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CHAPTER

23
SECTION VIII, DIVISION 3—
ALTERNATIVE RULES FOR CONSTRUCTION
OF HIGH-PRESSURE VESSELS
J. Robert Sims, Jr.

23.1 INTRODUCTION Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Note particularly the statement
that “It is not intended that this section be used as a design hand-
This chapter provides a commentary on the ASME Boiler and book; rather, engineering judgment must be employed in the
Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 3, 2010 Edition with selection of those sets of Code rules suitable to any specific ser-
the 2011 Addenda. It is intended to be used as a companion to vice or need.” This is reinforced later by the following statement:
Division 3 by Manufacturers and Users of high-pressure vessels, and “The Code is not a handbook and cannot replace education, expe-
will also provide guidance to Inspectors, materials suppliers, and rience, and use of engineering judgment.” Although this chapter
others. The material is generally presented in the same order in provides a commentary that is intended to aid individuals involved
which it appears in the Code. Comments are not given about each in the construction of high-pressure vessels, it cannot be a substi-
paragraph, but paragraph numbers are referenced as appropriate. tute for experience and judgment.
The comments apply to the 2010 edition through the 2011 Addenda.
Division 3 was developed by the ASME Special Working
Group (SWG) on High Pressure Vessels of Subcommittee VIII
(currently the Subgroup on High Pressure Vessels of Standards 23.3 PART KG—GENERAL
Committee VIII). Standards Committee VIII is responsible for REQUIREMENTS
developing and maintaining all of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Section VIII Codes, including Divisions 1, 2, and 3. Oversight of 23.3.1 Article KG-1—Scope and Jurisdiction
Standards Committee VIII is provided by the ASME Board on Article KG-1, paragraph KG-101, describes the scope of appli-
Pressure Technology Codes and Standards, which reviews all cation of Division 3. Division 3 is limited to metallic vessels
actions to ensure that the consensus process was followed. except as provided in Articles KG-5, which is titled Additional
The Code permits the use of either U.S. Customary or SI units General Requirements for Composite Reinforced Pressure Vessels
at the User’s option, but one system or the other should be used (CRPV); KM-5, which is titled Requirements for laminate Mate-
consistently for all phases of construction. However, the Code rials; KD-13, which is titled Additional Design Requirements for
permits exceptions based on practical considerations. The objec- Composite Reinforced Pressure Vessels (CRPV); KF-12, which is
tive is to permit flexibility in the use of units while ensuring that titled Additional Fabrication Requirements for Composite Rein-
the calculations are clear. In the text of Division 3, the U.S. forced Pressure Vessels (CRPV); KE-5, which is titled Additional
Customary unit is shown first, followed by the SI unit in parenthe- Examination Requirements for Composite Reinforced Pressure
sis. This article follows that precedent in the text, but the figures Vessels (CRPV); KT-5, which is titled Additional Testing Require-
have been presented only in SI units to avoid the clutter associ- ments for Composite Reinforced Pressure Vessels (CRPV); para-
ated with dual units. graph KS-150, which is titled Special Stamping Requirements
The comments herein are the personal opinions of the author. for Composite Reinforced Pressure Vessels (CRPV); paragraph
They should not be considered interpretations of Division 3 or KS-270, which is titled Special Requirements Regarding Manu-
representations of the opinions of the Subgroup on High Pressure facturer’s Certificates for Manufacture of Composite Reinforced
Vessels or any other ASME Committee. Pressure Vessels (CRPV); paragraph KS-303, which is titled
Manufacturer’s Data Report for Composite Reinforced Pressure
Vessels (CRPV); paragraph KS-321, which is titled Additional
23.2 FOREWORD AND POLICY Manufacturer’s Construction Records to be Supplied with Com-
STATEMENTS posite Reinforced Pressure Vessels (CRPV); paragraph KS-322,
which is titled Retention of Data Reports for Composite Rein-
The Foreword and Policy Statements at the beginning of forced Pressure Vessels (CRPV). The scope of Division 3 does not
Division 3 are the same as those in the other Sections of the contain a lower limit on the design pressure, but notes that it is

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23-2 • Chapter 23

generally intended to be applied for design pressures above 10,000 Pressure Piping Code, ASME B31.3, Chapter IX, or another Code
psi (70 MPa). This limit is subjective, since it is possible to build a with appropriate welding requirements.
satisfactory vessel using the rules in Section VIII, Division 2 for
design pressures well above 10,000 psi (70 MPa). Laboratory 23.3.1.3 Limitations on Use of Materials Paragraph KG-142
scale vessels have been built to Division 2 for design pressures requires that standard pressure parts such as flanges and fittings be
over 30,000 psi (210 MPa). However, many of the rules in made from materials listed in Division 3. It is essential that mate-
Divisions 1 and 2 are based on thin-shell theory and therefore do rials have good ductility and toughness because of the higher
not provide an optimum vessel design for the thick shells that are stresses permitted in Division 3 construction compared to
typically required for vessels with a design pressure over 10,000 Divisions 1 or 2. Therefore, numerous restrictions on the applica-
psi (70 MPa). For example, Division 3 requires that elastic-plastic tion of materials are found throughout Division 3.
analysis be used for cylindrical and spherical shells that have
diameter ratios above 1.25 because the application of linear-elastic 23.3.1.4 Use of U.S. Customary and SI Units The User is
stress analysis rules, which are similar to those in Division 2, required to specify either U.S. Customary or SI units in the User’s
could give a significantly non-conservative result for thicker shells. Design Specification (see 23.3.3.1). One of these systems should
This is one of the reasons that Division 1 states that “deviations be used for all phases of construction. Mixing of units is not rec-
from and additions to these rules usually are necessary to meet the ommended because of the potential for confusion, but the use of
requirements of design principles and construction practices” for alternative units is permitted to comply with local custom at the
design pressures above 3,000 psi (21 MPa). Therefore, the author installation site or to accommodate components that are customar-
recommends that Division 3 be used for the construction of vessels ily specified in a different system of units. However, all variables
with thick shells. In addition, the author recommends that shell must be expressed in a single system of units within an individual
elements not be used for vessels with a diameter ratio greater than equation. In addition, the specific units to be used in equations are
about 1.25 because shell elements will not accurately characterize specified in Mandatory Appendix 7 or in the text.
the non-linear through thickness stress distribution that is charac-
teristic of thicker shells. 23.3.2 Article KG-2—Organization of Division 3
Article KG-2 describes the organization of Division 3. There
23.3.1.1 Thick-versus Thin-Shell Theories Except for the are eight parts, representing eight phases of construction. In
linear-elastic stress analysis approach in KD-240 through KD-247, addition, there are seven Mandatory and ten Non-Mandatory
the rules in Division 3 are based on thick shell theories. These the- Appendices. In general, the technical requirements in Division 3
ories also work well for thin shells, so Division 3 could be used for are included in the eight parts (main body of the Code). This dif-
very low pressure, thin shell vessels. However, this will not be eco- fers from Division 1, which has significant technical requirements
nomically feasible in most cases, because of the more stringent in Mandatory Appendices. Requirements within the eight parts
requirements for material toughness, fabrication and examination are performance-based in some cases, but provide detailed (pre-
in Division 3. scriptive) methodology in others as appropriate. Several of the
nonmandatory appendices contain detailed technical approaches
23.3.1.2 Geometric and Application Limits in the Scope that can be used, but the designer is free to use other approaches if
Paragraph KG-102 limits the scope of application of Division 3 the performance-based requirements are met. The parts are:
only to pressure containers for fluids. There are no size- or
(1) KG—General Requirements
application-specific limitations such as are found in Division 1,
(2) KM—Material Requirements
except that the application of Division 3 for direct fired vessels is
(3) KD—Design Requirements
limited to those applications outside of the scope of the BPV,
(4) KF—Fabrication Requirements
Section I. However, the User is cautioned that individual legal
(5) KR—Pressure Relief Devices
jurisdictions may impose additional restrictions on the application
(6) KE—Examination Requirements
of Division 3.
(7) KT—Testing Requirements
Division 3 can be applied to stationary vessels in fixed loca-
(8) KS—Marking, Stamping, Reports, and Records
tions, to vessels that are re-located from site to site between pres-
surizations and to vessels installed in transport vehicles, but Mandatory Appendices are:
operation and maintenance control shall be retained during the
useful life of the pressure vessel by the User who prepares the (1) Nomenclature
User’s Design Specification. (2) Quality Control System
Paragraph KG-110 and its dependent paragraphs KG-111 through (3) Submittal of Technical Inquiries to the Boiler and Pressure
KG-117 describe the geometric limits of Division 3, which are Vessel Committee
generally similar to Divisions 1 and 2. It is a common practice to (4) Acceptance of Testing Laboratories and Authorized Observers
construct the jacket of a high-pressure vessel to Division 1. In this for Capacity Certification of Pressure Relief Devices
case, the Division 1 rules apply after the welding pad or first weld (5) Adhesive Attachment of Nameplates
of the jacket. Welds directly to the shell of a Division 3 vessel must (6) Rounded Indications Charts Acceptance Standard for Radio-
meet all of the Division 3 requirements. This is done because a graphically Determined Rounded Indications in Welds
crack in an attachment weld could propagate into the pressure (7) Standard Units for Use in Equations.
boundary. In the case of a welding-end connection, the geometric Nonmandatory Appendices are:
scope of Division 3 ends at the weld prep. This weld prep could be
machined as an integral part of the shell of a vessel such that a (1) A—Guide for Preparing Manufacturer’s Data Reports
crack in the weld could propagate into the vessel shell. However, it (2) B—This Appendix, which was titled Requalification, has
is anticipated that this weld will be made using the rules in the High been deleted in the 2011 Addenda.

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE • 23-3

(3) C—Guide to Information Appearing on Certificate of lar vessels or testing. Operational controls should be pro-
Authorization vided to ensure that pressurization will not occur before the
(4) D—Fracture Mechanics Calculations vessel is above the MDMT.
(5) E—Construction Details (3) The User must state whether leak-before-burst (LBB) be-
(6) F—Approval of New Materials Under the ASME Boiler havior has been demonstrated by experience with similar
and Pressure Vessel Code (consists only of a reference to vessels. Leak-before-burst behavior describes a failure mode
ASME Section II, Part D, Appendix 5). in which a fatigue or environmental crack propagates com-
(7) G—Design Rules for Clamp Connections pletely through the thickness of a component, resulting in a
(8) H—Openings and Their Reinforcement leak, before the crack reaches a critical size and initiates a
(9) I—Guidance for the Use of U.S. Customary and SI Units in fast fracture (burst). If the vessel is expected to exhibit
the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. leak-before-burst behavior, a “traditional” S-N fatigue
(10) J—Stress Concentration Factors For Crossbores In Closed- analysis, or the more recently developed structural stress
End Cylinders And Square Blocks analysis for welded vessels as described in Article KD-3,
(11) L—Linearization of Stress Results for Stress Classification can be performed in lieu of the more complex fracture
mechanics analysis described in Article KD-4. Calculations
to determine whether leak-before-burst is predicted can be
23.3.3 Article KG-3—Responsibilities and Duties done using fracture mechanics. However, the more robust
Article KG-3 describes the responsibilities and duties of the fracture mechanics analysis methods are required in all
User, Manufacturer, and Inspector. cases for vessels in high pressure hydrogen service that are
within the scope of Article KD-10, and for composite rein-
23.3.3.1 User’s Design Specification As in Division 2, the forced pressure vessels within the scope of Article KD-13.
User or his Designated Agent is required to prepare the User’s Although fracture mechanics analysis methods produce
Design Specification (paragraph KG-310). However, the informa- good results for the calculation of fatigue crack growth,
tion that must be provided is more extensive than that required they can be excessively conservative when used to predict
by Division 2. In preparing the Design Specification, the User the critical crack size. In particular, high fluid pressure
should particularly note the following information (see paragraph acting within a crack has been demonstrated to reduce
KG-311): constraint by promoting crack tip yielding. This will signif-
(1) Division 3 requires more detailed information than Divi- icantly increase the critical crack size, but there is insuffi-
sion 2. For example, a detailed description of the contained cient basis in the literature to quantify the effect. Therefore,
fluid is required. Division 3 permits the User to document actual field expe-
(2) The Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT) is rience with fatigue failures that have occurred in similar
defined differently than the definition in Divisions 1 or 2. vessels. If the failures occurred in a leak-before-burst man-
The User must specify the lowest (i.e., coldest) metal tem- ner, the Manufacturer or designer can then accept this as
perature that can be anticipated when the primary stress at evidence of leak-before-burst behavior, which will permit
any location in the vessel exceeds 6 ksi (41.4 MPa). This is the simpler methods in Article KD-3 to be used.
based on the assumption that the lowest stress that will (4) Paragraph KG-311.11 places responsibility for the design,
result in a running brittle fracture in the most commonly construction and installation of the overpressure protection
used ferritic alloys is generally in the range of 6–8 ksi system on the User. This is typically what is done with both
(41–55 MPa), and is consistent with the ASME B31.3 low and high-pressure vessels in the process industries, so
Process Piping Code. Divisions 1 and 2 elected to use a it has been recognized explicitly in Division 3. The User
percentage of the allowable stress rather than an absolute should refer to Part KR for requirements for the overpres-
value. The selected percentages, 35% for Division 1 and sure protection system.
24% for Division 2, result in a stress in the 6–8 ksi (41–55 (5) Paragraph 311.12 describes some additional requirements
MPa) range for most of the materials listed. However, for the User’s Design Specification. Comments on some of
Division 3 lists materials that have an “effective allowable these are as follows:
stress” over three times higher than Division 1 in some Laminations in plate materials can result from the steel making
cases. Since the resistance to brittle fracture does not process. These discontinuities are a concern primarily when the
increase as the material strength increases, the absolute plate is subjected to loads that result in bending stresses or if
limit was selected. It is important to recognize that the con- hydrogen charging due to the service environment is possible.
cern is with the vessel metal temperature. Therefore, in Laminations can also exist in forgings, but they are much less
determining the MDMT, consideration must be given to the common. If the User believes that laminations may be harmful,
time required for the vessel to respond to process and he or she should specify additional inspection to detect them. The
ambient temperature changes. For example, a User could typical technique is straight beam ultrasonic examination to
decide to circulate warm process fluid through a vessel at SA-435 for plate and SA-388 for forgings.
ambient pressure to raise its temperature prior to increasing As noted previously, the User is required to specify the system
the pressure. If there are no other significant loads, such of units to be used (U.S. Customary or SI).
that the stress remains below 6 ksi (41.4 MPa) during this
preheating process, this is an acceptable way to increase 1 The User is also required to state any additional require-
the MDMT, which will allow the required impact testing to ments for seals and bolting for closures. The details of the
be done at a higher temperature. However, the time design of seals are not included in Division 3.
required for the vessel to heat to the specified MDMT 2 Requirements for pressure testing that are not specifically
should be determined by calculation, experience with simi- addressed in Division 3 should be specified. For example,

