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19-0372; Rev 4; 10/97

KIT
ATION
EVALU B L E
A
AVAIL
Isolated Transformer Driver
for PCMCIA Applications
_______________General Description ____________________________Features

MAX845
The MAX845 provides an isolated power supply small ♦ Transformer Driver for Ultra-Thin 5V-µs Transformers
enough to fit in thin PCMCIA cards and space-sensitive
applications. It drives a low-profile center-tapped trans- ♦ Isolated DC-to-DC Power Supply for PCMCIA
former primary from a 5V or 3.3V DC power supply. The Applications
secondary can be wound to provide any isolated posi- ♦ 450kHz Minimum Switching Frequency
tive or negative voltage at powers up to 750mW.
♦ Ultra-Low Input Supply Current Ripple
The MAX845 consists of an oscillator followed by a tog-
gle flip-flop. The flip-flop generates two 50% duty-cycle ♦ Single +5V or +3.3V Supply
square waves, which are complementary at half the
oscillator frequency (450kHz, min). These two signals ♦ 5µW Low-Power Shutdown Mode
drive the ground-referenced N-channel power switch- ♦ 8-Pin SO and µMAX Packages
es. Internal circuitry ensures break-before-make action
between the two switches. ♦ Low Output Ripple Permits Miniature Output
Capacitors
A low-power shutdown disables both the switches and
the oscillator, reducing power consumption. An evalua-
tion kit (MAX845EVKIT-MM) is available to evaluate low-
profile 5V 40mA and 5V 100mA applications.
________________________Applications _______________Ordering Information
PCMCIA Modem Cards
PART TEMP. RANGE PIN-PACKAGE
Isolated Data Acquisition
MAX845C/D 0°C to +70°C Dice*
Isolated Interface Power Supply
MAX845ESA -40°C to +85°C 8 SO
Noise-Immunity Communications Interface MAX845EUA -40°C to +85°C 8 µMAX
Bridging Ground Differences *Contact factory for dice specifications.
Medical Equipment
Process Control
Low-Power LAN Networks

__________Typical Operating Circuit ___________________Pin Configuration

VIN 5V TOP VIEW


ON / OFF

C1
4 6
OUTPUT
SD VCC CR1 5V @ 150mA
1
D1
D1 1 8 D2
C2
MAX845 GND1 2 7 GND2
FS 3 MAX845
3 8 6 VCC
FS D2
T1 SD 4 5 N.C.
FREQUENCY C3
SELECT GND1 GND2
2 7 SO/µMAX
CR2

________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products 1


For free samples & the latest literature: http://www.maxim-ic.com, or phone 1-800-998-8800.
For small orders, phone 408-737-7600 ext. 3468.
Isolated Transformer Driver
for PCMCIA Applications
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
MAX845

Supply Voltage (VCC) ...............................................-0.3V to +7V Operating Temperature Range ...........................-40°C to +85°C
Control Input Voltage (SD, FS) ...................-0.3V to (VCC + 0.3V) Storage Temperature Range .............................-65°C to +160°C
Peak Output Switch Current (D1, D2) ......................................1A Junction Temperature ......................................................+150°C
Output Switch Voltage (D1, D2) .............................................12V Lead Temperature (soldering, 10sec) .............................+300°C
Average Output Switch Current (D1, D2) .........................200mA
Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70°C)
SO (derate 5.88mW/°C above +70°C) .........................471mW
µMAX (derate 4.10mW/°C above +70°C) ....................330mW
Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional
operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to
absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(VCC = 5V ±10%, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.)

PARAMETER CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS


Switch On-Resistance D1, D2; 100mA 1.5 4.0 Ω
FS = VCC = 4.5V 450 675 900
FS = VCC = 5.5V 550 860 1100
Switch Frequency kHz
FS = 0V, VCC = 4.5V 500
FS = 0V, VCC = 5.5V 575
Operating Supply Current (Note 1) No load, SD = 0V, FS = VCC 1.1 5.0 mA
Shutdown Supply Current (Note 2) SD = VCC 0.4 µA
High 2.4
Shutdown Input Threshold V
Low 0.8
Shutdown Input Leakage Current 10 pA
High 2.4
FS Input Threshold V
Low 0.8
FS = 0V 50
FS Input Current µA
FS = VCC 10
Minimum Start-Up Voltage 2.5 2.2 V

Note 1: Operating supply current is the current used by the MAX845 only. Load current is not included.
Note 2: Shutdown supply current includes output switch leakage currents.

