

~ ~

{O, i ~ j) F,i.~ (r).)'4JJI~.~ (x - y)2 +- A. (x + y) = 0 ~.J.I

(r', 'I ~;n j ~. '. fi ..../2 .

•. 1V'l.J..!~Ud~ Y=T(X+Y) J X:::=T(X-Y) ~JJ.j!.

~~

: 4.F' (0 ,U ,v)

2; .. J2

X +A~Y;O 2-

--l> ---7' ---t OM:lXu+Yv

../2 ~V2 ~

~ 2 (x - y) U + T r(x +- y) v

J2 --4 ---t v'2 -t---t ::::; 2 x (u + v ) + T y(- ~ + v )

~Li ___".~ --iI L.! i I~j

-.. OM ~ x i + Y ]1

-7 ' ../2 ---t ---t

l'=.,-(U + v)

=: /2-) ~ J == 2(U - v)

,---+ ----+

00 S2 (i' • CM:.~) :: s iIl ct

----+ ~

• 2. (. O' M" \ .' 2-

8m 1 l' •... r l =: WE! a.

2-2

.2 a b ,

OM ;;;;;". .2 2:

b2 sin2 a. + a OOS 'C(

tj •. ,,&JI r~~'~~ ~~~ _l~+_I_=~+.!. ~1~JW olf OMI2 ,i bI

.r-;

---+ ----+

(i ,OM) ~II.)H U"1:i ~~'

22

orur2~ a_b_.· __ ~_

bl O),rl,. P + a'l sin 2. ~

-. ib2

O~ ~, 2 12 .2

b cos u+a ,SIn (l

b2 (cos2 P + cos2 a) + a2 (sinl p +- sin2 a);;;;;; a2 + b2 ~ b2 (cos2 ~ + cosZ ex - 1) + a2 (sin2 ~ + sin2 (1- 1)= -0 ~i 1)2 (0052, P - sin2 a) + a2 (5in2 (t- cos2 ~) .... -0 ui y)~ (b1_ 812)(0082 ~- sin2 ex,):= O~1 co,s2 p : sia2« ,(j!-' b ¢ a i.l.i ~..J

cos p .... - sin a "i cos ~ = sin a ~ sin (l == sin (~ + ~ )

cos ~;:o; sin a

1t

~ Q,;:::;] 2 + ~

[21t)

~ ~'n;

>( i ~ OM) 5 ~ + 2 .

[211:]

[21&]

(OM) 1. (OM 'r) %



fli

'j!1

u •

68

12

»<:

--4 '. I (i ,OM) ~tJJ~I~a. (E) [1~~,tJ!~,~ M~ - .

~, b" a~h!~ QM2 J.J;.:o. (E) fl;L:J~'iI,~ uldU; M:" M ~-2

1 . 1 '1 1 01~1

*? -+-=--'" +_. . .

ohf OMi' 2; ,a'" bI

b ~,,.t,,,~ •. 0' .. M·· ::.},WI J.a .. ~, -1-1

'.;J "O;Y.l ~ --

';;: o "

'\

-=)-~ . .

(0, i ~ j) rW-1,r.,} M ~'J-I' &J} (x , y) ~

~ ~

-; --) i .OM

OM) - :~-'_,.~

COS( .. i " .... , = -- ~--~ ...

, '.' --+ -----7

II i :Ii. 110M I

x -(Id

. x;;;;OMoos,a,~

---t------t

----;) ~ det (i . OM)

sin ( i ~ OM) :;; - .

--'I' _.",

I i II T '~OMn

y

- OM

y~OMsina '~ u!A (E) J',! ~ M ~'i I.u~

~I~~ ~iljll._.;,·i'll 6~J -i-2

(OM) ..L (OM ') w1 ~~

---t ~~ 1&

(i "OM) E(t + f [21t]! .u.v

,~~ 1(;

(i t OM ) ~ 2 - C( [2Jt]

~tSU .b,JAJ I

.M vi (H) uuLu uk ~'~ (OM) ~1 ~~.

M~I~II~ (XOfYO)"~

Xc, Yo

-c x --- y-l =0 ~ M'~. (H) uul.o...:. iJJL....:. ~.JI

rr b2

,~Ji M ~ (0) ~lu.J!e. f!~ (OM) oi ,lou...;

Yo X()

Xo'~+Yo.-- =0

El aZ,

* * *" *

---+ .....,j;

"'_",,,J _,L _~~J II ~.'~ ~ (0. i '. D .. " -'Ln-, ......... '. ~ .• J .. ~ . , ..... t I II ..• "".: ... ~I' I' ~. ., "_-.M.,, ,...,,~,~.~

y2 ~ 2px GtJ~ (j;JJ1 (P)

(u ¢ 0) UN. + vy + w::: 0 GlJi.... ~J11 !~i:t! di (A) ~ -1

pv2_ 2 UW =: 0- w,1!;: ,IJl ~ Il! (P) ,!,,'Z'J.tJ) V'o'~ fa.) wi ~ '14 , .... I.t,ji u....'LI."'~ i)w.iil... •. ,'1. Il:i,:bi:. :.i~,""._ AJJ.;ro , .... 2

"I - .... ~-- c- ~

x- y + 1 = 0 (iJ,JL..o ~JJI r~:;;'''~ I (D) ~-3

(D) r:9":;,,,_.n ~tJ.l1 (P) ~,l.o ~Ji~ JJ.Q.

Me (P) n(A)

r-~I.b~' -1

(P) r~___JJ ,L1"l- (8) ui VAJW ;~ ~ ~ (Ill' t!.i~ (A) Uy

~I (,y. ~ M (x , y) ~

{ ;:~x+W~o

1 x ... ~y2

. ;p f + vy + w ~ 0

._~, ! •• • ~ ~ ~. (" ~L ':I-

.............. ~ ~ J. 0\.:1 '. . b·~.J 'YlLU

'~ .~~~ -, '"' ::

2 4uw

",--- --',~ =·0 ($~

2p -

P v2 - 2 uw ;:; 0 I.j 1

t,iIISU l. .. )Jl.H

p y2 - 2nw =: 0 wi uaJW

cos !~ ~ - sin 0. .~ cos I~ :::: oos ('~ . + 0:.) 1&

p, == 2- + (t [2x]

..

~ "II

~............... ft

(i J OM');!;; 2 - a

~ ~ 1t

(i t OM ' ) "'" (X + "2 [21tl '~

(OM) -L(OM ') vj!

lIn 1 ".· .• u J WL. •

. , +--,:-' +~ .... l.£" '"'

fJi OM'2 a2 - b2

* * * *

""""+ =",)

J.,IltJlli Jzia; (0,. i , j) .'~ L=.';,~ ... .1A~ ~,I.~ ,~I ,~I ,..i'

r-- r-.. . '4:t'

xZ _ f- = 1 ,(ijJI!- (S.lll (H) I

i b2 ~ i'

i.I.,W 4 J.h.ll, (.8.) r J i'.j41: .~~ ,~J.l1 ..!.4 ~ I ~ LMlI S.#-1

y;x

Gl'J ~ (ijJ, (H I) ,J"J.ltJ j ~ (H) J.,lltJ' 0.»- w1 ~ 1,3 x2 r .

--+-:=1

bi i ~i

(H)'J.,J.lf1II~, i_LA'. M.~-2 (H)t)4!l.u Ul~ ,Ill.l:.ti~ Ij,.! (H) J"lltJ ~i) I ~.~ yA H u~~, (OM)~.~.~ M~

s ~~~ (H) ,J,J~~ ;~ -1

~ s J;'L~ ~111 ... ill ~ I Ll:JJ:

{Xi :::::Y.-, 'I = x

S-., .... 1", "'I~L I.~" MII- 't (x I y' i) . ~,·",:.-_-_l1 ',' .i bi; M (x y. ') .• -<"':~ * '

lJ-Il.AJiI ..... ~.' .,,j ~,V.A ,., . " ~

Me (H)

2. _2 .

x Y

-_ - -;;;;;;; I

2 2

a b

,2 /!

y x.

2- b2:d a,-,

X~2 y' 2 .'

-- +c. ___.,..:::; 1

b2 i·

~ M E (lr)

r_j)U~ ..b~~ -2

(H) JJJlfJ,11 bi_" .l,:o.1 ~ M ,Ct'il vA,~ ,rorM vi (H) UM l,u, ~..!~ ~

X=- 8".;1 x=a

J!.oll"i II.~,J-A (OM) ~iI ~. (OM) ~ ~.l~ M.~ (H) f.Y'LM uJ!