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23-4 • Chapter 23

if the User wants the vessel to be cleaned and dried, this Because of the emphasis on transport service, some terms for
should be stated. pressure were introduced that are not commonly used for fixed
3 Division 3 requires that the Manufacturer furnish an pressure vessels as follows:
extensive list of records to the User (see Division 3 para-
graph KS-320). If the User wishes additional records or (1) The term “service pressure” is used to indicate the pressure
reports, this should be stated. in the vessel when the compressed gas is at a temperature
of 68oF (20oC). When a vessel is filled with compressed
(6) For vessels constructed to the 2007 Edition, a Registered gas for delivery, it is often at a temperature greater than
Professional Engineer registered in one or more of the ambient because of the heat of compression. Therefore, it
states of the United States of America or the provinces of has been a common practice to overpressure the vessel dur-
Canada and experienced in high-pressure vessel design ing filling by as much as 25%, so when the gas cools to
must certify the User’s Design Specification (UDS). ambient temperature, the pressure will be no higher than
However, starting with the 2008 Addenda and continuing the specified service pressure. The pressure in the vessel is
through the 2010 Edition and the 2011 Addenda, engineers not permitted to exceed the design pressure, which has the
with equivalent certification in countries outside of the same definition as all metallic vessels in Division 3, at any
United States or Canada may certify the UDS. time. The design pressure and service pressure must be
defined in the User’s Design Specification.
23.3.4 Article KG-4—General Rules for Inspection (2) The term “working pressure” is also sometimes used when
Article KG-4 describes the rules for inspection, the Manufac- referring to vessels in transport service. For the purposes of
turer’s responsibilities, and the Inspector’s duties. Note that while Division 3, this term is considered to have the same mean-
the Manufacturer must have a valid U3 Certificate of Author- ing as service pressure.
ization, subcontractors who possess a valid U or U2 Certificate of
In addition to meeting the design, fabrication, examination and
Authorization may perform welding as a subcontractor (Paragraph
testing rules that apply to all metallic vessels, CRPV are required
KG-420c).
to be qualified by additional testing based on regulatory require-
ments. The tests that are required to qualify the design are:
23.3.5 Article KG-5—Additional General
Requirements for Composite Reinforced (1) Cyclic Pressure Fatigue Test
Pressure Vessels (CRPV) (2) Laminate Procedure Qualification Tests
Rules for pressure vessels that are reinforced in the circumfer-
ential (hoop) direction by glass and/or carbon fibers in a resin
matrix were first introduced into Division 3 in two Code Cases: 23.4 PART KM—MATERIAL
(1) Code Case 2390, which is titled Composite Reinforced REQUIREMENTS
Pressure Vessels, was first approved in 2002. It was updated It is necessary to use high strength materials for high-pressure
several times (the latest version was 2390-5). vessels. The reason for this is demonstrated in the following
(2) Code Case 2579, which is titled Composite Reinforced example: A Manufacturer has been requested to build a cylindri-
Pressure Vessels for Gaseous H2 Service, was first approved cal vessel with a 19.7 in. (500 mm) inside diameter for a design
in 2007. It was updated several times (the latest version is pressure of 58,000 psi (400 MPa). Table 23.1 and Figs. 23.1 and
2579-3). 23.2 show the required wall thickness as a function of the yield
Rules for composite vessels that are fully wound, such that the strength of the material using the minimum wall thickness equa-
composite wrap reinforces the vessel in both the hoop and axial tion for a closed end cylindrical shell in paragraph KD-221.1.
directions, have been incorporated into Section X. Code Cases It can be seen that if the manufacturer attempts to use a mater-
2390 and 2579 were incorporated together into the 2010 Edition ial with a yield strength of 207 MPa (30,000 psi) for this applica-
of Division 3. There are some significant restrictions on compos- tion, the outside diameter will be over 11 times the inside
ite reinforced vessels based on the experience that was available diameter and the weight will be about 192,000 kg per meter
on this construction method as follows: (129,000 lbs. per foot) of vessel length. Doubling the yield

(1) Openings are not permitted in the laminate (i.e. the cylin-
drical portion of the vessel). Therefore all openings must
be in the heads. TABLE 23.1 CYLINDRICAL SHELL WEIGHT AS
(2) The metallic inner layer, which supports the composite and A FUNCTION OF MATERIAL YIELD STRENGTH
carries the entire axial load, is limited to an outside diame-
ter of 60 inches.
Yield Required Outside
(3) The service life is limited to 20 years because of concerns
Strength Diameter Diameter Weight
about time dependent deterioration of the composite.
(MPa/ksi) Ratio (m/in.) (t/m)/(ltn/ft.)
(4) The design pressure is not permitted to exceed 15,000 psi
(103 MPa). 207 / 30 11.20 5.61 / 221 192 / 129
276 / 40 6.13 3.06 / 121 56 / 38
The applications for these vessels are primarily for the trans-
414 / 60 3.35 1.67 / 66 15.7 / 10.6
port of compressed gasses, although they are permitted to be
552 / 80 2.58 1.29 / 51 8.7 / 5.90
installed at fixed locations for fluid storage. One major advantage
689 / 100 2.20 1.10 / 43 5.90 / 4.00
of this type of construction is lighter weight compared to all
827 / 120 1.96 .98 / 39 4.40 / 2.90
metallic vessels.

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE • 23-5

200,000 16,000
180,000 14,000
160,000
140,000 12,000
Weight - kg

Weight - kg
120,000 10,000
100,000
8,000
80,000
60,000 6,000
40,000 4,000
20,000
2,000
0
200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 0
Material Yield Strength - MPa 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850
Material Yield Strength - MPa
FIG. 23.1 VESSEL WEIGHT PER METER OF LENGTH
FIG. 23.2 VESSEL WEIGHT PER METER OF LENGTH

strength to 414 MPa (60,000 psi) will reduce the outside diameter ary materials; all of the rules of Division 3 must be met for these
by a factor of about 3.35 and the weight by a factor of over 12. materials. The lowest level of requirements covers integral
Doubling the yield strength again to 827 MPa (120,000 psi) will cladding and weld overlay materials that may be of any weldable
reduce the outside diameter by an additional factor of about 1.7 quality material. Also at the lowest level are protective liner mate-
and the weight by a factor of about 3.6. As a general rule of rials that may be any metallic or nonmetallic material that is suit-
thumb, it is desirable to limit the design pressure to about 12 of the able for the service conditions. The intermediate level includes
yield strength of the material, because the weight will increase inner layers of layered, wire- or strip-wound vessels. The require-
rapidly at higher design pressures. ments for inner layers are discussed under Article KD-8 below.
Since the stress level in high-pressure vessels is of necessity
much higher than it is in lower pressure vessels, the toughness of 23.4.2 Article KM-2—Mechanical Property
the material used must also be much higher to provide a reason- Test Requirements
able level of flaw tolerance. The toughness requirements in Article KM-2 defines the testing requirements. The primary
Division 3, which will be discussed in more detail in the follow- emphasis is on Charpy V-notch testing, since the other test re-
ing paragraphs, effectively place an upper limit on the strength of quirements are adequately covered in the Material Specifications
the material, since material toughness tends to decrease as the given in Section II. The orientation of the Charpy specimen is
strength increases. The strength of the material must also be limited important because most product forms exhibit much higher
to reduce the probability of failure due to environmental cracking toughness if the major axis of the specimen is oriented parallel to
in aqueous environments as will be discussed below. the direction of major working (longitudinal specimen). The
The most common material for monoblock and shrink-fit lay- intention of the rules in Article KM-2 is to require that the tough-
ered high-pressure vessels is SA-723. This high-strength, low ness criteria be met in the minimum property direction. Therefore,
alloy material is available in several classes and grades with a longitudinal specimens are permitted only if the geometry of the
range of yield strengths from 690 MPa (100,000 psi) to 1,240 material makes it impracticable to obtain transverse specimens. If
MPa (180,000 psi). However, the higher yield strength grades longitudinal specimens are used, the minimum required value of
do not have sufficient toughness or resistance to environmental energy absorbed is about twice that required for transverse speci-
cracking to be used for the primary pressure boundary. There are mens. The notch in the transverse specimen may be oriented so
many other high-strength materials available, but it is difficult to that the crack will propagate in either the through-thickness or
achieve the necessary combination of high strength, high tough- longitudinal directions.
ness and resistance to environmental cracking if the yield strength There has been some confusion in the past regarding test speci-
is above about 827 MPa (120,000 psi). In addition, the suscepti- mens taken from forgings. The primary method is to provide forg-
bility of the material to environmental cracking in water and ings that have prolongations (extra length) so that specimens can
moist air environments is a major concern as the yield strength be taken from the actual material that will be used in the produc-
increases above about 827 MPa (120,000 psi). tion part without removing material that is needed for that part. In
Charpy V-notch toughness testing is required for essentially all the case of quenched and tempered ferritic steel, properties, par-
materials that will be used in a Division 3 vessel. In addition, ticularly toughness, will vary from the surface to the center of the
toughness tests are required for welding procedure qualifications forging because the cooling rate at the surface during quenching
and production weld tests. The acceptance criteria for the energy is much more rapid than at the center. The resulting differences in
absorbed are significantly higher than in Divisions 1 or 2 for the microstructure cause the toughness to be higher at the surface.
reasons discussed above. Therefore, since it is important to have good through thickness
properties, most codes, including Div. 3, require that test coupons
1
23.4.1 Article KM-1—General Requirements be taken at least 4 of the way through the thickness from one
for Materials quenched surface and 12 of the forging thickness from the nearest
Article KM-1 defines the materials that are permitted for Divi- adjacent (second) quenched surface for large forgings. This will
sion 3 construction. Three levels of requirements are included, not sample material that is cooling the most slowly, which would
although they are not explicitly called levels in the Article. The be at the geometric center of the forging, but represents a practical
highest level of requirements includes all primary pressure bound- compromise.

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23-6 • Chapter 23

It is occasionally possible to take advantage of the geometry of 23.5 PART KD—DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
a part to obtain test specimens without using prolongations. For
example, if the end of a cylindrical forging will be machined for The most significant differences between Division 3 and
tapped bolt holes, the hole could be prepared by trepanning to Divisions 1 and 2 are in the design requirements, although the
obtain material for testing. Another method for avoiding prolon- rewrite of Division 2 that was published in 2007 brought it into
gations on forgings, as well as to minimize the number of test much closer alignment with Division 3. A typical high-pressure
specimens required, is to use a separate test forging. The separate vessel will have a significant amount of plastic deformation dur-
test forging must be of the same heat of material and be worked ing pressure testing. In some cases, large areas of the vessel may
and heat treated in the same way as the production forgings that it not shake down to fully elastic behavior during operation. For
represents, as described in Code paragraph KD-211.2 (d). Note example, the material of the entire bore surface of a very thick
that it is anticipated that this paragraph will be relocated for clar- wall vessel may exhibit a stable hysteresis loop, in which the
ity in the 2013 Edition. material yields in tension during one portion of the load cycle and
Another issue that has resulted in problems in the past is the then yields in compression during another portion. Therefore,
location of test specimens in forgings that are very thick or have many of the Division 3 design rules are based on elastic–plastic
complex shapes. In Editions prior to the 2011 Addenda, para- analysis methods.
graph KD-211.2 (c) referred to “Very thick or complex forgings Because of the high stresses in Division 3 vessels, fatigue is a
that are contour shaped ..” and it permitted specimens to be ta- more common mode of failure than in typical Division 1 or 2 ves-
ken close to a heat treated surface under some conditions. This sels. Extensive experience has shown that fatigue performance
resulted in forgings that had low toughness below the surface can be improved significantly if a favorable compressive mean
being used in Div. 3 construction. Therefore paragraph KD-211.2 stress is introduced at locations of high cyclic stresses. It is com-
(c) was rewritten for the 2011 Addenda to eliminate the reference mon practice to apply a process known as autofrettage to create
to thick forgings and to clarify that for “contour shaped forgings”, the compressive mean stress. This process, which will be dis-
specimens should be taken at the “14 t  12 t” location as best as it cussed in a later section, often requires exposing the vessel to a
can be determined in a forging with a complex shape. pressure significantly higher than the normal hydrotest pressure.

23.4.3 Article KM-3—Supplementary Requirements 23.5.1 Article KD-1—General Design Requirements


for Bolting
23.5.1.1 Fatigue Analysis Required Paragraph KD-100
Article KM-3 gives special requirements for bolting. As is the
emphasizes that a fatigue analysis is required in all cases. Because
case for other materials in Division 3, the stresses in bolting are
fatigue is one of the most common failure modes for high-
permitted to be significantly higher than in Divisions 1 and 2.
pressure vessels, the designer should use particular care in the de-
Therefore, some additional requirements for bolting are needed.
sign to avoid areas of local stress concentration, such as notches
For example, bolts, studs and nuts greater than 25 mm (1 in.)
and other discontinuities.
diameter are required to be examined by the magnetic particle or
liquid penetrant method (see KE-260).
23.5.1.2 Protective Inner Liners and Prestressed Inner
Layers Paragraphs KD-103 and KD-800 provide additional guid-
23.4.4 Article KM-4—Material Design Data ance on protective liners and prestressed inner layers. As de-
Article KM-4 lists permitted materials and provides references scribed in paragraph KD-103, a protective liner provides a barrier
to the tables of material properties in the Boiler and Pressure to chemical and mechanical damage. It may be made from any
Vessel Code Section II, Part D. A few lower-strength materials, material— either metallic or nonmetallic—but is not considered
such as carbon steels and annealed austenitic and nickel alloys, in the static strength calculations. However, Division 3 does
are listed, along with the high-strength, low-alloy steels that are require that the liner be considered when calculating the stresses
used for most high-pressure vessel applications. The Code user in the rest of the vessel for the fatigue and fracture mechanics
should pay particular attention to the Notes in the materials tables analyses.
because they provide some significant restrictions on the use of On the other hand, prestressed inner layers, as described in
some materials. Article KD-8, are considered to be an integral part of the vessel
and are considered in all phases of the design analysis. They are
23.4.5 Article KM-5—Requirements for Laminate exempt from the more stringent Charpy impact values required in
Materials Part KM, provided that the values required by the appropriate
Article KM-5 was added to Division 3 when Code Cases 2390 Material Specifications in Section II are met and that fracture of
and 2579 were incorporated. It describes the types of fiber materi- the inner layer will not result in rupture of the vessel. To meet this
als currently permitted, which are limited to carbon and three requirement, it is necessary to show that the outer layers will
types of glass fibers. It also provides requirements for the resin exhibit a leak-before-burst mode of failure as described in para-
system or binder that holds the fibers in place. Unlike metallic graphs KD-141 and KD-810, and that they will not fail by plastic
materials, the strength properties of the laminate are not listed collapse. The intent is to contain the fragments of the inner layers
in materials tables in Division 3. Instead, the tensile strength is if they should fail in a brittle manner. Since these layers are
specified by the User in the User’s Design Specification (see in compression, brittle fracture is not likely, but the exemption
KM-509). The actual tensile strength of the laminate must be from the impact test rules is granted only if the fragments will be
measured in accordance with ASTM D-2290 to ensure that it contained.
meets or exceeds the specified value. These laminates do not
exhibit yielding prior to reaching the tensile strength, so a yield 23.5.1.3 Design Loads Paragraph KD-110 describes the loads
strength is neither specified nor measured. that must be considered in the design of the vessel. The intent is

