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N.

I COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING KUMARACOIL


TWO MARKS QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
Common to Third semester ECE & EIE
ELECTRICAL MACHINES EE1211

Prepared by
H.Vennila
Lecturer,EEE Dept.
R.Kalaivani
Lecturer,EEE Dept.
M.P.FlowerQueen
Lecturer,EEE Dept.
1. Mention the difference between core and shell type transformers.
In core type , the windings surround the core considerably and in shell type the core
surround the winding.

2. What is the purpose of laminating the core in a transformers ?


To reduce eddy current loss.

3. Give the emf equation of a transformer and define each term


Emf induced in primary coil E1 = 4.44 fΦ mN1 volt
Emf induced in secondary coil E2 = 4.44fΦ mN2 volt
Where f is the frequency of AC input
Φ m is the maximum value of flux in the core
N1, N2 are the number of primary and secondary turns.

4. Does the transformer draw any current when secondary is open ? Why ?
Yes,it (primary) will draw the current from the main supply in order to magnetize the
core and to supply iron and copper losses on no load . There will not be any current in the
secondary since secondary is open.

5. Define voltage regulation of a transformer


When a transformer is loaded with a constant primary voltage , the secondary voltage
decreases for lagging power factor load, and increases for leading pf load because of its internal
resistance and leakage reactance .
The change in secondary terminal voltage from no load to full load expressed as a percentage of
no load or full load voltage is termed as regulation .
% regulation down = (0V2-V2) x 100/0V2
% regulation up = (0V2-V2) x 100/V2

6Full load copper loss in a transformer is 1600 watts. What will be the loss at half load ?
If x is the ratio of actual load to full load then copper loss = x2(full load copper loss)
Here Wc = (0.5)2 x 1600 = 400 watts

7.Define all day efficiency of a transformer .


It is the computed on the basis of energy consumed during a certain period , usually a
day of 24 hrs.
ηall day = output in kWh /input in kWh for 24 hrs.

8.why transformers are rated in kVA ?


Copper loss of a transformer depends on current and iron loss on voltage . Hence total
losses depends on Volt- Ampere and not on the power factor. That is why the rating of
transformers are in kVA and not in kW.

8What are the typical uses of auto transformer ?


(i)To give small boost to a distribution cable to correct for the voltage drop.
(ii)As induction motor starters.
6. What are the applications of a step-up and step-down transformers ?
Step-up transformers are used in generating stations. Normally the generated voltage will
be either 11 kV .
This voltage(11 KV) is stepped up to 110 kV or 220 kV or 400 kV and transmitted through
transmission lines. (In short it may Be called as sending end).
Step-down transformers are used in receiving stations. The voltage are again stepped down
to 11 kV or 22 kV and transmitted through feeders.(In short it may be called as receiving end).
Further these 11 kV or 22kV are stepped down to 3 phase 400 V by means of a distribution
transformer and made available at consumer premises.
The transformers used at generating stations and receiving stations are called power
transformers.

7. How transformers are classified according to their construction ?


Or
Mention the difference between “CORE” and “SHELL” type transformers.
Or
What are the two types of cores used ? Compare them.
Transformers are classified according to their construction as ,
(i)Core type (ii)Shell type (iii)Spiracore type.
Spirakore type is a latest transformer and is used in big transformers.
In “core” type, the windings(primary and secondary)surround the core and in “shell” type, the
core surround the
windings.

8. Explain on the material used for core construction.


The core is constructed of transformer sheet steel laminations assembled to provide a
continuous magnetic path with a minimum of air gap included. The steel used is of high silicon
content sometimes heat treated to produce a high permeability and a low hysteresis loss at the
usual operating flux densities. the eddy current loss is minimized by laminating the core, the
laminations being insulated from each other by light coat of core-plate vanish or by an oxide layer
on the surface .the thickness of laminations varies from 0.35 mm for a frequency of 50 Hz and
0.5 mm for a frequency of 25 Hz.

9. When will a Bucholz relay operate in a transformer ?


Bucholz rely is a protective device in a transformer. If the temperature of the coil
exceeds its limit, Bucholz relay operates and gives an alarm.

10. How does change in frequency affect the operation of a given transformer?
With a change in frequency, iron loss, copper loss, regulation, efficiency and heating
varies and thereby the Operation of the transformer is affected.