69

~ ~

JJ:.lfJII~~. (0, i , j) ~,J...,,~.~~I'~~vl

15

2 "2-

X. YdJ~_. (H' ,')

-- -- = 1

a2 b1 ~

UX + vy +- w ~ O,(ljj~~jJI1*li"i!,J~ (6) ~-1

,uts: 1~!.bJ.t, Ij! (H) ,~lt;JIl ~'~ (.6.) ui ~I

O<ib<a ~

w ~ Qo.J a2 u2 - b2 v2 - w2 ~ 0

(H) J,.I ~ ~.14 ~ Lt-uL- ,tL-ll:; . .bll ~ .J~ -2

j.i I£J I~.l~ I -1

~ M (0. , ~) vl (H) 0'1~ ~J~ ax ~y

-_ - ~=1

a2 b2

3i ke IR

~

--_ ::;;kv

b2

-l=kw

w~o

:b~'l p v2 - 2 uw ~ 0 GIS: ,oJ! -bUd Ij! (.6.) .~.U-.I11 U"'~ (d)

~~~~1~~-2 ~li),' ~~i1t,..a ~ (P) \" ... !. i:.J1 ~ ~ (D).J (.~) ~ X + ay + b == 0. :~. (~) aJJ~ X + ay + ~;;;;; 00 : ~ (D)J.JJ.L....o ($; eta + 1 =: 00 0!-i (6.) .L (D).;..1 '~

..

1 0'.:-a

2:

P a - 2 ~ ::=,0

_ 1 2 I~';=: i pet

2 2.

(l ~

__,_ --_::;:; I

2 ·2

a b

1 2

X + ay + "2 p a" ;;;; 0

.J '

. ~ . ,".~ ~ ~--~

Me (D) n(a)

u2,a2 - v2b2 - w2 ==0 ~1

,wits: l.lI'.bU_, I jl (H)":I l·II"wLY (.6.) ,-,jl

.. _... U.JII~ V"- . t,;,.,i' ,"'

1 2 X= - aY-"2 P a

(a +_,1 ) y~ ~ p (,,!.. _ ;)

a·· 2 1

a .

I I

1 t.blj;j_~~~o!J~ IR* ~ aA L~ IR,r.;~ a,- a ~~

dJL....:. if.ll~ rJfi''I11' ~ (P),~0::!'..M~II~IWI 1 x=- 2" P

(H) J,JoltJ iJ:..l.4~ ~I~' (dl, CD) ~ ux + vy +w= o~ {D)~J'J~W ~ o,j aZ u2 - b2 v2 - w2 =~ 0 b;.""-

U == 0 ¢:>. - bZ v2 - w2 ..;,., 0 ti..JJ

~

¢:} (bv)2 + W1 = 0

~ w=o

U¢OU~ w*OiJ'~ low...; J:' .. tJ ~. I .. -....JS:i {D) UJ'~ wJ I

- u-- . ""

x + ay + ~~ 0

~¢O:J a2 - b2o} - f9 ~O ~ ....

JS...!J: I ,u-k l"c.:;S:i (1)) iJJl... ~Jl sa G.<J ~ x+o:' y + W =0

~'¢qJ a2 - b2a!2_ W2=o ,,,~

(P)vw'L- ;UJ~ -3

(D) ~t~ II o;ill-~~ (L\)~! x - y + ~ ;;;;; () .r. (6) ~JI~ ~JJ ~JJ' J,'i I J ty..J I ~'"' ~ vu,t.- (.6.)

(]3 E IR)

~ (D) 1",;ii.u,JI ~u.ll (P) ~lc.A JJJ~ v,J! 1

x-Y+zp=O

* * *' *

70

( _2 .2 )

2 2 YO xo

==a\ b - .. --+1 .. 1

b22 a

• 2. 1. _2 b.2

~ XU· + yo;;;;;;a -.'

A'> 0 ~T of,J a ~..,)~ ~. ~JW.,I 0!l ~ ~ 4"

...

2 2 xi) - a

(l o: :: . == ~1

2 .i

b + Yo

2 ,.22 2 .»' '.-

Xo + yo==a, - b wi ~

X. + ay + ~ == 0 ~J~ (j.jJl L",:0;".1.1 (..6.)~ x =I- U I Y ... ~ 1= 0 GJ1.l~ t?~ I I"~ !Q":MJ I Cd)

~ I :;; - x1} - r:t 1 Yo .. J ~ == - KO - (1, Yo ,~ . ..:' ....

01.J.4~ (Dh (il) ~J.I

2 (.aJ2

¢;;> « =: 11) •

a

,<::$ Y a ~ --h "0

a

.-J~ Yo:= "'- Xo '~

* * * *

~ ~

~,~I~ (OJ i , j) 1~ .. l;14co~~F~I~II~

2; _ .. 2·

x y

(a~ b) -. + ~:;;;;: 1 .yJ,J~ ~j,jl (E) .2. 'b2

a'·'

UK + vy +- w = (} G1Jkc. r.:ab!-4H' (.1.) .~ -1

~IS: I.ll ~,j U!. (E) .~ U'il~ (Ll) 01' ~

a2 1]2 - b2 v2 - w2 == 0

(E)~~~~~M~~2

,r,}(E) vuLw w,1$; Ij!l:J.iJ, I,jl (E) ~'il ~ J.a.l ~ M wi ~ 1

. (OM) ~ f.§,j~ M

16

(1' ~ _ 1 ~i a 0: ;;;; -i c:.;!.i (6.) .L (D) ~t ~J

{$J~ •• ~lI ~ ibL M (x j Y) ~ *

ME (A)n(D) ... {

~ {

x+ay+ p;;;; 0

1 .

x-- y+ J3.' == 0 a

2

Il (x )2

1 P =· .• x+ay'.~

-:2 ( I J2

J}I == ,x ~ (l Y

1

1

222, 2: 22

a -b C( =x +a y +2axy

2. b2. 2: 1 2 2

a - -.' = x + ............ y - ~ xy

2:2' a

a ct

{-2. 2 2 2 2. 2-

~ a .. ~ b.·.. a :;:: X,+ .. <X y. + 2 .. 0:. ..

2 2 .2 . 2 2 2

(X. a - b == a. x + Y' .... 2 a:. xy

~ (1 + (1.2 Hi - b1);= (1 + «2}(X2 + Yl

~'I (C) 0) 1..\1' ~,~_,;; ,(H) J...J4'I ~ . .1.oI~ ~~tbli:lll ~~ u~! x2 +. y2 :: a2• b2 4JJJ~

(C) ~;!JJI ~ H,;; M (Xo, j Yo) ~ *

M, ~ ~ i'J-iLlcu..A (.&) ~ ~ tsjlJ-: oj' fA) &Jj (H) J"llt-ilW"'~ (A) 0~ l.ll ;G!.i J,J;JI JlyJ I ~ J:..ali~1 (Ll) t1;l~ x + o,;y ;- p, ~ 0 ~

uJ"iS.; (H) J.;J~ OUI~, (6) l:i;.Jl

a2 - b2 ct2 - ~2 ;; 0 J ~ * ()

(l)

p ;;; - x() - a Yo .w~ M' E (A) ~) I~

2. ."' 2. . 2: :.' JI

(1) ~ If" - b" u - (xo + ,Ct yo) ;:: 0 ..., ~

7. 2 2. 2. 2-

.~ a - Xo - (b + Yo) ,(1 + 2 a Xo, Yo =: 0

2 2. 2 2. 2

¢::;> (b" + yo) a - 2 (Xv Yo) ,CIt + <Xn, ~ a') :::;; 0

~~U~I~I

(:*) (b2 + 2) X2 2 (' .. ). X . (21). ·0· • I. - Yo ,.. - .. , xoYn + '. Xii - a :;;;;; ' ..

,6, ~ ~ (Xo,Yo)" - (~ - a2)(b2 + y~ ~

~, Yo + b2;: a2_ x~ iJ~ Me (C) v1 ~

A I _ .2 (- 2 ,,22) (. _2 2)t 2 1)

il ;;;;; Xo 'a - ['I - XU r - . X() - a ,a - X.O •

2(.2. bl "(2. 22

=x.oa - .. )-Xo+Xo-a)

2.224-22

- Xo (a - b ) + a - 2a Xo·

2( .2. ·b2 4

-'G),'-a --)+&

=: a? (a! - x~ - b2 ~

71

.~j)U11 ~~11-2

(E) ['1/,",,1 vu-U>.,I.:lo.i M 0i ~~

o

A

72

'r-_j)U~ .b~~-1

Mo (x,o' Yo) ~ (E) ~ U"'ILo,. (8) ~iI.uA~ ~ (1.\) ~J~. ~

XC) Yo

2.'. X + -.1 y- 1 ~ 0 a:- b

Yo 'V' -·k ~

_' .. 2

b-

W=- k

2 2; 2 1, 2. 2 1~2.2Y~" .2:

a u +b"' v-w"=a'k ,-+br ~-k

4 L4

a v

( 2 2. )

.2 ·Xc Yo

~ K a2 + b2 -1 ..•

=0

.~Ij~I~J!01~ .. i.111 ~j'1 L..u~J A.., A~ ~t~'i~ ~JliJ'~1 ~,oJJ l,_g'b B "J B .r.; (E)~~~li~IJ¥-J.A (OM)wil M=A' _,i M=AolIS1Ji ~ilaS II ~ u.k. ($~ M'

"_ '!'!;

M i ~ (E) uu~ ~ '?~ (OM) u~ M:; A · "i M;:;: A ~iS. jJ! iJJ.l (E) vu·~ ~ ~~ (OM) u!J M == B ., "i M == B o.i~~nj! ~t~JllL""

.M.~

~lSJl.b~1

M vl (E)~'il ~l.u. (.0.) ~ £j'~ (OM) .:_." ~JW.

M ~ 1I.1:!ol ~ (Xo, Yo) iI¥

--+

(OM).l (.6.) i.J'i (.6.) r:f1/1dJl ~ _;j .... -~ .. Q u (-Yo' xo) I~..d

,~:I' ~ ~ (l\)tJ.J~ ~

·XoX+YoY+Cl.=O

~ x + Yo y _ 1 == 0 ~ dJLuw!Ji M ~ (E) ~I ~~ (.6.) u1 Iltw..J fl b2 .

.~ISJII.b,)-,MI

a2u2 -V v2 - w1 = 0 ~ 1 vO~ ~ . .;;. 1.l.i.:J u;:; V = 0 ~J.I w =: 0 ul!!t: Il!.(Ai h}lu

Yo

Y'o=k. -

b2

a=-k

ct == - (~ + Y~ ,u1-i (8).J! ~ M 01 ~

(2)2 (_2)2

tiwU,bw V . ,

....;........-~ =1

a? b2:

w¢Ou~1

..

(111 ;(~rj.b2(;rl"'O ....

. (. -a. 2 .. : U - b.". v),

(E)" II ~,.... n ~ ~

. IJ'+,~ w' w

i.IoLI1J ~

_ '( .. _ 3.,1. u) .. ·.·.. . (.'. ~b. 2.' v) _ a2 u:l + 'b2-';-

u. -- +v ~-. =.--~~~

. w w w

" '.

vi

=''5!!!!!!!-

w

:-w

( 2: _oJ' (2 .).

I-a· u . - b 11 .

UI---;v--+V- w +w=O

( 2.._ b ,2 '01)

-a U -T

o -' .. _. ~~. ~- i b,'j;'I'.1 :.,J~

w w· ......

~ b2 v Yo: w .

WYo v= - -2'- .J . b

WXo

u= - -y- ~

a

WXoWYQ ux+vy+w=~' -~ x-'-y+w

2, ·b1

a '

(10 Yo J'

:= - W -.' x+~. y~ 1 .

2 - 2

a b" '.

(P) ... ., L~U,. W:J I . I •

2 '2 2 "I' '~~ ;;;;;; 0 d·,~.;

'Xu + Y Q ;;;;; OC"..j~ • '''U -.."

~ + y~ .... b2 "Ii Yo = 0 ,j

M# 0 u7 Lo..k (x 1 y):;t (0,0) w.:/ X~ + y~ == b2 lJ~ Xo == 0 ~.~ IJ!

~ =b2 ~3

B '(0, -b) ,,1 B· (0, b) ~i')r c1=o.l' if" M~.J~ a# b 2;~ Yo::; 0 .~p. ~: -I- ~ ~ ;}015: IJ!

2 2. •

XCI =a. '~

A; (-a, 0),J1 A (a ~ 0.) ~tJI,.I.=o.1 ~ M ~,jt

,I

(E) GO Ij I QU ~;)~,I V"'~, .1=0.1 ~M ~ Wtu

A

* * * *

's

o

,~______,), ~ _, ---+ ~ ~ ~

(MJ~, MH) ~ (M1l B.O) + (RO. HA) + (HA, lMH)

~L.J I " JU"44 lvIHO·~.I .. ~ ft ,. MH:;;; MO . u. (P)', 1'1' , _-_ M ,'H.w

,- tp --0 U.. " I$.~ .1,.)' ~

(OH),~ ,(j~ (MI) iJ!£ [OR] kg, o-~ I iJ.i ~" M <L..uG

~ ~ 1'1::

(MI, HO)E:[ ,[1t]1 ~

----t ~.

~ (HO,HA)

[11;]:

[. l~';.'j,w"i ~ ~

JA' (MI) ~ [HO] , LO;;4 :t,. M ~lJ~L~.JI ~~ ~ MHO u.:Jl

~ ---'t ~. ~

(MO l MH) == 2 (M] ~ MH) [21tJ ~jl

(08) ~ .(j.u-J I (D)~ ~~ H", [OB] , i ;.0'" 4 A ll:J.I [OB] ;["blU bl,jJ.A (AM) G.q

-> ~ ~ ~

(HO, HB) ;: 2 (RO ,"HA)

[21t]

73

,B

~~

~II ",p,.' (0, i ~ j) f"k-''''tI ~I~ rh.l ~i ~I t./'

x = l,GJ,J~ '1.l11 (D) ~*!i!, .. 1 ~ ~4.J 0 G~ ~.lIi (P) (P') ~I' ~ (P) ;J'JI...,. ,J,,b ~1 CD) uk ~~ j I. L,i,~ H J' (P)~' ~ iJAil..i~. M: ~ ~2 1 luY",...-ii J.Jo'~U.Y , ~.~ W ~'ibi ;B", A. [OR] ....L 0;; <! I.j

. ,)l;l!~ ~ 2..1 '

---i> --';0 ---)O----t

(MI , MH) == (HO I HA)

[-n;]

i 17

~ ~ 't ~

(MO ~ MH) ~ (DO, HS)

[2n]

~~

o < H < 211 " (MO, MH):5 ,9

z - z _ z '_' 2 _ jEl

~Z", -~-e

", z

2

z ... -~~ - 0 - ei9)2

(P) ~I ·ijJL...o-1

£.U~ .• I~U ~ dibiiM (x , y) ~ (D) ~ M ;bi··n ~~I~.bL..ul1 ~ M 0 , y) ~~

.oM

JIM; 1

,M E (P) {:::}

1 2

CIvI == HM

2 1 ( '1..2·

x + y ~ .;:t- ,)

2

~ y ~-2 x+ m

1

<=> .;:;; ~2 (x ~' z}

-'), ----)0 _ ( 1 )'

(8 ,. i ~ j ) rWJ.r.; (.P) ~J~ (P},'""';' Lu.I~ ~L ~ s -2 ; (), ~bi.jJ1

y2=-2X ~

z- 2 z- 2

arg - "" Ell."g - ..

Z z- 0

-} -l-

"" (HO! HB)

~ ,8

Z Z i{J

- z=e

::it * *' *

[21C]

1[211:]

wJ·I!



Z - z z- 2. i.e

- =:- :·e

Z Z

----+ ~ --7 .~.

(MI j MH) EqRO; HA) [x:]

z - 2 Ie

-=e t:

~~. !'

~ ~ ~...-:;.

2 (1vU , MR) == 2- (HO , RA)

[2n:]

2

Z= -- ~.J

i€t

1 - e

z=--

lie - e

2

_---

(1 _eia )2

-) ------"'t ~.....-----lo.

(MO, MH)= (HO, HB)

[2it]

= 1

r:« z.:«

<lIg . Z - iii: arg Z _ 0

[21t]

~~

== (MO, MH)

s. e

[21t] [2Jt]

z - .z it!

-=e

Z

I z - 21_

_. -1

z

.1

74

-

5

j:1WI_J,<>;.JJ -~L::.JJ J,n;"" - ~J~~~. ~-:o?z;11 na , an CL~I ~

v ..

75

4

- 'r (' T' - b+,c a .b c)~aT~

. 2

. =,_1. ( ... n+b+C):

2 . 2'

2a+ b+ c

,_

4

ulJ a -:t, c u:ii.\ ~~~

-~. ~

(8. T b) Tc ¢ a T (b T c)

~;TLuSW~~j

~I~ _Jl.i.t - 2 (a T b) T (a Te) ~ a, + b T a -: c·

.' 2 .2

'" ~ (a~b + ~r)

2a+ b+ c

.... ~

4

'. T [b T .) ~ 2a + b + c

a c ~ .

. 4-

a 'T (b T c) = (a T b) T (a T c)

* :+: * *

~ ~ IR~ ~ u~ 11 ~\~I, I-.Jc9fl. u._,Jt&~, ,

w * x+y

v x)' ye R. x * y =, -

- xy

*

lR+ ~'~x~,-~-l

x • (1 * I) .s (x:+ 1) • 1 ~,

'r.~ , ~. * '·I~,Wl,t .. ~ W

Y"'. ~-tJIIIl "I

~'~1~~"tl ~\iJ\ 0.-2

3

-.» ~ .a ..:::tl , 1 1

~1 . ~;w..a:t. .- .. , i

. x+l ,x * 1 ~---.... . x.!

x+l

x

( 1)' 1 x+l

x* .*' =......;........*1

x

x+l -'-+1 _ x _

~ 'x+l .

x . 2x+l

x+l

~ ~ N~ u.)L' ~tl ~jj, (.ult§ J.. ,,;kl 'V a, be: N' a j_h= a;2+ b2·

3, ..l (1.1. S) .J' (3.11) 1. 5 ~ ~ t '" t

!'~".J- w~WI JA - y , a _L b::; 25 {'"\lO-1 N 2 lJ.4 (a , b) ,rt.,I_'}J'·~ JU3.._ 2

I

,~' (...J~ - 1 ... '1.

wII' til •

(31.1)j_5~10i5

{3.l1).l5=125

~.J 1 J_ 5= rt +52 ~ 26

,

3 .1 (1 1. 5) = 3 .1 2,,6

=: 32 + 262 :;, .1,0 1. 5) = 685

~,;; y#. l_. u_,JW~, ~ ~

~J ~U JI~\ ,J')I.,i. ·lJA ~ (3.1-1).1.'.5 ¢ 31.·(i .L 5)

.~ JP .1 u_t,l-'WI .@.

(a ~ b)~l J'}'J' ~I .. 2 a + 5 = 25 <=> a2 + b2 = 25

~ a2S25

==> a e {a, I, 2), 3~ 4)' 5} .

.N u.'~ a d·LJc. b ~ 5 ti' h2 = 25 ~li a = 0 iJts ,~

b2=24 b2 :;~ 21

lfo-. ~ .: , ~ .,J ~ .>p 1,;,\4 J b =,4 ti~

b2 ~ 16 ,,]A a = ~ wtS.·I'~

b = 3 ~ a ~ 4 (its ,~

b ~ 0 uti, a ~ 5 UtS'~

:yAa . .1 b = 25 ~. (a , b) c'Jj)r1 ~ ~ .. (4.;, 3)..J (3-;; 4) .,(5 ~ 0) J «() ~ 5)

*. *. * *

.~'~ CO ~ Li.PA~t:. ·:·p.fJ·UJl\i, T ~ 'fV' a, be (0) aT b =: ,a+b 2

f ~, T UJ-it;D J.l ... -J

<Il v- 'JY1lP' c ~ ~' .J a ~ - 2 (a T b) T (a T c) .) a T,(b Tc) Dfo

,2

76

x T (y T z) :=. x T (y+z~}2')

::::: x+(y+z-yz)-x(y+z.-yz) = x+y+z-~-.xz-yz+xyz

x T (y T z)== ex Ty) T z ~l

· t~~ II.~ JA! T ~.Lj3un .. 3

~,,-, (e € <Q ~) e !~~!~ JAi,T J ~fo

\fxe en xTe~ x

"tJXEa) x+e- xe=x !J.f

e = 0 f.it'

V X,E (Q "'f/ x E 'CQ,

x T 0 _, x w.rj] J

o T :x:= X 4l.ll J

. T u..,JWl ~~l ~I '"'" 0 w~j

;$ * * *-

E;: {(x ~ Y) E Z X Z I x2 - 2y:= 1} ~ J£l :~, ~ u~1 Z x Z ~. Ex E .0£ T' tJ.;J.l.{,\1 ,)~,.i W:!11 E .b;A (Xl ~ yj .j (x, y) {x ~y) T (x/ ~y')::: (xx' + lxv' ~.\)i' + xy) .E ~ u~, .~lJ ~y i.uJti T d ~ - ] YI~~, !~ I~ T U~W11 ~ ... 2

5

E ~I ~.1b._1~ '.'1;1;(.) w~u; T- 1

.E ~ ~ (xi' ,"Y) J (x )y) cfo.J .R ,~! ''I,A;·;~ (x, y) T (x' ~y) .tJ ,~ (:a! + 2.v.v'P - 2 (-0/' + x'y? :: 1 d ~ wI ~ 1~

(xx' + 2W,')2 ~ x2xfl.· + 4y.ya + 4xx}y' ~ll

2(xyf + xy)2~ = 2ilyl:2 - 2xGy12 - 4XX~'-

(xx' + 2W~2 ~ 2(xy' + xy)2 =x2(xr2 - 2y~) ~ 2y(x12 _1yfl) ~ J ... _:~. xl. _ 2·y·fJ. ~"11 ('Ita '(x' . y"'- e E J .. Uu J'

-- J . .._ . III '-'. " :;.)' ., _

(xe + 2yyj2 - 2(zy' + xy)'2 ~ x2 ,_ 2j2

(xx' + 2_Y.Yj2 - 2(xy' + x,y)2 = 1 til

((x ,y) E E c.,f.:;) x2 ~ 2y2= 1 d LJc.