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE • 23-7

to require consideration of all loadings that cause significant Paragraph KD-113 contains a special provision for upset condi-
stress in the vessel. In contrast to Divisions 1 and 2, residual tions. In some cases, for example the production of polyethylene,
stresses are considered to be loadings for the purpose of the a runaway reaction can cause overheating of the inner surface of a
fatigue analysis. Residual stresses are discussed in more detail in vessel. The duration of the overtemperature condition is typically
paragraph KD-132. Although residual stresses do not affect the very short because protective devices act to depressure the reac-
static strength of a vessel, they do change the mean stress and tor, thus reducing the process fluid temperature. The portion of
therefore can have a significant effect on the fatigue life. These the wall thickness that is heated above the maximum temperature
mean stresses are considered in the fatigue and fracture mechanics listed in the yield strength tables should be ignored for the
calculations in Division 3. It is common practice in high-pressure calculation of the static strength of the vessel. This effectively
vessel design to use shrink fitting, strip or wire winding, or auto- increases the inside diameter and reduces the wall thickness for
frettage to induce residual compressive stresses on the inside sur- the purpose of the minimum wall thickness calculations. In addi-
faces of the vessel. Since these surfaces are typically exposed to tion, the effects of the upset on fatigue and fracture must be con-
the highest range of stress in operation, the favorable compressive sidered. For example, if the hot material at the inside surface
mean stress can give a significant increase in the fatigue life. yields, the favorable compressive mean stress from autofrettage
High residual tensile stresses are detrimental to the fatigue life can be replaced by a tensile mean stress. Also, the high local
and if environmental cracking is a concern. The shrink fit and auto- strain range can result in crack initiation.
frettage processes typically introduce tensile residual stress on the If the runaway reaction upset is considered to be a remote pos-
outer surfaces to balance the favorable compressive stress at the sibility, it may be reasonable to do the design analysis, including
bore. Although Division 3 does not provide detailed design rules the fatigue life calculations, without considering this event. In this
to prevent stress corrosion cracking or other forms of environ- case, if the event does occur in service, it would be necessary to
mental degradation, these must be considered by the designer as develop a fitness-for-service plan, which may include examination
required in paragraph KD-114. Environmental cracking has been of the affected areas for cracks, re-autofrettage, or reanalysis
the initiating event in several high-pressure vessel failures. In par- based on the current and future predicted operating conditions.
ticular, the designer and User should preferably avoid direct con-
tact between aqueous solutions and high-strength, low-alloy 23.5.1.5 Failure Modes Addressed in Division 3 The follow-
steels. If contact is necessary for a specific application, the User ing failure modes are explicitly addressed in Division 3:
and the Manufacturer should recognize that the susceptibility to
environmental cracking increases as the strength of the material (1) Ductile failure due to overload. The material in a pressure
increases. Therefore, an appropriate material strength should be vessel that is exposed to a primary load (e.g. pressure, weight)
specified considering the environment. In addition, the User should will be stressed. As the load increases, the stress increases,
ensure that appropriate water treatment is used. but will not be uniform through the structure. For example,
in a cylindrical shell under an increasing pressure load, the
23.5.1.4 Design Temperature Because of the very thick walls inner or bore surface will reach the yield strength first. As
characteristic of high-pressure vessels, the specification of the the pressure continues to increase, yielding will progress
design metal temperature (paragraph KD-112) is given a some- through the thickness until the outer surface has yielded.
what more detailed treatment in Division 3 than in Divisions 1 and This “through thickness yield pressure” was selected as
2. The Division 1 and 2 concept of using the maximum average the ductile failure mode pressure in a static analysis for
through thickness metal temperature as the design temperature to simplicity in earlier editions of Division 3. However, the
establish the yield strength to be used in the static strength analysis actual failure pressure of a vessel made from ductile, high-
is retrained for simplicity. However, if a large temperature gradient toughness material is higher than the pressure that causes
is anticipated, which results in a significant variation in the yield yielding throughout the wall thickness due to strain harden-
strength of the material through the thickness, it would be prudent ing of the material. Currently available analysis methods
to consider the effect of this on the static strength of the vessel. permit a more accurate calculation of the failure pressure of
This can be achieved in an elastic-plastic analysis by performing a a vessel by considering strain hardening. This requires
thermal analysis to determine the through thickness temperature knowledge of the detailed stress–strain curve of the mater-
distribution and using that distribution to determine the yield ial. It should also be noted that exposure of a vessel to pres-
strength at each through thickness location. sures above the through-thickness yield pressure can result
Paragraph KD-112 does require that the maximum temperature in excessive deformation. Note also that the linear-elastic
at any location be limited to the maximum value listed in the yield design method in Division 3 continues to use through
strength tables. This was done because the upper temperature thickness yielding as a basis for design.
limit for some materials is based on metallurgical considerations, (2) Failure due to damage to the material that results from
such as temper embrittlement. In addition, since rules for time excessive local strain. Material may be exposed to high
dependent behavior have not been included in Division 3, it is local strains in areas of geometric discontinuities (e.g.
prudent to maintain the temperature at all locations within the notches, thread roots). This may cause a local failure in the
vessel below the value at which time-dependent properties would material that can progress to failure of the entire structure.
control the design. (3) Leak caused by through-wall cracking (leak-before-burst).
For purposes of fracture mechanics analysis, the minimum This is a common failure mode in vessels that have high
metal temperature should be determined at the postulated crack cyclic stresses at the inside surface. Crack initiation and
tip location. The MDMT that is stamped on the nameplate is the propagation can be ductile in a relatively thin wall vessel
lowest temperature at any location in the vessel. Therefore, it is if the fluid pressure enters the crack at a pressure that
possible for the crack tip to be located in an area that will be represents a significant fraction of the yield strength of the
warmer than the MDMT. material. The compressive stress from the fluid pressure

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23-8 • Chapter 23

combines with the tensile stress from the crack opening to high-pressure vessels. Therefore, paragraph KD-140 requires that
promote crack tip yielding and blunting, thus reducing the a fracture mechanics analysis in accordance with Article KD-4 be
tendency for fast fracture. However, since methods to quan- performed in cases where leak-before-burst behavior is not pre-
tify the effect of fluid pressure acting in the crack are not dicted. The reason for this requirement is described in the next
currently available, Division 3 does not permit credit for paragraph.
this effect. Also, if a crack starts on the outside surface A traditional “S-N” fatigue analysis, as described in Article
(e.g., due to stress corrosion), brittle facture is more likely. KD-3, is based on the assumption that the fatigue life of complex
(4) Fast fracture. Although the minimum acceptable tough- structures can be predicted by calculating the highest range of
ness of the materials in Division 3 is much higher than stress at any location, then by determining an allowable number
in Divisions 1 and 2, the high stresses and large wall thick- of design cycles from laboratory data obtained on strain-cycled,
ness typical of high-pressure vessels make fast fracture smooth, polished bars. If there are no significant fabrication flaws
a significant concern. A fracture mechanics analysis is in the structure, this approach will usually produce a conservative
required for cases where leak-before-burst behavior is not result. However, the fatigue life of a smooth, polished bar test
predicted. specimen is the sum of the number of cycles required to initiate a
(5) Buckling. High external pressures are not common, but crack and the number of cycles to propagate the crack through the
can occur in specialty components such as thermowells. thickness of the specimen. If a metallurgical or fabrication flaw
Therefore, rules for external pressure design are provided. exists at the high stress location in a pressure vessel structure, ini-
Bucking can also occur due to other loads, so this potential tiation has already occurred, so the fatigue life of the structure
failure mode must always be considered. will be only the number of cycles required for propagation to fail-
(6) Failure due to progressive distortion (ratcheting). In some ure. This could theoretically give a non-conservative fatigue life,
structures, an increment of plastic deformation can occur as so the more accurate fracture mechanics approach was selected
a result of each load cycle. Examples include non-integral for cases where a catastrophic fast fracture could result. However,
connections such as screwed on caps and plugs as well as the probability that the S-N approach will produce a nonconserva-
integral components exposed to a combination of pressure tive result in machined, non-welded structures in practice is low
and thermal loads. for the following reasons:
(7) Failure to perform a required function, such a sealing at
connections, due to excessive distortion. (1) The probability that a crack will be located in the region of
highest stress is very low.
23.5.1.6 Theories of Failure for Static Strength Analysis For (2) The number of cycles required to propagate a crack to fail-
simplicity in performing linear-elastic analyses, the maximum ure in a pressure vessel structure after initiation is almost
shear stress theory of failure is used (see paragraph KD-131). This always greater than the number of cycles required for prop-
theory, also known as the Tresca theory, assumes that yielding will agation of a crack through the laboratory specimen because
occur at any point in a structure when the difference between (a) the general stress field at the crack tip in a pressure ves-
the algebraically largest and the algebraically smallest principal sel usually drops off as the crack grows beyond the
stresses equals or exceeds the yield strength of the material. The highly stressed surface.
Tresca theory ignores the third (intermediate) principal stress. The (b) the maximum permitted crack size in the pressure ves-
more accurate, but more complex, Von Mises yield criterion con- sel structure is usually greater than the thickness of the
siders all three principal stresses. The difference in the applied laboratory fatigue specimen.
load to cause yielding between the two approaches varies from 0 (c) the S-N approach uses a design margin of 2 on the stress
to a maximum of about 15%, with the Tresca theory always giving range and 20 on the number of cycles. Since the fracture
an equal or more conservative result. The elastic–plastic finite ele- mechanics approach is more accurate, a margin of 4 on
ment analysis programs typically use the Von Mises theory, so this the critical crack size or 2 on the number of cycles is
has been adopted for plastic analysis in Division 3. required. Note that in a typical analysis, the margin of 4
The limits on design pressures in cylindrical and spherical on the critical crack size is equivalent to a margin on the
shells given in paragraph KD-220 are based on elastic-plastic stress range well below 2.
analysis and the Von Mises theory. The collapse pressure of an (d) the design fatigue curves for high-strength, low-alloy
open ended cylinder, where the pressure end load acting on the steel in Article KD-3 were modified to reflect the results
closures is carried by an external yoke or frame, is lower than the of cyclic pressure fatigue tests conducted on small cylin-
collapse pressure of a closed end cylinder. Therefore, separate drical pressure vessels. In some cases, the bore surfaces
equations have been provided for open and closed end cylinders. of these vessels were only roughly polished and con-
The open end cylinder equations are based on curve fits to finite tained small fabrication flaws. In most cases, an exami-
element analysis (FEA) results, while the closed end cylinder nation for flaws was not conducted prior to testing.
equations are based on the classic Lame’ equations, which corre-
spond closely to FEA results. A fracture mechanics analysis starts with the assumption that a
flaw exists at the high cyclic stress location. The size of this
23.5.1.7 Fatigue Evaluation Requirements and Leak- assumed flaw is the largest that reasonably could be present with-
Before-Burst Mode of Failure It is obviously desirable for a out detection by the nondestructive examination (NDE) technique
pressure vessel to have a combination of material toughness and that will be used. In most cases, the high cyclic stresses exist on
stress distribution that would ensure that a fatigue or environmen- the surface, so highly sensitive NDE methods such as wet fluores-
tal crack can propagate through the wall (leak) without reaching a cent magnetic particle (WFMT) and dye penetrant (PT) can be
crack tip stress intensity high enough to result in a catastrophic used. It should be noted that, for the reasons described above, it is
fast fracture (burst). However, this is not practicable for most possible for the fatigue life calculated using the fracture mechanics

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE • 23-9

approach (Article KD-4) to be greater than that calculated using yield as defined by the true stress/true strain material model
the S-N approach (Article KD-3), particularly in low cycle fatigue are permitted to strain as necessary to satisfy equilibrium.
(e.g. a design life less than about 10,000 cycles). However, in This method requires extensive iteration because of the
high cycle fatigue (e.g. a design life greater than about 100,000 nonlinear material behavior and nonlinear geometry, since
cycles), the fracture mechanics approach will almost always give the deformation of the component due to the strain induced
a shorter life unless a very large stress intensification factor is in the material is considered. This method is essentially the
used with the S-N approach or a very small initial flaw size can be same as the elastic-plastic analysis methods in the 2007
justified for the fracture mechanics approach. Edition of Section VIII, Division 2.
The “structural stress” method for fatigue analysis of welded (2) Linear-elastic finite element analysis with stress lineariza-
structures that was included in the 2007 Edition of Section VIII, tion and categorization. The basics of finite element analysis
Division 2 is also currently included in Division 3. This method is will not be discussed here since many excellent references
based on a large database of fatigue test results on welded struc- are available. In a linear-elastic analysis, the material is
tures. It gives results similar to those of the fracture mechanics assumed to have a linear relationship between stress and
approach in many cases. strain according to Hooke’s law. Since the material response
Leak-before-burst behavior can be predicted by using fracture is linear, the load can be applied in a single step and the
mechanics to show that the critical crack size for the initiation of mathematical matrix can be solved without extensive itera-
fast fracture is greater than the wall thickness of the component. tion. However, extensive post-processing, involving lineari-
Alternatively, since there is experience in the industry with zation of the stresses through the thickness of the structure
through wall cracks in service that exhibited leak-before-burst and categorization of the stresses into primary, secondary,
behavior even though analysis predicted fast fracture, it is accept- and peak, as well as membrane and bending, is typically
able to apply that experience to predict leak-before-burst behavior needed to address the failure modes of concern.
for a new vessel. This experience-based approach could be used
in cases where fluid pressure acting within a crack promotes crack 23.5.2.2 Elastic–Plastic Stress Analysis Paragraph KD-230
tip ductility as described previously. Since accounting for this effect provides rules for elastic-plastic analysis. The intent of the rules in
is difficult by using generally accepted analytical approaches, expe- this paragraph is for the designer to perform a finite element analy-
rience with vessels that have stable though-wall cracks can be sis using true stress/true strain material properties with nonlinear
used. The User should be careful to ensure that the design, size, geometry (i.e. large displacement theory) enabled. The true stress/
material properties, and operating conditions of the new vessel true strain properties must be provided as a function of tempera-
will be comparable to those of the cracked vessel providing the ture where component temperatures will be above ambient. It is
experience basis. In particular, the material toughness in the new desirable to include a thermal analysis for these cases to obtain the
vessel must be equal to or greater than the toughness in the exist- temperature at each location in the component so that the appropri-
ing vessel used as the experience base. ate temperature dependent true stress/true strain curve can be used
for each location. However, using the curve for the maximum tem-
23.5.2 Article KD-2—Basic Design Requirements perature at any location in the component will provide a conserva-
This article provides the rules for a static stress analysis for a tive result. The use of non-linear geometry is essential to produce
high-pressure vessel. Supplementary rules for specific types of realistic strains and deformations in the structure.
construction and for fatigue analysis are provided in later articles. The work that went into the development of the rules for
elastic-plastic analysis in Section VIII, Division 2 resulted in true
23.5.2.1 Analysis Techniques Division 3 is primarily a design- stress-true strain curves for most commonly used materials, and
by-analysis Code. There are several approaches to the analysis that validation of elastic-plastic analysis methodology using those
are permitted as described in the following paragraphs. As an alter- curves. Development of curves for additional materials is under-
native to analysis, a series of Non-Mandatory Appendices provide way. If a material is used for which a curve is not available, it is
design rules for some common geometries. For simple structures, necessary to develop a curve by testing.
it is possible to use these rules, together with classical stress analy-
sis techniques, to complete the required static and fatigue analyses 23.5.2.3 Acceptance Criteria for Elastic-Plastic Analysis
without the need for a numerical (e.g., finite element) analysis. The loads applied to the FEA model are multiplied by factors
However, in most cases, it is anticipated that finite element or other that depend on the type of load as described in Division 3 Table
type of numerical analysis (e.g., boundary integral) will be per- KD-230.4. The basic load factor for pressure and weight (or
formed. Division 3 places an upper limit on the design pressure for external force) loads is 1.8, so Division 3 is generally considered
cylindrical and spherical shells in paragraph KD-220. However, to have a design margin of 1.8. However, this margin cannot be
the equations do not apply if an elastic-plastic analysis is per- compared directly to the margin in a design-by-rule code, such as
formed. The discussion in the following paragraphs will focus on Division 1, because of different approaches to the calculation of
the elastic-plastic and linear elastic analysis approaches. Although the failure pressure. For example, the equations for cylindrical
the linear elastic method is discussed here because it is currently shells for the calculation of stress in a design-by-rule code do not
one of the alternatives in Division 3, the preferred method is consider the increase in diameter and reduction in wall thickness
elastic-plastic analysis. A summary of the two methods is provided of the shell as it yields. This change in geometry will reduce the
below, followed by a more detailed discussion of each. failure pressure.
The factors in Division 3 Table KD-230.4 were developed using
(1) Elastic-plastic finite element analysis using true stress/true a load-resistance factor design (LRFD) approach similar to that
strain material properties to consider strain hardening and used in Civil Engineering. They are based on the factors previ-
large displacement theory. In this approach, the load is ously developed for the 2007 Edition of Section VIII, Division 2,
applied in increments. Locations within the structure that but all factors in Division 3 were reduced by the ratio of 2.4/1.8.