11. What is the angle by which no-load current will lag the ideal applied voltage?
In an ideal transformer, there are no copper loss and no core loss, (i.e. loss free core).
The no load current is only magnetizing current. Therefore the no-load current lags behind
by an angle of 90˚. However the windings possess resistance and leakage reactance and
therefore the no-load current lags the applied voltage slightly less than 90˚.
12. List the advantages of stepped core arrangement in a transformer .
(i) To reduce the space effectively.
(ii) To obtain reduced length of mean turn of the windings.
(iii) To reduce I2R loss.

13. Why are breathers used in transformers ?


Breathers are used to entrap the atmospheric moisture and thereby not allowing it to
pass on to the transformer oil. Also to permit the oil inside the tank to expand and contract as its
temperature increases and decreases.
Also to avoid sledging of oil i.e. decomposition of oil. Addition of 8 parts of water in
1000000 reduces the insulations quantity of oil. Normally silica gel is filled in the breather having
pink colour. This clour will be changed to white due to continuous use, which is an indication of
bad silica gel, it is normally heated and reused.

14. What is the function of transformer oil in a transformer ?


Nowadays instead of natural mineral oil, synthetic oils known as ASKRELS (trade
name ) are used. They are noninflammable, under an electric arc do not decompose to produce
inflammable gases. PYROCOLOR oil possess high dielectric strength. Hence it can be said that
transformer oil provides , (i)good insulation and (ii)cooling .

15. A 1100/400 V, 50 Hz single phase transformer has 100 turns on the secondary winding.
Calculate the number of turns on its primary.
We know V1 / V2 = k = N2 / N1
Substituting 400/1100 = 100/N1
N1 = 100/400 x 1100
= 275 turns.

16. What are the functions of no-load current in a transformer ?


No-load current produces flux and supplies iron loss and copper loss on no-load.

17. How will you transfer the quantities from one circuit to another circuit in a transformer
?
1.Secondary to primary 2.Primary to secondary
Symbol Value Symbol Value
V2  V2/k VL  kV1
I 2 kI2 IL  I1 /k
R2  R2/k2 RL  k2R1
X2  X2/k2 XL’ k2X1
2
ZL  ZL/k

%regulation up =[(oV2 – V2)/V2]*100

18. Can the voltage regulation of a transformer go to negative? If so under what condition?
Yes. If the load has leading power factor.
19. Distinguish between power transformer and distribution transformer .
Power transformers have very high power ratings in the order of MVA. They are used in
generating and receiving stations. Sophisticated controls are required. Voltage ranges will be
very high.
Distribution transformers are used in consumer side. Voltage levels will be medium. Power
ranging will be small in order of kVA. Complicated controls are not needed.

20. What is the purpose of providing ‘taps’ in transformer and where these are provided?
In order to attain the required voltage , ‘taps’ are provided. Normally it is provided at
low voltage side.

21. What is prime mover?


The basic source of mechanical power which drives the armature of the generator is
called prime mover.
22. Give the materials used in machine manufacturing
Three materials are used in machine manufacturing.
(i)steel – to conduct magnetic flux
(ii)copper – to conduct electric current
(iii)Insulation
23. What are the factors on which hysteresis loss depends ?
The hysteresis loss depends on the magnetic flux density , frequency f and the volume of
the material V.
24. What is core loss? What is its significance in electric machines?
When a magnetic material undergoes cyclic magnetization, two kinds of power losses
occur on it – hysteresis and eddy current loss which together are known as core loss. It is
important in determining heating, temperature rise, rating and efficiency of transformers,
machines and other a.c run magnetic devices.
25. What is eddy current loss?
When a magnetic core carries a time varying flux voltages are induced in all possible
paths enclosing flux. Result is the production of circulating current in core. These induced
currents do no useful work are known as eddy current and have power loss known as eddy
current loss.
26. How are hysteresis and eddy current losses minimized?
Hysteresis loss can be minimized by selecting materials for core such as silicon steel &
steel alloys with low hysteresis coefficient and electrical resistivity.
Eddy current losses are minimized by laminating the core.
their moving parts.