~~~, ~~ ,~ T w~\Al1 - 2

.E U.4 ~ (1 ~ 0) ~ ~.l1 .E t)4 ~_;...:Jc. (x } y) ~ (x ,y) T (1 ,,0) ~ (z.I + 2.0. y , x,Q + yJ)

= (x ,.y)

(1 ) 0) T (x ~y) = (z , y) ~il J

. T QJ-i~ ~6..d ~~ .JA'. (1 ~. 0) Q~

* * * *

. . 2x+l

(x * I) * 1. :::::: ---~--~

'. x+l

]+1 1*1~=~

l.1

.... 2·

,x*(1*1)=x*2 x+2

2x

. . x+2

x * (1 *' 1) ~ _ .. - . 2x

tijl

Ii..J .~

'.. .. - · ':Wi-

'. -u."'" 1 'lif';, * U ,iU _: 'I '(,...J

.~~!.~ • ...r ~

u~, ~. * o;Ul! u\S I~

. ,

x*(1*l)=(x*l)*1 2x+l x+2

. - *

'if XE IR+

. it 't x Et 1R+.

x+l

2x

( *)

v X E IR+._ 2x (2x + 1) = (x .... t )(x + 2)

V' X E IR: 4x1 + 2x = xl + 3x + 2 'i~

¥x6JR~ 3x2-x-2=,O J~

, .

,~,~ ,,:,F * t_uJ1.il1 ,u}i ~6. '~'JI 0.)4--11 d ~ J

1~6A 'IJoA';'C ~ 'i * WJlWI ... 2

(e; e It! ~) e ~.l:lb.. 'I~. ~ * d ~jW I

*

"'i;/xIE1R+ x'*e~x "~J

x+,e -~=x

ex

(VXE R:) er=x-e . .0 d'~

* ** *

~. ~ 0 ~ u~1 r ~tlll ~_jU.~ ~ 'if x1Y E (Q xTy:·x+y-,xy ;~Lp r ~li1I J im ... ·l ~~J~' T wW~ (,ji l»J - 2 ~t~b...4 Ilc~ T ~\ili ~ J- ... 3

C\

! '4·'

I - ~I

J.:l~ T uJ3\E\ - 1

'li:!~ . co W..t U:t.~· Y .J X u£J x Ty~'x+ y=X}'. yTx:;;;:y+x-yx

xTy=",yTx ~_"

·vl.:llp T aji,WI, ~l

<Q iJA !_,.._Lla. Z J Y .J X ~

(x Ty) T z = (x' + y - zy) T Z' ~ .

= (x+y-Xy)+ z - z (x+ y-zy)

=: x +y + .z _" xy - ,Z,X ~ zy -1= ~z

77

y+z x+~-

l+yz

" y+z 1 + X." --

1+ yz

(x * y) * z

x+y+z+.xyz xy+xz+ zy+ 1

== x * (y * z)

-

* * * '*

u ~~ IR ~ y. rL_rG, * J,~~l.{,l~ JA~j ;1 = [= 1 ~ 1] ~ ~~ V (x ,Y) E r x * v= xJl- yZ'+ y~l- x2

.J ()A LH~YJX ~ -\-1 Arccos Y J Arccos x U':{.~.x >II y ~,

.] ~ U;.- ,~b Is-f\fi~ u,;.ili * u1 ~,,~t -y (1 * 1) * (-1) J 1 *(1 * (=1)) ~~ -~ -,2

! ~-JA'_"::; * u~lill ~ -~ ,d UM .I .tY I~ "X' r:..f4 - 3

x , xeI- J-~,~[

--4x3 +3x ~ x E [ __ ~, J2]

_ 2 2 I

x * y yL~~ -1 ~l

.~. = Arc cos x .J a :::; Arc cos x ~ " 0 s ~ S;; '1"& J 0 S; () :s; 1t J Y = cos ~ J X ~ cos a, ~ll

0~~ .Jt- .y2 = sin~ J J] - x'l = sin a, AJ.o J x * y ::::::: cos o. sin ~+ cos ~ sin a

:= sin (Ct. + ~)

x * y ~ sin (rx + ~)

x * y= sin (a+~) "~~UJj.wl~ l;-hil~ x * Y 'E I "-if - 1 $ x " y ~ 1 <llA J .1 ,uk u,~ ~\,J c.i;.& _fJ (J~iJ * ~l

1 *0 *(-1)) = 1 *0

=- l.Jl- 02 + o.,Jl-12 = 1

~, J

U JL4l1 I{ ~ ]-1 , 1 [ x ]-1) 1 '[ c)A * tl~~MlI ~ ~~

x+y

~ (x ) Y) E ]-1,.1 [2 x * Y ~ "

l+xy

,],-l~l[ ~ ~J*-"l ~b ' .. 'fo-P u~t; * () ~ B 1 1-1 J [ ,QA _;.-Uc. Z J Y J X ,cfi:!l -f - 2 ex * y) <I< Z L.]''''''~

~"". ~ - -" c ~ *:,.,jm! "".. -I...,J

"'1i' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

6

]~l,l[ J~~ ,~ ~Ll1\ ~j1l~ U~\.! -1

Ji ~ u~~-~, ],--lJ[ ~ w,~ ~1l ~y LJ__,5,)A * ui ~,~

\rd (x ,y) e ]--1 ) 1[2 x * Y E 1-1J[

]-11"" "[2 ""'. - "" _"" (.x y)", "·;.C.l

} r_.II-A~. i' ~

~ 1 <xy<1 ~.J'~ l<y<l J ·-l<x<l ~..ll w]j ~Wl4 J "lli +.ljJ > 0 oj~

x * y ~ ]-1) [lSi ~ 1 <: x + y <: 1 ~.J

.. 1+.:ty

·l~l)[ ,~ w~ ~b ~=? .. ,sy wpti * u~~

x+y ~.....:;_,_+z

l+xy

-~..........:;..-~

" x+y l+z,~...::;......

l+xy

_ (x+y)+z{1+ xy) -- (1 + xy) + z( x + y)

x·+ y + Z + .tyz -'Y +xz+zy+ 1 x +Y"' + z +n>z

(x·:t y) * :z = "- n .r: "

.lY+xz+zy+t

(x '* y) * z '.,., x + y + Z' + ~z . . ,~+xz+.zy+l c

y+z

x * (y ,. z)' ... x ;$

l+yz

78

(a, a') x [(b~ hi) x (c, c')] == (a.e') X (be, b'c') = (abc, albic') .

[(a, a') x (b) b') 1 x (c, e) = (9, a') x [(b, b') x (c, eN)] w~l

*~~l:U X WyliU

~~ .Z2 l)4 L»~ (b, hi) J (a}, a') ~ (a, a') X (b, b') ::;;::. (ab, alb')

'b b··I.,)

~ (a) r a .

= (b, b') x (a, a') (a, a') x (b) b') ~ (b, b') x (a, a')

• X u~lill ~6...J\ _) u" ;.Jl ~ 2

i,.~.~ Z··2. '1 h .... i,." (a a') ~

~ .. ~~'" 4"

(8...., a') X (1, 1) = « a, a') (1, 1) x (a .. a') :: (8\;. at)

.X uyWl ~6..,;Jl~1 . .JA (1~. 1) IW~

41ilA.JJ ~I.il:l ~l\:J~ - 3

~ Z2 tJ.;l1~ (x, X) J 7J ~ ~~ (a, a') ~ (a;a') x (~, x') = (1~ 1)

(ax~ a1x? = (L, 1) ~i

az' = 1 .J ax= 1 u~ ~ a ;;: ~ 1 ) a = 1 .u.ti X 'E Z J a e Z (} 4 Jo a' == -1 } a' == 1 ~.~ JuJ4 J ':., b.. U~_.·~lll; ~~~ .. ,~l

~ilr"'" • ~ ~~

.~

* '* * *

.* L,ultill ~.)Jl - 2 :~ti!1 ~'ijluJ~ n ~ t.P. - 3 A* X~ E-i

X*X~A-Y

,0 ~jS.y. ~ ~~ABCDEF ~ ~~I"~ ·u~.J ; n =: {A B, C> D, E~.F} ~

'1 ~. '.1 n, '. y. . X .. ' ~1 ~ * . t:..L'l ~ ... ~"'" u_,l;ll ,(1 ""':l..IJ'::''''' t.J-'l' - J. . ~ --",. ~ ~....-

.(OY) ,C"'ir)~~]."m.Jx Ji~ J4 X it: Y , ; *u._,J1.il1 J_,~ ~~. ~ 1

79

1 *(1 *(-1)) = 1

1 *1 =- .J~:l~--1-2+Jl-12 ~ 0

(l * 1) * (-I) == O;+; (-1)

~ 0.41-(=1)'2 +(~1)Ji-02 := -}

(1 !II 1)*(-1) =-1

~j

UJJJ *

..... -

.o\.l..4 .J

'.' "'t..I. ........ ~ ~:>.I=' I.' 1 ~til! ~w

",,!III '" ~ v,~ ..

(1 * I) * (-1) ==: -1 J 1 * (1 ~ (~1)) == 1 ~,

I *(1 *(~l»)*(llj! 1)*(-1) .u..,.J

.~ ..._",:.,_ * ;'1 n1t:il1, ,.'.\1

.~ ... ' -..----- ~ '-I....;r'. V- ..

,~~. ;";';. t\ .~ ... _,);t~ t::.J,~\ .. 3

~'~ -,,~ II;!

x * x = xJ 1- x2 + x~l- x2 =2xJl-x2

~-

x +: (x * x) ;:::;. x * 2x~1- x2 ~ J

.~ xJl'~4;20 - x2) + 2xJl-x2JI ~ x2

= x( ~1- 4x2(1 ~x2) +2(1-X2»)

={ J(2x2 -1)2 +2(1-X2»)

:zx2 - 1;:: 0 t.Jljxl > ~ 0)0 x E I - [ -1. ~] ulS. e'l

.x * (x * x) '=' (2i2 ~ 1 + 2 - 2x2)x W J:

=.x

J2 [- .J2./2] 15 'I~

2x2 - 1:::; 0 t;~ f.xb~ -2 - u~ x ~ - 2. '2 Ii W'.

'1

x * (x * x) :::;: (1.- ~ + 2 ~ 2x2)x ~ J

= x (3 - 4x2)

~ 4:tf + 3.x-

* * * *

~ ~ Z x Z ,~u~ ~\.l r4y u_,j1.i x ifo.) Cv (a, al) e Z'l)('V (b, b') E Z2) (a.a') x (b, b') == (ab, a')

.~.)~ ,J' c.,.'I'".;+'i"j x u~rn\ 61 ~ .. 1 ,8

. ~ -\l1::l..J ~ 1 ~IL::....:., ! ~ ~ X u.j.itilt ,ut U!-;! _, Z '

~~U ~tilI z2 ~lali ,~Lt. _ 3

til'! 1

.... ',' iii ••

. ~~4~ X I~il I~ ,!IIIiIi

''1'"'" -" I,J...T""

~~ .Z2 ().4 I~Uc (c.c') J' (b.b') .J (a .. a') .USJ [(~ itt) x (b .. l11)]X(C" c') = (ab, a'b') x (C,. 0')

"== (abc~a'1btcl)

~~I 4.l~k.J.1 ,J:._ ~(! ·'i~J.~~ N~ •

U - ~.J. ~ (,)A

x * A := D,) X * A _ A. ~~~, E * (X * A) =: C

X= A ,,~lS.; X *.A ~ A ~ .j

X ;:;; D i'~~ X * A = D

8. = {A,. D} 0 tlJ~III!~ J.;h ~~ u~~

* * * *=

T ~ E ~JA~A .~u..J---l ~~J <~foy u~1.i T uS:iJ. .~'.lll '.,..6fil w~ij * W·E .rJ.4I~a ~'.J ~ :. l·,· l.:..! E 1 ... U ':""_ .1,. 'F='''~~

10

..

'r:j x, y E E- x * y::: X TaT y

if~-¥'~ * UjlWI lJ ~ ~ 1 .~..:l~ * u.tA ;.l4J T ,u~ l11~ ~i ~ - 2 (e t:- a) e 1.l;!1.:....:i ll~ ~ ~f .J J~4J T J ~fo - 3 . T (~.t~liD, ~4 a' ~~ ')._ .... _ic- ~ a uf s

, "'" ..~ .. ~ _ _ L ~ 'i.': M *_ ~,. ;ii,

.~~ ~ I~~, q~ ~ {JI'.~ --'

. _:~ n 10:1 \~ • _ _ ~ _ t~ f E I • • ,c:' J

~,~~~ ~~,_"AX .1'. ~'I~X ~,=y

.T 0_,JW1 ~4 x .6~~ ~ * W.J.i,rill ~y ~l..u ~~ ~ x u~ Lm'

Ly.lJ .8 ~~~ UA ~L!.c Z .Jy .J X ~ ex '* y) * z - (x TaT y) * z

- (x TaT y) T a T z

x * (y * z) ~ x * (y T a T z}

= .x TaT (y La T z)

-- (x T a T y) T a. T z ,~T··,..Jti11 :~'1

y .... U..r "-"

(x * y) * z == (x :$ y) * z u:J!

~ * UJ-ll.i!lu}3 ~ .J

li.lJJ E ,w.a, ~~ y .J X ~ J .~l1.,lJT 0jltill ~J ~yii

(x * y):: (x T a )1 y ,_ (a T x) Ty

- aT (x Ty) ~. aT(yTx) - (a T y) T x

- (v T a) Tx

- yTa T x

-- y*=.:t

(BE) -~ JJ -: ·'1, .. A- ·"I'_I~ _. . c· 1,< .~

. ,;._ &9', iI:"L' ~u . ~~,~....A. ~

. r... .. 'L.;.?- ~ ~

~ J (BE) ~ (OE) s (BE) :::: (OB) ~ J

,

A*E ==C.J A*B=C

.u.r. J' (CF)· .. \;~i",,4il ~L A ~l44. _.!Ii. E l.iJ~ .,

~,,,, ... ~- ri' J

A*C =E J' A*F ..... E

. (·-AD·)· ~~ii ". .11 - A ':\'00'1. - - A· ·I~_,l

"\.i.4 J .... . ~~IJ.'. II AU ~''-i'. .i.l",l'I",A..CI yA. . ~~ J

A*D =A_J A*A-:;::;;A

.JJ~ U-" 1 Jifi . .JI· ~lan -:l.~ ~l~, J

r? A B C D E F
A A C E A C E
,
-
B F B D F B D
C E A C E A C
D D F B D 'F , B
E C E A I C E A
F B D F B D F' * wj.l,\.il ~ ~,,".ill J.:i - 2

B*C =D.J C*B __ A C*B;;tB*C

.J~~ .JF. * w~tlll, ~l ~, ullli ~-40 ~ n ,tJA ~ ~i ~>.l Y '-4j J,J~I ~ LJA ~ * • b:lbJ. \ ~ ~ 'J * u~1lM i) ~ ~~ J :LG~I tJ.t!

(A * A) '* B = C ~ (A* A) *= B = A * B U;11 *'

A * (A * B) 0' E '-Ii A* (A * B) - A * C ~ J

(A * A) * B ;t A $: (A * B) ~ "

.' ~ u6. * u', a_l\.il, .' : .. !

'r"jj!" .pilr .~- ~ -~ ~;i'

~}'I.\ ~~L"A.n ~. -1 - 3

~ I.j~ JJl ~W', ~t j~~ ~~ _,. X .J ~ A * X =, E ~ .A ~~ r.} ~j.R-yJl J E

X ;;;;; F J' X = C .oj~

S == {F, C} ~~.ht"".A.n ,~JA J.;la. ~.JA-iU O\..lA-J ...• \~t~ itJ..1\ ... It . L _

~II..U __ ~ I U.:lo. (...J

~ ~

uf ~ J.,~' ~ '~,

y*y =y X*X=A oU..4.J

ld Ye n X=A I!'~~I

80

. E ~ ,...... 1:..'\··'" • . ~1.! *'·;(.l

~ .... ~~ ~ \.....1I1)J!A ~ . ..:l ~.)J ~\., U""7'

,e l-l.lb...ll~ ~ J C:={YEE/'iXEE X*y=y*.x}~ • .u._)U1.J# ~~ c t) ~ ... 1 .* u_,.itm ~,.ull] ~ E ~ ~» c d ~ - 2

11

II

~)j .JP C ~~I .. I

~, .J .l)t...-, ,~ e ~ \!XE E x*e ::::::e*x;;;;;x

.C '.' I ~,,, e . ~I .. IS. ,~ u .