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23-10 • Chapter 23

With these factors applied, the loads in the FEA model are alloys will be toward the lower end. This is similar to, but not the
incremented until the model fails to solve. One way that this is same as, the engineering strain at failure in a tensile test.
commonly done is to apply all of the factored loads except for the If the sum of the three principal stresses is three times the total
pressure load in an initial step, then increment only the pressure equivalent stress at a specific location, the strain limit at that loca-
load until the model fails to solve. tion will be in the general range of 5% to 30%, with ferritic alloys
It is important to note that the design loads determined in again being toward the lower end. Very high values of triaxial ten-
accordance with Division 3 paragraph KD-230 must be subjected sion can produce strain limits well under 1%. If the sum of the
to the local failure (strain limit damage) analysis to determine three principal stresses is essentially zero at a specific location,
acceptability. the strain limit at that location will be in the general range of 55%
to almost 200%. High values of hydrostatic compression produce
23.5.2.4 Strain Limits in Elastic-Plastic Analysis For some strain limits that can be over 1,000%.
geometric shapes, the resistance of a structure to plastic collapse Experience with application of the strain limit damage criterion
will increase significantly as the structure deforms under pressure. indicates that even small areas of local stress concentration (i.e.
For example, a flat head will assume a shape similar to a segment notches or sharp grooves) can have high triaxial stresses, resulting
of a sphere as it deforms plastically under a pressure load. Plastic in low strain limits. Since this can limit the maximum calculated
deformation will begin to occur at a relatively low pressure, then design pressure for the vessel, it is important to avoid details that
as the head assumes the more favorable hemispherical shape, the produce high constraint.
bending stress is converted to a membrane stress. The final failure It is also necessary for the designer to limit the amount of
pressure may be several times the pressure to cause the initial deformation of the structure depending on the application.
plastic deformation. However, the local plastic strain, for exam-
ple, at the point where the head is attached to the shell, may 23.5.2.5 Buckling Analysis Although bucking is not a com-
be very high. High local plastic strains can also occur in areas mon failure mode in high pressure vessels, it can occur and
of high stress concentration, such as notches and thread roots. a buckling analysis is required in accordance with paragraph
Therefore, it is necessary to limit the strain to a value that the KD-233. If the FEA model used in the elastic-plastic analysis
actual material could withstand without microvoid formation and described above includes the “worst case” geometric deviations
incipient cracking. Experience with cold metal–forming opera- (e.g. weld peaking and offset, out-of-roundness), the buckling
tions and standard tensile test specimens has indicated that a analysis is considered to be included in the elastic-plastic analy-
strain limit of 5% will produce a conservative result in most sis. Obviously, the elastic-plastic analysis must include all loading
cases. However, it is well known that much larger strains can conditions that impose both compressive and tensile stresses.
be accommodated if the area is in a state of high hydrostatic (tri-
axial) compression. Conversely, failure can occur at a very low 23.5.2.6 Ratcheting Analysis Ratcheting is another condition
value of plastic strain in a highly constrained area in a state of that is not common in high pressure vessels, but an analysis for
high hydrostatic tension. The Pressure Vessel Research Council this condition is required in accordance with paragraph KD-234.
has developed appropriate strain limits as a function of the state A minimum of three complete applications and removals of the
of triaxial stress (hydrostatic stress) that were incorporated into load in the FEA is required, although up to five may be needed to
the 2007 Editions of Division 2 and Division 3. achieve shakedown to a steady state behavior. Three alternative
As a practical matter, calculation of the strain limit damage as acceptance criteria are provided. If any one of these criteria is sat-
required by either Division 2 or Division 3 should be done by isfied, the ratcheting criteria as a whole are satisfied. Some high
using an application for finite element analysis programs that will pressure vessels will shakedown to purely elastic behavior after
calculate the strain limit damage at each location in the model some plastic deformation has occurred during the initial loading
at each load step in the analysis using the equations in the Code. (e.g. the hydrostatic test). However, some vessels will have some
The application should sum the damage at each location over the cyclic plasticity in areas of local stress concentration. In those
entire load range for comparison with the damage limit in the cases, it is only necessary to demonstrate that there is an elastic
Code. It is important to use “brick” elements for the analysis, core that will restrain continuing or incremental plasticity.
since shell elements cannot accurately capture the strains in areas Another alternative is to show that there is no continuing change
of local stress and strain concentration. In addition, the shell ele- in overall dimensions of the component.
ment formulation in some FEA programs does not include the
radial stress due to pressure acting on the surface in the calcula- 23.5.2.7 Linear-Elastic Stress Analysis One approach to
tion of the von Mises stress. The radial pressure stress is an stress analysis in Division 3 is a linear elastic analysis using stress
important component when the fluid pressure is a significant frac- linearization and categorization. Linearization and categorization
tion of the yield strength of the material. of stresses are discussed in the chapter on Section VIII, Division 2,
The strain limit can be very low if the triaxial stress (sum of the so this discussion will not be repeated here. The linear-elastic
three principal stresses) is tensile (negative hydrostatic stress), approach used was adopted for consistency with Division 2, but it
with a magnitude significantly greater than the yield strength of has been limited to shells with a diameter ratio (outside diameter
the material. Conversely, the strain limit can be very high (i.e. divided by inside diameter) of 1.25 or less in Division 3. Although
large strains are acceptable) if the triaxial stress is negative (i.e. a linear-elastic analysis has been used extensively for high-pressure
compressive stress field or a positive hydrostatic stress). For vessels in the past, recent work by the Pressure Vessel Research
example, if the triaxial stress at a specific location in a pressure Council and SG-HPV members has shown that this technique can
vessel is equal to the total equivalent stress (von Mises stress) at produce a non-conservative result in some cases. In particular, if
that location, the true strain limit at that location will be in the stresses significantly above the yield strength of the material are
general range of 25% to 75%, depending on the alloy. Austenitic included in the average primary stress, the result will over-predict
alloys will be toward the higher end of the range, and ferritic the collapse pressure.

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE • 23-11

As one example, plots of the through-thickness stress distri- assumed that this will result in shakedown to linear-elastic behav-
butions for a shell with a diameter ratio of 6.0 are shown in ior after a few load cycles. This is important to validate the use of
Figs. 23.3 and 23.4. This large diameter ratio is not common in linear-elastic analysis for the fatigue calculation, and to ensure
high-pressure vessels, but was selected to illustrate the point. The that incremental plastic deformation does not occur on each load
individual stress components have been linearized as shown in cycle. Since the effects of local notches and stress concentrations
Fig. 23.3. The axial or longitudinal stress component is not shown are not considered in the calculation of secondary stress, it is rec-
because it is assumed to be constant through the thickness. The ognized that there may still be some cyclic plasticity in these
actual and linearized Tresca and Von Mises stress distributions are areas. However, a greater concern is that the Bauschinger effect
shown in Fig. 23.4. It can be seen that the actual Tresca stress at has not been considered. The implications of this are discussed in
the bore surface is about 2.5 times the yield strength of the mater- the section on fatigue analysis.
ial. Tresca stresses above yield exist through the initial 10% of the
wall thickness. The design pressure determined by averaging the 23.5.2.8 External Pressure For very thick cylindrical shells,
stress through the thickness to obtain a general primary mem- failure under external pressure loads occurs by a plastic collapse
brane stress of 2/3 yield is about 1.9 times the yield strength of mechanism (i.e., the bore becomes uniformly smaller) rather
the material. This is 37% higher than the design pressure deter- than the buckling failure mode that is common for thin shells.
mined using the traditional Lame’ through-thickness yield pres- Paragraph KD-222 provides an equation to check for buckling in
sure equation with a margin of 1.5. In the case of an open-ended thinner shells, but it also requires that the maximum external
cylinder, where the end closures are supported by external frames, design pressure be determined using the internal pressure equa-
the design pressure calculated using the linear-elastic approach is tions. Note that this applies only for the “closed-end cylinder”
58% higher than the design pressure using the Tresca plastic col- case, where the external pressure is applied to the end of the
lapse formulation. cylinder. If the cylinder is configured with packing glands at both
For a cylinder with a diameter ratio of 2.0, the linear-elastic ends, and if the pressure end load is carried by an external yoke or
calculation for the open-end cylinder is non-conservative by about frame, (the “open end cylinder” case), plastic collapse will occur
8%; for the conventional closed-end cylinder, it is conservative by at a much lower pressure.
about 7%. The non-conservatism for the open-end cylinder is
reduced to about 3% for a diameter ratio of 1.5. Simple cylinders 23.5.3 Article KD-3—Fatigue Evaluation
have been used in the example, but the problem with linear-elastic This article gives rules for the traditional “S-N approach” for
analysis exists in the general case whenever local stresses above determining the design fatigue life of a high-pressure vessel as
yield exist in a structure. If these stresses are confined to a very well as the more recently developed “Structural Stress” for welded
small area in the vicinity of a local stress concentration, their construction. As discussed earlier in this chapter, the S-N approach
effect on the collapse pressure of this region of the vessel will be in Article KD-3 may be used only for vessels that are expected to
small. However, in the vicinity of intersecting bores (openings) or fail in a leak-before-burst mode. In addition, the S-N method is
other discontinuities, the inclusion of stresses above yield in the limited to non-welded construction. The structural stress method,
stress linearization could give a significantly non-conservative also found in Article KD-3, is required for welded construction.
result. Offsetting this is the fact that the design margins on linear Also, in cases where the leak-before-burst mode is anticipated, an
elastic analysis are higher than those imposed for elastic-plastic experimental approach to fatigue may be used instead of the rules
analysis in most cases. However, elastic-plastic analyses should in KD-3, as provided in paragraph KD-1260. The alternative frac-
be conducted in all cases on high-pressure vessels if possible. ture mechanics approach, which is documented in Article KD-4,
One other aspect of linear-elastic analysis that must be consid- can be used an all cases.
ered is the limit on secondary stresses. As discussed in the
Chapter on Division 2, secondary stresses will equilibrate through 23.5.3.1 General and Theory Paragraphs KD-301 and KD302
the structure and therefore do not contribute to plastic collapse of give a general discussion of the S-N approach to fatigue evaluation
the vessel. Secondary stresses in Division 3 are limited to two
times the minimum specified yield strength of the material. It is

FIG. 23.3 COMPONENT STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN A FIG. 23.4 COMBINED STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN A
THICK-WALL CYLINDER THICK-WALL CYLINDER

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23-12 • Chapter 23

and briefly summarize the theory used. Some background on the 23.5.3.2 Stress Analysis for Fatigue All service loadings
Structural Stress method is provided in paragraph KD-340. The should be considered, including any periodic in-service hydrotests
S-N approach is generally similar to that used in paragraph 5.5.3 that may be contemplated. In addition, for non-welded construc-
“Fatigue Assessment – Elastic Stress Analysis and Equivalent tion, residual stresses from fabrication should be determined to
Stresses” in Division 2. However, Division 3 includes a separate allow calculation of the mean stress during each fatigue cycle. The
fatigue curve and a mean stress correction method for non-welded residual stress from forming operations is difficult to calculate in
components made from high strength, low alloy steel. Both most cases. However, if heat treatment or a mechanical stress relief
Divisions 2 and 3 assume that fatigue life is controlled primarily process such as autofrettage is used, it is usually possible to esti-
by the range of alternating stress intensity (i.e., range of shear mate the resulting residual stress with sufficient accuracy for the
stress) at a point. The fatigue evaluation process begins with the fatigue calculation regardless of the magnitude of residual stress
selection of “fatigue-sensitive” points within the structure. The after forming. Procedures for calculating the residual stress in plain
following parameters are considered to affect the fatigue life at cylinders as a result of autofrettage are given in Article KD-5. For
each point in the structure in the KD-3 analysis: more complex geometries, nonlinear finite element Analysis, using
the cyclic stress-strain curves described in Division 3 paragraph
(1) Range of local strain. Note that paragraph KD-302 refers to KD-360 can be used to predict residual stress.
alternating stress intensity rather than strain. However, the The Bauschinger effect should be considered in the calculation
fatigue data are based on strain-controlled tests, so it is of residual stress. This effect, which exists to some extent in most
more accurate theoretically to think in terms of a strain materials, is particularly significant in the SA-723 alloys com-
range. Division 3 has followed the lead of Division 2 by monly used for high-pressure vessel construction. The Bauschinger
using stress range throughout the methodology description effect can be summarized as follows:
and in the fatigue curves for the convenience of the User, to
avoid the step of converting stress from an analysis to strain. (1) If a material is stressed beyond its yield strength in tension
(2) Mean stress at the same point. In this case, stress is the and undergoes plastic deformation, the subsequent yield
appropriate term. However, the mean stress is used only in strength in compression will be reduced. If the material is
the fatigue evaluation of non-welded structures. subsequently loaded in compression such that plastic defor-
(3) Number of cycles associated with each operating or upset mation occurs, it will “strain harden” back to its original
cycle. compressive yield strength. However, the plastic strain re-
quired to achieve the original strength may be very high.
Because the interaction of these parameters is complex, the (2) The amount of the reduction in compressive yield strength
selection of “fatigue-sensitive” points involves a judgment by the increases with increasing tensile plastic strain, but can be
designer. As a minimum, points should be selected for analysis 60% or more.
based on the following: (3) The process also applies in reverse. In other words, the
(1) The point or points within the structure that will be exposed yield strength in tension will be reduced as a result of plas-
to the highest range of strain (stress) during each of the tic flow in compression.
operating or upset cycles. For example, one point may have The Bauschinger effect is included in the calculations of the
the highest strain range during a complete start-up–shut- cyclic stress-strain curves, so if they are used in the analysis, a
down cycle that occurs once a month, but a different point separate consideration is not required.
may have the highest strain range due to pressure fluctua- The calculation of operating stresses (paragraph KD-311.2) can
tions that occur several times per second. It is important to be done using closed-form solutions for simple geometries, but is
determine all of the conditions or loadings that result in most commonly done using finite element analysis. Local notches
cyclic strains on the structure as well as the highest strain or areas of stress concentration can be considered in one of two
range at any point during each of these conditions. Note that ways:
a pre-service hydrotest is a part of the fabrication process
and is not considered to be an operational cycle. However, if (1) Modeling the notch in the FEA program. This requires a
periodic overpressure testing is contemplated during ser- very fine mesh in the vicinity of the notch because of the
vice, its effects on the fatigue life of the vessel should be steep stress gradients. The mesh density that is necessary to
considered. Because of the potential for the initiation and get an accurate result is a function of the element type and
propagation of fatigue cracks, in-service hydrotests should the nature of the stress field. For example, higher order
be minimized, but they are occasionally required by some multinode elements, with nonlinear interpolation, can be
jurisdictions. In determining the points at which a detailed larger than 4 node linear elements. However, stress and
analysis should be performed, local strain concentration and strain gradients across the element should be no greater
surface finish effects should be considered. than 10%–20% for reasonable engineering accuracy.
(2) The point or points within the structure that will be exposed (2) Using a relatively coarse FEA model or closed form solu-
to the highest mean stress during each of the operating tions with strain concentration factors from handbooks. If a
cycles (non-welded structures only). conservative value for the strain concentration factor will
(3) Intermediate points that may have a lower fatigue life than give a calculated fatigue life that is acceptable for the appli-
the points selected in items (1) and (2), because of the com- cation, this approach will be much less time consuming.
bined effect of several operating cycles and the interaction Note that strain concentration factors may be larger than
of the stress range and mean stress. This selection will typi- stress concentration factors used with a linear analysis.
cally involve considerable experience and engineering
judgment. If there is any question about a point, it should In all cases, the maximum values of the three principal stresses
be selected for analysis. should be determined, and the maximum range of stress intensity

