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# CHAPTER3 FAILURE THEORIES AND MATERIAL STRENGTH

On the base of engineering mechanics, this chapter will develop more specific
understanding in failure theories and material strength for machinery design. The
failure usually reflect one of the most important perspectives ([pE5spektiv]) in
assessing the safety of mechanical system and components.

## 3.1 THEORIES OF FATIGUE

The maximum-normal-stress theory (the first strength theory)
The maximum-normal-strain theory (the second strength theory)
The maximum-shear-stress theory (the third strength theory)
The distortion-energy theory (the fourth strength theory)

## 3.2 BULK STRENGTHS OF THE MACHINE COMPONENTWS

Load: Loads are the external action between two bodies. In terms of the behaviour,
load can be presented in a fashion of force, bending moment and torque.
Static load: The magnitudes or directions of the load remain unchanged or change a
little and slowly within a given time.
Varying load: The magnitudes or direction of the load is continuously time-varying.
Stress: Stresses are the external resistances or forces, which are set up in the
material when a load acts on a component.
Static stress: static stresses are the stresses whose magnitudes and directions remain
unchanged or change a little and slowly within a given time.

σ
σ=constant

o t
Varying (fluctuating) stress: A varying stress varies its magnitude and directions all
the time. Static or varying load both can cause varying stress.
Fig.3.1 Stress-time relationships for some typical stress
(a) Static stress;(b) and (c) Non-symmetrical (or nonsinusoidal) fluctuating stresses;
(d) Sinusoidal fluctuating stress; (e) Repeated alternating (pulsant) stress; (f)
Completely reversed (symmetrical) stress
Stress
Working stress: Using the formula in mechanics of materials calculate the stress on
section plane of element
Calculated stress: Followed the theory of strength, calculate the stress that is equal
to simple tension
Ultimate stress: Some utmost of mechanical characters of material
Strength utmost: off set limit, limit of fatigue,
Allowable stress: Calculate the allowable maximum of stress
Safety factor :
σ lim
S=
[σ ]

## Calculated value of safety factor

σ lim
S ca =
σ ca
The reason of introduce the safety factor:
① The inexactness in calculation of stress;
② The discrepancy of mechanical model and actual state；
③ The nonhomogeneity of mechanical characters ；
④ The importance of occasion that the elements apply in.

## 3.2.2 Stress-Strength Design Method

Stress-strength method of factor-of-safety method of design is a method as old as
engineering design itself. That is why it is often called the classical method of design.
It mainly includes two parts.
The maximum stress condition:
σ lim
σ max ≤ [σ ] or σ max ≤
[ Sσ ]

τ lim
τ max ≤ [τ ] or τ max ≤
[ Sτ ]
The safety factor condition:
σ lim
Sσ = ≥ [ Sσ ]
σ
τ
Sτ = lim ≥ [ Sτ ]
τ

## 3.3 STRENGTH DESIGN UNDER STATIC VARYING STRESSES

Static strength: Both the design for ductile materials and brittle materials are not so
difficult under static stresses. We just need to pay attention to the fatigue theories.

3.3.1 The Strength Calculation of Machine Elements Under the Static Stresses
σ lim
σ ca ≤ = [σ ]
S
Where σ ca ——calculated stress

## σ lim ——ultimate stress (strength utmost, off set limit)

S——safety factor
[σ]——allowable stress

3.3.2 The Strength Calculation of Machine Elements Under the Static Stresses

## 3.3.2.1 Cycle Performance and Fatigue Limit

1.Cycle Performance
The parameters used to describing the stress condition：
σmin=minimum stress
σmax=maximum stress
σa =alternating stress (or stress amplitude)
σm=mean stress
σr=stress range
From fig.3.1, the mean stress and alternating stress can be calculated by
σ max + σ min
σm =
2
σ max − σ min
σa =
2
Cycle Performance :
-1, completely reversed stress
σ min
r= = 0, repeated alternating stress
σ max
1, static stress
σ T
σa σ r σ r
σa =+1 =0
r =-1 σmax σa
σmax σmax σa σa
σmin σm
σmin σa σm
o to to σmin t
Sinusoidal Completely
fluctuating Repeated alternating
reversed
stress stress
stress