• ~}~ ~ ~ JA')c:,q C ulJ ;Wl..} J

~, ~fo C =Lc~11'" 2

C ~~ ~Jz*y J ~C ,u-a'W:1~Z "y ~ t\~Lll .E ~I~ x ~

x * (z * y) = ex * z) * y

• (~'_.. J A.,.,d * uji~1 0 t;

u~! .x*z=z*X~,JZE c 4l~ x *' (z * y):~ (z *' x) * y

=-z * (x * y)

<U4.J X *' y;:;::: y *' x u},i Y E C c)' ~ J

X * (z * y) = z * (y * x)

::: (z * y) * x-

V X E E x * (z * y) = (z * y) * x u.11 y * Z E C t~JJ ~y J Z * Y E C J' ~ l1\ J

(E "') J ~~ ',. p' C"·" ti ~,t11w

• ~ "" '. ~,,~, U.- 'Y . J

* * * *

x ,w~)=';} G ~~ ~ u.JZ-f! ~'J ~y L.JYti x ~

(~\P2 G ~ ~~A ~ ,.e L~t.:-:. I~ ~I _, ~ i:

.e E A

B .= {y E Of:3 x E A y;;;;_ x-1 } .~ 12

,.0 Q..4 e .JLl, ..#- c. . ..J+ B ut ~ - 1

. B" ~ v "_'1,-:n ~w j'i:LJi<lil A u' LS. r~~.wl /I..l.l ~ 2 I

~ -» U.J.:..:l .,._ WyWILU. • - -- . • .........

• u,.;.iWI \ 1aJ l J '" il.4 _Jil. 'L~

t_;.u Y.P B f-~l - 1

e = e-1 ~, .J X u~u.u ~la..J' ~I ~ e ~.:U e ~ B tJ~ e 'E A ui .~ .J (B c G wi rhJl ~) t.J.1.i .» G ~ ~-» B u~~

~~-»B~~~ .. 2

.B 0A 6.!~.z JY ~

81

rI X"Y E E

x * 'I) = X * Y '1,.9 oU..t. " - .... u..J

* u~t.ill 'l;!6.A\1 _)" ..... ;..11 -1 - 3

.t.l.ti, .) ,ei tl:!~ l ~ ~ * rJ~fo * Y:f x, H E E x * e' :: X

-,'f

rI x" Y ,E ExT (a Tel) = x

., T u~lill ~'~ ~ a T ,el

"ij ~ J~'.j '~y u:_;JUJ ~b..Jll ~II ui ~ .J'

W. ~ .J ~ ~, __

T UytiU ~4-'~~ a ~ Jj,WI ~i ~ e~ I.ji a Te!:= e

(~J~ T u~ e! Ta == e d ~'I ~) el == al <tiA J ~.ll .E tJA 'I ~ x r:.fo7), it:

X * a' '= x T (a T a .. ) =xTe

LJ~ T UJ-iUll ~6 .. A.U ~1 .;A e !) ~ J a T al ~ e we..; .x*ar~x

0~ (~~1IJ ~t pI) ,#h4:i T w'J 'ffb4:J * t.J ~ .s

* . 'till .lJl::uJ1 . .,.'._11 .&.. a! .', \~

I' ~ P-' --~,J.-. ~.iI'

* W~l.i.U ;; +I.'<il!~, x" ~,k.:. \ ~ JA: x d' ~fo * x T a Tx;r == at rJi x '* X r1 = a ~.ll {x TaT x") Ta ::::: a' T a .~ J X T (aT XU T a) == e ~( . T u~,Wll+Ij~14 a ~ ~t.(j, .. JI ~I JA a' uY T 0_,.i1.ill 4=;t·_>l'\Y x ~ JRA..J~ _,""" ';1tJ~ JA. a T x rr T a u~l S! T x" T a == x' ~ J

a' T(a T xlrTa) T a' ~ a~ T,x1T a' w~l

(a .. T' a) T x" T (a T a') :::a! T X' T e' r.;f

e T x" T e == a! T x' T a' rr:J ~

x";;;;, a' T x'T a' r.,ff

x * XII' =: X Tar (a' T x' T a') ~ :+;

:= X T (a T a') T .t' T a'

= (x T e ) T (xl'T a')

:= X T (x'Ta')

= (x T x) T a'

~ eTa'

;;;;, a'

x" * x ~ a'

'* * * *

(a- 1) (b - 1) > 0 l.t~ 11 > IJ, a. > 1 ut ~ J

a~ T b e ]I 1 ~ + ~ [ 'IJ~ a T b > 1 u~~

. T u."iGll l :'''bjm~ ~ f- jq.. ] 1 ~ +oo[ Jl--F .. j~ QIi ~tJ4 .J

~~. ~ .",);J1, dJY~ J.~ ~ .jX;C I ~ -1 x

x = "-'--_

x-I

_ (x-i) + 1 x~l

1 =1+~-

x-I

* * * *

:.~ (k e Z). 1t + k.n Wl~.)t~. J~ JSJ

~ . 2 ~ - ~

1

14

...

tEA J X E A ~ z = r] .J Y === x-1 '~.ll z x y = r] x x-I ~ J rl x x-I = (x X t).,-l "li_,~ x ,\ Uu

. ,w. ~ ,... . w .. .J

Z X Y = (z X ttl ~ "' y x z == (t X xtl 1J.l.41 Jl.J4 .s tXXE A.J x x t e A u~ ~1'jq..A J ~J yxzEB,J' zXYEB~J "(G~ x) .J ~ .p.F.- B u::"~

M =' oos x

X I 1

I -tan x

* *' * *

-tan x i

. ~, ~ lR. ~ .u~~.I.) '4'; u~~ T .)ft .. ~ \if (a, b)e ~ a T b = ab - a - b + 2

. T UJ1lill ~b...J; ~I, lh -i - 1

.~L...Jl ~1i31 1IR UA ~t1Jl, .ll3. -L:J .T U_,JI.ill·~4 ~ ~.» ]1" + .oo[ ui Lw ~i _·2 .&~~ /;;_;...ak. Xl .J ]1" +- C>Q[ ~.I~ x ~ -.~ r]l~ +GQ[ ~~ x'] L,;i-4J'ij ~

cos x

13

_, R~ x ~ ~4ic Mx blU~~ ~~ n. u£:it .J .(k E Z) ~ + k1t L..4l~

.:Lc,~. ~I ~~~ cJ.;JUl:;'~~'.ililY ~ f.. ~.Q ~l ~ -]

2- .~. ::'ji .. . :L .. '" ~I .," ,I:. - .~". ~ -.li· • '"'!'" (.)4 ~J"""'-"""'~_"""'_""'"

-eke Z)· 1&+k1c ~'~lR~~~x~~2

. 2 .' .. ~

il\Jf ..... ~. ~. \t ... \";;. M-1 .j'

~."'); ~~I L:-l."..,_ 'x .:I~-

n . JI ~:. M·.· ~l··f " -I,d - -- (5'.~.x U ~ -s-'

. .JiJ.uv~ f" ft g ~ ~l - 1

(k e Z)·. 11: .. + kit uLil,~ R i_1..Q. UL>~ Y .J X lfi:ll

, 2 ~ - . - . ~

b' =- tan j: .J

.........:.:J .t.u~l w,I.JA.:J~ J!+,",,~J

'i.,_., .... ~ '!'" . ,;.

.J b=--tanx,J a== ............ 1 ..... 'cos x

xT2=x

. T 0,Joili.U ~t~.A11. ~I ~ 2 ()~j *

cosy

(a h)' (a' br).

MXxMy ~ b a .•.. x _hI a' ....

= (aa' +bb'a.b. p.' + ba')' ." ba'!+abn bb' +aa" .

{ ,. bb' . 1

aa-+··,:--

cos Z

ab'+ba'::= +tanz

"if x~ IR. \i XE R

xTe=x

.~

~> ..9.1.&

'*t?r- - ..

xe-x- e+2;;:::::;x

.

u\ ~

e~2 ~t

ll:l.!il .R c.JA , ~ x w* 2 T x'=2x-x-2+2=x

v X E R x (e = 2) ~ (e - 2) = 0

1R 64 J'd\,J Jj,l,u.l\ ~, ~y

~~.R ~ I,~ b .JR6A I,~ a,~ a T b = 2 ~ ab = a - b + 2 ~ 2

¢.:} (a - 1) b = a

u}ia. * 1 ul.S \~

Tb . b a

a . = 2 {::;I. . ~ -'--

a-I

Ut-ll ~ti .t1 uti a :;t 1 ulS \::.~ ~Jj (~ ~ ~)~..)~ T uji,l,ill d ~ J

a .·~.I r

"~. ~ V\..4.CU~ ~~ J

a= l -

.1 ~.:wlljJli • ..a..U ~iiJ9 ... l\ .J;~y" ~:iJj\A ... n ~1ltI _Jo.o:i.1.1J1 u~

• ..)ft!ibQ ,.. _? ] 1, + OQ [ J6,...J1 -1 .. 2

:: ~~ ill + =l ,"Ll.J ...... le b .J a ".c:.~

i" J,. ~_. ~

a T b - a (b - 1) - (b - 1) + 1 = (a -- 1) (b - 1) + 1

cosx.

tan x

cosx tan x

1

(2 ' .. ",1 l......l J~._II p~\ -~

(.Ff. ,,~ •

1

tan x

M-1 =! CQ$x

x' ]

tanx --

cosx

1

-tau(-x) ]

-

_' COS(-.x)

cos(-x)

• 1t k ..

~ .J cos (-x) ;t: a. uJ.9 cos x:;t 0 <$~ (k 'E Z) x;t: 2 +.n 01~ j

1t .

(k E Z) - x ¢-+kn 2

M-1 En x .!.t,;,

* * * *

.E ~ ~, t., U ~,~. I':"b~. Ij, ,.',,._;I.j X··(,J

...r---'-~ ~ .,r-- '.",. '" ft ~ ... _r v...;r ~

{(.I.rtX 'E E )(::1 t Y. E ~) ('V~" E E)(3! Z E E)

xy=a zx= 1b

b =eb _j a;;;;::.ae

ea= a j :l'JJ-W

. W~'"

t!v'>! E2 ~,(h) k) ~ ~~ ~~ L»l-t (ah = ha :::; e) _j (bk~ kb = e) I .X u_,.il:ill .l;!L:....Ji .)'-<'.l_,:j,.J~ ~ e ut (!y(h\~ - j .:i&~ ~ti E (}4 ~ Js; ui 0H - 2

ae e a

eb=b

e= E- • f ",", " ~ ~<.,. JI' ·:··!II~ ,"10 L~,

- u ~ u ~ ,-Y""" ~, '. .J

{:n U ... E. B (ab)u= a

::3! vEE v {ab) = b

a:::: (abju ~

= a(bu)

-tany tan z ab'+ba'= .. .---

cos x cosy

sin x + siny

Cos x oosy 1

aa' + bb'= + tan x taJ}}'

cos X cosy

I +sinx siny

=

cos x cos y

1 + sin. x sin y ]

~~--""",-

C?S x ,CO~ y cos Z

SI11X+ SIlLY ---_;;... = +tanz

cos x cos y

I 1 + sin x sin y '1

I -

~.' cos z cos y cos z

sin x + sin y . 1 + SmA siny

. ~sm::;::.

cos x cos y cos x cosy

. cos x cosy

cosz=

<=:} . . 1 ~ sin x ~iny

I • SlIlX + sIny

gUlZ - .

I + sin x sin j

( J2 ("" ;)2

( • . ."M ,). COSXCO. sy . ' smx + =. 1

~j ()A ~I •• + . . ,=

.' 1 + sll1xsiny. .1+ SU1X8H1Y.

cosxcosy

~z ~ J~ ~J':!~ . ., ¢ 0 ~ll J"

1+ sinxsiny

.(*) ~1 ~';lZ ~ J (ke Z) ~'+k1l

MxX~E' n ~1' (~(R), x) J. ~ j:.~ n Jt ~ L~;J

(1 0J· .. · ..

~ == 0 1,

(a (:1./J' (a b)

MxM = I

. X I 13- ~I. b a

::::: (" u a + Ct. I'b 0:. t.). + « ... ~.a 1. a ~+~'b, ~ b+ ~Ia)

aa. + bet." = 1

. _ 1 bcx+ aa'; '0

M X Mx ~ I 'R I 4...i.A s

a~+bW~O

, bJ3+a~'= 1

-2 2 1 .2

a - b ::::. 2 - tan x u,~,

cos x

~ (1 + ta.112 x) - tan,2 X =1

1 =-b o

I

a

ol=

. b

l b

Jct=O." =a

a

83

(akz)x - a v~ ae:: a J .s kb= e or) ~'"

(akz)(Jje) = (akar)e Li:l11,J

=ae

~ ~I fo"l!~.) 3 ! tEE (akz)t:- a

x(yhb) == (~)(hb) ;= a(hb)

=- (ah)b

..

x(yhb) = b, u~, eb ~ b J all = e d L..eJ

(ex)(yhb) == e(':\yhb) ~

0= eb

~b

-,I

:3 ~ t E lE t(yhb) ;::: b

\-I E - " " .. ',' '~ .. I,

V X E'," ex c: - xe ::::: .\': u-c

. xt:.L'~Wl ~1b..Jl ~I ,,JA e ui ~ \~J

':::I (y' ),., E·2

.=i ! ._, z' E:

. x(vh) == e ~\ (x,y)h = e k(zx) = kb

0J~ ah = e J~J'

-u... zx= b U:Jl,

J

(kz)x = e rJ'f k(zx) = e uJ~ kb= e rJ ~J

kz = (kz)e 4t~

-'(b)(zyh)

- k(zx)yh

- (kb)yl1

.. eyh

-yh

'rIxeE 3.1tEE xt~tx=e-

.~

w,

~.,:4~ X w~lill w'i e ::::;; bu ~J ae -=- a <~"'-! ~J ~ e .:J ae = a l1::~J

(a = ae w~) e = v(ae) ~} E ~ Ee~J E= (va)e til e = £e 01 ~ Jl,JYJ E =e ~J

3 ! e E E a = ae .J b = eb ~tJ4J

~foJ,1 ~j~,Ic:J~J ~y ~~I.fo~I~

3 ! BE E bs = a

,ea ~ e(bs) .~~

,"" (ebjs

ea ~. bs u~ eb =b wi ~J

.... \ LJ"'~

.h ~~ .J k ~,~ J__"'J' -cr,

4cl ~\fi)tl ~ a2b=a

kb2 =b

{3T h eE

-" ..

3,;.k E E

a= a2h 4l~

=a{alIt)

ah > e (j}j a=: ae L§'b.J ~.ll' ~)I ~~ Y. e cJ ~..)

kb = e wi ~ cJi.J4J

a(ha) = (ah) a

=a

ha = ,e (jJj at!:=:: a ~ ~~, ~)I ~~ y\er:J ~.j bk ~ b . i . !. Jl..JL. u ~ .. J

w}:i ~t:iJYJ 3 ! (h, k) E E2 ( eh ~ ha = e) s (bk == kb = e)

·41~ ~\jli'l' , ... b. .1R~ 1~ x ~

3 ! (y~ z) E E2 (.ty = a J EX == b)

(~kz)x = (ak)(zx) ~~

= (ak)b

:;;; a(kb)

~ r ~
.... ojlJ ~ 6
b n
.,)
" ~ \.. .J 85

~~-

1Ir'II'.

bj-Oj ~ yll1i1.:>aH .lC I~ ~.