27. How will you find the direction of emf using Fleming’s Right Hand Rule?
The thumb, the forefinger and the middle finger of the right hand are held so that these
fingers are mutually perpendicular, then
Forefinger - Field
Thumb - Motion
Middle finger- I, current
28. How will you find the direction of force produced using Fleming’s Left Hand Rule?
The thumb , forefinger and middle finger of the left hand are held so that those fingers are
mutually perpendicular then
Forefinger - Field
Thumb - Motion(due to force)
Middle finger - I, current

29. How are armature windings classified based on the placement of the coil inside the
armature slots?
Single layer winding and
Double layer winding
30. Write down the emf equation for d.c generator.
E = (фNZ / 60)(P/A) V
Where P= number of poles
Z= Total number of conductors
A= number of parallel paths
Ф= flux per pole
N= speed in rpm
31. Why the armature core in d.c machines is constructed with laminated steel sheets
instead of solid steel steel?
Steel sheets offer low relutance path for the magnetic field , laminated sheets reduce eddy
current loss.
32. Why is commutator employed in d.c machines?
• Conduct electricity between armature and fixed brushes
• Converts altenating emf into unidirectional emf and vice versa
33. Distinguish between shunt and series field coil constructions.
Shunt field coils are wound with wires of small cross section and have more number of
turns. Series field coils are wound with wires of larger cross section and have less number of
turns.
34. How does a d.c motor differ from d.c generator in construction?
Generators are normally placed in closed room , accessible only to skilled operators.
Therefore on ventilation point of view they may be constructed with large opening in the frame.
Motors on the other hand , have to be installed right in the place of use which may
have dust, dampness,inflammable gases, chemical fumes etc . To protect the motors against
these elements , the motor frames are made either partly closed or totally closed or flame
proof etc.
35. How will you change the direction of rotation of a d.c motor?
Either the direction of the main field or the direction of current through the armature
conductors is to be reserved.
36. What is back emf in d.c motors ?
As the motor armature rotates , the system of conductor come across alternate North and
South pole magnetic fields causing an emf induced in the conductors. The direction of the emf
induced in the conductors . The direction of the emf induced is in the direction opposite to the
current .As this emf always opposes the flow of current in motor operation it is called back
emf.
37. What is the function of a no-voltage release coil provided in a dc motor starter?
As long as the supply voltage is on healthy condition the current through the NVR coil
produce enough magnetic force of attraction and retain the starter handle in the ON position
against spring force. When the supply voltage fails or becomes lower than a prescribed value the
electromagnet may not have enough force and the handle will come back to OFF position due to
spring force automatically. Thus a no-voltage or under voltage protections given to the motor.
38. Enumerate the factors on which the speed of a dc motor depends.
N = (V-IaRa)/ф
The speed of dc motor depends on three factors.
• Flux in the air gap
• Resistance of the armature circuit
• Voltage applied to the armature
39. Draw the N Vs Eb characteristics of a dc motor for two different field currents.

If<Ifn
Nn
Ifn

Ehn
40. Under what circumstances does a dc shunt generator fail togenerate?
• Absence of residual flux.
• Initial flux set up by the field winding may be in opposite direction to
residual flux
• Shunt filed circuit resistance may be higher than its critical field
resistance
• Load circuit resistance may be less than its critical load resistance.

41. How can one differentiate between long shunt compound generator and short shunt
compound generator?
In a short shunt compound generator the shunt field circuit is shorter i.e. across the
armature terminals. In a long shunt compound generator the shunt field circuit is connected
across the load terminals.
42. Why is the emf not zero when the field current is reduced to zero in a dc generator ?
Even after the field current/magnetizing force is reduced to zero the machine is left out
with some flux as residue.
Emf due to this residual flux is available when field current is zero.
43. On what occasions dc generators may not have residual flux?
• The generator may be put for its first operation after its construction.
• In previous operation the generator would have been fully
demagnetized.
44. What are the conditions to be fulfilled for a dc shunt generator to build up emf?
• The generator should have residual flux
• The field winding should be connected in such a manner that the flux
set up by the field winding should be in the same direction as that of
residual flux
• The field circuit resistance should be less than critical field resistance
• Load circuit resistance should be above its critical load resistance
45. How the critical field resistance of a dc shunt generator is estimated from its OCC?
Critical field resistance can be obtained from OCC by drawing a straight line passing
through the origin and tangent to the initial straight line portion of OCC. The slope of this line
gives the value of critical field resistance for the given speed at which OCC is obtained.
46. Define the term armature reaction in dc machines.
The interaction between the flux set up by the current carrying armature conductors with
the main field flux is defined as armature reaction.
47. What are the two unwanted effects of armature reaction?
• Cross magnetizing effect / Distorting effect
• Demagnetizing effect
48.Define critical field resistance in dc shunt generator
Critical field resistance is defined as
the resistance of the field circuit which will cause the shunt generator just
to build up its emf at a specified field.

