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10:18 [m. 129]--Analogous to 2:11 [m. 26].

As before, the cello takes the melody

at this point. The broken octaves in the piano bass also remain unchanged. But
the upper strings and the piano right hand are highly varied. The piano right hand
plays descending arpeggios in the sixteenth-note rhythm already established. In
the last measure of the phrase, these include a wide leap down and back up. The
violin plays undulating six-note groups in the first two measures, taking that
from the earlier piano part. The viola plays wide straight rhythms against this.
The violin again takes the “echo” in the last measure, but it is an octave higher
with an added note leaning down into it. The six-note groups pass to the viola at
that point. The cello adds two new plucked chords.
10:32 [m. 132]--Answering phrase, analogous to 2:26 [m. 29]. The passage again
follows its model with more embellishment. For one measure, the piano left hand
briefly breaks from its original broken octaves to join the faster sixteenth-note
arpeggios, now rising, with the right hand. It then returns to the broken octaves.
The violin now has the melody from the outset and retains it up to the trill and
beyond. The viola and cello add more decorative lines, including plucked cello
and triplet arpeggios. The piano right hand continues in sixteenth-note motion
broken octaves and arpeggios. The viola and cello gradually return to their
patterns, finally reaching them on the trailing lines.
10:57 [m. 137]--Extension, analogous to 2:52 [m. 34]. The embellished version
The violin has its original line throughout. The viola and cello reach a bit
The piano bass is as before. The right hand of the piano is most altered, as it
maintains its arpeggios and descending broken lines in sixteenth notes where it
moved to octave E’s. It finally does reach those, still in sixteenth notes,
the trailing viola and cello, which return to their original pitches. The violin
and viola play the rocking motion where expected. The right hand unexpectedly
out immediately at that point, and the left hand octaves are extended halfway
the bar before that hand also drops out, leaving the upper strings alone. The
with the mute replaced, is totally exposed for the measure of rocking E—F-sharp

11:17 [m. 141]--The violin and viola also replace their mutes. They begin an
meditation, in harmony, on the rocking figures. The cello adds a line with groups
of repeated notes, moving down chromatically, in clashing triplet rhythm. The
begins with bare low octaves and broad long-short rhythms on E. After two
it flowers into a fully harmonized rising line, as do the upper strings. The cello
and piano bass plunge down, the former abandoning its triplets. The upper strings
take over in a descending approach to an expected cadence.
11:38 [m. 145]-- The expected cadence is averted. The same passage is varied,
the piano right hand now taking the lead on the rocking figures, the violin
harmony. The viola and cello both take the repeated notes in triplets, but they
remain static. The descending chromatic motion is played by the piano bass. The
two upper strings join the piano on the rising line, which now reaches higher.
time, the cello persists with its triplets during the rising line. The piano and
upper strings also take the descent toward the cadence, which is now from a higher
level., the cello continuing in triplets.
11:59 [m. 149]--This time, the cadence arrives. The violin uses it to break into
a gentle trill on the keynote E. Under it, the two lower strings and the piano
an arching line derived from the rocking figures, harmonized in thirds, then
and expanding. The piano bass reaches a pedal point on a low octave E. The violin
trill breaks twice to slide up an octave with a quick scale, spreading the trill
over three successively higher E’s. Under the third and highest trill, the viola
leaves the rocking figures to the cello and piano. Then the piano stops and the
violin stops its trill, holding the note. The cello is exposed again on its now
familiar solo rocking figures on E—F-sharp, taking up a measure with it, as usual.

12:20 [m. 153]--The movement ends with a reminiscence of the mysterious, nearly
piano arpeggios from the middle portion of the main section (b). The violin holds
its octave, and the piano plays the familiar version of this arpeggio on the first
two beats. Then its bass, rather than the cello, plays the rocking E—F-sharp.
this, the viola and cello enter on the same “diminished seventh” as the arpeggio,
played as a held chord. With a very elegant alteration, the piano changes a second
arpeggio from the diminished seventh to the E-major chord. The viola and cello
their harmony accordingly. The rocking figure in the piano bass is inverted into
a leading tone figure, moving to the last, transfigured chord.
12:51--END OF MOVEMENT [155 mm.]