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE • 23-13

calculated as shown in paragraph KD-312.2. A maximum range 23.5.3.7 Surface Finish Correction Factor Another difference
of stress intensity should be determined for each load cycle at between Division 3 and Division 2 is the surface finish correction
each “fatigue-sensitive” point. Up to this point, the methodology factor, or “roughness factor.” This factor corrects the range of
is essentially the same as that in Division 2. However, for non- stress to allow for the stress concentration effects of a pressure
welded materials it is necessary to apply a mean stress correction. vessel surface compared to the polished surface of the smooth bar
specimens used to generate the fatigue curves. As of this writing,
23.5.3.3 Mean Stress Correction Since the stress intensity has this factor is independent of the range of stress, but it logically
no sign, it is not appropriate to calculate a “mean stress intensity”. should be higher for high-cycle fatigue than for low-cycle fatigue
Therefore, the maximum stress on the plane that is normal to the since the roughness of a surface is significant only in the crack
plane of the maximum stress intensity is defined as the mean initiation phase.
stress for the purpose of the calculation. If the structure shakes
down after the first few load cycles, without incremental deforma- 23.5.3.8 Combining the Results from Several Load Cycles
tion, one of the following two conditions will apply: The combined effect of several load cycles is determined using
“Miner’s Rule” (paragraph KD-330). In this approach, also called
(1) If the material remains within the linear-elastic range the “life fraction” approach, each load cycle is assumed to con-
during the entire cycle, the mean normal stress is the aver- sume a fraction of the fatigue life of the structure. This fraction is
age of the algebraically minimum and maximum normal calculated as the ratio of the expected number of cycles of the
stresses. load under consideration during the life of the vessel to the maxi-
(2) If the material yields in both tension and compression dur- mum number of cycles permitted for the equivalent alternating
ing each cycle (i.e., a stable hysteresis loop has been estab- stress intensity that results from the load.
lished), then the mean normal stress is zero. This approach has been successful in Division 2 applications.
However, there is a possibility that this approach could produce a
In most cases, if a high level of autofrettage has been used, and
non-conservative result in a case where a load producing a very
if the residual stresses have been included in the analysis, addi-
high equivalent alternating stress intensity is combined with a
tional plastic deformation will not occur due to service loads. If
load producing an equivalent alternating stress intensity that gives
high thermal or other stresses do result in stresses above yield, it
a fatigue life in excess of about 100,000 cycles. This occurs
will be necessary to do an elastic–plastic shakedown analysis to
because the high equivalent alternating stress intensity may initi-
predict the effects of plasticity during the first few load cycles.
ate a macroscopic fatigue crack within the first few cycles. This
Division 3 does permit using Paragraph 23.5.3.3(1) in lieu of the
may represent only a small fraction of the life for that load cycle,
elastic–plastic calculation, since this will produce a conservative
because low-cycle fatigue is dominated by the number of cycles
result.
to propagate the crack to failure rather than initiation. Conversely,
Although Division 3 requires consideration of the Bauschinger
high-cycle fatigue life is dominated by the initiation phase. After
effect in the calculation of residual stress, it is silent on the need
a macroscopic fatigue crack forms, the remaining life to failure
to do this for the calculation of the alternating stress intensity. It
may be less than 10% of the total design life. Therefore, if a crack
has been common practice to ignore the Bauschinger effect in this
forms during the high-stress cycle, it may reduce the fatigue life
calculation, and to use the 0.2% offset yield strength to determine
during the low-stress cycle by more than the life fraction
whether the range of secondary stress is less than two times the
approach would predict.
yield strength to validate the fatigue calculation. However, the
Therefore, if a designer believes that this could be a problem in
Bauschinger effect can result in significant cyclic plasticity at
a specific application, the fracture mechanics approach in Article
stress ranges well below two times the 0.2% offset yield strength.
KD-4 or an experimental approach (KD-1260) should be used.
This effect is minimized in practice by the design margins and
However, since the fracture mechanics approach requires an
other conservatism in the Division 2 and Division 3 approaches.
assumed initial crack size, it may give an excessively conservative
result for loads that cycle more than about 100,000 times during
23.5.3.4 Calculation of Equivalent Alternating Stress the life of the vessel if the assumed initial crack is not present.
Intensity The equation in paragraph KD-312.4 is an empirical (See discussion of Article KD-4 below.)
approach for calculating an equivalent alternating stress intensity
from the calculated alternating stress intensity and the mean stress. 23.5.3.9 Structural Stress Method The fatigue assessment of
This should be determined for each load cycle at each “fatigue welds is required to be done using a method that has been devel-
sensitive” point. oped specifically for weldments. This method was included in the
2007 Edition of Division 2 and has recently been adopted by
23.5.3.5 Change of Principal Stress Axes If the directions Division 3 as well. It is based on the results of over 1,000 cyclic
of the principal stresses change during a load cycle, an iterative load tests of actual weldments. As demonstrated by the data from
process must be used to determine the maximum range of shear these tests, welded joints, even those that are ground flush, behave
stress, as described in paragraph KD-313. differently from base metals. This is thought to be due to the exis-
tence of small, even microscopic, flaws that exist in essentially all
23.5.3.6 Calculating the Number of Design Cycles The welds. Therefore, the fatigue life is dominated by the propagation
process for calculating the number of design cycles is straightfor- of cracks from these flaws, while the initiation of even very small
ward as described in paragraph KD-320. Two alternatives to read- cracks in base metals may require a large number of cycles, par-
ing values from the fatigue curves are the following: ticularly at the relatively low stress ranges that result in high cycle
(e.g. >100,000 cycle) fatigue failures. In fact, the calculated
(1) using tabulated values with interpolation; and design fatigue life of a weldment using the structural stress
(2) using closed form curve fit equations method can be approximated using a fracture mechanics analysis

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23-14 • Chapter 23

in accordance with Article KD-4 and the assumption of a very is preferable to determine KIc directly by testing, experi-
small [e.g. <0.010 inch (0.25 mm) deep) initial flaw. ence indicates that use of the Charpy correlations is satis-
The inputs to the analysis are the membrane and bending stress factory in most cases.
ranges from a linear elastic finite element analysis. The derivation
of membrane and bending stresses is described in Division 3, 23.5.4.2 Initial Crack Size For cases of low-cycle fatigue,
Appendix L. where most of the life is consumed by crack propagation, it is
The data from the welded joint fatigue tests were collapsed into anticipated that the initial crack size (paragraph KD-411) will be
a single design curve that is applicable to a wide range of materi- the maximum acceptable indication from Part KE, Examination
als, including certain carbon and low alloy steels, austenitic stain- Requirements. In high-pressure vessels, surface flaws are of the
less steels and nickel alloys. Copper nickel and aluminum alloys most concern, since the steep stress gradients illustrated in Fig.
are also included. 23.3 typically result in much higher stresses on the surface. This
is particularly true if there are notches or other areas of local
23.5.4 Article KD-4—Fracture Mechanics Evaluation stress concentration. Therefore, starting crack sizes are typically
This article gives rules for a fracture mechanics approach for based on the acceptance criteria for dye penetrant or magnetic
determining the design fatigue life. A fracture mechanics analysis particle examination in KE-233.2. These criteria permit a crack-
is required if it cannot be shown that the vessel will fail in a leak- like flaw up to 3/16 in. (4.8 mm) in length for material 2 in. (50
before-burst mode. Since there are many approaches to the details mm) or greater in thickness. Smaller lengths are permitted for
of a fracture mechanics analysis, only the essential requirements thinner material. Paragraph KD-411(b) requires that a surface
are given in KD-4. Detailed guidance on one approach that can be crack be considered to have an aspect ratio of 1:3, so the maxi-
used is given in Nonmandatory Appendix D. However, the calcu- mum depth will be 1/16 in. (1.6 mm).
lation of stress intensity factors, the reference stress and the fail- If the vessel will be in high-cycle fatigue service (e.g., greater
ure assessment diagram (FAD) is required to be done using the than 100,000 significant load cycles), it may be necessary to spec-
methods in API-579-1/ASME FFS-1 where applicable. ify a smaller initial crack size to obtain an acceptable life from the
The designer should recognize that it is difficult to predict calculation. If this is done, the following requirements apply:
the critical crack size in a high-pressure vessel. Even if a good (1) The length to be used must be specified in the User’s De-
stress intensity solution can be found for the complex geometry sign Specification
that often exists, the effect of biaxial and triaxial loads and the (2) It must be demonstrated that the NDE method to be used
resulting hydrostatic stress state at the crack tip can be difficult to will reliably detect a flaw of the size specified.
quantify. For example, if a fatigue crack initiates on an internal
surface, the fluid pressure will act directly on the crack tip. If the For very high-cycle fatigue applications, it may be necessary to
pressure is within the same order of magnitude as the yield specify initial crack lengths as small as 0.010 in. A specialized exam-
strength of the material, the resulting radial compressive stress ination methodology will be needed to reliability detect cracks
acting at the crack tip will promote crack tip yielding and blunt- this small. For example, some specialized eddy current techniques
ing. This can increase the apparent fracture toughness signifi- have been used. However, it is necessary to apply the specialized
cantly. Conversely, if a vessel has a deep notch in an area of high examination methodology only in areas where the highest stresses
bending stress or multiaxial tensile loads, the resulting high triax- exist (e.g., in areas of local stress concentration). A larger critical
ial or hydrostatic tensile stresses can produce a level of constraint crack size can be assumed in other areas where the cyclic stresses
at the crack tip that is greater than the plane strain condition. are lower.
Because of these concerns, it is important that the designer use
experience with vessels that have similar geometry and loads 23.5.4.3 Stress Calculations To calculate crack growth rates, it
when determining the critical crack size. If a finite element analy- is necessary to calculate the range of stress at the location of the
sis is performed, the hydrostatic stress should be examined at all crack tip. Therefore, the distribution of stress in the direction of
locations where the local stresses are high. crack propagation must be known. The direction of crack propa-
gation usually can be determined by examining the distribution of
23.5.4.1 General and Theory Paragraph KD-401 gives an stress in the through-thickness direction as well as along the sur-
overview of the process, which is based on linear-elastic fracture face. For complex geometries, engineering judgment and experi-
mechanics. In general, the following values are needed as input ence must be used.
for the analysis: Experience has shown that cracks in the radial–axial plane
in the wall of a thick cylinder tend to propagate in the through-
(1) Initial or starting crack size. thickness direction with an aspect ratio (length to depth ratio) of
(2) Time history of service stresses at each “fatigue-sensitive” about 3:1 when the loading is due to cyclic pressure only. Longer
location. The stress distribution through the thickness along cracks, with a larger aspect ratio, can result if thermal or other
the path of crack propagation will also be needed. loadings are also present. In contrast, cracks in the root of threads
(3) Residual stresses through the thickness. in threaded end closures may, in some cases, propagate in the cir-
(4) Critical crack depth. This is defined in Subparagraph KD- cumferential direction until they extend for the full 360 deg., then
401 (c) as the crack depth at which the calculated stress propagate through the thickness.
intensity factor for the crack equals the critical stress inten-
sity, KIc for the material. If the MDMT of the vessel is high 23.5.4.4 Allowable Final Crack Depth Vessel failure is
enough that the material will exhibit “upper shelf tough- assumed to occur when a fatigue crack reaches the critical crack
ness values,” KIc may be determined from Charpy V-notch size as discussed in the General and Theory paragraph or when
data using the correlation in Appendix D, paragraph D-600. the crack has penetrated the full thickness of the vessel wall or of
Correlations are also provided for JIc and CTOD. While it an individual layer in the case of a layered vessel. The following

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE • 23-15

two design margins must be considered when calculating the consideration is zero, and if there are no residual stresses, no cor-
number of design cycles: rection is needed ( fRK  1.0). Otherwise, guidance on the calcu-
lation of the correction for mean stress is given in Appendix D
(1) The number of cycles to propagate a crack from the as- and will be discussed later.
sumed initial size to the critical crack depth divided by 2 Paragraph KD-430 also provides an approach for calculating a
(2) The number of cycles to propagate a crack from the as- threshold value for K below which it is assumed that crack
sumed initial size to 25% of the critical crack depth or 25% growth will be zero. This threshold and the crack growth rate
of the section thickness, whichever is less. constants given in Division 3 are based on data taken in labora-
In the case of vessels that have a wall thickness greater than tory air environments. The designer should consider the possibil-
about 1 inch (25 mm), the two criteria above typically give a simi- ity of stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue in aggressive
lar number of design cycles. However, for very thin materials, the service environments. The crack growth rate in aggressive envi-
second criterion (number of to propagate a crack to 25% of the ronments may be significantly higher than the growth rate in labo-
critical crack depth can be very low compared to the first crite- ratory air.
rion. For example, if the section thickness is 14 inch (6.4 mm), and
if the initial flaw has a depth of 1/16 inch (1.6 mm), the initial 23.5.4.7 Calculation of Number of Design Cycles In contrast
flaw exceeds 25% of the section thickness before any crack to the S-N approach to fatigue in KD-3, the fracture mechanics
growth is added. Therefore, the SG HPV has an agenda item to approach requires that the load cycles be applied in the sequence
consider modifying the acceptance criteria for thinner sections, in which they are expected to occur in service. For example, if a
possibly by eliminating the second criterion. vessel will be subjected to a start-up cycle, then to 2,000 cycles of
For layered vessels, the allowable final crack depth permitted is pressure fluctuations of 20% of the design pressure, then to a
different for the inner layer, intermediate layers, and outer layer shutdown cycle, the increment of crack growth should be calcu-
as follows: lated for the one start-up cycle first. Then the larger crack size
that results is the starting point for the 2,000 cycles of pressure
(1) For the inner layer, the life can be determined by assuming
fluctuations. The incremental growth that results from these
that a crack propagates completely through the layer if the
cycles is added to the crack size resulting from the start-up cycle.
remaining layers can contain the pressure. The collapse pres-
The increment of crack growth during the next cycle is then cal-
sure of the remaining layers must be at least 20% higher
culated based on the larger crack size that results. However, this
than the design pressure (i.e., a design margin of 1.2).
can be simplified in practice on a case-by-case basis if the overall
Since the design margin for the unflawed vessel is 1.732,
cycle repeats.
most layered vessels will meet this requirement.
It is necessary to calculate a small increment of crack growth,
(2) For the intermediate layers, the crack must be limited to
recalculate the crack tip stress intensity factor, then calculate the
25% of the layer thickness.
next increment of growth. Division 3 requires an iterative approach,
(3) For the outermost layer, the crack must be limited to 25%
using smaller and smaller increments of crack growth to demon-
of the layer thickness or 25% of the critical crack depth,
strate that the increment is small enough. However, a starting
whichever is less.
increment can be determined by calculating the change in crack
depth necessary to change the range of the crack tip stress inten-
23.5.4.5 Calculation of Stress Intensity Factors It should be
sity factor, K by about 1%. If desired, a conservative approach is
noted first that the term “stress intensity factor” as used in Article
to calculate the crack growth rate for each increment using the
KD-4 and in Appendix D refers to the classic fracture mechanics
size of the crack at the end of the increment rather than the begin-
crack tip parameter; it should not be confused with the term
ning. Alternatively, the range of stress intensity calculated for the
“stress intensity” used elsewhere in Division 3, which refers to
current crack size can be increased by the anticipated percentage
two times the shear stress with no crack present. Paragraph KD-
increase in the crack tip stress intensity due to the increment of
420 gives a general description of the process for calculating the
crack growth.
minimum and maximum values for the stress intensity factor, as
well as the stress intensity factor due to residual stress. If the
residual stress normal to the crack is compressive, a negative 23.5.5 Article KD-5—Design Using Autofrettage
value for the stress intensity factor due to residual stress will Autofrettage is a process that is not explicitly considered in
result. Although this has no physical meaning because of crack Divisions 1 and 2. The purpose of autofrettage is to introduce
closure, the negative value can be superimposed with positive val- favorable residual compressive mean stresses into highly stressed
ues that result from service loadings to account for the effects of “fatigue-sensitive” areas, the result of which is typically a dra-
mean stress, as described below. More specific guidance on the matic increase in fatigue life. As with much of the technology
calculation of stress intensity factors is given in API-579-1/ASME used in the construction of high-pressure vessels, the origins of
FFS-1 and in Appendix D. the autofrettage process can be traced to the manufacture of can-
non and large gun barrels. These barrels had a tendency to split
23.5.4.6 Calculation of Crack Growth Rates The crack open after a number of rounds had been fired. Early producers
growth rate is a function of the range of stress intensity factor, K, of these weapons learned that shrinking iron or steel bands
and a “mean stress intensity factor” correction, fRK as described in or hoops onto the outside surface of cannon barrels increased
paragraph KD-430. The mean stress intensity factor correction is the life significantly. Later, it was discovered that expanding the
a function of the stress intensity factor ratio, RK, which is the ratio bore of a gun barrel by pulling or pushing a slightly larger object
of the minimum and maximum values of the stress intensity fac- through it, or by subjecting it to a high internal pressure, gave sim-
tor, including the stress intensity factor due to residual stress. If ilar results. Literally translated from French, autofrettage means
the minimum normal stress at the crack tip during the cycle under “self-hooping.”