49.What is the function of carbon brush used in D.C generator?


The function of carbon brush is to collect current from the commutator and supply to the
external load circuit and to the field circuit.
.
50.Write the number of parallel paths in a lap and wave connected windings
In a lap wound machine, the number of parallel paths is equal to the number of poles. But in
wave wound machine, the number of parallel paths is always two irrespective of number of poles.

51.What is the basic difference between dc generator and dc motor


Generator converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Motor converts electrical energy
into mechanical energy. But there is no constructional difference between the two.

52.Write the two extra features of slip ring induction motors.


Rotor has 3-phase winding.
Extra resistance can be added in the rotor circuit for improving in the power factor with the help of
three slip rings.

53.Can we add extra resistance in series with squirrel cage rotor? State the reason?
We cannot add extra resistance in series with the rotor because all the copper bars of the rotor are
short circuited in both the sides by copper end rings to have a closed circuit.

54.Why an induction motor is called rotating transformer?


The rotor receives electrical power in exactly the same way as the secondary of a two winding
transformer receiving its power from primary. That is why an induction motor can be called as a
rotating transformer i.e., in which primary winding is stationary but the secondary is free to
rotate.

55.Why an induction motor will never run at its synchronous speed?


1. If it runs at synchronous speed then there would be no related speed between the two, hence
no rotor emf, no rotor current so no rotor torques to maintain rotation. That is why the rotor
runs at its synchronous speed.

56.What are slip rings?


The slip rings are made of copper alloys and are fixed around the shaft insulating it. Through
these slip rings and brushes the rotor winding can be connected to external circuits.

57. State the difference between slip ring rotor and cage rotor of an induction motor?
Slip ring rotor has 3-phase windings. Three ends of which are stared and the other three ends are
brought up and connected to 3 slip rings mounted in the shaft. Extra resistance can be added in
the rotor circuit. Squirrel cage rotor has short-circuited copper bars. Extra resistance can’t be
added as slip ring rotor.

58.Write an expression for the slip of an induction motor.


2. Percentage slip = (Ns -Nr) / Ns * 100.

59.Define slip of induction motor?


Slip is descriptive of the way in which the rotor slips back from synchronism. It is usually
expressed as percentage of synchronous speed.

60.What are the advantages of cage motor?


Since the rotor has very low resistance, the copper loss is low and efficiency is high
On the account of simple construction of rotor, it is mechanically robust.
nitial cost is less.
Maintenance cost is less.
Simple stating arrangement

61.Give the condition for maximum torque for 3-phase induction motor when the motor is
running ?
The rotor resistance and rotor reactance should be equal for developing maximum torque
i.e. R2 = s X2 where s is the slip.

62.What is reason for inserting additional resistance in rotor circuit of a slip ring induction
motor?
Introduction of additional resistance in the rotor circuit will increase the starting torque as well as
running torque. Also it limits the starting current.

63.List out the methods of speed control of cage type 3-phase induction motor?
By changing supply frequency
By changing the number of poles
By operating two motors in cascade

64.Mention different types of speed control of slip ring induction motor?


By changing supply frequency
By changing the number of stator poles
By rotor rheostat control
By operating two motors in cascade

65.What are the advantages of 3-phase induction motor?


It was very simple and extremely rugged, almost unbreakable construction
Its cost is very low and it is very reliable
It has been suffiently high efficiency .
No brushes are needed and hence frictional losses are reduced
It requires minimum of maintenance.

66 Name the two windings of a single-phase induction motor.


Running winding,Starting winding.
67.What are the various methods available for making a single-phase motor self-starting?
By splitting the single phase
By providing shading coil in the poles.
68.What is the function of capacitor in a single-phase induction motor?
iTo make the phase difference between the starting and running winding.
ii. To improve the power factor and to get more torque.
69 State any four use of single-phase induction motor.
Fans, Wet grinders, Vacuum cleaners, small pumps, compressors, drills
70.What are the two types of 3-phase induction motor?
Squirrel cage induction motor.
Slip ring induction motor.
71.State the advantages of capacitor start run motor over capacitor start motor.
Running torque is more; Power factor during running is more

72.Explain why single-phase induction motor is not self-starting one.