2 _______________________________________________________________________________________
Isolated Transformer Driver
for PCMCIA Applications
__________________________________________Typical Operating Characteristics

MAX845
(Typical Operating Circuit, VIN = 5V, C1 = 0.1µF, C2 = C3 = 0.33µF, T1 = Halo TGM-010P3, CR1 = CR2 = MBR0520, FS = VCC,
TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.)

SHUTDOWN SUPPLY CURRENT


OUTPUT RESISTANCE vs. TEMPERATURE OUTPUT RESISTANCE vs. TEMPERATURE vs. TEMPERATURE
40 7.5 1.6
MAX845-01

MAX845-02

MAX845-03
FIGURE 11c FIGURE 11b SD = VCC
7.0
1.4
35 VIN = 4.5V

SHUTDOWN CURRENT (µA)


6.5
OUTPUT RESISTANCE (Ω)

OUTPUT RESISTANCE (Ω)


6.0 1.2
30
5.5 1.0
25 5.0
4.5 0.8
20 VIN = 5.5V
4.0 0.6
3.5
15 0.4
3.0
10 2.5 0.2
-40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100
TEMPERATURE (°C) TEMPERATURE (°C) TEMPERATURE (°C)

D1, D2 FREQUENCY vs. TEMPERATURE D1, D2 FREQUENCY vs. TEMPERATURE SUPPLY CURRENT vs. TEMPERATURE
1000 850 1.7
MAX845-04

MAX845-06
MAX845-05

VIN = 5.0V
950 1.6
800
1.5 VIN = 6.0V
SUPPLY CURRENT (mA)
900 VIN = 6.0V 750 FS HIGH
FREQUENCY (kHz)

FREQUENCY (kHz)

1.4
850
VIN = 5.5V 700 1.3 VIN = 5.5V
800
VIN = 5.0V 1.2
650
750 VIN = 5.0V
1.1
VIN = 4.5V 600
700 1.0
650 550 0.9 VIN = 4.5V
FS LOW
600 500 0.8
-40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100
TEMPERATURE (°C) TEMPERATURE (°C) TEMPERATURE (°C)

EFFICIENCY vs. LOAD CURRENT OUTPUT VOLTAGE vs. LOAD CURRENT OUTPUT VOLTAGE vs. LOAD CURRENT
100 7.5 15
MAX845-07

MAX845-08

MAX845-09

90 TRANSFORMERS TRANSFORMERS
7.0 USED IN FIGURE 11b 14 USED IN FIGURE 11c
80 FIGURE 11b 6.5 13
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)

OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)

TGM-030P3
70 6.0 12 TGM-030P3
EFFICIENCY (%)

60 FIGURE 11c 5.5 11


50 5.0 10
40 4.5 TGM-010P3 9 TGM-010P3
30 4.0 8
20 3.5 7
TGM-020P3 TGM-020P3
10 3.0 6
0 2.5 5
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
LOAD CURRENT (mA) LOAD CURRENT (mA) LOAD CURRENT (mA)

_______________________________________________________________________________________ 3
Isolated Transformer Driver
for PCMCIA Applications
____________________________Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
MAX845

(Typical Operating Circuit, VIN = 5V, C1 = 0.1µF, C2 = C3 = 0.33µF, T1 = Halo TGM-010P3, CR1 = CR2 = MBR0520, FS = VCC,
TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.)
SWITCHING WAVEFORMS SWITCHING WAVEFORM
(TWO CYCLES) (BREAK-BEFORE-MAKE)

D1OFF D2OFF

D1
500mV/div
5V/div

D2
CIRCUIT
OF FIG. 1

D2ON D1ON

400ns/div 200ns/div
TIME FROM SHUTDOWN TO POWER-UP

SD

2V/div

OUTPUT

5µs/div

_____________________Pin Description
VIN
PIN NAME FUNCTION
5V C1
1 D1 Open Drain of N-Channel Transformer Drive 1 0.1µF 6 R1
VCC 50Ω
Ground. Connect both GND1 and GND2 to
2 GND1 4 1
ground. SD D1
ON / OFF
Frequency Select (internal pull-up). If FS =
R2
3 FS VCC or open, switch frequency = 725kHz; if MAX845 50Ω
FS = 0V, switch frequency = 535kHz.
3 8
Shutdown. Ground for normal operation, FS D2
4 SD
connect to VCC for shutdown. FREQUENCY
SELECT GND1 GND2
5 N.C. No Connect. Not internally connected.
2 7
6 VCC +5V Supply Voltage
Ground. Connect both GND1 and GND2 to
7 GND2
ground.
8 D2 Open Drain of N-Channel Transformer Drive 2 Figure 1. Test Circuit