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23-16 • Chapter 23

23.5.5.1 General and Theory As explained in paragraph KD- analysis (FEA). When FEA is used, the cyclic stress-strain curves
501, the distribution of stress through the thickness of a thick wall should be used for the material model.
cylinder or sphere is highly non-uniform. Even if the wall thick- Experimental techniques could also be used to determine resid-
ness could be increased to infinity, the total range of Tresca stress ual stresses, but in most cases these are more expensive and less
at the bore surface of a machined and polished cylindrical shell accurate than FEA. For example, if strain gages are used, it may
would be twice the range of pressure. Therefore, the stress ampli- be necessary to install them on the surface that is in contact with
tude to be used in the fatigue analysis per Article KD-3 would be the pressurizing fluid, since this area is often where the highest
equal to the range of pressure. Notches, structural discontinuities, stresses exist. This requires high-pressure electrical feed throughs
and surface finish effects will increase the stress range further, to read the signal. Also, it is difficult to locate the strain gages
a phenomenon that results in an inherent limitation on fatigue exactly at the most highly stressed location in areas of high peak
life. However, this phenomenon also provides the opportunity to stress such as notches and other discontinuities. If the area of high
increase the fatigue life by introducing favorable compressive stress is small with a steep gradient, as is commonly the case, the
mean stresses. strain gage will give an average rather than a true peak stress.
As the internal pressure within a thick cylinder is increased, the
stress at the bore surface reaches the yield strength of the material 23.5.5.2 Residual Stress Calculations Paragraph KD-530 pro-
while the material at the outside surface is still well within the vides a “cookbook” procedure for calculating the residual stress.
elastic range (see Figs. 23.3 and 23.4). Further increases in pres- To improve the accuracy of the result, the Von Mises yield crite-
sure result in plastic flow of the inner portion of the cylinder, rion is used rather than Tresca. Paragraph KD-522.2 gives a pro-
while the outer portion remains elastic. Note that plastic collapse cedure to correct for the Bauschinger effect . The Bauschinger
does not occur until the outermost fibers reach the yield strength effect is described in the section of this chapter called “Stress
of the material. When the pressure is released, the material of the Analysis for Fatigue.” The approach in paragraph KD-522.2 is
inner layers that has been permanently elongated is placed into largely empirical, but it is based on both theoretical and experi-
compression in the tangential or hoop direction as the outer por- mental work performed primarily on high-strength, low-alloy
tion contracts elastically. steels similar to SA-723. The approach is believed to be conserva-
Conceptually, autofrettage is similar to the situation that exists tive for other materials, so it is required for all residual stress cal-
when two concentric cylinders are shrink-fitted together. Since the culations involving plain cylinders. However, for more complex
outside diameter of the inner cylinder is slightly larger than the geometries, the cyclic stress–strain curves for the material should
bore diameter of the outer cylinder, the outer cylinder is heated be used in a finite element analysis to obtain a more accurate indi-
(or the inner cylinder cooled) for assembly. As the outer cylinder cation of the residual stress.
cools, it places the inner cylinder into tangential compression.
The permanent elongation of the “inner layers” of a monoblock 23.5.6 Article KD-6—Design Requirements for
cylinder during the autofrettage process makes them “larger” than
Openings, Closures, Heads, Bolting, and Seals
the “outer layers.”
Note that autofrettage can be used in combination with shrink This article contains some specific requirements for openings,
fitting, wire wrapping, or other processes that can produce favor- closures, heads, bolting, and seals. In most cases, only general
able compressive stresses to optimize the distribution within the requirements and a few specific limitations are provided, since it
structure for maximum fatigue life. However, the designer should is anticipated that these components will be designed by analysis
use caution when combining autofrettage with shrink fitting, wire in most cases. However, closed form solutions are provided for
wrapping, or other processes that produce residual compressive some cases in Nonmandatory Appendix H.
stresses. For example, if an inner layer is first autofrettaged and
then shrink-fitted or wire-wound, the designer should consider 23.5.6.1 Threaded Connections and Bolting Paragraphs KD-
the nonlinear aspects of the Bauschinger effect. The inner layer 620 through KD-629 give limitations on threaded connections and
may yield in compression during the shrink fitting or wire wind- bolting. The requirements for length of engagement in paragraph
ing operation depending on how much it was yielded in tension KD-626 are intended to provide a conservative engagement length
during autofrettage. It is difficult to assess the amount of strain for tapped holes for those cases where the threads must be as
hardening that occurs when the inner layer re-yields in compres- strong as the stud itself (i.e., the stud will fail before the threads).
sion and to accurately determine the actual residual compressive However, as written, it applies to all tapped holes without excep-
stress distribution in the assembled vessel using closed form tion. Note also that paragraph KD-627 requires a fatigue calcula-
equations. However, finite element analysis using the cyclic tion for all threaded connections. It is common practice to do this
stress-strain curves discussed previously can provide a good by using a stress intensification factor of 4.0 on the nominal range
approximation. of stress in the stud. Alternatively, a finite element analysis of
The phenomenon of mean stress reduction due to local yielding each fastener can be done, but this requires a very fine mesh at the
under a pressure load is not limited to the bore surface of thick root of the threads to accurately characterize the peak stresses. It
cylinders; essentially any area of a pressure vessel that yields in is not necessary to perform a fatigue calculation on ASME stan-
tension under pressure loading will have compressive residual dard B18.2.2 nuts.
stresses when the pressure is removed. This includes areas with
high peak stresses in both thick- and thin-wall vessels, such as 23.5.6.2 Threaded End Closures Paragraphs KD-630 and
the inside corners of nozzle to shell intersections. However, KD-650 give limitations on single-threaded end closures and
the closed form solutions in Article KD-5 apply only to plain quick-actuating closures respectively. A large variety of threaded
monoblock cylinders. For other cases, the determination of the and quick-actuating closures have been used for vessels that must be
value of mean stress to use in the fatigue calculations in Articles opened frequently. For example, the hot isostatic pressing process
KD-3 and KD-4 should be done by elastic–plastic finite element requires that the vessel end closure be opened each processing cycle

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE • 23-17

to remove the pressed and sintered item and replace it with the jackets operate at low pressure, so they are normally constructed
unsintered powder. Since this process occurs several times per to the requirements of Division 1. However, welds that attach the
day (in some cases several times per hour), a quick acting closure jacket to the pressure boundary must meet all of the requirements
is needed to maximize production. In many cases, a closure with of Division 3.
an interrupted square, acme, or buttress thread form is used, so
that the closure can be opened quickly by rotating it a fraction of 23.5.8 Article KD-8—Special Design Requirements
a turn and lifting. In other cases, a complete single-threaded for Layered Vessels
design is used, which requires multiple rotations to open. In either
This article contains requirements for three types of layered
case, the stresses in the threads in the vessel shell are typically
vessels:
high, and several cases of vessel failure have occurred due to
cracks that started in the female threads. (1) Non-welded construction, in which forged cylinders are
In most cases, the stress gradient from the root of the first shrink-fitted together in two or more concentric layers.
female thread to the outside surface of the shell is even more (2) Construction similar to that described in item (1), but in
nonuniform than for the cylindrical shell under pressure. There- which each layer is rolled from plate, welded, and then
fore, there is a tendency for a crack to propagate in the circumfer- machined prior to shrink fitting.
ential direction completely around the vessel before it propagates (3) Concentrically wrapped and welded layered vessels in
through the entire wall thickness. This 360 deg. crack can then which the inner layer is either conventionally rolled and
propagate in the through-thickness direction until it reaches a crit- long seam-welded or of seamless construction. Successive
ical size, resulting in fast fracture. If the material has high tough- layers are then fitted outside, and the long seam for each
ness, the failure may be ductile tearing in the remaining ligament. layer is welded in place. The shrinkage of the long seam
In either case, the failure can be catastrophic, since the end of the introduces a tangential compressive stress into the previous
vessel will separate. Because of this, the “leak-before- burst” pro- layers. This technique can also be used for spherical ves-
visions do not apply to threaded end closures, so paragraph KD- sels and hemispherical heads.
631.4 requires a fracture mechanics analysis in accordance with
Article KD-4 in all cases. However, in performing this analysis it Depending on the application, the inner layer of these vessels
is common practice to assume that the initial flaw is semi-elliptical may be of corrosion-resistant material. The contribution of this
with a 3:1 length to depth aspect ratio. The calculations should material to the static and fatigue strength of the vessel is consid-
determine the crack growth in both the circumferential and ered in the design analysis. It is also possible to fit a loose liner, as
through thickness directions for each increment of crack growth, discussed earlier.
and the new aspect ratio should be used for subsequent incre-
ments. This will establish whether the crack will propagate more 23.5.8.1 Design Criteria and Residual Stresses For any of the
rapidly in the circumferential direction. three types of layered vessel construction, the static strength is
Paragraphs KD-651, KD-652, KD-652.1, and KD-653 contain considered to be the same as a monoblock vessel that has the
requirements that are intended to ensure that quick-actuating clo- same overall thickness if
sures are fully engaged before pressurization, and are not opened
until the vessel has been fully depressurized. Several accidents (1) the material of each of the layers has the same yield
have occurred with lower pressure autoclaves due to the failure of strength as the material of the monoblock vessel; and
partially engaged quick-actuating closures. (2) there are no significant gaps between the layers.
Although a classical limit analysis would show that the static
23.5.7 Article KD-7—Design Requirements for strength under internal pressure loading should be essentially the
Attachments, Supports, and Heating and same even if there are large gaps between layers, the concern is
Cooling Jackets that the amount of plastic deformation that may be necessary to
This article contains some specific requirements for attach- close the gaps may result in cracking. Also, if gaps exist after the
ments, supports, and external heating and cooling jackets. In gen- vessel is placed in service, the cyclic stresses in an individual
eral, all welds attaching nonpressure parts to pressure boundary layer will be much higher, resulting in a shorter fatigue life than
parts are required to be continuous, full penetration welds. Fillet would otherwise be the case.
welded and partial penetration welded attachments are not permit- The axial or longitudinal stresses in a layered vessel should be
ted, because cracks that may initiate at the heel or toe of the fillet transmitted through welds between layers rather than relying on
can propagate into the pressure boundary. friction. However, it is often possible to design a multilayer
shrink fit vessel such that the axial load can be carried through
23.5.7.1 Attachments Paragraphs KD-710 through KD-730 only one or two of the layers. Note that the longitudinal stress
give requirements for attachments. Except for minor, non load due to pressure in a thick-wall cylinder can be significantly less
bearing attachments of a small size that are discussed in paragraph than one-half of the hoop stress. For example, a cylindrical shell
KD-712, attachments must be made of a listed material and must with an outside diameter to inside diameter ratio of 2.0, made
be analyzed in the same way as pressure boundary components. from SA723 Class 2 material (yield strength 120 ksi [830 MPa]),
will have a design pressure of about 55 ksi (380 MPa) according
23.5.7.2 Supports Paragraph KD-740 gives design require- to the equation in KD-221.1. The longitudinal stress due to the
ments for supports. This paragraph is very general, and is intended pressure load only will be about 18 ksi (130 MPa), or about 15%
primarily to clarify that all loadings must be considered. of the yield strength. In contrast, a thin wall vessel made from
the same material, with the design pressure limited by the same
23.5.7.3 Heating and Cooling Jackets paragraph KD-750 equation, will have a longitudinal stress of about 33% of the
gives requirements for jackets. In most cases, heating and cooling yield strength.

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23-18 • Chapter 23

23.5.8.2 Residual Stresses in Shrink-Fit Cylindrical Shells The layers should be relatively thin to achieve good fit-up, so
Paragraphs KD-811 and KD-812 give a standard textbook proce- paragraph KD-821(a) limits the outer diameter to inner diameter
dure for calculating the residual stresses in two or more layer ratio to 1.1.
shrink-fit shells. It is possible to autofrettage one or more of the Although a significant amount of residual compression is
layers of a shrink-fit cylinder prior to assembly. However, this is not induced in the inner layers of these vessels due to the shrinkage of
common in practice. If the inner layer is relatively thin, it will not the longitudinal weld as each successive layer is applied, the mag-
be possible to achieve significant residual compressive stresses, nitude of the residual stress is hard to predict. This is due to the
because the stress distribution is relatively uniform. If the inner effects of friction between layers as the weld cools and to the
layer is relatively thick, it is likely that the overall vessel will have a residual stresses in the welds themselves. Therefore, Division 3
large enough outside diameter to inside diameter ratio that yield does not permit the beneficial effects of the residual compressive
level residual stress can be achieved in the inner cylinder due to stress to be considered in the fatigue analysis.
shrink-fitting alone. This level of compressive stress will actually Since the plates that form the layers are not machined after
be higher than could be achieved by autofrettage of a monoblock forming, it is possible for small gaps between layers to exist at
vessel with similar overall proportions because the shrink-fit vessel some locations. Although this may not affect the plastic collapse
can be constructed such that it is not subject to the Bauschinger pressure of the shell, since the gaps tend to close as the vessel is
effect (e.g. if yielding as a result of the shrink fit is avoided). If the pressurized, it can have a significant effect on the range of stress in
amount of interference between the inner and outer cylinders is cal- the inner layers, which must undergo greater deformation to close
culated correctly, the bore of the inner cylinder can be compressed the gap before the outer layers pick up their share of the load. It is
close to the yield point without actually yielding. Since the difficult to locate or characterize these gaps using nondestructive
Bauschinger effect is triggered only if plastic flow occurs, the full examination except at the ends of the shell or at the location of
linear-elastic range of twice yield is available for service loadings. weep holes. Therefore, Division 3 requires that the magnitude of
If the inner cylinder had been autofrettaged prior to shrink fitting, the gaps be estimated during hydrotest by measuring the actual cir-
additional compressive plastic flow of the bore surface, and there- cumferential expansion of the shell between each pair of circum-
fore a higher interference, may have been required to achieve the ferential seams and comparing it to the theoretical value that
same level of residual stress as shrink fitting alone. would occur if there were no gaps. The ratio of measured to theo-
It may be tempting for the designer to consider autofrettage of retical expansion is used to calculate a “gap correction factor.”
a thick outer layer. The inside surface of the outer layer (i.e., the This factor is used to increase the principal stresses throughout the
location of contact between layers) will have high residual tensile thickness of the vessel. Note that, in contrast to Division 2, both
stress. These high residual tensile stresses may be OK in many the static and fatigue analyses are affected by the gap correction
cases because cyclic stresses are typically much lower at this factor. The higher allowable stresses of Division 3 make it impor-
location than at the inner cylinder bore. However, if the interface tant to be sure that the design approach is conservative.
has been identified as a fatigue-sensitive region, introducing some A similar approach for gap correction is provided in paragraphs
level of residual compressive stress into the outer cylinder using KD-824 and KD-825 for spherical shells and hemispherical
autofrettage prior to assembly could increase the fatigue life sig- heads.
nificantly. The problem with this approach is that heating of the
outer cylinder for shrink fitting could relax some of the residual 23.5.8.4 Openings and Supports for Concentrically
stress. In general, if heating to less than about 700°F is required, Wrapped and Welded Layered Vessels Paragraph KD-840 gives
an estimate of the loss in residual stress can be calculated using rules for openings in concentrically wrapped and welded layered
the ratio of yield strength at shrink-fit temperature to the room vessels. Openings must be integrally reinforced.
temperature yield strength. Obviously, it is necessary to heat the Figure KD-850 in Division 3 gives some acceptable support
outer cylinder uniformly to ensure that through-thickness thermal details. These are similar to those in Division 2.
stresses do not result in yielding.
An alternative assembly technique in which the inner cylinder 23.5.9 Article KD-9—Special Design Requirements
is cooled for assembly could be considered. However, this is diffi- for Wire-Wound Vessels and Frames
cult in practice because moisture can condense on the inner cylin- This article contains requirements for a specialized type of con-
der during assembly. The technique could be used if the parts are struction that is found in neither Division 1 nor Division 2. A wire-
small enough to be assembled in a vacuum chamber or a totally wound vessel is constructed by helically winding a square or
dry environment. rectangular cross section wire onto a cylindrical core that has been
If a combination of autofrettage and shrink-fitting is used, para- fabricated by conventional means. The wire is maintained under
graph KD-811.3 requires combining the stresses from these oper- tension as the winding proceeds so that the inner core is placed
ations. Superposition can be used if the resulting stresses are into compression. Since the edges of the wire are not welded
below yield, but note that superposition should always be done by together, wire-wound vessels can support axial or longitudinal
combining the stress components. Tresca or Von Mises stresses loads only through the inner core layer. Since this layer is nor-
should not be added directly. (See also Subsection 23.5.5.1). mally very thin, essentially all wire-wound vessels use an external
frame to carry the axial pressure load. Since most of these vessels
23.5.8.3 Concentrically Wrapped and Welded Layered are used in applications such as isostatic pressing or food process-
Vessels Paragraph KD-820 and its dependent paragraphs give ing where the vessel must be opened frequently, the frame is nor-
rules for concentrically wrapped and welded layered vessels. This mally designed to permit rapid withdrawal of one end plug.
technique has been used for many years for Division 1 and Divi- The external frames that carry the pressure end load can be of
sion 2 construction. In many cases, the heads of these vessels are either “conventional” or wire-wound construction. Only perfor-
of single wall construction, but layered heads can also be pro- mance requirements for frames are given, and detailed design
duced. Nozzles are typically of single wall-forged construction. analysis is left to the designer.