## 2. σ-N fatigue curve (material fatigue curve Ⅰ)

The σ-N fatigue curve is shown as follow. It taken the limit of fatigue of material
by the parameter, based on the experiment we can get the curve from.
In the origin, the number of stress cycles is N=1/4. It means the material will be
snapped when it is loaded to the maximum, so the value is the strength limit σ B .
AB ： N< 103 , σ max has little changed, so it can be approximated to static stress
strength.
BC ： As the N augments, σ max declines, at the point C, N ≈ 104 ,so this kind of
destroy is called low-cycle fatigue or strain fatigue.
CD: As the N augments, σ max declines rapidly, this phase is called high cycle
fatigue or finite lifetime. Most fatigue of machine element happen in this phase.
Describe as follow: σ rN N = C
( NC ≤ N ≤ ND )
m

Explanation: machinery design mainly discuss the high cycle fatigue. Sometimes it
is necessary to do the strength check of static stress for the element which have
prodigious peak value but little action.
Since point D: Curve goes to be horizontal, it means as the N augments no longer
declines, it is called infinite life. N ≈ 106 : 25 ×107

## The equation is: σ rN = σ r∞ 　（N > ND )

Because of the value of N D is large, when doing the fatigue experiment we always

ordain a cycle index N O (cycle radix). We use N O and its fatigue limit σ r

## approximatively stand for N D , σ r ∞ , σ rN N = σ rm N0 = C

m

σmax
σB AB
C

σrN
σr D
N
N=1/4 103 104
N N0≈107
interval CD: the relationship between N and fatigue limit σ rN ：

N0
σ rN = σ r m
N
m
σ 
N =  r  N0
 σ rN 
Among the equation above, the value of is definited by material testing.
As the testing result shown in interval CD, after relevant numbers of varying
stresses the check bar will happen endurance failure. But since the point D, if the
maximum stress less than the stress of the point D, In that way no matter how many
times of the circles, the material will never be destroyed.
High circle fatigue:
CD-----fatigue for finite life
After D----fatigue for infinite life
N0
σ rN = σ r m
N

N0
Kn = m life factor
N
Eg: In the strength calculation of gear and worm, use the following equation to
calculate the allowable stress.
σr
[σ ] = Kn
S
3. Constant Life Fatigue Curve (Material Fatigue Curve Ⅱ)
Material fatigue curve can also be shown by using the relationship among limit
stress amplitudes in the given N, it is called constant life fatigue curve.

## Two reduced method in practical application

3.3.2.2.Stress Limit Curve( σ m − σ a Curve)
Allowable fatigue design diagram:
1.The stress limit of material
The explanation of stress limit：
(1)Every point on the curve stands for limiting fatigue stress of material under the
different cycle performance.
(2)Point A’ correspond the cycle of r=-1, σ m = 0, σ a = σ −1 = σ max

## Point D’ correspond the cycle of r=0, σ min = 0, σ m = σ a = σ 0 / 2 = σ max / 2

Line OC correspond the static stress r=1, σ a = 0 ,choose the coordinate values of

## point C be equal to the off set limit σ s of material.

(3) A straight line is drawn from point C with an angle of 45°to the mean-stress axis
and stops at point G. Every point on line CG’ stands for the varying static condition
that σ max = σ m + σ a = σ s .
(4)The area inside the broken line A ' D ' G ' C ' is yielding and fatigue safety zone.
(5)For simplifying the calculation, use the equation but not the curve.
2.The stress limit of element ：
Because of the geometrical shape, size dimension,Surface texture and intensifying
factor, the fatigue value of material is above and beyond the Fatigue value of element.
fatigue value of material
fatigue value of element
=
fatigue limit
influence coefficient K
K ——bending fatigue limit influential factors
σ
Kτ——shear fatigue limit influential factors

eg：
σ −1
Kσ =
σ − 1e
σ-1e——symmetric cycle bending fatigue limit of element
σ-1 ——symmetric cycle bending fatigue limit of material
Amending the stress limit of material diagram A’G’:
The coordinate value changed:
A’(0,σ-1)→A（0， ）or（0， σ −1 ）
σ0 σ0 σ0 σ0
D’( , )→D( , )
2 2 2 2Kσ
σ −1 = K σσ ae '+ψσσ me '