When the motor is fed from a single phase supply its stator winding produces an alternating
or pulsating flux, which develops no torque.
73.What type of motor is used for ceiling fan?
Capacitor start and capacitor run single-phase motor is used for ceiling fans.
74.what is the type of induction motor used in wet grinders?
Capacitor start capacitor run single-phase induction motor.
75.what kind of motor is used in mixie?
Single-phase ac series motor is used in mixie.
76. what is the application of shaded pole induction motor?
Because of its small starting torque, it is generally used for small fans, toys, instruments, hair
driers, ventilators, electric clock etc.
77. In which direction does a shaded pole motor run?
The rotor starts rotation in the direction from unshaded part to the shaded part.
78.why single-phase induction motor has low power factor?
The current through the running winding lags behind the supply voltage by a very large angle.
Therefore power factor is very low.
79.Diffrentiate between “capacitor start “and “capacitor start capacitor run “induction motor?
In capacitor start motor, capacitor is connected in series with the starting winding. But it will
be disconnected fro m the supply, when the motor picks up its speed. But in capacitor start
capacitor run motor the above starting winding and capacitor are not disconnected, but always
connected in the supply .so it has high starting and running torque.
80.What are the principal advantages of rotating field system type of construction of
synchronous machines?

• Form Stationary connection between external circuit and system of conditions enable
the machine to handle large amount of volt-ampere as high as 500 MVA.
• The relatively small amount of power required for field system can be easily supplied to
the rotating field system via slip rings and brushes.
• More space is available in the stator part of the machine for providing more insulation
to the system of conductors.
• Insulation to stationary system of conductors is not subjected to mechanical stresses due
to centrifugal action.
• Stationary system of conductors can easily be braced to prevent deformation.
• It is easy to provide cooling arrangement.

81.Write down the equation for frequency of emf induced in an alternator.

F = PN / 120 Hertz
Where P = No. Of poles
N = Speed in rpm.

82.What are the advantages of salient pole type of construction used for synchronous machines?

• They allow better ventilation.


• The pole faces are so shaped radial air gap length increases from the pole center to the
pole tips so that flux distribution in the air gap is sinusoidal in shape which will help to
generate sinusoidal emf.
• Due the variable reluctance, the machine develops additional reluctance power, which is
independent of excitation.

83.Why do cylindrical rotor alternators operate with steam turbines?

Steam turbines are found to operate at fairly good efficiency only at high speeds. The high-speed
operation of rotor tends to increase mechanical losses, so the rotors should have smooth external
surface. Hence smooth cylindrical type rotors with less diameter and large axial length are used for
synchronous generators driven by steam turbines with either 2 or 4 poles.

84.Which type of synchronous generators are used in Hydroelectric plants and why?
As the speed of operation is low, for hydro turbines used in hydroelectric plants, salient pole type
synchronous generators are used. These allow better ventilation and also have other advantages
over smooth cylindrical type rotor.

85.What is the relation between electrical degree and mechanical degree?

Electrical degree θe and mechanical degree are related to one another by the number of poles P, the
electrical machine has, as given by the following equation.
θe = (P/2) θm

86. What is the meaning of electrical degree?

Electrical degree is used to account the angle between two points in rotating electrical machines.
Since all electrical machines operate with the help of magnetic fields, the electrical degree is
accounted with reference to the polarity of magnetic fields. 180 electrical degrees is accounted as
the angle between adjacent North and South poles

87. Why short-pitch winding is preferred over full pitch winding?

Advantages: -
• Waveform of the emf can be approximately made to a sine wave and distorting
harmonics can be reduced or totally eliminated.
• Conductor material, copper is saved in the back and front-end connections due to less
coil span.
• Fractional slot winding with fractional number of slots/phase can be used which in turn
reduces the tooth ripples.
• Mechanical strength of the coil is increased.

88. Write down the formula for distribution factor.

Kd = sin (mβ/2) or Kdn = sin (mnβ/2)


msin(β/2) msin(nβ/2)

where
m - number of slots/pole/phase
β - angle between adjacent slots in electrical degree
n - order of harmonics.