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE • 23-19

23.5.9.1 Residual Stresses in Wire-Wound Vessels Paragraph to publish values of crack growth rates and possibly the threshold
KD-911 gives equations that can be used to calculate the residual for subcritical crack growth, for use in design.
stress in the core layer and in each wire-wound layer based on the
tension used during winding and the geometry of the shell. 23.5.11 Article KD-11—Design Requirements for
Welded Vessels
23.5.9.2 Derivation of a Design Fatigue Curve in Wire- When the need for Division 3 was first recognized and the
Wound Vessels Paragraph KD-932 gives requirements for fatigue Committee was formed, most of the participants envisioned a
testing of the wire used for winding and for the determination of Code that would cover only the forged, nonwelded type of con-
design factors to be used in the fatigue analysis. The procedure is struction that was being used extensively for vessels with design
based on the assumption that a few widely spaced fatigue failures pressures of 20,000 psi (140 MPa) to 50,000 psi (350 MPa).
in individual wires will not result in failure of the vessel itself However, some Manufacturers and Users had experience with
because friction between successive layers will prevent the broken welded construction for vessels in the lower part of this pressure
wire from “unraveling.” range, so it was agreed to include welded construction within
the scope. To a large extent, this explains the significant restric-
23.5.10 Article KD-10—Special Requirements for tions on welded construction that have been incorporated into
Vessels in High Pressure Gaseous Hydrogen Division 3.
Transport and Storage Service
Article KD-10 was introduced in the 2007 Edition to provide 23.5.11.1 Types of Joints Permitted Paragraph KD-1110 per-
requirements for vessels to support the emerging “hydrogen econ- mits only Type No. 1 butt joints, with only a few minor excep-
omy.” Pressures up to 15,000 psi (100 MPa) are expected to be tions. Type No. 1 butt joints are described in paragraph KF-221,
necessary for the economical transport and storage of gaseous which is referenced in paragraph KD-1110. The description is
hydrogen at ambient temperature for use as a motor fuel and for similar to that in Divisions 1 and 2, except that all Type No. 1
other applications, Ambient temperature gaseous hydrogen at butt joints used in Division 3 construction must be ground or
high pressures can cause environmental crack growth and can machined flush. However, Code Case 2592 permits un-ground
increase the growth rate of fatigue cracks in ferritic steel alloys. welds if the weld is not accessible, the design fatigue life is calcu-
The problem is exacerbated as the yield and tensile strength of the lated using Article KD-4 (fracture mechanics) and the finite ele-
alloy increases. ment analysis includes the “worst case” weld misalignment,
peaking and weld profile. The original concern of the SG-HPV
23.5.10.1 Scope of KD-10 Paragraph KD-1000 limits the scope members with welds that are not ground smooth was the difficulty
of coverage of Article KD-10 to non-welded vessels with hydro- of predicting the appropriate stress intensification factors for use
gen partial pressures exceeding 6,000 psi (41 MPa) or welded in the fatigue analysis. However, successful experience with the
vessels with hydrogen partial pressures exceeding 2,500 psi (17 fracture mechanics approach has made it possible to have confi-
MPa). However, the hydrogen partial pressure limits are reduced dence in the design fatigue life calculations in the presence of
to 750 psi (5.2 MPa) for non-welded vessels constructed of mate- weld flaws. It is anticipated that this Code Case will be incorpo-
rials with a tensile strength of 137 ksi (945 MPa) or greater or for rated into the Code in the future.
welded vessels constructed of materials with a tensile strength of
90 ksi (620 MPa) or greater. These scope limitations were based 23.5.12 Article KD-12—Experimental Design
on the experience and judgment of the SG-HPV and the ASME Verification
BPV Project Team on Hydrogen Tanks. Materials within the scope Although modern analysis tools have reduced the need for
include high and low alloy steels, as well as the aluminum alloys experimental stress analysis, it is still an appropriate technique in
6061-T6 and 6061-T651. some cases. The rules in this article are very similar to the rules in
Annex 5.F of Division 2. One significant difference is in the
23.5.10.2 Fracture Mechanics Analysis Paragraph KD-1010 determination of the collapse load. Division 3 simply requires that
requires that the design fatigue life be determined using the frac- the strain be limited to 2%. It further states that this strain should
ture mechanics approach in Article KD-4, including the FAD be measured in a location that will produce a “primary strain”—in
approach, as well as the stress intensity and reference stress solu- other words, the intent is not to limit the strain in local notches or
tions, in API 579-1/ASME FFS-1. In addition, the fatigue crack discontinuities. At first glance this seems to be inconsistent with
growth rate must be determined in a high pressure hydrogen envi- the requirements of KD-232, which limits the strain at any point
ronment for each material to be used in construction. Also, for based on the strain limit damage accumulation. However, in an
determination of the critical crack size, the critical crack tip stress experimental procedure, Division 3 requires that the vessel reach
intensity is defined as the smaller of the KIC or KIH values for the the collapse pressure without failure due to high local strains, so it
material. KIC is the critical crack tip stress intensity, determined in is the responsibility of the designer to ensure that local strains are
the conventional way. KIH is the threshold for subcritical crack low enough to avoid failure during the test.
growth in the high pressure hydrogen environment. Article KD-10
contains detailed requirements for determining these values. The 23.5.12.1 Paragraph KD-1260 Experimental Determination
data must be obtained by the manufacturer for at least three heats of Allowable Number of Operating Cycles Article KD-1260 is
of steel. The data thus obtained can be used for other vessels similar to the corresponding requirements in Division 2. This
made from the same or similar material, if the yield and tensile experimental approach can be used only when the traditional
strength of the material does not exceed that of the tested material “S-N approach” in Article KD-3 is permitted by the requirements
by more than 5%. of paragraph KD-140—that is, when a leak-before-burst mode of
As more data become available, assuming that the data fall failure can be shown. It would be possible to develop an experi-
within a relatively narrow band, it is the intention of the SG-HPV mental fracture mechanics procedure that could be used as an

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23-20 • Chapter 23

alternative to the requirements of Article KD-4 if there are 23.6.1 Article KF-1—General Fabrication
enough potential applications to justify the effort. Requirements
Article KF-1 gives general requirements that apply to all ves-
23.5.13 Article KD-13—Additional Design sels constructed to Division 3. Subsequent articles in Part KF
Requirements for Composite Reinforced apply to specific types of construction.
Pressure Vessels (CRPV)
This Article requires that the design analysis of CRPV by done 23.6.1.1 Examination of Materials Because of the high level
using elastic-plastic FEA, although the composite layer is assumed of concern about fatigue, it is important to ensure that flaws that
to be linear elastic, since this material transitions from elastic could be sites for the initiation of fatigue cracks are detected and
behavior to failure without significant plasticity. It is assumed that repaired to the maximum extent practicable. For example, para-
all of these CRPV will be autofrettaged to allow the composite graph KF-121.1 requires that all edges cut during fabrication be
layer to place the inner metallic layer in compression. The calcula- examined and repaired if needed. The details are found in Part
tion of the number of design cycles must be done using the frac- KE.
ture mechanics methods in Article KD-4, supplemented by the
requirements of Article KD-10 if the CRPV is in hydrogen ser- 23.6.1.2 Cutting of Materials Paragraph KF-121.2 permits
vice. A fatigue analysis is required only for the metallic compo- thermal cutting of materials, but requires slag and detrimental dis-
nents. The limits on the stress in the composite (laminate) layer are coloration of material to be removed by mechanical means. In
as follows for CRPV to be installed at a fixed location: addition, the effects of thermal cutting on mechanical properties
must be considered. Although these provisions apply to all mate-
(1) For glass fiber, 36% of the tensile strength and for carbon rials, they are intended primarily to address a concern with the
fiber 40% of the tensile strength at the operating pressure. high strength materials that are typically used for high-pressure
These values are defined at the operating pressure as vessel construction. Although degradation of material properties
defined in the User’s Design Specification rather than the in the heat-affected zone of a weld will presumably be detected
design pressure because the failure mode that is being during the weld procedure qualification test, degradation due to
addressed is a long term creep failure. Since creep is a time thermal cutting may not be detected because no qualification test
dependent mechanism, the very small portion of the life of is required. It is therefore important either to remove this material
the vessel that is consumed during upset conditions that or to be sure that the properties are still acceptable after cutting.
cause the temperature or the pressure to be higher than the Although not specifically addressed in Division 3, it should be
operating pressure is not significant. noted that “abusive grinding,” which can remove material quickly,
For CRPV in transport service: can heat a thin layer at the surface of a quenched and tempered
steel above the austenitizing temperature, resulting in a thin layer
(2) For glass fiber, 36% of the tensile strength and for carbon of extremely hard material that can crack. Although these cracks
fiber 40% of the tensile strength at the service pressure. are rarely more than 0.010 in. (0.25 mm) deep, they can be sites
Similar to the discussion in item (1) above, these values are for the initiation of fatigue cracks.
defined at the service pressure rather than the design pres-
sure because the failure mode that is being addressed is a 23.6.1.3 Radius Requirements for Inside Edges of Nozzles It
long term creep failure. Since creep is a time dependent is well known that “cross-bore intersections” as they have tradi-
mechanism, the very small portion of the life of the vessel tionally been called within the high-pressure community, are sites
that is consumed during filling operations and other condi- where fatigue cracks can initiate. A “cross-bore intersection” is
tions that cause the temperature, and therefore the pressure, the intersection of an opening in a cylindrical shell with the shell
to be higher than the service pressure is not significant. bore. The negative experience was primarily with forged, non-
welded vessels in relatively high cycle service. However, the
For all CRPV and both glass and carbon fibers during autofrettage: SG-HPV decided to require that the inside corner of all nozzle-to-
(3) 60% of the tensile strength of the laminate shell intersections be radiused to minimize the local stress intensi-
fication. The basis for this is largely empirical, and some recent
It is important to note that these limits are peak stress limits at any finite element analysis work has indicated that the stress intensifi-
location in the laminate. Also, the finite element analysis is cation effect may be much smaller than previously believed. The
required to be done considering the “worst case” non-uniformities SG-HPV has an agenda item to evaluate whether the radius
in the metallic layer that the laminate is applied to. These non- requirement is needed.
uniformities, which include weld misalignment and peaking, cause
local stress risers in the laminate. 23.6.2 Article KF-2—Supplemental Welding
One other requirement is that the liner, without any laminate Fabrication Requirements
applied, must have a burst pressure greater than the design pres- Article KF-2 gives general requirements that apply to all
sure of the vessel. welded vessels constructed to Division 3. On a historical note,
many of the individuals who advocated the development of a
high-pressure Code in the middle to late 1970s envisioned cover-
23.6 PART KF—FABRICATION ing only the construction of the forged, non-welded vessels that
REQUIREMENTS were being used at that time for hot and cold isostatic pressing,
quartz crystal growing, polyethylene manufacture, and a few
In general, the fabrication requirements in Division 3 are simi- other applications. However, others noted that welded construc-
lar to those in Division 2. Therefore, the focus in the following tion was used for high-pressure vessels in some cases, so the
discussions is primarily on the differences. SG-HPV agreed to include it. However, forged, non-welded