3rd Movement: Scherzo – Poco Allegro (Sonata-form Scherzo with Trio). A MAJOR, 3/4
Part 1 (Exposition)
0:00 [m. 1]--Theme 1. Beginning with an upbeat, the strings, in dolce unison, play
the winding, minuet-like theme. It consists of two four-bar units. They are
identical. The first, after introducing its only shorter eighth-note rhythm, leads
into the second. The second unit diverges after the shorter notes, continuing
and suddenly veering to the “subdominant” key of D major.
0:09 [m. 9]--The piano, in octaves between the hands, states the theme. As it
the strings extend their downward line to confirm an arrival on D. But the piano
statement immediately moves back home to A. Against this statement, the strings,
in groups of two in all possible pairings, in unison and in harmony, play leaning
upbeat figures. The second four-bar unit diverges earlier, introducing the note
D-sharp and veering to the “dominant” key, E major, rather than to D major. At
point, the volume also begins to build.
0:18 [m. 17]--The piano statement is extended. It continues to reach further
building in intensity and confirming E major. The “leaning” string figures
in groups of two instruments. After three bars, the piano breaks into chords,
with octaves, reaching forte. The strings come together with these chords. After
emphatically suggesting an arrival on E major, the harmony suddenly seems to move
back to A again in figures passed between piano and strings. But in a powerful
gesture with strong low bass octaves, this motion back is rejected, and E is
confirmed once again.
0:27 [m. 25]--Transition. Suddenly hushed, the piano plays a lightly skipping
figure in sixths and thirds, with the hands again doubled in octaves. The left
is in the treble range. The viola dovetails with its own non-harmonized version.
A second figure, strongly suggesting an E-major cadence, is interrupted by another
viola figure. The cello plays a note on each downbeat. For the second half of the
phrase, the piano moves to block chords on the downbeats, and the lightly skipping
rising figures are passed from violin and viola in harmony to the cello. Against
the cello statements, the violin and viola continue with “sighing” gestures. The
second of these finally leads to a firm, unambiguous cadence in E.
0:37 [m. 33]--Theme 2. The E-major cadence overlaps with the beginning of the
The piano plays the first statement alone. It is a more active melody with
leaps and dotted (long-short) rhythms. The left hand plays two note harmonies
with higher single notes. These are played with the light, detached touch heard
in the transition and move from the tenor to the treble range. Two two-measure
are followed by two shorter one-bar units. A final two-bar unit seems to approach
a cadence, but a dissonant chord delays the resolution before the string repetition
of the melody.
0:45 [m. 41]--The violin and cello now play the theme in octaves. The viola is
but the piano now has a thicker accompaniment. Bass chords on the beats are
by right-hand chords after them, in roughly the same pattern as the previous,
accompaniment. The first two two-measure units and the two one-measure units
the melodic pattern from the piano statement. But the final phrase is cut off,
into an extension that shifts the emphasis from the upbeat to the downbeat. The
violin and cello are now in harmony, breaking out of their octaves. The extension
also introduces chromatic notes and half-step motion. After four bars, a full
is reached, but the violin immediately undermines it by leaping downward,
the shape of Theme 1. The piano, in octaves, echoes the violin.
0:57 [m. 53]--In a very brief transition, the violin and cello, again in octaves,
play another gesture suggesting Theme 1. This time, it is more dissonant,
the note F-natural, foreign to both A and E major. The piano, in octaves, echoes
it. This is the first ending (m. 54a). The strings, including the long-absent
re-interpret F-natural as E-sharp, using it to create a more urgent leaning upbeat
into the repetition of Part 1, or the exposition. After this inflected upbeat, the
repeat begins with the first downbeat.
Part 1 (Exposition) Repeated
1:00 [m. 1]--Theme 1. Initial unison statement in strings following inflected
1:09 [m. 9]--Piano statement of Theme 1 moving toward E major, as at 0:09.
1:18 [m. 17]--Extension of piano statement with forte chords and confirmation of
E major, as at 0:18.
1:27 [m. 25]--Transition with light, skipping rising figures, as at 0:27.
1:37 [m. 33]--Theme 2. Piano statement, as at 0:37.
1:45 [m. 41]--Violin and cello statement with extension and cadence, as at 0:45.