4 _______________________________________________________________________________________
Isolated Transformer Driver
for PCMCIA Applications

MAX845
VIN 5V

C1 OUTPUT
CR1 5V @ 150mA
VCC VCC D1
F/F
MAX845 Q
N
C2
FS T
OSC D2
FREQUENCY
SELECT Q C3
400kHz/ N CR2
700kHz
SD GND2 GND1
ISO
ON / OFF GND

Figure 2. Detailed Block Diagram

_______________Detailed Description Theory of Operation


Figure 2 shows the MAX845 driving both a TGM-010P3
The MAX845 is a transformer driver specifically
transformer with a center-tapped primary, and a sec-
designed to provide isolated power for PCMCIA and
ondary with a voltage-doubler rectifier topology. All of the
other height- and/or space-sensitive applications. It
transformers driven by the MAX845 must have a center
drives a center-tapped transformer primary from a 5V
tap with VIN applied. Whenever one of the MAX845 out-
or 3.3V DC power supply. The secondary can be
puts (D1 or D2) goes low, the other goes to approximate-
wound to provide any isolated DC voltage needed at
ly double the supply voltage. A voltage is induced in the
power levels up to 750mW.
secondary and the rectifier diodes steer the currents into
The 450kHz minimum switching frequency allows the the appropriate output capacitor. On alternate half
use of very thin transformers, making the MAX845 ideal cycles, each capacitor is charged. The output voltage is
for PCMCIA and other space-limited applications. The the sum of the voltages from each output capacitor. This
MAX845 is designed to drive a single transformer less topology yields the simplest and smallest transformer
than 0.09 inches (2.3mm) in height, including package. because the least number of secondary turns is required
Further reduction down to 0.050 inches (1.27mm) can for a given voltage.
be achieved using a transformer without a package.
The MAX845 consists of an RC oscillator driving a pair
__________Applications Information
of N-channel power switches. The oscillator runs at With the MAX845 transformer driver, designers have
double the output frequency, driving a toggle flip-flop the advantages of push/pull converter topology in
to ensure 50% duty cycle to each of the switches. space-sensitive applications. The push/pull DC-DC
Internal circuitry ensures break-before-make action converter topology allows isolated multiple outputs,
between the two switches. step-up/step-down or inverted outputs, easier filtering
on the input and the output, and lower overall noise.
A low-current shutdown mode disables all internal cir-
cuitry, including the oscillator and both power switches. Isolated Power for PCMCIA Applications
Drive the shutdown pin (SD) high to shut down the part; Medical instrumentation, modems, and LAN-interface
drive SD low for normal operation. The SD pin has no cards often require isolated power supplies. One of the
internal default condition and must not be allowed to best switching-regulator topologies for this application
float. is the push/pull forward-converting DC-DC power sup-
Most MAX845 applications will operate at high frequen- ply shown in Figures 3 and 4. Because the transformer
cies. The frequency-select pin (FS) is pulled high or left works in the forward mode (rather than the flyback
open (FS is internally pulled up to VCC) to operate at a mode), its core does not store energy and, therefore,
minimum of 450kHz. Pulling FS low selects the low-fre- can be small. Input and output capacitors can be small
quency state. because of the high-frequency and continuous-current
waveforms.

_______________________________________________________________________________________ 5
Isolated Transformer Driver
for PCMCIA Applications
MAX845

VIN
0.01µF 1N4148 3.3V
5V SUPPLY
C1
0.1µF 1N4148
6 5V @ 150mA
MBR0520 6
4 VCC 1 1CT:1.3CT ISO OUTPUT
SD D1 VCC
ON / OFF C2 1
D1
0.33µF
MAX845
MAX845
3 8 ISO
FS D2
GND1 GND2 GND 8
FREQUENCY MBR0520 D2
SELECT 2 7 GND1 GND2
2 7 SEE FIGURE 11
FOR RECTIFIER
CONFIGURATIONS

Figure 3. 5V to Isolated 5V Application Circuit Figure 4. 3.3V Input to Isolated Output Application Circuit