## Where ψ σ is a constant with regarding to the material and can be determined by

fatigue tests of following equation:
2σ −1 − σ 0
ψσ =
σ0
ψ ----material characteristic

## Whereψ σ is a constant with regarding to the material and can be determined by

fatigue tests of following equation:
2σ −1 − σ 0
ψσ =
σ0
The equation of line CG( considered by static stress )
σ ae '+ σ me ' = σ s
In the condition of shearing stress , the similar form linear equation can get
τ − 1 = K ττ ae '+ψττ me '
τ ae '+ τ me ' = τ s

3.3.2.3 The Strength Calculation of Machine Elements Under the Static Stresses
The characteristic of static stress: σ max , σ min holds the value on minimum life section

Or τ max ,τ min holds the value on minimum life section. Pure static varying stress: one of
the normal or tangential stress Doubleaction static varying stress: both normal and
tangential stress.
The design method: theoretical design
Use for calculation: safety factor checking
σ lim
Sca = ≥S
σ
Machine element’s fatigue value of pure static varying stress when calculating the
endurance bending strength of machine element, first calculate the maximum
(minimum) stress on minimum life section, second calculate the, and then definite the
operating point M on the limit stress curve of element . Which point is the value of the
limit stress depends on the varying discipline of the element working stress.
1.In the case of r=C (a constant),the cycle performance of the varying stress remains
the same .It is the stress condition of the majority of the rotating shaft.
σ a σ max − σ min 1 − r
= = =C'
σ m σ max + σ min 1 + r
The limit stress of the point M
σ −1 (σ m + σ a ) σ −1σ max
σ max
'
= σ ae' + σ me
'
= =
Kσ σ a + ψ σ σ m Kσ σ a + ψ σ σ m
The calculation of safety factor and stress condition:
σ lim σ max
'
σ −1
Sca = = = ≥S
σ σ max Kσ σ a + ψ σ σ m
Static stress condition:
σ lim σ σs
Sca = = s = ≥S
σ σ max σ a + σ m

2. In the case of σ m = C , the mean stress of the varying stress remains the same.
It is the stress condition of the vibrating loaded spring.
The limit stress of point M:
ψσ σ + ( Kσ −ψ σ )σ m
σ max
'
= σ −1e + σ m (1 − ) = −1
Kσ Kσ
The calculation of safety factor and stress condition:
σ lim σ max
'
σ + ( Kσ −ψ σ )σ m
Sca = = = −1 ≥S
σ σ max Kσ (σ a + σ m )
Static stress condition:
σ lim σ σs
Sca = = s = ≥S
σ σ max σ a + σ m

3.In the case of σ min = C theminimum stress of the varying stress remains the same.

It is the stress condition of the bolt joining under the axial varying load.
σ min = σ m − σ a = C
The limit stress of point M:
2σ −1 + ( Kσ −ψ σ )σ min
σ max
'
= σ me
'
+ σ ae' =
Kσ + ψ σ
The calculation of safety factor and stress condition:
σ lim σ max
'
2σ + ( Kσ −ψ σ )σ min
Sca = = = −1 ≥S
σ σ max ( Kσ +ψ σ )(σ a + σ min )
illustration：when the law of how the stress varies is dubious,we always choose the
calculation method of r=C.
σ −1
Sca =
Kσ σ a + ψ σ σ m

## t he f at i gue l i mit of symmet ri c cycl e

= ≥S
working stress amplitude × stress amplitude influence coefficient
Also , for the shear stress, the only thing we have to do is using the τ instead of σ in
the equation above.
Machine element’s fatigue value of pure unstable varying stress
Eg: The stress condition of automobile leaf-spring is affected by the load, vehicle
speed, pavement, tyre and road sense, etc.
Fig3-9 regular unstable varying stress diagram
Fig3-10 unstable varying stress on the σ-N curve
n1 n2 n3
+ + =1
N1 N 2 N 3

## Unstable varying stress on the σ − N curve

If every circle of stresses make the equicohesive destruct on the material, the
material damage ratio of stress σ 1 is 1/ N1 in every circle, so in n1 circles the material
damage ratio of σ 1 is n1 / N1 and in n2 circles the material damage ratio of σ 2 is

n2 / N 2 .