1:58 [m. 53]--Transition, as at 0:57. The upbeat in the second ending is now the
original note from the beginning, E-natural, but, in a wonderful twist, it leans
into a half-step, just like the first ending. The note on the following downbeat,
which begins the development section at the outset of Part 2, is changed from F-
to F-natural. This results in a simple restatement of the “dissonant” transition
Part 2, First Section (Development)
2:01 [m. 55]--The strings play the first half of the main melody in unison at the
same level as the opening, but with the notes specific to A major removed. What
results could be interpreted as A minor, were it not for the piano chords that are
now heard underneath. These place the theme in C major, the “relative” key to A
minor. The piano immediately states the second half of the theme a fourth higher,
in right hand octaves with a bass pedal point. The key of this phrase is F major,
supported by the static string harmonies stated against it. This key will remain
in force for much of the following material.
2:09 [m. 63]--The last turn of the theme becomes the basis for a meditation in F
major. The figure is passed from strings to high piano octaves and back, and then
fragmented. The viola roves between unison playing with the violin and harmony
the cello, which plays an independent leaping line. The piano bass plays long
octaves. At the eighth bar, a chromatic line is introduced in the piano bass, as
are colorful chromatic notes in the strings and right hand, which moves to chords.
The entire ten-measure phrase swells somewhat in intensity before slightly
at the end.
2:21 [m. 73]--The piano, in octaves, introduces a rapid descending line with
notes, played staccato. It is based on an inversion of the skipping figures from
the transition. The strings are reduced to two-note upward cadence figures. The
piano line and the string slurs steadily work upward, beginning in F major. The
volume then rapidly builds. The piano line and the string figures are fragmented
and grouped into a cross-meter suggesting a 3/2 measure across two 3/4 bars. Then
the piano adds an upper octave to the right hand, and the strings add a loud upbeat
chord. This produces an emphatic cadence on A minor.
2:29 [m. 80]--At the cadence, the piano transfers the rapid line with repeated
to loud bass octaves, turning it upside down so that it is now a rising line. The
original descending shape is given to the stings. The two versions alternate.
the piano right hand plays a transformed version, in octaves, of the opening
from the main scherzo theme. The motion is from A minor to E minor and back. The
parts are then re-arranged. The piano right hand plays the rapid descending line
in harmony, the violin takes the gesture from the scherzo theme, and the two lower
strings the ascending repeated-note shape in unison. The harmonic cycle between
A minor and E minor plays out again.
2:38 [m. 88]--The development reaches its climax. All three strings in unison
play the ascending shape. The piano right hand continues with the descending
alternating with the strings. In powerful octaves, the piano bass plays the theme
fragment. The harmony begins to move through the circle of fifths in minor keys.
Halfway through the phrase, the piano bass and unison strings reverse material,
placing the strings on the thematic figure and the piano bass on the rising line,
which it had first presented.
2:46 [m. 96]--The phrase ends on F, bringing the key full circle since the unstable
activity began at 2:21 [m. 73]. Now the climax is rounded off with pounding chords
in the piano and violin, the left hand playing strong octaves, and the two lower
strings continuing with fragments of the rising line with repeated notes. The
of the leaping chords in violin and piano move directly upward by step, landing on
C-sharp in the fifth measure of the phrase. Then everything is suddenly quiet.
The left hand drops out of the piano, whose right hand begins to meander and circle
around the note F-sharp. The C-sharp chord thus functions as a “dominant” chord
leading into F-sharp minor (the “relative” minor key to the home key of A major).
The strings, with the cello following the other two in imitation, also meander in
a back-and-forth motion.
2:54 [m. 104]--Re-transition. The piano bass enters with a long-held pedal C-
and the right hand expands its circling figuration to include broken octaves. The
cello is exposed and completes its imitation, at the same time beginning a
of the main theme in F-sharp minor. Its phrase is extended to an irregular five
bars through another cross-meter and implied 3/2 measure.
3:00 [m. 109]--The violin and viola enter with the meandering motion in harmony.
The piano bass drops out, and its right hand continues in broken octaves. The
motion gradually shifts up by half-step, the viola once again providing a
unison voice while the violin and cello alternate in two-bar units. The piano,
without bass, moves back to its more narrow circular motion, shifting up with the
harmony. The volume builds slightly, although the passage is mysterious. At the
very end, the piano left hand enters, doubling the cello. The cello itself reaches
the original two pitches of the main theme, and seamlessly leads into the theme
paralleling its passage at 2:54 [m. 104], now back home in A major.
Part 2, Second Section (Recapitulation or Rounding)
3:11 [m. 119]--Theme 1. For the first four bars, the viola joins the cello,
the unison character of the theme. The piano bass holds a low E. The piano right
hand plays a decorative line with varied leaps and directions. The violin also
shorter, non-continuous decorations. In the second four-bar unit, the cello plays
the theme alone. The viola moves to the shorter figures the violin had played, and
the violin joins the continuous piano line, playing an octave below the right hand.