The MAX845 is a versatile transformer driver, capable will be higher at 3.3V, so transformer winding resistance
of driving a center-tapped transformer primary from a will be more critical and efficiencies will be lower. The
5V or 3.3V DC power supply (Figures 3 and 4). The MAX845 output current must still be limited to 200mA
secondary can be wound to provide any isolated volt- (see Absolute Maximum Ratings), so the available out-
age needed at power levels up to 750mW with a 5V put power will be less than with a 5V power source.
supply or up to 500mW with a 3.3V supply. Figure 3
shows a typical 5V to isolated 5V application circuit that Low-Noise Power Supply
delivers up to 150mA of isolated 5V power. The MAX845 topology is inherently low noise, in that
either one or the other of the two power devices is on at
3.3V Supply any given time. By alternating between two identical
Any of the application circuits shown may be converted states with one side on and the other off, the input cur-
to 3.3V operation by changing the turns ratio of the trans- rent is nearly constant and secondary output power is
former and operating the MAX845 from a boost supply, available at all times. There is an intentional break-
as shown in Figure 4. In normal operation, whenever one before-make action to prevent any possibility of both
of the MAX845 outputs goes low, the other goes to power switches conducting at the same time. During
approximately double the supply voltage. Since the cir- this 100ns non-overlap interval, the input current goes
cuit is symmetrical, the two outputs can be combined to zero. This adds a small high-frequency component
with diodes, lightly filtered, then used to power the to the input current waveform. This ripple current can
MAX845, and possibly other light loads as well. easily be absorbed by a small input bypass capacitor
The diodes on the primary side may be any fast-switch- (0.33µF) from VCC to ground. Figure 5 shows a low-
ing small-signal diodes, such as the 1N914, 1N4148, or noise bias supply using the MAX845 transformer driver.
CMPD2838. The value of the primary filter capacitor is When using the two-diode push-pull (Figure 11a)
not critical and can be very small, since it only needs to rectifier or the four-diode bridge (Figure 11b), the out-
supply current to the MAX845 during the break-before- put voltage tends to be more constant than in most
make interval. alternative topologies. As described above, the circuit
The transformer could be any of the same ones used for alternates between two identical states that both pro-
5V operation, but for optimum performance it should vide power to the load. The only part of the cycle that
have fewer primary turns, as the ET product required is produces output ripple is the 100ns non-overlap inter-
now only 3.3V-µs. For a given power level, the currents val, which can easily be filtered by a small ceramic
output capacitor (0.33µF).

6 _______________________________________________________________________________________
Isolated Transformer Driver
for PCMCIA Applications

MAX845
6 1
5V VCC D1
IN
0.33µF

MAX845 MBR0520L*
78L05
N.C. 3
FS IN OUT

GND

0.33µF
4 8
SD D2
HALO
GND1 GND2 N.C. -5V
TGM-030P3
100mA
2 7 5

*1N914 POSSIBLE FOR LOWER CURRENTS

Figure 5. Low-Noise Supply

Isolated Data Conversion remains in the shutdown mode until the voltage is high
Almost any serial-interface device is a candidate for enough to allow proper operation.
operation across an isolation barrier; Figure 6 illustrates
one example. The MAX176 analog-to-digital converter Isolated 4mA to 20mA Analog Interface
(ADC) operates from +5V and -12V supplies, provided The 4mA to 20mA current loop is widely used in the
by the multiple-tapped secondary and linear regulators. process-control industry for transducer and actuator
This circuit easily supplies several hundred milliwatts of control signals. These signals are commonly referred to
additional isolated power for signal conditioning, multi- a distant ground that may be at a considerably higher
plexing, or sensors. A +12V supply can be generated voltage with respect to the local ground. The circuit in
by adding two more diodes from the ends of the sec- Figure 8 generates an isolated 4mA to 20mA current
ondary, and a -5V supply can be generated by con- from a 5V supply.
necting additional diodes to the 1⁄4 and 3⁄4 tap points on Isolated RS-485 Data Interface
the secondary. The MAX845 supplies sufficient power The MAX845 power-supply transformer driver also pro-
for almost any Maxim ADC. vides isolated power for RS-485 data-interface applica-
Telephone-Subscriber-Line Power Supply tions. The application circuit of Figure 9 combines the
The standard telephone system is placed in the “off MAX845 with a low-dropout linear regulator, a trans-
hook” state by placing a load on the line to signal the former, several high-speed optocouplers, and a Maxim
central office that service is requested. Normally, most of RS-485 interface device.
this power is wasted in a load resistor, but some systems Isolated RS-232 Data Interface
can benefit from utilizing this free power. Figure 7 shows The MAX845 is ideal for isolated RS-232 data-interface
one way to transform the wasted telephone power to an applications requiring more than four transceivers. Its
isolated, regulated 5V at currents up to 50mA. 750mW output power capability enables it to drive 10
Because the telephone line is a high-impedance transceivers simultaneously. Figure 10 shows the typi-
source, there can be a start-up problem with any DC- cal application circuit for a complete 120kbps isolated
to-DC converter; when the line voltage is low during RS-232 data interface. This figure also shows how the
start-up, the frequency can be too low for the trans- Sharp PC417 optocouplers can be replaced by the
former, causing it to saturate. This excess saturation lower-cost Quality Technologies 4N25 devices to
current can keep the voltage from climbing to normal achieve data transfer rates up to 19.2kbps.
operating levels. Thus the purpose of Q1, Q2, and the
associated resistors is to ensure that the MAX845

