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# DISCUSSION

The performance of steam plant experiment was conducted and the objectives was
achieved. Firstly, the objective is determining the performance characteristic of the steam plant.
Secondly, to demonstrate thermodynamics principle as applied to laboratory scale steam plant.
Thirdly, demonstrating the conversion of energy from one form to another and the measurement
of mechanical power. There are two types of thermodynamics laws was involved in this
experiment. The first law stated that energy can neither be destroyed nor created but can only be
transferred or changed from one form to another while the second law stated that the entropy of
any isolated system always increase where the system spontaneously evolve towards thermal
equilibrium any transfer of energy some of it will be lost to other processes, friction or
conduction. As an example the entropy of the universe only increase and never decrease.

From this experiment, the thermodynamic law was figured on how it was applied to the
steam plant laboratory scale model where the first law of thermodynamics are applied to the
boiler which electrical energy covert to heat energy. For the second law, it was applied to the
steam engine. The performance of steam plant experiment was conducted using different loads
which will cover the parameter of quality of steam at boiler, boiler efficiency, power output of
the engine, Rankine cycle efficiency thermal efficiency and the speed rotation to get RPM. The
performance of steam plant engine was predicted using Rankine cycle by calculation. Based on
the result obtained, ɳR for different load of 0 N, 0.5 N and 1 N are 0, -2.4879×10-5 and -
3.6275×10-5. By using the Rankine cycle, it usually interpreted to know the cycle of an idealized
thermodynamics cycles of a heat engine that converts to mechanical work. From this value, it
can be simplify that the higher the load, the lower the value of Rankine efficiency.

Next, quality of steam boiler, X are also calculated to determine the proportion of
saturated steam in saturated condensate liquid/steam mixture. Based on the result calculated, the
quality of boiler at 0N of load is 0.980 which containing proportion of 98% of steam and 2% of
liquid while at load 0.5N and 1N the value is 0.978 and 0.980. The higher the load to be driven
will increase the quality of the steam that may use up to 100% of steam but it shown that, there
an error from the result obtained because the condition of boiler that was used, does not regularly
maintain. After that, the determination of power output of the engine are based on three different
configuration of two spring load that use differences between 2 loads. The power output for 0N
is 0 W, 0.5N is 5.589N and 1N is 11.201W. It shown that, the higher value of power output of
the engine is influenced by the number of load applied.

Boilers efficiency can be relate to the boilers energy output to the boiler energy input. It
is to determine the percentage or probability of boiler that can supply energy to the engine.
Based on the result that was calculated, the efficiency of boiler for 0N is 40.06, followed by
41.60 for 0.5N and 57.18 for 1N of load. The trend for this data is the lower the number of load
the lower the boiler efficiency. This is due to the loss of energy in other form of output such as
conduction of heat, friction, and heat release to the surrounding. This statement follow the
second law of thermodynamics where energy transfer into another form of energy. There several
ways that can be done to reduce the energy lose but still cannot achieved 100% efficiency of
boiler. From the analysis that was conducted, the boiler efficiency also related to thermal
efficiency and it can simplify that the value of load will influence the thermal efficiency. The
higher the number of load, the higher the value of thermal efficiency. For 0N of load, the thermal
efficiency is 0, at 0.5N the thermal efficiency is 1.7575×10-4 and 1.0N the value is 2.7481×10-4.

Due to the different loads are applied to determine the performance of steam plant, the
engine speed are kept at constant which is 2000 RPM. The speed of engine was observed where
it was easily obtained at 0N of load compare to the 0.5N and 1N which need higher steam load to
driven the engine. The speed of the steam plant engine is decreasing as the load are applied.

From the result recorded at table 2.0, the steam flow rate versus power output graph
was plotted which is figure 1 and it known as Willian’s Line. As the steam flow rate increasing
causing the power output also increasing. Based on this graph, it can be related to the load
applied to the steam engine where the higher number of load will give impacts to the power
output and steam engine flow rate which both variable will directly proportional increasing.
Because of the influence of fluctuation of steam flow rate, it can cause the value of steam
flowrate decrease although the power output increase. This condition can be considered as an
error. Following the theory of how steam boiler working, the steam flowrate and power output