3:20 [m. 127]--Second statement of theme, analogous to 0:09 and 1:09 [m. 9]. It
begins with the harmonic arrival on D, as before, but it is now stated by violin
and viola in unison instead of the piano. The cello drops out for the statement.
Against it, the piano introduces new shorter downward-skipping upbeat figures,
in octaves between the hands, with three notes leaning into the downbeat. The
builds, and the harmony veers toward E, as it had in the exposition.
3:28 [m. 135]--The extension of the theme as heard at 0:18 and 1:18 [m. 17] is half
as long. The continuing rise of the theme that confirmed E major is cut
and the theme instead moves directly to the forte chords and reiterations of the
last gestures. As before, these are passed between piano and strings, but this
given the reversal in the presentation of the preceding statement of the theme,
positions are reversed. They do come together, as before, over the low bass
Because the upward continuation of the theme was eliminated, the cadence gesture
now reiterates the home key of A major rather than E major, accomplishing the
alteration to allow the reprise to end there.
3:33 [m. 139]--Transition, analogous to 0:27 and 1:27 [m. 25]. Besides being set
in A instead of E, the instrumentation is altered from the exposition. The solo
responses are now all played by the viola (instead of just the first two). The two
initial skipping figures in harmony, each followed by a viola response, are played
by the violin and cello with the piano providing block chords. In the second half
of the phrase, the piano takes the harmonies (it had previously played them in the
first half), and the violin and cello take the block chords. The viola replaces
the cello in the responses. The A-major cadence overlaps with Theme 2.
3:42 [m. 147]--Theme 2. First statement, analogous to 0:37 and 1:37 [m. 33]. In
a complete reversal, the first phrase is played by strings without piano instead
of piano alone. The viola plays the melody in the richest part of its register,
while the violin and cello provide an ingenious re-scoring of the light, detached
figures previously played by the left hand, including the lower two-note harmonies
alternating with higher single notes.
3:52 [m. 155]--Second statement with extension and cadence, analogous to 0:45 and
1:45 [m. 41]. Continuing the basic reversal, the piano right hand plays the theme
in octaves. The skipping accompaniment alternates between the violin/cello pair
and the piano left hand. The viola plays what appears to be a smooth new legato
line, but is really the top line from the skipping accompaniment, spun into its own
separate voice. The strings in unison echo the piano cadence and its undermining
downward leap formerly played by the violin.
4:04 [m. 167]--Brief transition, analogous to 0:57 and 1:58 [m. 53]. The piano and
strings are reversed, with the piano taking the first dissonant gesture (now
B-flat), and the strings the second. Otherwise, the pattern of notes is the same.
The continuation follows the pattern of the first ending, re-spelling B-flat as
A-sharp and leaning into the theme. The strings continue their own statement
than taking over for the piano. The previous motion was from E to A, so the
motion here is from A to D. The coda begins in D major.
Part 2, Third Section (Coda)
4:07 [m. 169]--While the note pattern followed the first ending, the music that
is taken from what happens after the second ending, and the first passage of the
coda resembles the first statement in the development from 2:01 [m. 55]. The two
phrases are even a fourth apart, as there. The difference is in the orientation
of the melody in relationship to the bass. The phrases are in D, then G major, but
the last note of each phrase is the more unstable third, rather than the “tonic”
keynote. As in the model passage, the first phrase is played by unison strings
time without cello) with piano chords. The second is played by the piano right
with string chords. A low bass “dominant” note is held through both phrases.
4:16 [m. 177]--Two more quiet gestures in G major follow. The violin echoes the
last turn of the theme in the first, over static viola and piano harmony. The
strings actively harmonize with the violin in the second. Then the piano, in bass
octaves between the hands, becomes active, playing three-note descents beginning
on upbeats. The strings add harmonies to these piano bass motions. The violin
static chords while the viola and cello move with the piano. The harmony becomes
active, shifting gradually toward another arrival back home on A. The volume also
builds rapidly after four bars. After four more bars of intensification, the piano
descents change from three notes to two for two measures, creating rhythmic
The implied harmony here is an unstable “diminished seventh.”
4:33 [m. 191]--A major arrives via this dissonant harmony. The half-step approach
in the melody mirrors the repeat of the exposition. Brahms marks the last part of
the coda “animato.” The volume throughout is also forte. The strings, in harmony,
play descending lines derived from the theme. The piano right hand adds decorative
figures, largely arching up and working down. After two measures, these speed up
to a triplet rhythm. The “straight” rhythm returns for the first two measures of
the second descent, but then the triplets return until the end of the scherzo. The
left hand holds a steady “dominant” pedal point in the bass.
4:40 [m. 199]--The speed and volume continue to increase, and more foreign notes
borrowed from E minor, D minor, and A minor are used. After one longer descent,
the groups are shortened again to three notes beginning on the upbeat. The bass
pedal moves from the “dominant” note E to the home keynote A. The triplets now
to range up and down the keyboard. The violin adds a series of prominent
interjections on A as the viola and cello play another long descent.
4:48 [m. 207]--The piano bass makes a syncopated descent over a D-minor arpeggio.
The violin imitates this descent in double stops. The cello reduces its descents
to two notes, disrupting the rhythm. The viola plays double-stop harmonies with
the cello rhythms. At the point of maximum harmonic and rhythmic intensity, the
strings land on an A-major chord, and the piano triplets outline the same chord.
The bass, arriving again on A, leaps up to two rolled chords. The right hand,
up in its rapid triplets, joins the second of these, closing off this unusually
and developmental scherzo section.
TRIO (D minor/major)
Part 1
4:53 [m. 213]--Theme 1. The scherzo actually ends with m. 211. The trio begins
on the upbeat of m. 212, the first two beats of which are rests. The hint of D
at the end of the scherzo foreshadows it as the main key of the trio section. The
main theme of the trio is a stark unison variation on the skipping figures from the
transition passage of the scherzo. The piano, playing in octaves, is strictly
in canon at the distance of one measure by the strings, which also play in unison
octaves. After the first upbeat, the piano emphasizes the downbeat by adding a
This also happens at the halfway point of the phrase. The theme is played in a
strong fortissimo by all instruments. It begins with a descent. Each active
is followed by a long note, sustained while the strings imitate or the piano
There are harsh crashing grace notes (appoggiaturas). The phrase is 12 bars long,
turning toward A minor in the middle and ending with a sharp ascent. The piano
for the string completion, so the total number of measures is 13.
5:07 [m. 226]--The imitation continues in a second phrase, this one eight measures
long. The piano begins with another upbeat, this time with two notes. The first
gesture is the same, but the continuation turns to C major, gradually descends,
down, and reaches a gentle stopping point with a descending octave leap.
5:16 [m. 234]--Theme 2. The imitation ends with the octave leap in the strings.
The piano plays the leap again, changing it to a fifth and thus moving the key to
F major, the “relative” key to D minor. Against this, the strings begin the second
theme in a warm harmony. Tender and smooth, it is clearly related to the main
of the scherzo section! The contours and directions have differences, but the
and accentuation leave no doubt. After the string statement, the piano takes its
turn. But the strings add new harmonies. While the cello plays its part from the
string statement an octave lower, the violin and viola sustain the foreign note E-
disrupting the sense of F major as a key center.
5:25 [m. 242]--In an epilogue to the new theme, the strings add an arching variant
of the closing gesture passing it immediately to the piano. The piano, although
using a colorful “diminished seventh” chord, reconfirms F major. The string/piano
alternation is repeated.
Part 1 Repeated
5:29 [m. 246a (m. 213)]--Theme 1. The upbeat is now given to the strings, which
use it to forcefully pivot back to D minor with a preparatory “dominant” chord.
All three string instruments use multiple strings to play a strong D-minor chord
on the downbeat of m. 246a (which precedes the repeat sign and corresponds to m.
213). The piano begins the repeat of the imitative canon section on this downbeat,
including the chordal emphasis. The repeat sign then leads back to the second
(m. 214) and continues as at 4:53. The string upbeat is not indicated in m. 246a,
but it is typically played as in m. 213.
5:43 [m. 226]--Continuation of imitation turning to C major, as at 5:07.
5:52 [m. 234]--Theme 2 in F major, as at 5:16.
6:01 [m. 242]--Epilogue, as at 5:25.
Part 2
6:06 [m. 246b]--A variant of the piano gesture from the epilogue is added, first
in strings, then piano. This variant adds a note in the harmony that belongs to
F minor, D-flat. The piano bass then plays a stark, ominous variant of Theme 2 in
octaves. This confirms the change of mode to F minor. After two bars, the viola
and cello, in octaves, imitate the piano bass a fifth above. The violin follows
with another imitation two octaves above the original piano bass pitches, creating
a fugue-like texture. Finally, the piano right hand enters, also in octaves,
two octaves above the cello/viola line and completing the brief fugue exposition.
All instruments continue in counterpoint. The right hand adds a brief harmony at
the end.
6:21 [m. 258]--An extended, hushed meditation on Theme 2 follows over very unstable
harmony. Violin and cello first take the lead, with the piano right hand reaching
up and the bass playing upward leaps in octaves. The key moves from F major to D-
as the piano takes the lead and the viola reaches upward. D-flat becomes minor,
eventually spelling itself as C-sharp, in another alternation of the same