M

b~' lQ;\'o~J ~~ b~j-

~ ~ ~ . - -

~~~,~~t,j-

Lili l,i:i, t "1;'~ f ! '~\i Q ,/ ~ t .\..6 ., ."...

4Ii • ~ ~ ~~..J

~ * l.ut,.lW~ u}j .u.,;. J .~,l~ :o,~j (I~ *) ulJ JtJ~J-

* * * *

~, ~ * ~l.l!~ ~.>Jl w~1j 1R,~ u~ V (a, b) E JR. 2 a * b ~ ab - a -b + 2 . *~11tl ~1 =" .. 'j~ .J, .... 1,J1 },-h. - 1

* . . "lill ~b )1j,kA 1, ,,'" ~':J ]. t· - 2

uJ-l,. ~ - ... " w U:l;l

12

* Wytill ~6...J~ _J' .... ;~l-l

li:lJJ, .R ()A ,~ e ~

('f/ X~ 1R) x *' e:;;;; x ¢:> Crt x E 1RJ .re - x - e + 2 = x

~ (e-2 )¥~(e-2):;::: 0

~ e;;;;;;2

"if XE 1R x* 2=2:t:x~x

))jt,y l~ ~ 'i 1 ~,~ -2

W:!.:J .lR ,lJ.!l ~ ~ x ,~ x*l =x-x-l+2

- 1

'rI XE 1R x * 1 * 2 ~1

• *," : I .1'i..W :L.~jJ:w '-.I~L- I , ..... ~ .1.'::}\,1 .] 46L:..

.,. '6J.J'" • , ._.:\d ~ ~ A:. ..J

1.J;.1l, • R ~ C>.l~ bJ a ,~ a s b = ab-a-b+2

;:::: a(b - 1) - (b - 1) + 1 = (a ~ 1 )(b - 1) + 1

(a - I )(b - I] * Ou}i b ;t, 1 "' a;: 1 (.J ~"'

a * be E i.j~ a *b ;1: 1 4.i4 J

. * cJ..;JWl 4~~ljJJ~ Jl"h'iA ,,, fl E w1~

(E~, *) ~ _)4 yJ -~ ud\':"l,lIAl~ u~L;i1] ~1k..,J,\ ~~ Y' 2 u~, J}'l~ J~y,.J\ ~J 2 E E~.Jj -

.E ~ * 4!~.E 0At~,y JE ~\~x ~~

x * ,,1IJi' ' ~' 21"1) - X - Y +.2 = 2,

"T q ~~?

<=? (x-l}y =X x

Q y=~-'

. x-I

y * x ~ 2 <=> Y = __:_ ~.1!J

. x-I

'L:. ·1 ,1\ , .. c ,~t1 • .,,:: 'F t~ " • I '] 11 1 [ , " "

* ~1..lJ!1 ~_;.u' U.F\..:l 1 ~ LJi_>:U ., .= , - '~, <0:+ .... ]

~~

1.

x+y

"rI x, y ~ ] x * y ;= , . '

l+xy

"* u~lm ~,b..t. ~ 0 J ~= 1 .] LJ.ol. \~ x ,~- 2

.x ~ JjWl J . .gc17_J~ ..j4 x- d' ~ ~'

. tiU" , \.a.J"~ ~~ '1

_i i.~" I _ '\, , _ +

~ U~- . .~ - - .'" '.,', -

I "'. ~ ,," ......:(,~ W'l'1~...., ~

x+o

~i x * 0 = ~.:J

1+ x..O

o *x=x ~~JI

"'i/ XE J

x*y= O",x=x

( I, ,x+ (~x)

x* -xi= ~~~

1+ x(-x)

(~x) * x::: 0 ~~ ~4.J X '* (~x) = (-x) *' x = 0 u~ .x ~ J;i~ ~11 y\ -x ui ~ 1,iAJ

(l , ,,) -: ~ 1 ," H .. " ' t tt 3' " 1,. * ~~~, D_JAy. -",

lh\..il !LLW1· ~"l'1t L.b.Ja. -

-~.!", ~ ------.--- - ---..-------

'~~\6 ~~ ~ * o,_,.JiW1- ~l44 "~ ~ I ,rYa' ,~ J5; ~ ~J ~~~ * .(jjlWI d ~d ~ ; '~~ .1 lJ.'l U:L,~ Y .J X u4 -

y+x y*x ... ..;;;..--

l+xy

x+y x*Y=-"";""

I+xy

.~J~ *' UytiJ! (j]j w~~ ~ .I ,r)4 ~.J'-=Uc Z .JY ;J x r:fi.& = (x * y) * z c: x -+- y

.. " - * z

1+ x:v

x+y

_ __:..._+z

I+xy .

. x+y

1 + z· '

l+xy

1+':\y +xz +.zy x+

x *' (y ., z) .~ x*" " . y

. 1+J0l

y+z x+,_;__._

l+yz

,-=-~-

1+ x, y+z ~+yz

x+ yzx+ y+z

l+yz+ xy+xz Cx $ y) * Z = X;;iI tv '* z)

86

.' ,":.~ z II ':. .. .... t ~ :;.'~ "'I ~ 1

~~'. ~I <I.,....l~~ -I -

{3y,eG 3zeG

(.lY)z ;;; ez <\.i.4,_t

xy=e yz=e

XJ!= e

,\{yz) ~ ez uli yr=J.vN X u_,Jlil" ,r:} ~J

· •. U vz. -_ e .. ' ,'r 'i ,-

xe = ez U.1.::l ~ 0' ~..J

X = es u}! xe := X u1 ~j

(V X E G)(3 Z E G) x:= ez 6~

?' \';;1 u~'J'\ -w

~ It .'

'V x e G .ee ;;:; x ~..:J '\Ix'EO ex=x J~d'r}+ .G0A~~x~ 3 Z IE G x :'""" ez l1:!~ ~W, Jt y.J~( . , ... ~

er = e(ez) ~'Ji

"" (ee)s

'f'll..}p;u x u~Wl w~ li.J.:ll ,'OJ ,,",n ,...,jCJ~ .' L_il! ~ '"

.. "~~~ I~"" J

" .

ex = x ,til ex :;::: ea Q~

V X E G ex == xe ;: x u.~ Jtil~J .,~llIi I~ ~~ .J' al.J! JA e d ~ t~.J

(0, x) ~.)AJ~ .. 2

y;-~~ X 0Jllill ~ ; -~ ei~hA I ~ ~ X .t:.uJlilI, -

.. J\.!IL...;. \~ ~ G,~ ~ JS, J ~ (j\ ~

. G ~ \ Ju\'!,ic;, X ~

.•. '~ ... ,~n ,~WII J,. .... t, ~."

1..l:!'..1.1 r,j-l~ ~UI ~ •

3ye G zy=e

.3IZ€G yz:::::e

(~~ ,p.»Jl J}JI J1~1 Ja ~t) x= ez \.ij~Jl

x = Z L#1' ez := Z WJ.! .l:l6...J~ ~l .JA e (,J ~J 3y E G ,~=yx= e u~} .~t4,Q "J',Ajp ~ X u\ ~ ~~.J 00.)A j (G) x) u~, ~l::illil.J

*' '* * *

X1=,x*x:$ .... *x

~ ~ *~I~'l '.! .. S.ft~ UJ.iU 1R ,~ l;J~ 'Vx.;ye R x*y=x+y~l

l,~.b~ li.JAj OR .• ) ,ut .~ - 1 .m:. ~,~ x .LA1l- 2 I,

'tnelN* xR=lU=(n-l) r:Jc.w.,

87

~~ .E tJ.4 1y...::.Uc. Z J'Y J X ~ - x * (y *' z) = x ill (YZ - Y - z + 2)

= x(yz - y=z+ 2) -x- (yz ~y~z+ 2) + 2 = .:g;z - .1}' - xz ~ yz + x + y + z

(t *y) *z ;;;;; (;ry-x-y+2) *- z

:;;: (xy-x- y+2)z-z- (xy-x-y+2)+2 =zyz - xz- YZ-.l)'+x+ y+ z

(x $: y) * z = x * 10; '*= z)

"~ *:, oJ1iJi u'li

yr!<. ~ . i"

,,,,~ j (E~ *) 019 ~lI.l4.J'-

* $: * *

to." ~ 'I L, _., .~ ... .:. _ .1,1 J'. A. ~ - .

.~ ~. WI.::l~I~~· ~

(a 'a+hJ· .. l b a.·

3

(8\, b) e1R 2-

(A, +) ,~~.bL::U~ '~j.U

~J.:1l~ ~.l\1,·. -~.i •.• 11 (.::.tL~~- -·~I~. ~ M (m'", .• ,(J

~. .J (jA .J"""' . ..,............ J~- "T'"'2 .!l."') ~

:'..)-6j (A~ +) wi LJ.+.U vi ~ u!-9, ~.; ~~lJ~ ~.)Aj (M, (R), +) d F .(M2 (lR), +) t.~jll ~» .A ~ c).!>~ M -J M di:l

(a, b) '" lR 2 c",.. M -' (: a: b) Up.l

''''~.'''-'' M' -=-- ,(.ab~,"~' a!a+. -"b')· ... '.'

(a', hi) E R:2 '""""':"""'" .

-M = (=:: -(~:,b')) '.M~

M + (-.M) 0; (: a a + ;h)'" +- (-'~.: -(a'+.b~))'. ~J.

b a -b, -a .

"_. -

_ (~-aln (a-al)+(~~ bl)) ....

b-b a-a. .

= (: «:~J

~ = b=-b'

J

M+(-M) e A .~~Lp ~ .» j (A~ +)

* * * *

~ ~\lr~ G ~~, ~ ~.)A.4 ~b ~y lJJll!,.x .~ ,~ x upW1 ~.

(3 e E' G)('i x € (3-) xe = x ~

(\if x e G)(3 y ~ G) XJ! = e -

Cv x E 0)(3 Z ,E G) X ~- es d ~ -~ - 1

x UJ-iW1 .!\;!b_~-Ail ~ J4 -e d a:~'"'~""1' ~y iyj (0, x) d' ~ - 2

4

lA.A.) x-I ~t....' ~hu:. (Un)~ .~.~ u~ ~ I~" '.~.) u1 ~ x JA. J}/!

V n e. 1N* ~ ._ (n - 1 )(x - 1) + x ~l

'9' n e 1N* r - Itt - (n - on

* * * *

6 .

~ G ,"'hA ,;:~ b JI a. us,l

rf' + . ~~_ .

(ba)(ab) =- e J ~ - 1

ab := be 't) ~);'i.J - 2:

~ .. '.~"~"&'! ~.' ~L£W.l ~',~~ ... 1

~ ~""..J I'!!I!=

(ba)(ab) = [(ba)a] x b

:= [b(a. x a)] x b ~jJ

~ (0.,. x) ;.)A.jl; wjiti uY (ba)( ab) ;;;;: (b x e) x b ulLi, a x a = a2 = e J ~J =bxb

;;, .)'iijll W,..;lij] .l:!1h..Ji ~ Yo e u Y

(ba)(abl)~e U}! bxb=b2= e J ~J

i!l",l"'I.Il)I ,I - 2

(ab)2 = e .J (ba)(ab) ~ e LyJJ

. - _. '2

(ba)(ab) ..... (ab)- ~.J

[(ba)(ab)]j (abr1 ~ (ab)2 (aibr1 ~!

(ba) [(ab)(ahrl]= (ab) [(ab)(abtl] tj~

ba = ab 'ii (ba)e:::: (abje

. * * * *

G LJ..tI t:L).,.Qjc., b s a . {~ ~~ IA~. ~'JAj (G~ x) ~ alba == b3 .J b5 =.e {~\!""J ab'~ {ab2rl wi Wf-i-'f -1 a:b~a~ (ab)2 J ~-y

ba == ab (:}?Z;) ;). J -~ a2 = b2 c)' Uf.I - 2

, .

7

~ t t.·· I, .. 11 ~ ~ 1>1. -1 . 1

.J. ~f1 4..I'.J. ,~3 1 .. ; •• n.1J,1 --, ... .

'1"1 _" .. ,j

( ah)( ab2) ;;;;; (abe )b;2 = b3 x b2

b3 aha =

.~

u

(ab)(ab2) ~ bS ~ e

b -- (<,1>.2') .. -1 a. - I I;U)

..

(JR, *) 4jt.pl1 b.]A j1:1 ... 1

Ii ~, • .,. '"

~* Wylw~ ~~! -

~~ .,lR, ~, \~~ Z.JY.JX ~ X * (y * z) = x * (y + z- 1)

~ x+(y+z-l)-l

= x+y+z-2

(x * y) * z = (x + y - 1) "* z

= x+y-l+z-l

...:_ x+y+z-2

x *cY * z)= ex * y) * z . ~~

~, $: u.,lWI u~ vltJ~J

,,'* w~WI ~Jlp - ~.R~U:L~YJxdiJ x*y=x+y-l

::::: Y'+x-l

:= y*x

X *y = y * x ~1

. ~l.fi. * ,UJ-iUJI ul! ~1,j]4~

* Wytill ~l~ ... 4n .J' .a;.JJ -

U;.ll .R. LJ.oi ~~ e .J x ~ x*e¢::>x+e-l ~x

¢::'> e = 1

"-' 1R 1 1 .... , •. ~.\ ..

vXE ..... x*. = *x=x U'"

. * LJJJWl ~~,i ~l j4 I ~."

~~ U:UlI ~LW'I -

'4cl .1R ~ LJ:U....:..i.c Y .J X ~. x*y .... l¢::>x+y-l=]

¢;>y~2-X'

'tI x ~1R x * (2- x) = (2 - x) * x = 1

'. . .. L.u ~ ,- .11 en ) . .yt1lJ, ~

~ '.~ > Dn>O

Vne N n ;;;;;.x-n it'n

.. , ~jJ.N* ~ \~,n ~

t\..t:} = xn+1

= xfi*x

:;;: U *.::x ...

=: U. +x-1

n

U -11 =x-l nH "'h

''Vne1N*

88

~t.:ili ~} .. ~I ~~J -2 bab ~ a UJ.lt Jl.JL- aba = b

.. " ,J

li.J~

- .. -

ab :::;; (bah)( aba) ~J .~ 'be aba )ba

ab := bbba

.~, u.

l:i-i.'";,»"1 -3--··

(!_ 't

.oiJA s ab::::::: t3a

1b4 ~ b(aha-1) :::: (bab)a-l

,tJ~ (~EJl J yJl ~. _;Wi) bab ~ a d ~J

.,"...1,

~.

b4 = .a. a-1 b4 ~ e

* * * *

~,z J Y .J x. e.J! ~I~i lA,~ ojlj (G~ x) ~

{ 2: '2 2

, X' =- Y := z == e ~;~ G 6lA y.a~

'" t E G t(xyz) = (xyz)t

u~xyz F' I zu1-·xy t:J.J xu:::;: yz J ~-1 u4:::;: e J (!"\ll'~~ - ,2

~ j:J..J~ G*.J" 'i;;.J~ ~~) -1

xu - x(ryz) '~J1 * ... x2(yz)

u1:A ')';2 - 'f :ru"'YZ'

wi ~J' ., ~~

u .

xu - e(vz)

.u.a.J' 'V t e G tu. I. ut

zu ... uz

... (xyz)z' ._, (xy}z2

~ (xy)e

zu ... .xy

.~

u,

e:_ 1;; \"'i i"}, I .. 2

'u4 u3 .X u 1 ~c·l.

- 1 _ U u.;.;u

-3'" .:

- u (.~z)

u..U t E G zu = ut u\~.J \14 =;0 (ux)(uy)(ut)

-. u(xu)y (us)

~ ~UI J,~I, ~.J

~~.n~J~! ~~j, -~

-lla.J 1:15 = e

ab2a = (ab2a)b5

_: (ab2ab)b4

w~ ab:2ab = er.;rab ..... (ab2r I t:J~.; ab2a ;;;;. \)4

u~li, b3 = aha

'.

ab2a = (aba)b

;;;;; (ab)(ah) ab2a ~. Cab)2