89. Define winding factor.

The winding factor Kw is defined as the ratio of phasor addition of emf induced in all the coils belonging
to each phase winding of their arithmetic addition.

90. Why are alternators rated in kVA and not in kW?


The continuous power rating of any machine is generally defined as the power the machine or apparatus
can deliver for a continuous period so that the losses incurred in the machine gives rise to a steady
temperature rise not exceeding the limit prescribed by the insulation class.
Apart from the constant loss the variable loss incurred in alternators is the copper loss, occurring in
the 3-phase winding, which depends on I2R, the square of the current delivered by the generator.
As the current is directly related to apparent power delivered by the generator, the alternators have
only their apparent power in VA/kVA/MVA as their power rating

91. What are the causes of changes in voltage of alternators when loaded?

• Voltage variation due to the resistance of the winding R.


• Voltage variation due to the leakage reactance of the winding X1.
• Voltage variation due to the armature reaction.

92. What is meant by armature reaction in alternators?

The interaction between flux set up by the current carrying armature conductors and the main field flux
is defined as the armature reaction.

93. What do you mean by synchronous reactance?

It is the sum of the leakage reactance X1 and armature reactance Xa


Xs = X1 + Xa

94. What is synchronous impedance?

The complex addition of resistance R and synchronous reactance jXs is synchronous impedance Zs.
Zs = (R+jXs) = Zs∟θ
Where θ = tan –1(Xs/R)
|Zs| = √(R2+jXs2)

95. What is meant by load angle of an alternator?


The phase angle introduced between the induced emf phasor E and terminal voltage phasor V
during the load condition of an alternator is called load angle. The load angle increases with
increase in load. It is positive during generator operation and negative during motor operation.
96. Define the term voltage regulation of alternator.

It is defined as the change in terminal voltage from no load-to-load condition expressed as a


function or terminal voltage at load condition, the speed and excitation conditions remaining same.
% Regulation = (E-V)/V x 100

97. What is the necessity for predetermination of voltage regulation?

Most of the alternators are manufactured with large power rating and large voltage ratings. Conduction
load test is not possible for such alternators. Hence other indirect methods of testing are used and
the performance can be predetermined at any desired load currents and power factors.
98. Why is the synchronous impedance method of estimating voltage regulation is considered as
pessimistic method?

Compared to other methods, the value of voltage regulation obtained by this method is always higher than
the actual value and therefore is called pessimistic method.

99. Why is the MMF method of estimating the voltage regulation is considered as the optimization
method?

Compared to EMF method, MMF method involves more number of complex calculation steps. Further the

OCC is referred twice and SCC is referred once while predetermining the voltage regulation for

each load condition. Reference of OCC takes core saturation effect. As this method requires more

effort, the final result is very close to the actual value. Hence this method is called the optimistic

method.

100.What are the three major components of power system?

1.Generator

2.Transmission lines

3.Distribution lines
16 MARKS QUESTIONS
1. With a neat diagram explain the construction of a d.c machine.
2 .Explain the working of a d.c generator and derive the emf equation.
3. Explain the working of a d.c motor and derive the torque equation.
4 .Explain various types of generators/motors.
5. Explain the characteristics of various types of generators/motors.
6.Explain various types of starters.
7. Explain various methods of speed control.
8. With a neat diagram explain the construction of a transformer.
9. Explain the working of transformer
10.Draw the equivalent circuit of a transformer referred from primary side/secondary side.
11.Explain the testing of a transformer.
12.With a neat diagram explain the construction of a three phase induction motor.
13.With a neat diagram explain the construction of a single phase induction motor.
14.Explain various types of three phase induction motor.
15.Explain various types of single phase induction motor.
16.Explain the methods of starting three phase induction motor.
17. Explain the methods speed control of three phase induction motor.
18.With a neat diagram explain the construction of a alternator
19.Explain the working of reluctance motor
20.Explain the working of stepper motor
21.Explain the working of hysteresis motor.
22.Explain indirect method of finding regulation of an alternator.(emf & mmf)
23. With a neat diagram explain the power system
24.List the advantages and disadvantages of EHVAC & EHVDC systems.
25.Write short notes on insulators(types/testing)
26. Write short notes on cables(types/testing)
27.What is string efficiency? Explain how to modify it.