6:30 [m. 266]--The harmony becomes more unstable, circling around D, the eventual
goal. The piano right hand now plays together with the violin and viola, and the
cello moves to the upward-rising figures, plucking instead of bowing. The piano
bass continues its upward leaps. D arrives definitively with another metric
The rising figures are reduced to two beats, placing three implied 2/4 measures
within two 3/4 measures. This so-called hemiola is played three times in a mixture
of D major and minor. First the piano right hand plays it with violin and viola,
then the violin and viola play it alone, and finally the piano takes it alone. On
this last piano statement, minor wins out over major and the cello fades away.
6:44 [m. 278]--Re-transition. The strings, now in unison, appear to begin another
statement of the two-beat figure, but they are cut off on the second beat by the
piano. With both hands in octave unison, covering four octaves in all, the piano
reaches upward, quickly building over four two-beat gestures and landing
upon the return of material from Part 1 (another “reprise” or “rounding”).
6:47 [m. 281]--The 13-bar imitation passage from the beginning of the trio section
returns in full. There are some changes at the beginning. Because the piano is
approaching from below, the strings add the first upbeat (now an octave A) and play
a chord against the piano downbeat, as they did with the repetition at 5:29. The
violin and viola also add new chords to their first imitative entry. From there,
the passage proceeds unchanged.
7:00 [m. 294]--D major is now explicitly indicated with a key signature change, but
the harmony does not settle there, veering instead to E minor and B minor. The
phrase is a 14-measure hybrid. The first six measures resemble the beginning of
the main phrase that has just been restated. The primary difference is that the
left hand does not play in octaves with the right and does not participate in the
imitation. Instead, it plays a solid descending chromatic line in low octaves.
The right hand plays full chords instead of octaves on its full-measure held
The last eight measures are close in character to the phrase heard at 5:07 and
[m. 226]. They establish D major and remain there, continuing the canon. The
diminishes. The phrase ends with the downward octave leaps as the left hand