'! t"iii" 'l)l ~ -(!. (ab)(ba) = (ab f tj~ rub~a = (ab)2 (abtl(ab)(ba) ~ (ab)-l(.ab)f ba = ab

ab ~ ba wi ~.J aba = b3- ~~,

,a?b == b3 I.ji a( ab) = b3

(a2b)b-1 = b3b-1 a2 = b2

, ',"\

~,

~t

* * * $:

aba.e b

.J .'- - 1

U~

8

~~ b-1 ~ a-lba J a-I ~ b-]ab

ab = ~a d U:H'" 2 b4 = e t.J ~"iti~~ - 3,

~ J'J! ~} .. ~~4n ,~t.;iJ .. 1 .a-lb~l ..... (b~lab)b-I ~",J ,act~ b-1ab

bb-1 = e w~ lJc. a-1b-1 = b-Ia

4l.::J lj~

ba =: ,a-1b l#i {a~lb-l)-]= (b:-1arl .u~

a(ba)= a(a-1b) <UA.J

- (a -l)b

'-aR r:

= b

aha = b. "

,.,,;:,

...., .

89 '

(J _;...Jl ,~ t.b ~ d}il1 J' j;J~ _foJf) a2b - ba 3 2

b a == 4ab3

3 _ eab

_ ab3

,~WI .. I ~.' 1'";:"._ "I 6U,l -LJ. ~ - ?~, .~ ~

ab ~ b4a () J b6 = e d whfo b3.~ e: 0l ~ =

e2 ::: (b6)2 = h12 ~~

e := (b4i' ~.1 ~J b,4:= aba"! u!-i ab = b4a. ,LJ~ ~J'

e = (aba-1)3

- (aba-1 )(aba-1)(aba-1) = ab(a-1ab,a-1a)ba-1

.... ab(ebe)ba-]

:= ab3a-1

b3;,;;;;; aa-1 r;f ab3:;:: a ~1 . b3 ~e ~J

ab = b4a b4a "" h'(ba) == e(ba)

_ ba

ab =: ba U,_lj b4a = ab ,,) Ly.J

.~ :wJ - W ~

~tln ... ~ ~J"; 0 ".~ I r.!.i~! ~1":'.'

r ..,;--' f ..,~

b2::: ,abi:C1 r:.JJ ,a5:::-- ,e d ~I_jl.i.j b32; = b u~' ~ ut ,y;,pSJ ~4t.J hH = e ul ~J

b4 = (aba-I? ~J

= (aba:-1)(aba-])

- ab(a~la)ba:-l

=; abeba"!

_, a(aba-1)a-1 _ a2ba=2

. 8

b _ (a2ba-2)2

..., (a~ba=2)(a2ba-2) = a2b(a-2a2)ba-2

=< a2be,ba-2

_ a2b2a-2

u4 "'" u(yz).Y (xy) ... (uy) ZY.:lY

uy'" yu (J~.J

u4 .... (yut)zy-9'

_ y(uz)yxy

- y(~)yzy

... y~zy

a 2b, - bau~ ~ -

alb- (ab) '~ll _ a(ba3)

~ab ba3 (jY

a2b (ab)a3

"'" (ba3)a3

,- (5

... ba

a2b;o;; ba

.ab3 - ~,a2 b,3a2 .' (b3a2)e ... (b3a..2)b4

b4 "'" e . ,,:.J 'L1k,

b3fJj2 = b3(a2b)b3

_ b3(ba)h'

• • 1 !

• U· I;.lI

..

1]4 = yx'2y u4 _ y2

'.1j u;

'1j U.-

y'"'" e

xi = e

u4 - e

* * * *

(,).l~ ~ .e .;4 .l;l6..J'~ 1A~ "J4) (G, x) ~ .0 ~~~ <.J.4 b J a ~'tJl ~~'~yl'l$ ~·l

-f I

J C.tl i ~~~_ .. 'JI .~ \ _~J i 11

J~ , rD'_;--1 f I WI"+'lJ - 1 - i

a6~ Q, -u

,a·.,5 = e .'-T

UJ

90

+1 ~ U . .J

.~ kI c..J .J

. ~\

,U .•

10

~jJJ w.1~ J~ :~

~4-J~ r'l ,jhu'll ~l+iJ

z3::: X2 dJ y3 ~ Z2 uf,., x3 = y2 wi u.4ifo' z ;:::. x7 J y:::::: x-8 J x19::::: e J ~

,''' .ry-3

z-2 == y-3 ,~,~ y3 ::: z2 dl41:

y3 == z2.;-". ~.:J j

... (x~-3?

_ x2y-3x2.y~3

;P= (x2 y~3x2y-3V "" x2y-3x2e

,_ x2y~3~-r2-

xi) ~ y6 O~I .x3 == y2 d ~jl

:fJ ~ x1y~3x2 ~j, .

<\l.Q.;

x5 .- y-3 r,;i x7 ; x2y~3 "'JA.J i.1~ (y-2 = x-5 '-if) x3 = y2 s Y == yPy-2 ()~J Y ;:;;; x~8 t;,i y= ~l'-5X3

~j Z"'" ry-3

z = x2(x-8r3 == x2x24

= x26

x3 ;;:: x-16 til x3 = (x8)2. .w.,J ~ '= y2 l\lllJ xl9' ::; e .u..:. J x26 :;:;:,: x7xi9 w~ LJc. z:: x7 .~~

_ u ,.

J Y-x--8 ..... 19_~ ".lZ. t·1."".,·I·

-. .J... -.., U,t.:j! c.r1.JJ~.J

Z=X7

z =x' Y -x-:ii

J -

;;;3 = x-16 y2=x16

z3- =rl

z3 = x2 uJ,i x19 ~ e

,z2 =x~5 y3 =:x~24 y3 = x-5

xl9 ,= e .J

x3 = ),,2; .J

. 19

~;J x e

~J y - .1.-8

y2_ ~

Ju-'afo ,r:J~J

01:9 b2 ~ aba"! w\~.J b8 = a2(a:ba- i )a-2

,.. a3ba-3,

b16 == (a3ba-3)2 ... ,a3b2a-3

"" a3(aba~1 )a-3 - a4ba-4'

o.U.._J a-=4:;;;;; a J a4 '= a=l o~, a5 I:: e w'I ~j! b1l6 = a~ ]lba.

b32 ~ (a-l~ba?

- (a-1ba)(Ec1ba) ... a-1b(afC1)ba "" a~l'b;2,a

"'" a-1(aba-1)a = (~cla)b(a~]_,81)

- b

.~ U-.

~J Z _)(1

·i L:u z3 - x19, x2 U . .J

r ~, =_ x·.l4

rJl z-

~\ y =x-8:

".I,! x-19 _ a

W~'.:I .... ~ y

z2 ~y3

u,.ll - I.j~ ~,ii ~

~~J d ~;J

.~\

u ,.

~I)II rlj.t;·!·~l~ ~l4iJ -2

IN* lJA "J'i'I'k n ~

(bar: e d~.J· (ah)n= e of uQfo

b ::;;:;: ~-l /,.L~.· (ab)" "1, 1·· .... ~ "j

. U "-" '".Ii''' .......:= e u~, n -=- U'~ n~!

ba - a~] a = e, "LLo..J

n ~_. 2~· ·I· ~ ~,~ U ~.J.WJ

(. b)n

e - a· ~

=; a(ba. ba ... ba)b

·U, b=1)..e u. u

b .; ba(ba )fi-1b

.. - (ba)pb

(tIa)P- = e

* * * *

~ Z .J Y J x- e ~1.a..J' tA _;...,."ic. :&. _).ol.j (G, x) ~ :,G ~,~" It:JA ~Uo

, ".

: ~Ul] .)i~! ~I

x3=y2 x19';;e I: ,11

3 2 . Y =Z

z-S....; x2

I. '8'

y=x-

Z='x7

91 '

, . .

aD(ba) ... a( anb)

= a(an-1ab)

... all(ab)

a-n(an(ba)) "'" a~11(a~ab)) ba ... ab

* * * *

E ~ ~ .1_ U..__._.., t: .... ~ t",,"\j;,~ ~ / •. .,j,ij X ".<.1

.J~- ~ ._r-,_---y; y' P'= ~ ~ • 'f" J'" ~- ~

V (x~y) eE2 x2y=y=yx2 ~

:(J t»: .E t)A ~.>-Uc. Z JY J X ~ -t ~ I 13

xy,::xz => y;;;:;;z

1;!jlx,.y E E );.2 = y2 u~ C!" ... ·H'~' ~y

,~~,Vl ~>"j (E~ X) Wi ,~ - 2

t~: Atl I :'I.·~_ .. "I .~ '1:'1 f 1 C.~I r'I . .J"-t I u~, -, ~

y == z ,ot ~..) xy:= xz (J ,~yu : lhll '. ,,,i;l~ . L_~. ~

~ t....!;!,..,......,~"

.J y~x2y

y = x(xy) JJ.A j

= ,Xi(x z)

u}9 ~ x u~li!i ui ~ J.lY :;:;; xz u'i y=x2z

C \';jjMl 'I ~ - ~

~.ll, .E 0A ~~ Y J.x (J¥

. '.' __ { ... Z."" );2. z.-

">I zeE

Z=y2z

Xl :: y2 ~.lJ, ~U~ JI yJl ~ J x2y ~ Xiz A.lA J

. ~I

u,

92

~ IN* -. {l} (r4 n ~~ .wi u-a~'.)Aj (G~ -o WSJ t,~ {n - 1,. n, n + I} 0A Ji JSl I rJ' (a, b) E 02 (sby = aibA

.0 c)A U:!~ b j' a J {n- 1, n] cJ.a, i~ i ,~ - 1

a(aib)bt (ab)i+1 ~;J ~ -~

aib ba' J ~l -'L:-!

.J.:l4J X u~till ui ~ - 2

12

'" x'. • '1.~1:t, ~,.,,' -

•.•.. ~ -:... . i I iblWI 'I.l.l.ll.

y.,..... ~ 'r

2 .:2

'V X,Y E E x = y ~, -

(3: a e E) (\1 x 'E E) x2:= a2 4\JA J

'VxEE "rIxeE

2: 2

ax: x"""'xa

'ex· .... ,xe ~ x

~J '*.t)-4~' o.,i:ll x ~ll a(aib)bl = (aai)(blJi)

= ,attl bi4-l

~~I,~ ~J i+ 1 ,e {n, n+ I} w~ i E {n= l~n} 0i ~J'

aj+1 bi+l - (aby+l ~.~

a(aiib)bl = (ab)i+l

,a( aib )b] "" (ab)j+ 1

... (~bXabi "'" a[b(ab)i]

a-I [ a( aib)bi] - a:-l( a[b( ab )i]) (a-1a)(ai'b)~ ... (ai-1a)b(abi

~

.-"iI'-

u};i (XUfltlll ~,t% Jl .)~,JI ..,.e ~_)~,;",) a-1a = e J ~.1 (aib)b,i:: b(aJb)i

.u...J (ab)~ = a'b' u~ i E {n - I, n}r:} ~J (aib)lt = b(ail1)

'"" (bait)bi

[(aib)bi]b-i ~ [(ba1)bilb-i. w~~

aib := bal 'rJ~

x ",)jJli!i ~.:J~ -2 ,G~~~b.Ja,~

al1(ba) "'" a an-I (ba) ~

""'. ,a( an-1 bja

. !FIb- ·bafi.~l! ~ -,\ . . '._ II J. ttl 1i ..... xl

a ,-.. ""'1""'~"~ f'~ :Jl~1 UI:"""" ~.!..._ .. ~J

a"(ba) ... a(bain-1 )a ... (ab)afl-1a _ (ab)arll

_ ,a(ban)

fl, = ,Ile p ~-

= ~(xa) == (f3x)a.

= e.cx

=t],

\Ix 'E E :3 ct E E xa = ax' ;.... e uJi~

'" 1~l..:..Jl·'·li E" -, .'- t~ d, '- '1h

"'UJ .. ~. -.(..}"!o,~ ~ ~ J

.l.yaj (E; x) u}i ~tl~ J ~

* * * *

'~ IS

JSJ ~ *' ~,.) '~y' u,JJli G;;;;;; R*x 1R~ u~ :~it G ,()4 (c, d)J (a, b) I (a, b) * (c, ell) = (ac, be + d) .

.t._)Aj (0) *0) ui ~ CD

H= {(l~ x) E, GI x E R} ~~~ .J~~ ®

(0;1 *) bjAlY\ .. 1

•. :t .~ml ~,~ ,_ '~~ .G u.a '.)'4~ (e) f) .J (c, d) _" (a) b) ~ [( a, b) * (c, d)]' • (e, f) := (ac, be, + d) * (e, f)

:= (ace, e(bc + d)+ f)

= (ace" bee + de + f)

(8, b) * [(c) d) * (e, f)] = (all b) ~ (ce, de + f)

= (ace, bee + de + f)

[(a,. b) :+; (c) Id,)] * (e, f) ~ (a, b) * [( Co, d) * .( e, f)J. ~l W.

,~, * UjiW w..ij ~ J .* ujiUlJ. ~b..JI .),-.itJ\ - 4l.lJ .. 0 L,IA Ul~ (c, d) .J (a" b) ~ (ac, be + d)~, (a, b) ~~,~ (a, b) * (c, d) = (a, b)

be + d = b J at ;;;;a til

d = 0 J c::; 1 ~i

(a, b) * (I, 0) ::;;; (a, b) .u~~ (1,. 0) * (a, b) =: (a, b) ~,ll .J . * u,;,Wl.:i.:l~\ ~~ JA (I, 0) ~ .J J&1...a...J ~tAll - ~ .G u-a, 'U:l~ (c, d) .J (a, b) ~ (ac, be + d) = (1, 0) ~~.~ (a, b) *' (c, d) = (110)

be + d =:: 0 .J ac:::: 1. €.ji

b ,1

d ;;;;;; ~ - J C = - r..j~

,a a

, (' l-'b) ,

(a, b) ",. -.- ,-' ' .. ~ (1,0)

'a a

( 1 ~b):'

-- ,.-- >i' (a.b) ~ (1. ;0)

a·a, .,

,'. ;", u-.

93

_"X • ";'~"~' ,.,_ - -:",1.)1 ,'..1,'':" E~' ",' ,.' .1:( ... ~" , ,W,J-lUUJ ~~ "\,.I.I~, U:I'!.:I, . OA ~ ~""""'.J

.E6AW;~YJx~-ti.. J' Y :::: ry ~ yx2 ~.l!,

yx = (~}r

2( ...... \--2 = X-Il»',A-)A-

ujj Xl;;;;. y J ~ -' x3 = x wi ~ yx ~c x(zyX)'}v

== x{xy)2y

yx =- xey u.U (.'0/)2 - e J~. J =xy

* * * *

E .~~. 1·_ u \-'* ..... , --'~ . It'l~ ~..:, ,·I.JIi!X ,.,,<.~

J~ ~ ~ 1.1 - • ~ +v=:»: V-"" ~

V'( a, b) E E2 :3 (x, y) ·e E2 b .~ ax = ya ~

l~':C"-J E2 ~!~ (e.f) ~~,] a=-ae=fa

"'1/ x e E xe= ,x w~ UP. -i

.e == f d tt'j,;,~ -~ .bJAj (E~ x) wi ~ ~ 2

14

~ ~! :i 7- .. i.1.il~ !.!J~I, -1 ~ I

~ U:l~1 ~ ~ .E ~,i~ x ~

3 (~~) E E2 x = ~a

xe = (~a)e = ~ (ae)

~ X u..,JlUl uY

xe = ,(}a .~ .x wl-i ae == a ,,) ~ J

"if XE E .xe :: xu~ ~ t~1 t;\..~11 -~

"Vx E E xe =x

"I' x e R fr ;; x i) ~ JLJ~ .J fe = e .J' fe - f ~l .e = f '~.J

(E, X) i.JA jl\- 2 ~x ~Wl- :~jJ\;Ix 'I: E xe ~x

«(1);)'9'1\ fo1) e = f J Vx ,E E fr:::: x ~ ,) UtJ'