_______________________________________________________________________________________ 7
Isolated Transformer Driver
for PCMCIA Applications
MAX845

ISOLATION
BARRIER
1CT : 1.5CT : 3CT

VIN
5V INPUT

1
78L05 D1

10µF 4 x 1N5817
ISO 6 MAX845
VCC
5V 3
FS
8 4 ON/OFF
D2 SD
79L12

ISO GND1 GND2


-12V 10µF
2 7

74HC04
START
6N136
8 1 INPUT CLOCK

200Ω 7
7 2
3k QH
14 6
6 3 SER QG
5
10µF
74HC595 QF
5 4 11 4
SCK QE
MAX176 3
0.1µF 1 8 QD D11(MSB)
6N136 12 2
VDD VSS 8 1 D10
RCK QC
1
ANALOG 2 7 200Ω QB D9
AIN CONVST 7 2 10 15
INPUT 5V SCLR QA D8
3k INPUT 16
3 6 6 3 5V
VREF CLOCK INPUT
13 8
4 5 470Ω 5 4 0.1µF
0.1µF GND DATA 74HC04
6N136
10µF 1 8
0.1µF 10µF
2 7 8
8.2k
QH′ 7
D7
QH
3 6 14 6
SER QG D6
SIGNAL 5
GROUND 4 5 74HC595 QF D5
11 4
SCK QE D4
3
QD D3
12 2
RCK QC D2
1
QB D1
10 15
5V SCLR QA D0 (LSB)
INPUT 16
5V
INPUT
13 8
0.1µF

Figure 6. Typical Isolated Data-Conversion Application

8 _______________________________________________________________________________________
Isolated Transformer Driver
for PCMCIA Applications

MAX845
TELEPHONE SUBSCRIBER LINE

ISOLATION
BARRIER
6.8V
1k D1
2W 6 D2
T1 1N5817
VCC 1 1:2:1 22k
D1
Q1 0.1µF IC2 5V @ 50mA
100k C1 TL431
2N3906
0.1µF
IC1 ISO OUTPUT
22k
100k
4 MAX845 8 ISO
2M SD D2 GND
3 D3
FS N.C. 1N5817
680k 100k
GND1 GND2
Q2 2 7
100k
2N3904

Figure 7. 5V from Telephone-Subscriber Line

VIN ISOLATION
5V 6 BARRIER
VCC 1CT:5CT 24V UNREGULATED
1
D1
1N5817 10µF IN
78L05
MAX845 GND
4 8
SD D2 OUT
GND1 GND2 RL IOUT
1N5817
2 7 0k to 1k 4mA to 20mA
ISO
3 5V
6
49.9k 7
3 1 MAX480 2N3904
7 IL300
0.1V to 0.5V 2
6 2 4
MAX480 2N3904
2 3 6
4 10k

4 5

49.9k
24.9Ω

Figure 8. Typical 4mA/20mA Application Circuit

_______________________________________________________________________________________ 9
Isolated Transformer Driver
for PCMCIA Applications
MAX845

ISOLATION
VIN BARRIER
5V
C1
0.1µF 6
VCC
1 ICT:1.3CT 1N5817 8 2 ISO 5V
D1 IN OUT
C3 C2 C4
4 0.1µF 2.2µF 2.2µF
ON / OFF SD MAX845 MAX883

8
D2
3 1N5817 SET GND SHDN
FS N.C.
GND1 GND2 6 4 5
2 7

PC410 / 417 3.3k


*74HC04 6
390Ω
1 5
DI

3.3k
3 4 8
*74HC04 PC357T 4 VCC
DI
390Ω 6
1 4 A
DE

MAX481
3 MAX483 485
DE
2 3 MAX485 I/O
3.3k PC410 / 417 MAX487
*74HC04 6 7
390Ω B
5 1 1
RO RO
RE GND
2 5

*74HC04 OR EQUIVALENT 4 3

Figure 9. Typical RS-485 Application Circuit

10 ______________________________________________________________________________________
Isolated Transformer Driver
for PCMCIA Applications