If the stress is lower than σ −1∞ , we can believe that the stress is not damaging.
When the damage ratio is up to 100%,the material happens to endurance failure. So
we obtain:
m
z
ni n n n σ 
∑ = 1 + 2 + 3 + ...... = 1 where：N i = N 0  −1 
i =1 N i N 1 N 2 N3  σi 
As the experiment shown：
1)When the sequence of stress operation is increased and then decreased, we obtain:
z
ni
∑N
i =1
<1
i

2) When the sequence of stress operation is decreased and then increased, we obtain:
z
ni
∑N
i =1
>1
i

z
ni
In general case: ∑N
i =1
= 0.7 ~ 2.2
i

## In limit case: 1 ∑ niσ im

( n1σ 1m + n2σ 2m + ... + nzσ zm ) = i =1 m = 1
N 0σ −m1 N0 σ −1
If under these stress the material isn’t destroyed,we can obtain:
z

∑nσ
i =1
i i
m
< N 0σ −m1

z
1
σ ca = m
N0
∑nσ
i =1
i i
m

## So σ ca < σ −1 , the strength condition is :

σ −1
Sca = ≥S
σ ca
The fatigue value of doubleaction static varying stress
The element which is under the alternate stress of bending and torsion is belong to
this kind of fatigue value.
Eg: when the shaft is under the action of bending and torsion, the calculation value
of safety factor and strength condition is :
S σ Sτ
Sca = ≥S
Sσ2 + Sτ2
Among this:
Sσ ——only under the normal stress σ , the calculation value of safety factor

σ −1
Sσ =
K σσ a +ψσσ m

Sτ ——only under the shearing stress τ , the calculation value of safety factor

τ −1
Sτ =
K ττ a +ψττ m

3.3.3 the Measure for Increasing the Fatigue Value of Machine Element
In the design phase the design measure should be taken to increasing the fatigue
value of machine element :
①. Lower the stress concentration as much as possible；
②. Choose the material of high fatigue value;
③.Choose the heat treatment method and reinforced technics to increasing the
fatigue value of machine element;
④. Increase the surface texture of machine element;
⑤.Decrease or eliminate the original crack size of the element surface.
For the case of constant ratio r, When the working points are on fatigue safety
zone:
k N σ −1
Sσ a = ≥ [ Sσ a ]
(kσ ) D σ a +ψ σ σ m

## Whereψ σ is a constant with regarding to the material and can be determined by

fatigue tests of following equation:
2σ −1 − σ 0
ψσ =
σ0
When the working points are on plastic safety zone:
σs
Sσ = ≥ [ Sσ ]
σa +σs
Illumination :
Two other cases (σm =constant and σmin =constant) are not given in detail here for
they are not very common.
Knowing the significance and use of the fatigue curve and limit stress diagram, can
draw the simplified limit stress diagram by knowing some basic mechanical
characters ( σ B , σ S , σ −1 , σ 0 )and the geometrical property.
Grasp the calculation method of strength under the pure varying stress, and know
the concept of equivalent stress.
Know the significance and application mode of fatigue damage accumulation
hypothesis (Miner law).
Grasp the checking method of doubleaction varying stress.
Can use the line graph and numerical tables in the appendix.

Example3.1 The fatigue limit of symmetric σ -1 = 275Mpa, off set limit σ s = 355MPa,
the critical number of cycles is N 0 = 107 ,index of life is m=9.Estimate: when the number
of cycles Nis 105 ,5 × 106 , or 108 , the life factor K N andfatigue limit σ -1N .
Example 3.4 The material of shaft is 40Cr, thermal refining, its mechanical character is
ψ 0 = 0.2, σ −1 = 355MPa,τ −1 = 205MPa,ψ τ = 0.1. The diameter of the its minimum
life section is d=40mm, the bending momentM=300Ngm, the torque T=800Ngm, fatigue
limit influential factors Kσ = 2.5, Kτ = 1.5.