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Although, even though:

Study these examples:

"He had enough money."


" He refused to buy a new car."

The above two statements can be combined as follows :

Although he had enough money, he refused to buy a new car


Even though

OR

He refused to buy a new car although he had enough money.


even though

Structure:

"Although", and "even though" introduce concessive clauses.

Although /even though Subject verb

Examples:

Although it was raining, he walked to the station.


Even though she is very old, she runs fast.

Despite / in spite of:


Despite and in spite of do not introduce a concessive clause. They are rather followed by a noun or a verb+ing form.

Study this example:

"He had enough money."


"He refused to buy a new car."

The above two statements can be combined as follows :

Despite all his money, he refused to buy a new car.


In spite of
having enough money,

OR

He refused to buy a new car despite all his money.


in spite of
having enough money.

Structure

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Despite / in spite of + a noun,
+ verb + ing.

Examples:

Despite /in spite of the rain, he walked to the station.


Despite /in spite of being tired, he walked to the station.

Remember:
1. Although, even though + subject + verb (Concessive clause)

3. In spite of, despite + noun or verb+ing (Not a concessive clause)

2. There are structural similarities between:

 "in spite of", "despite" and "although", "even though"


 "because of", "due to", "owing to", "thanks to" and "because", "since ,"as", "for". (Expressing cause and effect)

In spite of + noun
Despite
Because of
Due to
owing to
Thanks to
Although + verb
Even though
Because
Since
For
As

More on cause and effect to see the use of "because, since, as, for, because of, due to ... "

Adverb clauses of cause or reason


MARCH 6, 2011 -

Adverb clauses of cause or reason are introduced by the subordinating conjunctions because, as, since and that.

 I sing because I like singing.


 He thinks he can get anything because he is rich.
 Since he has apologized we will take no further action against him.
 As he was not there I left a message with his mother.
 I am glad that you have come.
 My parents were disappointed that I didn’t get the scholarship.
 He was furious that his book was panned by most reviewers.

Notes

The conjunction that is often omitted.

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 I am glad you like it. OR I am glad that you like it.
 They were disappointed you weren’t in. OR They were disappointed that you weren’t in.

As and since are used when the reason is already known to the listener.

 As it is raining again we will have to cancel the match.

As and since-clauses are relatively formal. In an informal style, the same idea can be expressed with so.

 It is raining again, so we will have to cancel the match.

Because-clauses are used to give information which isn’t already known to the reader or listener.

 Because he had not paid the bill, his electricity was cut off.

Note that a because-clause can stand alone. As and since-clauses cannot be used like this.

 ‘Why are you looking at her like that?’ ‘Because she smiled at me.’ (NOT As she smiled at me.) (NOT Since
she smiled at me.)

Rewrite the following sentences beginning them with the given words:

1. He worked hard, but he couldn’t pass the test.

In spite of …………………………………………………………………….

2. It was late, but we decided to go out.

Although …………………………………………………………………….

3. She is rich, but she is not happy.

Despite …………………………………………………………………….

4. She had a bad teacher. Still, she passed her exams.

In spite of …………………………………………………………………….

5. She lives next door but we rarely see each other.

Although …………………………………………………………………….

6. He faced many setbacks, but he didn’t lose hope.

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In spite of …………………………………………………………………….

7. Although she is a foreigner, she speaks English remarkably well.

In spite of …………………………………………………………………….

8. In spite of earning a good salary, she finds it difficult to make both ends meet.

Although …………………………………………………………………….

9. She lives close to her office; however, she is always late for work.

In spite of …………………………………………………………………….

B-Rewrite the following sentences using the purpose expressions in brackets. Make the
necessary changes.
1. He kept the door open. He wanted to let fresh air in. (so as to)
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. Some firms had to close as they didn't want to go bankrupt. (in order not to)
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
3. Peter locked his bedroom door because he didn't want his sister to disturb him. (so that)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
4. She calls a meeting because she wants to hear everyone's opinion. (in order to)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
5. Everyone was pushing because they wanted to get to the front of the queue. (in order to)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
6. Susan lifts her son onto her shoulder. The boy wants to see the parade.(so that)
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
7. He went on foot because he didn't want to be heard. (so as not to)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
8. He came to live in the country because he wanted to have trees around him instead of
buildings. (so as to)
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
9. He wrote a covering letter because he wanted to apply for a job. (so as to)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
10. She went to Lisbon because she wanted to buy some clothes for her children. (so that)
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
11. Paul was an hour late. He missed the train. (because)
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
12. I borrowed your lawn mower. You weren’t using it. (as)
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
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13. We had no electricity during the storm. We had to use candles. (so)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
14. He needed a good mark. He studied hard for the test. (Since)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
15. It’s raining. We have decided to stay at home. (As)
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
16. Tom won’t be able to go with us to the theatre. He has to work. (because)
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
17. The windows were all open. A lot of mosquitoes came into the room. (Consequently)

10. Although she works three jobs in a day, she makes it a point to spend quality time with her
kids.

In spite of …………………………………………………………………….