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE • 23-21

construction is still used for the majority of vessels with design location of these gages should be determined by the designer
pressures over about 30,000 psi (210 MPa). based on the results of a stress analysis. All gages should be mon-
itored during the autofrettage process to ensure that the strain is
23.6.2.1 Grinding or Machining of Welds To minimize local not excessive, but is adequate to achieve the desired level of com-
notches, paragraph KF-204 requires that all welds be machined or pressive prestress.
ground to a blend radius and surface finish consistent with the
requirements of the engineering design. This may be a difficult 23.6.5.2 Number of Pressurizations and Examination after
requirement to meet for surfaces that are difficult to access, but Autofrettage The local strain during autofrettage can be very
exceptions are currently permitted only if the requirements of high. As with the plastic strain that occurs during forming opera-
Code Case 2592 are met (see paragraph 23.5.11.1). tions, it is important to ensure that the material has sufficient duc-
tility to withstand these strains without damage. Typically, the
23.6.2.2 Types of Weld Joints Permitted Paragraph KF-220 highest strains are on internal surfaces that are exposed to the
permits only Type No. 1 butt joints, with a few exceptions, fluid pressure. These areas usually also have low triaxial stresses,
because of concerns about local stress intensification and diffi- which increases the apparent ductility, so cracking due to the sin-
culty of examination. The most significant exception permits a gle application of the autofrettage pressure is not common.
full penetration groove weld for nozzle attachment, but only if the However, if there are difficulties with the autofrettage process
detail for a modified set-on nozzle as shown in Fig. KD-1131 in such that several attempts are needed to reach the autofrettage pres-
Division 3 is used. Restrictions on the weld procedure qualifica- sure, low-cycle fatigue cracks can result. For example, if a pump
tion for these welds in paragraph KF-222.1 are intended to reduce fails or if a seal leaks, it may be necessary to depressure the system,
the probability of flaws. Other exceptions permit the installation fix the problem, and then repressure. The author is aware of one
of lugs, clips, heating and cooling jackets, etc. case in which a compressor component, which was not constructed
to Division 3, failed after five attempts to reach the design autofret-
23.6.3 Article KF-3—Fabrication Requirements for tage pressure. It is therefore very important to properly inspect seal-
Materials with Protective Linings ing elements and carefully assemble all joints before the initial
This article applies only to integrally clad or weld overlay-type pressurization. Double block and bleed valves should be provided
linings. to isolate the pump so that it can be repaired without depressurizing
the vessel. Another problem that has resulted in more than one
23.6.4 Article KF-4—Heat Treatment of Weldments attempt to reach the autofrettage pressure is strain gage failure. It is
The requirements for heat treatment of weldments are similar prudent to use redundant gages in critical areas and to check gage
to those in Divisions 1 and 2. Note that heat treatment require- behavior during the initial stages of pressurization.
ments for quenched and tempered materials are covered in Paragraph KF-530 reinforces the requirement for an examina-
Paragraph KF-630. tion of all surfaces after autofrettage. An alternative examination is
required for surfaces that may be inaccessible after autofrettage.
23.6.5 Article KF-5—Additional Fabrication
23.6.6 Article KF-6—Additional Fabrication
Requirements for Autofrettaged Vessels
Requirements for Quenched and Tempered
As discussed in the design section (KD-5), autofrettage has
been used extensively in high-pressure vessels to introduce com-
Steels
pressive mean stresses that significantly improve fatigue life. This article only applies to those quenched and tempered steels
Since autofrettage involves increasing the pressure in a vessel that can be used for welded parts. The quenched and tempered
until significant plastic deformation has occurred, the pressure high-strength, low-alloy steels that are typically used in non-
required is typically very close to the plastic collapse or through welded construction of high-pressure vessels are outside of the
thickness yield pressure. In addition, small changes in pressure scope of this article.
can result in large changes in stresses and strains, resulting in sig-
nificant differences in the level of residual compressive prestress 23.6.7 Article KF-7—Supplementary Requirements
that is achieved. For these reasons, it is necessary to control the for Materials with Welding Restrictions
process carefully. This article provides for the repair of defects by welding, with
It should also be recognized that autofrettage only works in significant restrictions, for materials that are not permitted for
those areas of a pressure vessel where steep stress gradients exist welded construction.
under pressure loading. This situation exists in areas of local
stress intensification, such as at the inside corners of nozzles, in 23.6.8 Article KF-8—Specific Fabrication
many vessels. In fact, vessels constructed to Divisions 1 and 2 fre- Requirements for Layered Vessels
quently undergo some plastic deformation in areas of high local As discussed in paragraph 23.5.8, there are several very differ-
stress during the normal hydrostatic test. The resulting residual ent types of construction that fall into the layered vessel category.
compressive stresses in these areas are favorable not only for Shrink-fit vessels, in which the layers are either forged or of non-
fatigue life, but also in reducing the probability of brittle fracture welded or welded construction, are covered in paragraph KF-810.
if the vessel is pressurized at a low temperature. Concentrically wrapped welded layered vessels are covered in the
rest of the article.
23.6.5.1 Autofrettage Procedures Paragraph KF-520 requires
that a detailed, written procedure be prepared. It is particularly 23.6.8.1 Shrink-Fit Vessels Paragraph KF-810 covers require-
important to develop a procedure for controlling the extent of aut- ments for these vessels. Shrink fitting can be difficult for large
ofrettage. The most common technique has been to install strain vessels because practical limitations on the temperature difference
gages on the most highly stressed external surfaces. The specific between the inner and outer cylinders result in a very small gap

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23-22 • Chapter 23

for assembly. If assembly does not go smoothly, the outer cylinder ments for that fabrication process and the requirements for quali-
can shrink onto the inner one before they have been positioned fication of the laminate procedure specification that is used to
correctly, which can result in having to scrap the assembly and control the process. There is some similarity to a weld procedure
start over. It is usually impractical to cool the inner cylinder for qualification process, in that essential variables are defined and
assembly because moisture from the air will condense on the sur- the resulting fabricated vessel must pass a series of qualification
face. The upper temperature limit for the outer cylinder is typi- tests including:
cally governed by the tempering temperature of the material.
However, the possibility of temper embrittlement due to excessive (1) Volumetric Expansion test. In this test, the increase in vol-
holding time at temperatures below the tempering temperature ume of the prototype CRPV that will be subjected to quali-
should also be considered. The Manufacturer must provide a writ- fication testing is measured as the pressure is increased.
ten assembly procedure and report, which are used to verify that Although there are no specific acceptance criteria for the
the design residual stress distribution was achieved during the prototype CRPV, subsequent production CRPV must exhibit
fabrication of the layers and the shrink fitting assembly. the same volumetric expansion within a tolerance of +5%
as required by KT-510 (b). The purpose of this test is to
23.6.8.2 Concentrically Wrapped Welded Layered Vessels ensure that the fibers have been applied properly and that
Paragraph KF-820 covers requirements for these vessels. Para- extensive fiber breakage has not occurred.
graph KF-824 requires vent holes in each plate, except for those (2) Cyclic Pressure Qualification Test. This test is required in
making up the inner layer. This is done so that if a hole or crack addition to the fracture mechanics analysis to demonstrate
develops in the inner layer, the leak can be detected before pres- that the CRPV will have an adequate design fatigue life. A
sure builds up between layers. If vent holes are not provided, a design margin is applied to the test results in accordance
leak through one or more of the inner layers could overpressure with the requirements of paragraph KD-1260. The test can
the outer layers, resulting in a rupture of the vessel. Although be done using the operating pressure range with a margin
Division 3 requires only two in. (6 mm) diameter holes in each applied to the number of cycles to failure. Alternatively, if
plate, the designer should consider the need to provide larger holes the required number of design cycles is greater than
on a large vessel to ensure that a pressure buildup cannot occur. 10,000, the test duration can be reduced by using a higher
The requirements in paragraph KF-826 for controlling gaps pressure range for a smaller number of cycles. The specific
between layers should be noted. This is particularly important for requirements for calculating the number of test cycles are
thick-wall high-pressure vessels, since a gap between two of the provided in KD-1262.
innermost layers can lead to high cyclic stresses as the material (3) Hydrostatic Pressure Qualification Test. The purpose of
deforms to close the gap under pressure or thermal loads. this test is to demonstrate that the burst pressure of the
Paragraph KF-825 gives special nondestructive examination CRPV is at least twice the design pressure for CRPV
requirements for the welds in concentrically wrapped welded lay- installed at a fixed location or the greater of twice the
ered vessels. It is particularly important to examine these welds design pressure or 2.5 times the service pressure for CRPV
carefully during fabrication because it is difficult to examine welds in transport service. After the test pressure is held for 60
on internal layers after the completion of the vessel and during seconds, the pressure is increased until the vessel bursts.
service. On the plus side, layered construction usually gives in- (4) Cathodic Disbondment Test. This is a destructive test con-
herent leak-before-burst performance, because subcritical cracks ducted on specimens cut from the CRPV that was subjected
will typically arrest at the interface between layers. to the hydrostatic test to determine whether the laminate
has disbonded from the metallic liner.
23.6.9 Article KF-9—Specific Fabrication The qualification tests must be repeated after 1,000 CRPV have
Requirements for Wire-Wound Vessels and been produced or one year.
Frames
Since the wire used for the wrapping on these vessels has a
very high strength, it is not practicable to make butt-weld joints
between continuous lengths of wire that have the same strength as
23.7 PART KR—PRESSURE-RELIEF
the wire. These reduced strength welds are permitted in the inner DEVICES
wire layers because the reduction in strength of the vessel as a The overpressure protection requirements in Division 3 are
whole is negligible. It is necessary to reduce the winding tension intended to follow the philosophy of Divisions 1 and 2 to the
for up to two turns before and after the weld. However, experi- maximum extent practicable. Division 3 permits inherent over-
ence with these vessels indicates that failure of a few individual pressure protection (see paragraph KR-125). The SG-HPV rec-
wires will not result in loss of containment, as friction will act to ognized that it was common practice to limit the pressure within
maintain the prestress in the other wires. vessels in nonreactive service (e.g., hot and cold iso-static press-
ing) by limiting the supply pressure of the compressors or intensi-
23.6.10 Article KF-12—Additional Fabrication fier pumps rather than providing a device on the vessel itself. The
Requirements for Composite Reinforced source of pressure must be external to the vessel. For example, if
Pressure Vessels (CRPV) a high-pressure gas compressor piston or plunger that supplies
In contrast to conventional practice for metallic pressure ves- argon to an isostatic press is driven by a low-pressure hydraulic
sels, the laminate is not treated as a material that is purchased cylinder, a low-pressure relief valve in the hydraulic system can
with specified properties and applied to the CRPV. Although the effectively limit the discharge pressure of the compressor and
components of the laminate are purchased (e.g. the fiber, resin, thereby limit the pressure in the vessel.
curing agents), the laminate is actually fabricated by the CRPV Code Case 2211 permits overpressure protection by systems
manufacturer. Therefore, Article KF-12 focuses on the require- design for Divisions 1 and 2 service, but this Code Case requires

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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE • 23-23

detailed analysis of potential sources of overpressure. Paragraph 23.8.2 Final Examination


KR-125 in Division 3 simply requires that the pressure be under Due to the concern about fatigue, Article KE-4 requires exami-
such positive control that the pressure in the vessel cannot exceed nation of all surfaces of pressure boundary components by the
the design conditions by more than the accumulation permitted in wet magnetic particle method for ferromagnetic materials and by
paragraph KR-150. the liquid penetrant method for nonmagnetic materials after all
“Pop action” safety relief valves are not readily available for fabrication and testing have been completed.
pressures above 10,000 psi (70 MPa). Small spring-loaded valves,
with progressive opening, similar to liquid service relief valves,
are available for very high pressures, but the increase in pressure 23.8.3 Examination of CRPV
from initial opening to full-rated capacity is typically well over Article KE-5 provides rules for examination of composite rein-
the 10% accumulation permitted by Division 3. In addition, even forced pressure vessels. A thorough visual examination of the
“pop action” valves with set pressures of about 5,000 psi (35 laminate surface is required. An extensive list of acceptance crite-
MPa) constructed to ASME Division 1 and Division 2 require- ria for that examination is provided in Table KE-503.
ments may not perform as expected. An acoustic emission examination is also required.
A “pop action” valve is designed so that when the disk lifts a
small amount, a larger area is exposed to the pressure, resulting in
additional lift. The increased area must be large enough so that the
23.9 PART KT—TESTING REQUIREMENTS
lifting force will overcome the additional force exerted by the
spring as it is compressed from the seated to the full open condi- The testing requirements in Division 3 are similar to those in
tion. However, if the additional area is too large, the pressure will Divisions 1 and 2.
drop excessively before the valve closes (excessive blowdown).
When a specific valve is tested, the accumulation and blowdown
can be verified experimentally. Scale-up of valves designed for low
pressure to a higher pressure involves careful consideration of the 23.10 PART KS—MARKING, STAMPING,
increase in force on the valve disk due to the higher pressure and REPORTS, AND RECORDS
the relative increase in spring force. As the pressure increases, the
deviation from ideal gas behavior becomes more pronounced. This The requirements for marking, stamping, reports, and records
can result in a smaller relative increase in the lifting force as the in Division 3 are similar to those in Divisions 1 and 2.
valve set pressure increases. To compound the problem, there is an
incentive to select springs for high-pressure valves that are rela-
tively stiffer than the springs in low-pressure valves to minimize 23.11 MANDATORY AND NONMANDATORY
spring length and diameter. Since there are no scaleup rules or APPENDICES
guidelines in the Codes, the SG-HPV decided to require testing at
the design pressure to ensure that full lift and flow capacity will be A few comments on Non-Mandatory Appendices D, E, G, and
achieved within the 10% accumulation permitted. H are provided below.
For these reasons, Article KR-5 prohibits the practice of extrap-
olating the results of flow capacity tests at low pressure to a
23.11.1 Appendix D—Non-Mandatory Fracture
higher pressure. The SG-HPV recognized that this would be diffi-
cult to achieve because most facilities for flow capacity certifica- Mechanics Calculations
tion do not have the capability to test at high pressures. However, Appendix D provides guidance on one approach that can be
as a practical matter, almost all high-pressure vessels use either used for the necessary fracture mechanics calculations when
rupture disks or inherent overpressure protection, so until an Article KD-4 is used for fatigue analysis. This Appendix is based
acceptable procedure for scale-up is developed and incorporated on linear-elastic fracture mechanics, and is based to a large extent
into Division 3, the testing requirement is a prudent way to ensure on ASME Section XI, Article 3000. It was made non-mandatory
that appropriate protection is provided. As of this writing, the SG because the SG-HPV recognized that there are many other ap-
HPV is evaluating alternatives for new rules. proaches to the analysis of crack-like flaws in the literature. New
stress intensity solutions are also published frequently. Therefore,
it is intended that the designer be permitted to use alternative
approaches and stress intensity solutions as appropriate. In partic-
23.8 PART KE—EXAMINATION ular, the author recommends that the weight function method in
REQUIREMENTS API 579-1/ASME FFS-1, 2007 Edition be used. This method
The examination requirements in Division 3 are similar to includes the most recent work in this area.
those in Divisions 1 and 2, but there is increased emphasis on sur- Appendix D gives good guidance for determining critical loca-
face examination to detect small cracks that may be initiation sites tions where cracks may start and rules of thumb for crack aspect
for fatigue. It is anticipated that small surface indications will be ratios.
repaired by blend grinding without weld repair if the resulting
cavity is within the limits specified in paragraph KE-211. 23.11.1.1 Fracture Toughness Correlations Paragraph D600
gives some equations that can be used to provide an acceptable esti-
23.8.1 Performance Demonstration for Ultrasonic mate of fracture toughness from Charpy V-notch impact energy.
Examination Correlations are provided among the following toughness and
The performance demonstration requirements for ultrasonic impact parameters such that an acceptable estimate of any para-
examination in Division 3 are similar to those in Division 2. meter can be obtained if one is known:

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23-24 • Chapter 23

(1) plane strain fracture toughness, KIC; 23.11.4 Appendix H—Non-Mandatory Openings and
(2) J-integral, JIC; their Reinforcement
(3) crack tip opening displacement, CTOD; and This Appendix provides for the reinforcement of openings using
(4) Charpy V-notch impact strength, CVN. the “area replacement” method of Divisions 1 and 2. Although the
There are many fracture toughness correlations available in the area replacement method was initially developed for thin shells,
literature. In particular, some of these correlations are found in and there is little theoretical basis for its application to the thick
API 579-1/ASME FFS-1. All are empirical and are based on data shells typically used for high-pressure vessels, the experience of
from a limited number of materials. It should also be recognized SG-HPV members is that it provides an acceptable, although con-
that the degree of constraint at a specific location within a high servative, design in many cases. Therefore, it was decided to in-
pressure vessel is rarely plane strain because of the influence of clude it as a non-mandatory alternative.
triaxial stresses. When a fracture mechanics specimen is loaded
uniaxially, triaxial stresses are generated by self-constraint, since
the specimen geometry is typically designed to inhibit necking 23.12 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER
in the planes transverse to the direction of plastic flow. How- DEVELOPMENT OF DIVISION 3
ever, in actual structures, multiaxial loading and local geometry
effects can result in stress states that are significantly more se- The Subgroup on High Pressure Vessels has continued to
vere than plane strain conditions. Conversely, these factors can evolve the rules in Division 3 as information becomes available.
also produce stress states that are more favorable than plane Some of the more significant open agenda items were mentioned
stress, even in very thick wall vessels. Therefore, it should be previously in this Chapter. In addition, the Author of this Chapter
recognized that the correlations provided in paragraph D-600 are recommends that the following items be pursued:
only approximations. (1) Develop true stress-true strain curves for all materials listed
in Division 3.
23.11.2 Appendix E—Non-Mandatory Construction (2) Develop cyclic true stress-true strain curves for all materi-
Details als listed in Division 3.
This Appendix provides a useful collection of experience based, (3) Develop crack growth rate data for materials in high pres-
semi-empirical design approaches that have been used for com- sure gaseous hydrogen service that can be published in
mon details on high-pressure vessels. Division 3 so that it would no longer be necessary to get
the data for each project.
(4) Improve the calculations in API 579-1/ASME FFS-1 to
23.11.3 Appendix G—Non-Mandatory Design Rules include crack tip stress intensity (KI) and reference stress
for Clamp Connections (ref) (calculations for a broader range of geometries, par-
The rules in this Appendix are based to a large extent on the ticularly larger thickness to diameter ratios for cylindrical
rules for clamp connections in Division 1, Appendix 24. components.

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