MAX845
VIN ISOLATION
BARRIER
5V C1 6 1CT:1.3CT
0.1µF 5 VCC 1 MBR0520 8 2 ISO 5V
N.C. D1 IN OUT
C3 C2 C4
0.1µF 2.2µF MAX883 2.2µF
4 MAX845
ON / OFF SD
8
D2
3 SET GND SHDN
MBR0520
FS N.C. 6 4 5
GND1 GND2
2 7 5 x 3.3k

10 x PC417
27, 28 13, 14
*74HC04 6 VCC GND
390Ω 1 3 11
T1IN T1OUT
T1IN 5
2 4
74HC04
390Ω 4 12
T2IN T2OUT
T2IN
74HC04
390Ω 25 18
T3IN T3OUT
T3IN
74HC04
390Ω 24 17
T4IN T4OUT
T4IN
74HC04
390Ω 23 16
T5IN T5OUT
T5IN

5 x 3.3k MAX225
74HC04 6 390Ω
1 5 10
R1OUT R1IN
R1OUT 5
4 2
74HC04 390Ω 6 9
R2OUT R2IN
R2OUT

74HC04 390Ω 7 8
R3OUT R3IN
R3OUT
74HC04 390Ω 22 19
R4OUT R4IN
R4OUT

74HC04 390Ω 21 20
R5OUT R5IN
R5OUT
SD EN
1 2
*74HC04 OR EQUIVALENT
4N25 LOWER SPEED, LOWER COST ALTERNATE OPTOCOUPLER CONFIGURATIONS (FOR DATA RATES BELOW 9.6kbps)
VCC 1N5711 VCC
4N25 6 1N5711 6 4N25
3.3k 3.3k
390Ω 1 ISO
TIN 1 ISO ROUT ROUT
5 TIN 74HCO4 5 390Ω
*74HC04
2 2 ISO
ISO
4 GND 4 GND

Figure 10. Typical RS-232 Application Circuit

______________________________________________________________________________________ 11
Isolated Transformer Driver
for PCMCIA Applications
______________Component Selection
MAX845

Transformer An ungapped toroid core must never be allowed to sat-


The MAX845 drives any transformer that has a center- urate. An empirical way to measure a toroid’s ET prod-
tapped primary and a saturation rating of at least 5V-µs uct is to wind 20 turns on the bare core and observe
(ET product) per side. The oscillator frequency varies the current waveform on an oscilloscope while driving
linearly with VCC. The transformer is most vulnerable to the winding with a function generator. Generate a 50%
saturation at the minimum frequency, because the duty-cycle square wave at a test frequency of 500kHz,
switches are on for the longest period. At VCC = 4.5V, with no DC offset. Gradually increase the driving volt-
the transformer must withstand at least: age until the waveform suddenly begins to draw more
1 1 current. At this point, the core is saturating, so reduce
4.5V x ———–——— x — = 5V-µs the driving voltage until the core just barely stops satu-
450kHz min 2
rating. The ET product indicated is simply the maxi-
And at VCC = 5.5V, the transformer must withstand mum voltage that can be applied without saturation,
at least: multiplied by 1µs (the time of half of the period of the
1 1 input signal). Because the ET product varies linearly
5.5V x ———–——— x — = 5V-µs
550kHz min 2 with the number of turns, this test winding can be
scaled up or down to act as a suitable primary for that
Thus, the required ET product is constant over the particular core.
entire 5V ±10% range.
A gapped core, such as a bobbin or drum core, is not
Select either a toroid or a gapped core. Although some limited by ET product, but rather by inductance and
applications will require custom transformers, many winding resistance. The primary inductance must be
can use standard transformer designs, such as those high enough to prevent excessive current flow under
listed in Table 1. Some of these manufacturers have light-load conditions, yet low enough that it can be
standard products designed for the MAX845, while wound on the core. Good results can be achieved by
some have standard products that can be adapted for using a primary inductance between 50µH and 200µH.
specific customer requirements. Table 1 also lists some Calculate the number of turns required by using the
suppliers of suitable magnetic cores. manufacturer’s AL (inductance per turn squared) value,
or measure a test winding with an inductance meter.
Table 1. Transformer and Transformer-Core Inductance varies with the square of the number of turns.
Suppliers
While most MAX845 applications will use a toroid trans-
TRANSFORMERS TRANSFORMER CORES former for highest efficiency and lowest EMI, there may
Halo Electronics be applications that can utilize less expensive trans-
Magnetics Inc. formers, such as E, I, or U-shaped cores, magnetic
Phone: (415) 969-7313
Phone: (412) 282-8282 bobbins, or etched windings on a printed circuit board.
FAX: (415) 367-7158
FAX: (412) 282-6955 Table 1 lists some transformer and core suppliers who
Ask for MAX845 Transformer
can assist with your magnetics design.
Coilcraft
Fair-Rite Products The secondary or secondaries can be scaled to produce
Phone: (708) 639-6400
Phone: (914) 895-2055 whatever output is required for the application at hand,
FAX: (708) 639-1469
FAX: (914) 895-2629 taking into account the rectifier topology to be used and
Ask for MAX845 Transformer
the forward voltage loss of the diodes selected.
BH Electronics
Philips Components Step-by-Step Transformer
Phone: (612) 894-9590
Phone: (401) 762-3800 Design Procedure
FAX: (612) 894-9380
FAX: (401) 762-3805, ext. 324 Before starting the design, determine the minimum and
Ask for MAX845 Transformer
maximum output voltage requirement, the minimum
MMG (Magnetic Materials Group) and maximum load current, the physical size con-
Phone: (201) 345-8900 straints, and the cost budget.
Sumida USA FAX: (201) 345-1172 1) Select an appropriate core shape and material from
Phone: (708) 956-0666 core vendors’ data sheets; trade-off EMI vs. space
FAX: (708) 956-0702 Amidon Associates and cost. Since the MAX845’s output waveform is a
Phone: (714) 850-4660 square wave, it is rich in harmonics, so choose a
FAX: (714) 850-1163 material with low losses at up to several MHz.