"V:X e E xe = ez = x ~ u_iS,

.e 1c.l,!6..a \ ~ ~ x a,Ji,tilI, uji .E ~,~~x QSJ,-

:U:!~~~ 3 (0:.) ~) E E2 e =X(l= f1x

~J~~lt G ~ X ~J""\C ~ ~y .~_)Aj (G, x) H, = {Z 'E G l xz = ZX}

.G u.r. '~~.X ~-1

~ Z E Hx z-l E.~ r:J' lw -f

.~j.:.:.. 1r..)Aj (I-~~. x) 01 (!:~'i'i'N' ~y 0Jj G3 ~ (z, y~ z) ~I ~ ,.iJt ~fo - 2

17

(x E Hz J' zE Hy) => x E Hy

.~.:l~1 X 0J.lWI d ~ I

Hx ~) J:iL4"~'U ~~ ~ ~~ -l ~ ] (x-z=zx ,t?~) H, ~ \~ z ~ . * uy:iti11 ~l:uJ~i e ~

x(z z--1) := (zz-l)x' 4#t .re = ex ~.ll,

(xz)Zl--- z(zlx) t) ~

z(xz-1) = z(z-lx)

z,...l E H, ~t xz-1 ~ rlx

""f Z E "fl.... z~l € H

.L:'); X

c "~Wi h~';l -y

:r lye H; r:J ~ .H; .u. W:L)h-Aje Z .J Y r:N

x(z=ly) == (xz=l)y ~~

._____,..-

( Z E Hx uY)xz] _: .ell' ·~~u J~ ~ .J

x(z-l y) = (z-lx)y ~ .J

=zl (AY)

uP (y e Hx 0':1) .1Y ~ yx d ~ J x(z-l y) c i-I (vx)

x(z~l y) = (z-ly)x ~t

Zc-ly E H, lJ ~,r~A J' {G~ X)~.)-o\jl1 ¥~ilJAj. (I-~ x)u~~

/

X (.).,~l.il! ~~~ ~ 2

.0 ~Ul'~YJX ~ .X UJ.1.~ ~h.J.~ ~l e ~

(~_» ~~j (H~ x) u'J) e E By 4l~ He .~ G iJ'~ (\Ix E G) xe :--ex '~~.j

X E HeJ' ee l\, ~il, ~J

J.J' .~ yx li~ X € 1\ ~~ ~ ~, ~'J'i ~ ~

.~J~ X ~':'t~~~ ~}

* * * *

H t: 0 4..iA J (1 ~ 0) E H ~il - .H tJ.4 ~.:lLY~ (l~y) .J (1, x) ~ - .(~W' Jlj-.J~ ~ .;1Jf) (1~ y) ~ Jj~' J-' d;']~ JA (t-y) ~il

(I} x) '* (1, -y) = (1., X - y)

* * * *

~~J(G}x) u4 (G~ x) ~_)AjJ] ~j.;.. i.JAj H uS::J= 1

(~ x, Y € H) ('\iz ,E G) ,XZ = y ==> Z E H (J ~ 16

CkP"~l tjJ ~. G (jA y» s WSU - 2 ,

III

(Y:/ (x~y) E 82) ('fJz € G) xz = y ~ Z E S ':11

.'

• ~,_F... 1..J-4 j S d ~

.G lJ.A. ~~ Z .J HZ ~ ~~ (X,y) ,~ z € H u~ U:lfl' .J·xz ~ y .rJ ~,fo'

X-I (n) = 1'-1y ~ J XZ'=y X u.,iliU .l;!6....Jl ~ .JA X-'lX J '~ . .J (xllX)z:= fly

z=x-Iy u~

x-1y E H JU.4 J ~j.;.. b.)-'lJ (H, X).J X E H ."y E H ~.l!

.z E H

('T/ X; ye H) (\1 Z E G) XZ ~y => z e H

(S" X)~JA)~ .. 2

x~lE S d ~I'S ()A U:l,~y jX ~ .X o~U1] ~,6...J1 ~~ e ~

fly E S ~.ll, ~eu"Jj.-L1 ~.uJ-i t.~j (G, X)r:}J fly E G w\ ~.J .(G~ X) b_)Ajll ~~ 1I~j (8" x) u1J

:if: * *' *

~ ~ ~y.J1 1R ~ R c,)4 f ~\, .)~1aJ - 1 . {rf; ~ x:2: 0 'rIx E IR f(x) ='.

-~ ~xS;;O

.R y:..J·R 0A ~tl:i f J t.»! -1 II

u~ IR U-" Y J x ,r:fi.1 ~ ~f U:H -y f(x + y) = ttx) *' f(v)

~~ t.~j (It, *) d -tZ'w~,,,,,~ ~ 2:

19

. .

, f ~,U:iJ,i ~1 - I

.R 0A~~Y~ 3! x E lR + Y :::::. r(; u~ y;;;:;: 0 i,)1.SI~~ 31 XE IR+ -y=~ w~ y~O (}.s f);~ :l! XE]R- y=~ tlf

fly E 1R 3! x e1R y=f(x) Oi ~ ~~ J .R _pJ, ]R ~ ~'ti:j f ~~

~ ...... ;;:: .. ~ . t 't 4-riH~1l_~ ~ ~Ull, ~ LJ

-~- . ~ ~;. ~

.1Ru..... u;~Y.Jx ~ f(x+ y) ~fjx+ y u~ x+ y ~ 0 ,u~ t,~~

{rx ~ x~o

f(x);; : .....

-rq.::; ~ x s 0

(f(v»)fi = y '~Jl &4l\.J J (f(x»)n.~ x ~ J

(f(x))I'l+ (f(y)? ~ 0 .J (f(x»n + (f(y»)fi:::X+ y ~l

f(x)*f(Y')==~(f(.x)l" + (f(y))n w~~

= ~x+y

~ f(x+ y)

f(x + y) == -!f/ -x ~ y u~ x + y ~ '0 ulS ,,~ 0~ x+ y";:: 0 d ~.J (ttx»)n + (f(y)u:::x+ y ~.il J' f(x) * fey) == -~~( x- + y) ~f(x+y)

V X1Y E R 'f(x + y) ~ [(x) * f(y)

~ t~~.-~'J \ ... 2

uP OR, *) ~ (R~ +) 0A ~1.Z JS1.tJ f u1 ~ J ~4"l ~~j OR" +) ~ 1.,,~ ,", ~ . (JR' *) .

• ~'-:U 0.Y'J . ~ .

95

(G> x) iijA,jll ~_R.. ~_).6j K .J H J bJ-4j (G~. x) Ws:ll

I-T-l-O . G=HuK .~ ~T-. J ~ .

(3 o>€ G) (a ~ H J ue K) u~ ~ -1 .H~\~x~-2 'ctx.~ H d ~ -r Cf..l' E K. U~~:'ill'~~ -~ .G=K d ~ .. 3

18

.<X ~I JJ+J-l

:u}i HcG eJ ~ J H;tG ~

3:aEG ae:H

alE:: K u]j ae H J' (le OJ G=HuK uI~.J

(3 0:. E G) (a e H .J a E K) u~~

,.H ~J' ax ~l..UJ\ ~Jt:;, -1 ... 2

(y E H) cu' = Y lJfax E H ~:J uaJliii

a(xx~l) = yx-1 ljl (O:x)x-l::: y.x-1 -I..iA J

(~b..Jl~1 ~ x X' x-I d l.Jc) Ct~ yx-1 d ~ til (~.F.- b_).Qj H u"i) yx-1 E H utA x E H J Y 'e H u\ ~ j (J}il, J,;-l' ~'?ii,; Lil~ \~.J {t E H

"-y,,..~ H . S~

""""'"" j;;; u.

' .. l .. i .... .,". ~, -61 (!. -t.

(;JAj G 0<';') ax e G w.J x 'E G j' 0'. E G ~..l\ at~.Ku~ C4\'~H.J G=HuK{J~J

G· JK ~~\ '1J~ .. 3 GcKLJ'~d~~J KcG~.G QA 1~ x cfi:)-

XE H) X~ K oti.c'.J G=HuK ~~ ,ax E K ~il ~~l JyJl ~ -IJ~ X ,E H u,l!lI~l

(y E K) ax ~ Y til .

x::: a-:=l.y ~'.J

.~j.;.. b.,)-'lj K u.~ X E K u¥ y E K.J ct E K r) ~ .J X e K li:!~ w;J61~ tJS; ~ u~ GcK iJ~I~J

i

K = G w~,~tJ4,~ .

* * * *

fa d~!J·'i\~ G c)-4 a ~ J.S ~y .~J-e.J (G, x) ~

V X E G f(x),~' axa-l . J; ~ U ,,....11,

ill" . ,r.p.~'

JSWU fa u~ G tJA a ~ .~ <lJ ~ - I

"t a, bEG f 0 tb:= f 1- J Uf.I ~ 2 21

a .. ilIu

F={fa/aeGJ ~~,~ .. 3

~JAj (F~ 0) d ~-t

. UI~I=.!1i4 (F ~ 0) J (G~ X) ~..)-Q jl1 r.J ,~ -~,

· fa JS.lJiij~ - 1 U;.\l.G.~ U!~y JX ~ faf.lJ') = a x y .a-I

:::: axeya-1

(G' . ) ~ . jll. b.Jt ,-~-!~ . ··e· .~

.. , x . b._).Ol. ..l:l _ ~ y. . ~

l •

uJ.! e ~ a~ia .u\ u.;. J

f ( ) ,_ ,,", . a.-1a·· a-1

. a"X)' ,.... ~ x u y.

C· _ -1)(. .. -I)

= ,ax a, ay a -,

= fix)f;~.cv)

V X E G m:(xy) = fix)fiy) ~}

.(G~ x) ~ (G" x) ~ JS~ fa Lii ~ 1,1\ .J

~.ll, ,G ~ l·~ x J G (.)A U!'~ b J at ~

(, o fbex) = fa (flJ:l(x)

= fa (b X b~])

:= a(b X b-) )a"l = (ab)x (b-1,a-l)

uj.i b·1a-1 ::: (ab)-] uf ~ J

fao fo(x) = (ab) X (abtl

::: (1ib (x)

'rIXE G

f~ 00 fb(X) ;;;: tab (x) fa 0 fb = fe;b

(F, 0) o,JAjn =1 ~, 3

(G" x) ii,JAJll ~6...J~ ,~I e ifi) ~

,'t;:u tl c,J! ~ 'll_cl

~ UI~I,~ .,.

V'aE;"G Vae G

fa. 0 f~ = !as feof~ = ~

ae= ea,=,a wI ~.J

f~ 0 fe = f~ 0 fa. = fa

'li.

u ..

'i a E G

.F ' . ..9J • 0 . .JW.\ .lJ6..J\._ ~-ll ~",f uJl

~ UJ'" ,_, ~..r-~ _.

G . . 'I • a ·'<_·.t-

" U'I,~. ~

~W" J y.~llr.,pc._~ ~~

JS.JJI ~ ~ij~i .~ ~ A .J~ (a, b) " (0,0) _, (a, b) E JRZ ,' ..... (: ~b)

: ~tJ~ &.~J~ ~.~ t

20

----;l-) C *

-:}-H+bi

~~f w~~,-i

u'U A /UA N J M··C'_· 1~._~ _.J~ ,'U!I-W

~ ~- . ~ ~ ~ ~

f(1vIN) :: f(M) feN)

.~;)l:U b_,)Aj (.4 ~ x) d {!Y;",,\- 2 '

f ~\.i":!.n - 1

.C* lJA ~~. z ~ ~ (0, 00) ,L..M~ R2 c)4 ~J' ~ .:l+~ Z=a+bi

= f(M)

M=(:ab)

'rt Z E c~ 3t M e J!1 z = ftM) w~~ ,.~ti;j f u~ ~ I~J'

.. .;.w"~.'~' ~ -." ':'~ . ~ ,,<1-,1. -,

~, _"_ ,I ~~, Wil, .. ~.;U !..,..l,

"!' If!' • ~ III

~.ll .l UA' UJ~ N J M ~

N =I(ab: ~.~I) J M =(. ~ .. -.h)'

',ft.. ,U a'

(e', b') #; (O~ 0) .J (a, b) ~ (0, . .0) Up.

(a-b) (:ilL! -b')·

MN- ,

- b a .... : b' a' ..

== (aa. 1- bb' -9. .. b :.1_'_8.1 .b)., ba'i+ab' -bb!+aa'

== (.' ... 88 .... ! ~ b~" -<.8>. , .. ~I_. a1b))· ...

ab' +a' b sa' +bb'

f(NJN) =. (aa' - bb') + (ab' ... a'bti

=: (a + hi) Cal + b'i)

- f(M)" ... t7fl\.l).,

_, " , . .' __ . .,Lll,JL,"t

\;1M Ned

" _ -

[(lviN) ~: f(M) f(N)

. lAw,,\! ~ - 2··.

~ 't "_

r-1 t;'f) (C*,~ x) ~,(.4~ x) ,()4 ~,til Js:WU f J ~'41 loy) (C·j x) ~.» .~~ b~j otx) ~ .J «(.4).x) ~ (C*~ x) Do' ~Ili JSL1j

96

~.JIJ JP Hx ,~~~ -1 .. 1

x u';lill ~, .... ~l' ~, .~ e ~

e·_ --·1 _, .xx

= x e X~l

3 y e G e = ~X-l ~.J H ;t 0 oU4 J.' e elI _ ;',~l

x - X 1..'.

UJ.:il H . _" r _ j,._1

~ • --;t ,rj4 U:L~' Z ,J Z '4l~

3y E, G z::::; xyx-1

3 y'.e: G z' =xy'xl Z2'-1 = (.ty'x-])(.:tyx~ltl

= (~x-l )(xy-1x~1)

~ xy (x-1x)y-lx-] ::;:; ~~-lxl

",,'.,.-1 _ ~ .• _ .. -I

:!iJ.~, ..,.,... ~IA-

3te G

.~,

u.

yE Hz.)' XE ~

3 a E G x::::; y a" y~l

3' beG y = z b zl

X = (z b zl) a {z b zlr1

::: z(bz1azb-1)z""]

'~J

3' Of: G . x::::::: Z C z-l u~l

x E Hz C} ~ I~, -JI

c.yi.Ji j!ts:m ~~J -~

3 z e G x = yifl ,0\.14" X € l\ 0~ ,~Ji.il

y::::: X t x-1 '~'r"'7 G (JA t ~ ~,_,,~~~ u~~

y ~ (yzy-l) t (y~]rl .u~

=r zyl ty z-l y,-l

y;-lyy::::::zy-1tyz-l

Y =zy-l tyz-l z-l y z = y-l t Y

t = Y z-1 Y Z y~'] .IJ.t. J

xCv £1 Y Z y=l)xl :::: (y Z y~])( Y zl Y Z)r=l)(y zl y-1r] L\,l.:J ~. Y z s: 1 Y z z-l y-l

==yyy"']

=y

97

~Ul JlyJl ~ ~ faofa~l ~ faa-1

f .. -l ofa= ~a =19.

u~ a~la = aa-1 = e ui ~ .J

\;f X E G faofa-.!l ~ fa-Iofa :::::: fe

.0 0.>ilill ~:\',.mi ~.l.ul.I ~1.J F (JA y.-1=.. JS d ~ I~ J

'i xe G

~..ll .G ()4 ,,~~ c J b ,J a .t;SJ - ((, o fb) 0 fc ~ fab 0 fc

=. 1(a!b)~

t~ 0 ffb 0 f~) = f~,o fbc

::: fa(bc)

~ .J (ab)c = a (be) u.U """"._~) x u~ ~ .J (t~o fo) 0 fc::: fa 0 (fho 0 fc) ~'Qw~~~~J .s ' ... (·.F 0).+ I.i . \'l:'J'1I .-

_.l-Q.J. ). u. r.,r -, J

p :

J:":J~ d;Jb:il~ ~ o ---i' F

a~fa,

. .0 ()4 ~~ b Ja ~

. ·.~n tt e, .lL .~ 0 d' o f..£ll.:!!ll u,_,......, ~ ~..u

p{ab) = f~b

;;;;; f800fb

v a b s G

,

= pea) 0 p(b)

p{ab) = pea) 0 pCb) Ul~

(F, 0) _p..i ((T~ x) i.JA JS'~ p ~ J

* * * *