7:15 [m. 308]--Theme 2 in D major, following the pattern of 5:16 and 5:52 [m. 234].
The epilogue from 5:25 and 6:01 [m. 242] does not follow. It is replaced by the
extended transition back to the scherzo.
7:25 [m. 316]--Transition to scherzo reprise. The piano right hand introduces
triplet rhythms. The volume is expressive, and the pace restrained. The top notes
of the piano triplets, along with the violin an octave higher, begin another
of Theme 2, but it quickly melts into a chromatic descent. The viola and cello add
double-stop harmonies. The piano left hand introduces upward octave leaps and
repetitions of higher notes. After the descent, the melody is fragmented to just
the yearning rise and fall at the end. More dissonant chromatic notes are
in the bass and elsewhere. The piano right hand and violin separate and begin to
play the melodic fragment in imitation.
7:35 [m. 323]--The violin drops out, and the piano reduces the fragment to the two-
rise, creating another cross-rhythm implying 2/4 measures. The bass syncopation
stretches to the full measure. The viola and cello harmonies die away. The bass
finally moves down to E, the preparatory “dominant” to the scherzo’s key of A
For most of the transition, A has served as a “dominant” for the trio’s home key
of D. The right hand melodic fragment is reduced to two notes. The last two-note
group is at the beginning of a measure (m. 326), the third beat of which will be
the original upbeat to the scherzo.
Part 1 (Exposition)
7:40 [m. 1]--Theme 1. Initial unison statement in strings with original upbeat,
as at the beginning (and at 1:00, where the upbeat was inflected up a half-step).
7:50 [m. 9]--Piano statement of Theme 1 moving toward E major, as at 0:09 and 1:09.

7:59 [m. 17]--Extension of piano statement with forte chords and confirmation of
E major, as at 0:18 and 1:18.
8:08 [m. 25]--Transition with light, skipping rising figures, as at 0:27 and 1:27.

8:17 [m. 33]--Theme 2. Piano statement, as at 0:37 and 1:37.