12 ______________________________________________________________________________________
Isolated Transformer Driver
for PCMCIA Applications
2) Use a test winding to measure ET product (if using

MAX845
an ungapped toroid) and/or AL value for the core. VIN
6
3) Determine the number of turns required for the pri- VCC D1
1
mary winding. For an ungapped toroid, ET product
from center-tap to D1 must be at least 5V-µs. Other
core types must have sufficient inductance to limit MAX845
D1 and D2 output current under minimum load con- 8
D2
ditions, and must not be allowed to saturate. GND1 GND2
2 7
4) Select a rectifier topology based on performance
requirements (ripple vs. loss, and space required
for secondary winding). Refer to Table 2, Rectifier
Figure 11a. 2-Diode Push-Pull
Topology Trade-Offs.
5) Work backward from VOUT requirements to deter-
VIN
mine the secondary to primary turns ratio. Include 6
1
losses in the rectifier diodes, and estimate resistive VCC D1
losses in the windings. For load currents exceed-
ing 150mA, use a voltage step-down transformer to
step up the output current from the MAX845. Do MAX845
not exceed the MAX845’s absolute maximum out- 8
D2
GND1 GND2
put current rating (200mA).
2 7
6) Wind the transformer with the largest diameter wire
that will fit the winding area. Select a wire gauge to
fill the winding aperture as much as possible. Figure 11b. 4-Diode Bridge
Larger diameter wire has lower resistance per unit
length. Doubling the wire diameter reduces resis-
tive losses by a factor of four. VIN
6
VCC 1
Bobbin or drum cores suffer from low coupling between D1
windings. This usually requires bifilar winding for the
two halves of the primary.
MAX845
Due to the inherent complexity of magnetic circuit
8
design, it will be necessary to build a prototype and re- D2
GND1 GND2
iterate the design. If necessary, adjust the design by 2 7
altering the number of primary or secondary turns, or the
wire gauge. If using a different core material or geome-
try, evaluate its ET product or AL as described above. Figure 11c. Voltage Doubler
Rectifier Topology Diodes
Figure 11 shows various rectifier topologies. Refer to Use fast-switching diode rectifiers. Ordinary silicon sig-
Table 2 for selection criteria. The turns ratio of the trans- nal diodes like the 1N914 or 1N4148 may be used for
former must be set to provide the minimum required out- low output current levels (less than 50mA), but Schottky
put voltage at the maximum anticipated load, with the diodes have a lower forward voltage drop and should
minimum expected input voltage. In addition, the calcu- be used for higher-current applications. Central
lations should allow for worst-case losses in the recti- Semiconductor has low-current Schottky diodes as
fiers. Since the turns ratio determined in this manner will duals in SOT-23 packages (CMPSH-3 series). The
ordinarily produce a much higher voltage at the sec- Nihon SB05W05C is a common-cathode dual in a SOT-
ondary under conditions of high input voltage and/or 23; it works well in the two-diode full-wave configura-
light loading, be careful to prevent an overvoltage con- tion. The Motorola MBR0520 is an excellent choice for
dition from occurring (see the Output Voltage vs. Load all configurations.
Current graph in the Typical Operating Characteristics).