~~~ G ~ x ~ JS; ~y .~_)Aj (G, x) ,~ Hx -:- {z,eG/3yeG z=xyx-1}

.G L.w i~x d¥~ 1 ~~ 0 ul Lm-{ .~j.;t. be ..... j ,(,H. x) /,\ ;"", -w

.. ..r-' .' . ;t" _ ......~. 0

22· K

.0 tJ.4 I ~~ z _, y .J X ~ ~ 2

(x 'E Hy J Y ~ Hz) ==> x e Hz ,u\ ~ .:

x E Hy ¢:> Y E H x I':) ~ -~ n, ::; n, ~ X E By ,,;.J e';~'H~ =e:_ c4JJ ~ul ~ uyrJ'J,I::::: {Hx l x e G} ~-3 \Ix. yeG 1-'1 x *Hy=Hxy, !~4 * ~b (11, lie) ~ (G~ x) ~ ~~ JS.~, ~,.,;.lUi ~ -i .bjAj (A.) *) J t!);"'~ -~ I

/ ,

JS.lJu]~ J,~J' -'1 ... 2

~tJl o,J,.1..';]I ~,

G .d

f:

X I ) H,

~.o ~ u:t~Y JX~' f(zy) =: I-ty

~B_ * H

.L-'y Y

~ f(x) * iCY)

(..1,*) ~ (G~ x) t.J.4 JS~ f uJ!

~~ f ul-i, A ~ ~~ rjJ,.fo ~.J (A" *) ._pJ (G. X) ()A ~~ f JS~ ~~ ~~, ~J

~ \';tr;',,1' ~~

iI..)Aj (0, x) - : ~.lJ (~~ f uY) f(O) = A(A, *) ~ (G~ x) ~ JS,.~ f - 1I~.j (.d:o *) u~~

I ",'

YEH

x

:3 t E G y = X tx-1

,·:~I

U'"" •.

98

X 'E I\ ~ y·E Hx u~l y e ~ => x E fly ui ~ ~'4j'

x E H ~ Y 'E H . U \tJlI

... -'y x (J.,- '!.j'" =..c 'T J

Q_tL\',_"';"i'1 - e::

XE ~ d ~J' Hl;'~l\. u\ ~fo,x E Hx ~J X =~1 l1:l~I

XiE· l-f ;,ti, H.::::::: H.. .t 1. .

"'")1 '-1,- ... ~ -""p W~ ~J

H= H => X E T-T.. .j\

X ~~ .L-'y U.

H ~ H Wl ,·till. X E J.i .. ~ .. ' ,. .wiJ ~

X Y ~.._",-._;! ""y U (...J-.:II~

HX ().o!o \ .JbD ;0 Z ~

~ l ~ .."F.J', ~1!J~ JI _yJ~ ~ ~JS X E ~ O~ ~,J (z E ~ J X E t'\,) ~. Z E 1\ U:!i!

H); c H, ~_, Z E HX U~~

II_V cJ.4 ! ~ z ,:fi7l y ~ Hr ~~ ~,W\J~' ~J.X ~ ~ ~jJ Y E HX s Z IE ~ wj~

r

~

~~ ~J ~,.. __ ~~~~

7

.. . .. .-:"! L ~ t :.-

~ "">.4 ~ LU;u, ~

... "", V ¥o' .

I • • ~"" ". ,1<' I ."'''' .. [

w..u l.Q.J ~L.I 7.u.a U. 4.L,' .!)..

~ -it _" ....

, 99

u~ a SOULS ~~~ aI .... -( .. 1+"".;. '0 +IJ·.1

',r ·il :

.... -(-a.,O) = (~O)

e'J "'" (0, a') (6" a') _ al + aNJ

~ll, JtJy..; u~

~l w:~~,I,~~ wb -w

. ~ ~ II

12 = (I, 0) X (I, 0) U;11 * = (1 . 1~ 0 . 0)

= (1~ 0)

,i I .~, .Il = WJJ

J2 - J .:1 . " .... XL * -- _' 6JI ~ ~I".I

I X J = (0., 1) X (0, 1) lh~l *

~ -

- (1, O~ 0 , 1) = (O~ 0)

I x J _ (0,0)

U~I

- .

~~~)\.J ~Jl+J.i .ubJi - 3

-~ ~ ... ~... .' (Z·. 2 +) 1'_,.

~,'-tJO.)'i!.J ..... , I '_ ~.,:u -

. ~ ,x ;,i :Wei ~

~' ... ~ ~'~r--

~ .Z2 :LoIL ~ \.o..o<:oUo (c __ ",I)' .. , ... (b hi) . (H a') ,r:.l

~ ...,-- ,~ ,.... J ) .J"..,. y _ ~

[( a" a') x (b, W)] x (c, c') ;;;; (ab, alb) x (c, c') ~. «(ab)c)' (a'b')c')

('''fIh.) - I(b'r. I))

::: _'~'uC, a" c,

= (a, a') X (be, b'c')

[(a~ a.') x (b, bl)J x (c, c') ~ (a> a') x [(b~ 0') x (c;c')] ~~

~_) .. ~ x ale ~j _ - l~~,x .~ :'~- 0/. u~,

~11 .Z2 ~ t2.)' e i¢ (b, b') s (a~a') ~ (a, a') x (b, h');;:: Cab, alb')

::::;:: (ba b'a')

- ,~

=' (b, b') X (a: a')

~lPx u~~ + ~till 4."'1.lJ~, ,~ljJjI X J ~ - 2

~.Z 0A ~_;...AUc (c) c') J (b, b') .J (a" a') ~

(c, c') x [(a" a') + (b, b'j] == (c, c') X (a +b, a' + hi) --= (c(a + b), cl(al + hi))

= (ca + cb, c'a' + c1J1)

;:;;; (ca, c'a') + (cb, c'b')

:=. (c, d) x (a) a') -9- (c, c') x (b, b')

ll.1.MJ 1[(80) a') + (b, bl)] x (c, c') = (C,. c') x (a, a') + (c, c') x (b, hi)

.+ UJ-ilill ~,LJ ~j'; x w~Wlw~! i~b.G ~ ~ ~ X / •. .,iWI, /li :'_L~ =

~ . ....r- -~~ ~~ ._, ~

, 1 ~ .• '1 Z<2 .. i '- ( ') .1I::.t

, ~.!i.I. r_jA l~ .. a) a ... ,~

(a, a') X (1, 1) ,- (a. l",al _, 1) = (a, a')

~ ~ x ~,~ LJ.>ll.!.J + ~ L.uJLi Z X Z u:k u~ U:!i! Z x Z 0A (a' .~ hI) JS] (a, a') + (b, 01) ~ (a + b , a' + b') (a, a') X (10, b') == (ab, ab')

~.Lp ~.>'j (Z X Z, +) ui ~,- I

J - (0,1) J 1= (1,. 0) C'-4i-2 ii,

'V (a" a') e Z" (a-~al)= al + a'J cJ tw. ,_, ~

I x J .J J2 J 12~; - ~ ,~~IJ'''U~~ ~ (Zx Z. + x) iJ ~-' 3

- . ,- .". ~ , ,.~.~. _. ...T ,.. I I

I

(Z.x Z, +) by)\ - 1

Z2 , ..... , ,'._; ~ (··b· .. hi) . (a ",I). 0,,1( . .1·. *

~ Io..I7..r-- '.;) ..J. "') q. ~

(a, a') + (b~b') ~ (a + b , al ... b') ~.lI

= (b + a, b' + s')

= (b, b') + (a, a')

. -J;!i~ -+ "WI 'j\ r..r' u.t! u .

: ll.J.lI .Z2 ~. 1y.aUc. (c, c') J (b, b') J (a, a!) ~ *

:[(a,. a') + (b, bl)] + (c, c') = (a + b, a' + or) + (c, c')

::: ((a + b) + c, (a' + b') + d) = (a + (b + c), a' + (b' + c1») !C (~h)+ (b + ,e;. b' + c')

= (a, b) + [(b,. b') + (c) c')]:

~ + W_,l1.il~ u~1 ~ "Z2 o- ~ ....... .o~l¢; (a, a') ~ * (a; a') + (0., 0) ::: (a + O~ 31 + 0) = (a, a')

(0 0)· + (a, .1) - (a a') lil··

_ ~ -. _, a, a ..... - . .,.a.. --ii'-'l.l-J

+ ~lil!, ~b..J~ ~" ~. (O~ O) u~~

2. .. . .

~.ll .z c)A \ ~ (a, a') uS:!l *

(a" a·) + (-a} -a') = (a - a~ a' = 8_') = (O~ 0)

(-a~ -al) + (a, a') = (O~- 0) ~Jl.J

" '1-'~~ 't , .• , _ -: I>_~ _ u t _; ~ z· 2 . k':' • ~

+ ()JJ~ ~~ "U.i~ ,~'-"l - ~ ~ 'V" iJ.:!!

~ ~ Ui ~ . (z2 +) 1!. t~dL *

.''''"f'.::l • c,,_)A.) .. ~' L~1J.a ~U.I'-:l.J

4 ... ":;"A _ti ~ .... i;1H ,~Ul.';'\ -1 ,_ 2

~:ir'" .$.

.-0 ,., Z2 - (I) ~

UJ-.J:J .: __ . ,·IA ". ~ ·0·. a.ii'·.

.... ~ ,..,r--'" -}, -- --".

(a, e') = (a+ 0" 0 + a) ;;;;: (a, 0) + (0; a')

w]J a ~ a. ulSl ~~

aI ~ ~(J~;-~+! J

... (to) + (to)+ ... +(1;O)

~ J-'l a

' ... (1+>.+1, OJ·'

")'l:a . _

... (a, 0)

100

= e(ae + (-b)e) = eta + (~b»)e

3 c ~ A x+(~y)=ece ~J

X'+ (-y) E B O~, l,u~ (8,~;> x) u~ ~tJ.~-,

B ~ X (.:.".,_3Ull-¥.b..JI J' Ql"j\ -y,

.B ,tJ.;!, ~~ x ,~

(a e A) x ... eae lWl

-,..,-

ex "'" e(eae) 2:

' ... e ,rue

e,:r=x ~J e2 ~ e u~ 'We. ze = x 1llJl' V"I1u

,_, UJ..4.I" .J

'vIXE B xe=ex=x" '\'j

, u~

.B ~,x i.ulllU t:.~~ \ ~ e J ~!j;~ f~AJ

* * :$ *

''<-I ')! ,

V X E A X'" = x ~ ~ (A + x) ·,'(.1

~ . - ~ , . ~

.A~l,~xW,~1

(x+x? ~, -f x + x = 0 ~f ~;;;,,~11 =y A (.)A ~.) ...... jey .,x,~ -; - 2 2 (x+'y) ~l

~..J4i' X u.".ltill I,:} ~~""l -~

3

7fo.H "",.'!,t~ ..JJ, -1 ..... 1

~-' ~~

(x + x)2 = (x + xXx + x)Ll:!~ =x(x+x) +x(x+x)

:::: x2 +x2 +,x2 +,;x2

(x + X)2 ;;;; 4xZ ~!

<!.~'i\ -y (x+x?=4x2 (x+xf= 4x uj.! x2=x

(x+ x)2 = 2(x -+- x)

~

.. '

(X + X),2 = x ,+ x' . 1,~, \--I X ".; A:2 , L

u~\;!I v.' ''';;;: ,",' X"= X Ul, \.4.fJ'

X + X -- 0 r.jl l(x + x) ~ x + X ~.J

C~I, ~I' .;JJ ~1 - 2 (x+ y)2 = (x +y)(x + y)

== x(x+ y) + y(x+ y) (x+ y)2:::;; x2+xy + yx+ Y'

. ~1 u.

(I, 1) x (a, a') = (a, al) ~l1J' . x WJ,l,till ~~, .l:l,b.. _;, CI'W (1 ~ I) ~!.J .~,bJ .. U ~ilp 4il .... (Z2, =1=, x) ujj ~til4J

* * * *

182 = e !!<'J~ A <JA I~ e .J ~:i\;.. {A, +, x) ~ B= {x E A 13a e A x = eae] ~ B;!: 0d Uf-i-T - I .A,_i~i.il ~4 ~ B ':'It '"LUI =~

"';f -._. ~ •

J.ih (8, +~ x) d ,~ -~ ... 2; .,B ~. t~b..c. I ~ r1t X ,.J .'..u -~

" ~'~ +

2

. i . (.)~

ee B c.:Ji ~I~_' B;tel ,wl~

.A ~ _;J~I ~ !"_I~4 jq~-Hl4 9- fo. B -y

~.B ~()l~Y JIX,~

(be A JI a i$A) y ~ ebe -' x = eae

~ == (eaejfebe) ~ * == e(ae2b)e

,a,e2b E A u~ ~ila.A d ~J

3 C E A zy = ece ~l xye B ~,j

_jI_ b ~ '",,_ ., * -

X Ii Y = ea,e + e ,'e ~

; e(ae + be)

;,;;; e(a+ b)e

+ ~lill ~~ ~j~ x u~~ uC;

3 C E A, x +.y = ece ~1

.A ~~I.il ~_~l~ ~ ~ y,. B w~~1jl4.J' $

(B, -l-, X) 2~a .. J' -1 - 2

~4e4?'j X : 4:cl

+ lJJ.iWl ~1u "J.J, J' .,'; X

., ~'~ r.o .. ~

~il;U, s jQ j (B) +) (J ~. ut r.J' Os) ~~ ~~

4,j.?. t_rqj (B~+) J ~ J ':lP..A; JU19 o~j (A~ +) .J Be A ut ~JI .( A~ +) '.)-Q jJJ .B ~ c),L~Y;jX ~

bEA

J

a E A (I>..!~~ Y = ebe .J x = eae li,ll

x + (-y) = eae + (=ebe) ~il

-eae + (e(-b)e)

101