8:26 [m. 41]--Violin and cello statement with extension and cadence, as at 0:45 and
8:39 [m. 53]--Transition, as at 0:57, and as at 1:58, leading into the second
Part 1 is not repeated in the reprise.
Part 2, First Section (Development)
8:41 [m. 55]--Main theme in C major, then F major, as at 2:01.
8:50 [m. 63]--Meditation in F major over last turn of theme, as at 2:09.
9:02 [m. 73]--Descending lines with repeated notes in piano, and two-note slurs in
strings, building to cadence in A minor, as at 2:21.
9:10 [m. 80]--Loud rising bass octaves with skipping descending line and opening
gesture from Theme 1 in octaves, all three elements passed among the instruments,
as at 2:29. Cycle between A minor and E minor.
9:18 [m. 88]--Climax of development using these same elements, moving through
of fifths, as at 2:38.
9:27 [m. 96]--Pounding chords and fragments of rising line arriving on “dominant”
of F-sharp minor, then quieter circling around F-sharp, as at 2:46.
9:35 [m. 104]--Re-transition with cello line in F-sharp minor, as at 2:54.
9:40 [m. 109]--Mysterious, meandering motion back to A major, as at 3:00.
Part 2, Second Section (Recapitulation or Rounding)
9:51 [m. 119]--Theme 1 with decorations, as at 3:11.
10:00 [m. 127]--Analogous to 7:50 [or 0:09 and 1:09--m. 9], as at 3:20. New upbeat
10:08 [m. 135]--Abbreviated extension of theme, analogous to 7:59 [or 0:18 and
17], as at 3:28.
10:13 [m. 139]--Transition, analogous to 8:08 [or 0:27 and 1:27--m. 25], as at

10:22 [m. 147]--Theme 2, string statement, analogous to 8:17 [or 0:37 and 1:37--m.
33], as at 3:42.
10:31 [m. 155]--Second statement with extension, analogous to 8:26 [or 0:45 and
41], as at 3:52.
10:44 [m. 167]--Brief transition into coda, analogous to 8:39 [or 0:57 and 1:58--m.
53], as at 4:04.
Part 2, Third Section (Coda)
10:47 [m. 169]--Thematic statements in D and G major, as at 4:07.
10:56 [m. 177]--Figures in G major, then three-note bass descents and buildup
arrival on A, as at 4:16.
11:13 [m. 191]--“Animato” arrival of A major, descending lines, and decorative
figuration speeding up to triplet rhythm over “dominant” pedal point, as at 4:33.

11:20 [m. 199]--Increase in intensity, foreign notes borrowed from minor keys, and
change to shorter descents as bass pedal point moves to A, the violin adding
as at 4:40.
11:28 [m. 207]--Imitation on syncopated descent over D minor, then final A-major
arrival, as at 4:48. The scherzo, and therefore the movement, end with m. 211.
The rests at the beginning of m. 212 before the opening upbeat of the trio are not
counted as part of the scherzo section in the reprise.
11:39--END OF MOVEMENT [326 (+211) mm.]

4th Movement: Finale – Allegro (Varied Sonata-Allegro form with Rondo elements).
A MAJOR, Cut time [2/2].
0:00 [m. 1]--Theme 1. The jaunty, but leisurely theme is presented by the violin
and cello in octaves. It opens with a leaping upbeat, places prominent syncopated
accents on repeated notes that fall on the second beat of the measure, includes
grace notes (appoggiaturas), and repeats most ideas twice in succession. The piano
adds chords, first in the second half of the measure, then with all the main beats.
The viola only plays four off-beat octaves in the first half. The melody begins
to emphasize a short-short-long rhythm in its second half, again placing strong
on the second beats of measures. This half turns to the “dominant” key, E major,
and its “relative” minor key, C-sharp. At the end, the unison strings, including
viola, slide into the following piano statement in the home key.
0:19 [m. 17]--The piano restates the entire theme, beginning in octaves. The
add counterpoint based on the opening gesture, which the violin plays in its
upward pattern and the cello inverts. The viola adds the off-beat chords
played by the piano. At the theme’s second half, the strings join the piano’s own
block harmonies and low bass octaves in accompaniment. In the last four measures,
the violin joins the piano on the melodic line. All instruments participate in the
slide at the end, which shifts the harmony from C-sharp minor to E major.
0:37 [m. 33]--In an E-major bridge passage, the strings play gentle harmonized
(mostly in thirds) which briefly disrupt the meter by grouping notes in threes.
The piano enters and takes over, playing in thirds with both hands. The strings
double the piano, but separate each original note into two rapidly repeated ones.
After four bars, the violin is left alone with these repeated notes.
0:47 [m. 41]--The descending line is converted into a yearning figure that turns
around and reaches down. It is played with full harmony by the strings, then
to the piano. As with most of the theme, the pattern is repeated. It is then
to the two-beat descent and again passed twice from strings to piano.
0:55 [m. 47]--Moving back toward A, the opening three-beat gesture of the theme is
played three times with sudden vigor by the violin and cello, followed each time
by two piano chords with contracting harmonies and a steady bass. This results in
a five-beat unit that disrupts the meter and the sense of the bar line. Then the
gesture is reduced to two beats, the piano chords are played on the weak beats, and
the rhythmic order is restored. Building rapidly, these upward gestures lead to
a louder, almost climactic statement of the theme as A major arrives. Only the
half is given in its original form. All three string instruments play it in unison
while the piano plays off-beat responses with the opening gesture and full chords.
After five bars, the piano plays on the downbeat.
1:10 [m. 61]--The second half of the theme is replaced by a hybrid transitional
The short-short-long rhythm is omitted, and is replaced by two bars of extension.
These work downward, including more appoggiaturas. Then unexpectedly, the bridge
passage with harmonized descents from 0:37 [m. 33] returns. It appears first in
the violin and cello, with the piano adding upward gestures derived from the
of the theme, then a plunging arpeggio. The viola adds a trill to the end of the
first sequence. Then all strings play the version with rapidly repeated notes,
The piano right hand doubles this line with a variant, alternating upper thirds
with lower notes while the left hand continues with the upward gestures. Suddenly,
an upward scale in violin and piano right hand leads into the actual transition.