______________________________________________________________________________________ 13
Isolated Transformer Driver
for PCMCIA Applications
The simplest voltage regulator is the shunt zener shown
MAX845

RS
in Figure 12. The series resistor (RS) value should be as
high as possible to still deliver the maximum expected
load current with minimum input voltage. Be sure that no
ratings are exceeded at maximum input voltage and
minimum load current conditions; under such conditions,
the zener diode may have to dissipate much more power
than the load. Alternatively, start with the maximum allow-
SIMPLE SHUNT ZENER able zener dissipation and select the series resistor
under light-load, high-line conditions. Then verify that
RS
there is sufficient output current available with worst-
case low input voltage.
22k For better regulation than the simple shunt zener, con-
sider a shunt regulator IC such as the TL431. This
TL431 device behaves like a zener diode whose voltage can
5V OUTPUT be programmed by a resistor ratio. It can be used as a
22k stand-alone device or can be boosted above its 150mA
maximum rating without compromising its accuracy by
adding a discrete PNP transistor, as shown in Figure 12.
PROGRAMMABLE-IC SHUNT REGULATOR (STAND ALONE) The input power of a shunt regulator is nearly indepen-
dent of load, so efficiency at light loads tends to be
RS worse than it would be with a series regulator.
Output Filter Capacitor
1k
Ceramic capacitors can be used as output capacitors
22k 2N2907 because of the lower level of output ripple current. In
applications where output ripple is not critical, a 0.33µF
5V OUTPUT chip or ceramic capacitor is normally sufficient. Refer to
TL431 Table 3 for suggested capacitor suppliers.
In applications sensitive to output-ripple noise, the out-
22k
put filter capacitor (C2) should have a low equivalent
series resistance (ESR) and a low equivalent series
inductance (ESL), and its capacitance should remain
PROGRAMMABLE-IC SHUNT REGULATOR WITH DISCRETE PNP
fairly constant over temperature.
Figure 12. Shunt-Regulator Circuits Sprague 595D surface-mount solid tantalum capacitors
and Sanyo OS-CON through-hole capacitors are recom-
Output Regulator mended, if space allows, due to their extremely low ESR.
Since the output voltage is not regulated against
Capacitor ESR usually rises at low temperatures, but OS-
changes in the input voltage or load current, an output
CON capacitors provide very low ESR below 0°C.
voltage regulator may be needed. A series linear regu-
lator gives good performance and reasonably good Input Bypass Capacitor
efficiency at low cost. A shunt regulator costs less, The input bypass capacitor (C1) is not critical. Unlike
occupies less space, and gives adequate performance switching regulators, the MAX845’s supply current is
for some applications. fairly constant, and is therefore less dependent on the
Series regulators such as the MAX666, MAX667, input bypass capacitor. A low-cost 0.33µF chip or
MAX882/MAX883/MAX884, or MAX603/MAX604 simpli- ceramic capacitor is normally sufficient for input
fy designs. Just select one with the desired output volt- bypassing.
age and current capability, and connect it.

14 ______________________________________________________________________________________
Isolated Transformer Driver
for PCMCIA Applications
Table 2. Rectifier Topology Trade-Offs

MAX845
Table 3. Suggested Capacitor Suppliers
CAPACITOR SUPPLIER
Matsuo
TOPOLOGY ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGE
Low-ESR 267 Series USA Phone: (714) 969-2491
FAX: (714) 960-6492

Murata Erie
• Only 3 external Ceramic USA Phone: (800) 831-9172
2-Diode components
• More turns on FAX: (404) 436-3030
Push/Pull
• Low output ripple transformer
(Figure 11a)
• Single diode drop Sprague Electric Co.
Very Low-ESR 595D/293D
USA Phone: (603) 224-1961
Series
FAX: (603) 224-1430
• 5 external
4-Diode • Simpler transformer components
Bridge winding requirements
• Higher cost
(Figure 11b) • Low output ripple
• 2 diode drops

• 4 external
components
Voltage
• Fewest turns on
Doubler • Higher output
transformer
(Figure 11c) ripple
• 2 diode drops

___________________Chip Topography
D1 D2

0.085"
(2.159mm)

GND1 GND2

FS
V CC
SD

0.058"
(1.4732mm)

SUBSTRATE CONNECTED TO VCC


TRANSISTOR COUNT: 31

______________________________________________________________________________________ 15
Isolated Transformer Driver
for PCMCIA Applications
________________________________________________________Package Information
MAX845

8LUMAXD.EPS
SOICN.EPS

16 ______________________________________________________________________________________