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PR Tools/Techniques

…  
•  PR  tools/techniques:  Communication  tools  that  can  be  used  
to  maintain  or  build  relations  with  specific  target  publics.      

•   Common  PR  tools/techniques  


•  Speeches/interviews  
•  Special  events  
•  House  journals  
•  Media  conference  
•  Press  release  
•  Annual  reports  
•  Business  correspondence  
•  Social  media/  blogging  
Speeches/Interviews  
 
•  Oral  Communication  

•  Purpose  of  communication  is  to    motivate,  


persuade,  inform/teach  or  interest    

•  In  preparing  a  speech:  
•  Analyze  the  audience  
•  Organize  the  material  
•  Construct  the  speech  (body,  introduction  and  
conclusion)    
…  
•  Presenting  the  speech  
•  Clarity  
•  Articulation  
•  Emphasis-­‐    body  gestures  
•  Getting  attention-­‐  visual  aids,  deliberate  
emphasis  
•  Maintain  interest:  humor  and  personal  appeal  

   
Business  
Correspondence  
•  Business  letters  are  a  common  example  of  
business  correspondence  
   
•  Planning:    
•  Audience  analysis  
•  Situation  analysis  
•  Selecting  sequencing  of  ideas  

   
…  
•  Writing  a  business  correspondence  

 
•  Choice  of  words  
•  Emphasis  
•  Clarity  
•  Conciseness  but  complete  
•  Tone  (writers  attitude  as  perceived  by  the  reader)  
•  Layout  (attractive  and  appealing)  
•  Salutation/ending  (degree  of  formality)  
•  Reference  line  

   
Annual  Reports  
 
•  Serve  different  purposes  
•  Annual  financial  reports-­‐  common  reports  for  most  
organizations  
•  Responsibility  of  writing  the  report-­‐  communications  
expert  (decides  character  of  the  report)  and  the  high  
level  management  (CEO,  CFO)  responsible  for  content  
•  Usually  provides  comprehensive  information  or  review  
of  the  past  year  (financial  statements,  facts  about  the  
past  years  operation)  
•     
House  Journals  
 
•  Also  known  as  in-­‐house  journals  

•  Depends  on  the  audience-­‐  (who  you  are  writing  to)  

•  Internal  publications-­‐  magazines  or  news  letters  

•  Budget  influences  the  type  of  publication  

•  Consider  frequency  of  publication  

•  Content  is  important-­‐  what  the  publics  want  to  know  about  the  organization  

•  Convey  information  and  provide  mechanism  for  dialogue  (response  column  or  letters  to  
the  editor)  

•  Tone  of  publication  (affects  employee  attitudes  towards  the  publication)  

 
Special  Events  
 
•  Special  occasions  

•  Exhibitions,  open  days,  trade  fairs  

   

•  Setting  up  an  event  


•  Start  planning  early  
•  Have  a  blueprint  and  timetable  
•  Form  as  many  committees  as  you  deem  possible  
•  Provide  special  attraction  to  ensure  attendance  
•  Provide  give  away  or  souvenirs  
•  Arrange  for  parking.  Train  guides  for  tours  
•  Publicize  the  event  well  in  advance  
•  Thank  everyone  for  coming  

 
Media/press  Conference  
•  Call  a  media  conference  if  what  is  to  be  said  is  newsworthy  

•   A  news  or  press  conference  makes  possible  the  


widespread  dissemination  of  a  person’s  comments  or  
opinions  to  a  number  of  reporters  at  the  same  time    
•  Preparing  for  the  conference  
•  Choose  a  convenient  location  with  adequate  facilities  
•  Choose  the  right  day  and  time  for  good  coverage  
•  Plan  to  have  the  conference  covered  for  your  organization  
•  Have  all  the  background  information  about  a  person  or  organization  
•  Keep  media  contacts  for  follow  ups  
•  Offer  the  story  and  pictures  to  media  houses  not  present  

 
…  
•  Rehearse  your  spokesperson  
•  Assess  how  the  media  used  what  was  said  
•  Try  to  anticipate  questions  so  that  the  spokesperson  can  
readily  answer  difficult  queries  
•  Prepare  a  media  kit.  This  must  include  a  brief  fact  sheet  with  
names  and  titles  of  participants,  a  basic  news  release  and  
basic  support  materials  
•  Prepare  visual  materials  as  necessary  and  may  include  slides,  
photos,  posters    
•  Arrive  30-­‐60  minutes  early  to  double-­‐check  arrangements.  
Arrange  name  tags,  test  microphones  and  distribute  literature.    
Social  Media/Blogs  
•  Blogging.    

•  Blogging  to  provide  information  about  the  organization  

•  Build  and  maintain  a  relationship  with  the  target  audience    

•  Establish  a  two-­‐way  communication.  

•  Social  media  marketing.    

•  Use  by  PR  to  establish  a  direct  communication  with  the  


public,  consumers,  investors  and  other  target  groups.  
Press  Release  
•  Provide  the  media  with  information  or  news  to  be  
published  

•  short,  compelling  news  story  written  by  a  public  relations  


professional  and  sent  to  targeted  members  of  the  media.    

•  Information  must  be  newsworthy  

•  Should  contain  all  the  essential  information  (who?  what?  


where?  when?  how?  and  most  importantly  why?)-­‐  to  
convince  journalists  to  easily  produce  his  own  story    

•  Correct  presentation  of  news  release  is  essential  

 
…  
•  Contents  of  a  news  release  

•  Title  for  a  story  

•  The  date  

•  Reference  number  

•  The  name  and  address  of  the  organization  issuing  the  


release  

•  Contact  details  for  further  information    

•  State  if  its  for  immediate  release  or  provide  an  embargo  
…  
•  Models  for  constructing  a  press  release  

•  1.  The  five  Ws  and  H  model  

•  Who-­‐  who  is  the  story  about  

•  What-­‐  what  happened  

•  When-­‐  when  did  it  happen  

•  Where-­‐  where  did  it  happen  

•  Why-­‐why  did  it  happen  

•  How-­‐  how  something  came  about  


…  
•  The  SOLAADS  seven  point  model  

•  Subject:  what  is  the  story  about  

•  Organization-­‐  what  is  the  name  of  the  organization?  

•  Location:  what  is  the  location  of  the  organization  

•  Advantages:  what  is  new,  special  or  beneficial  about  the  product  or  service  

•  Application:  how  or  by  whom  can  the  product  or  service  be  used  or  enjoyed  

•  Details:  what  are  the  specifications  or  details  with  regard  to  colour,  price  or  size  

•  Source:  If  this  is  different  from  location          


                 
   
…  
•  NIBSS  model  

•  N-­‐  new  information  or  the  most  important  information  

•  I-­‐  interesting  facts    

•  Background-­‐supporting  information  or  background  to  


the  story  

•  Selling  points-­‐  Quotes  or  more  facts  

•  Superfluities-­‐  facts  far  less  important.  Minor  details.  


Reference  
—  Newsom,  D.  et  al  (2010).  This  is  PR:  The  Realities  
of  Public  Relations.  (10th  Ed).  USA:  Wadsworth  
Publishing  

—  Skinner  et  al  (2007).  Handbook  of  Public  


Relations.  (8th  Ed).  Cape  Town,  South  Africa:  
Oxford  University  Press  Southern  Africa.