1:22 [m. 71]--Transition, Part 1. The intensity and energy of the preceding
erupts into an exuberant syncopated A-minor line in the piano and violin. The
strings add leaping bass support. The syncopated line circles around the same
before suddenly breaking into the prominent short-short-long rhythm that was
from the last statement of the theme when it was cut off. This rhythm works
for four measures, shifting the harmony from the home minor key to the “dominant”
key of E. Another two bars of exuberant leaping figuration lead to a huge scale
in contrary motion, the violin, viola, and piano right hand moving down while the
piano bass and cello move up. The scale cuts off, anticipating a full arrival on
E major or minor before two half-measures of rests.
1:39 [m. 84]--Transition, Part 2. The entire extended passage is mysterious and
ambiguous in key. The violin and cello play in stark unison octaves. After the
opening downward leap, all the arching lines that follow only include the notes E
and G. Given the previous preparation, the key would appear to be E minor, but the
piano, which plays similar arching lines, also in octaves and in quasi-imitation
with the two strings, uses the notes C and B-flat. These notes together outline
the preparatory “dominant seventh” chord in F major, an unrelated, never confirmed
key. Breaking from the quasi-imitation, the hands of the piano expand outward, and
an artful upward slide in the left hand leads to a gentle turn of phrase. The
key is now G major (“relative” to E minor), where the unison violin and cello play
a graceful turn figure.
1:54 [m. 96]--The two strings appear to reach a half-close in G major, but the
octaves beneath them undermine this. Again, they seem to move toward the key of
E minor. The chromatic descents that follow in both piano and unison strings (now
including the viola) also suggest this key. But then the note B-flat is introduced
again in both piano and strings, again suggesting the “dominant” harmony in F
The piano moves from octaves to harmonies in thirds and sixths, but the strings
continue to play in unison, the piano leading in another quasi-imitation. The
becomes faster and the harmony more active. F major seems to lead to C major until
all pause on another ambiguous “dominant seventh” chord.
2:07 [m. 106]--Theme 2. Another artful shift converts the ambiguous chord into a
preparatory harmony of E major, where the entire ensemble, including the bass,
too easily slides. The theme itself, led by the piano, is bright and broad. The
left hand plays wide arpeggios, and the strings follow in harmony with the violin
imitating the octaves of the right hand. After another smooth, sliding chromatic
harmony and its resolution, the piano breaks into a leaping chord pattern with a
long-short rhythm. The strings punctuate the longer chords, supporting their
This finally reaches a full cadence (E major).
2:17 [m. 114]--Beginning halfway through the bar after the cadence, the viola now
leads an elaboration on this long-short rhythm in fugue-like counterpoint. The
introduces a broad triplet rhythm in quarter notes, with the right hand following
the bass and forming arpeggios. The violin imitates the viola on the leaping
while the latter moves to a continuation with a smooth descending line. The cello
and piano bass (in octaves) together play the next imitation. The triplets
in the piano right hand, and the upper strings harmonize on the descending line.
Finally, the right hand in octaves, with the viola, plays the leaping long-short
rhythm as the left hand, cello, and violin play the descending line.
2:26 [m. 122]--The piano right hand now takes the descending continuation, still
in octaves. It extends this line while the left hand stalls on long notes held
bar lines and the strings add supporting harmonies. In the viola and cello, these
include repeated chords in the broad triplet rhythm, which they re-introduce, the
piano having abandoned it when the right hand imitated the leaping rhythm. Some
chromatic notes are introduced as the line is spun out.
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