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Class

No. 15

Class No. 15 Introduction to Linguistics Professor: Lic. Samuel Fernández September 12th, 2018 UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD

Introduction to Linguistics

Professor:

Lic. Samuel Fernández

September 12th, 2018

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

Speaking tip

No. 6

Think in English

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

Achievement Indicator

To describe the parts of a sentence by using correct structures, showing respect and interest
To describe the parts of a
sentence by using correct
structures, showing respect
and interest in sharing with
others.

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

Act. 1 Recalling previous learning Agenda Act. 2 Describing the parts of a sentence. Act.
Act. 1
Act. 1

Recalling

previous

learning

Act. 1 Recalling previous learning Agenda Act. 2 Describing the parts of a sentence. Act. 3

Agenda

Act. 2
Act. 2

Describing

the parts

of a

sentence.

Agenda Act. 2 Describing the parts of a sentence. Act. 3 Wrapping up UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD
Act. 3
Act. 3
Act. 2 Describing the parts of a sentence. Act. 3 Wrapping up UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA

Wrapping

up

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

Act. 1
Act. 1

Purpose: To describe meaningful learning from

Act. 1 Purpose: To describe meaningful learning from previous classes. Recalling previous learning. Instructions: 1.

previous classes.

To describe meaningful learning from previous classes. Recalling previous learning. Instructions: 1. Work in

Recalling

previous

learning.

Instructions: 1. Work in pairs. 2. Check your notes from previous classes. 3. Complete the
Instructions:
1.
Work in pairs.
2.
Check your notes from previous classes.
3.
Complete the language functions and structures on the next slide.
4.
Share your information with another peer.
5.
Share with the class.

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

Language functions and structures for this activity:

1. In previous classes I have reinforced

2. The information we’ve studied so far deals with

3. What I have learned in this semester is

4. The difference in my

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

Act. 2
Act. 2

Describing the parts

of a sentence.

Purpose: To describe the parts of a sentence.

of a sentence. Purpose: To describe the parts of a sentence. Instructions: 1. Work individually. 2.
Instructions: 1. Work individually. 2. Read the information on the next slide. 3. Pay attention
Instructions:
1.
Work individually.
2.
Read the information on the next slide.
3.
Pay attention to your instructor.
4.
Take notes.
5.
Ask any questions.
6.
Describe the parts of a sentence.
7.
Share the most important information with the class.

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

Parts of a sentence

Subject

Tacit

Nouns

Proper

Common

Abstract

Regular

Irregular

Countable

Non-countable

Collective

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

Parts of a sentence

Verbs

Regular

Irregular

Auxiliary

Modal

Transitive

Intransitive

Phrasal

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

Parts of a sentence

Complement

Predicate

Types of sentences

Simple

Compound

Complex

One single idea Two short ideas -No comma required-

Two ideas using connectors -Comma is mandatory-

Let’s practice!

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

Purpose: To apply the use of correct grammar structures

to solve exercises.

Instructions:

1.

Work individually

2.

Draw a grid in your notebook.

3.

Write your answers with ink.

4.

Apply the use of correct grammar structures to solve

the exercises.

5.

Work silently.

6.

Check your information.

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

Read instructions carefully Select the choice that best completes the sentence. UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD

Read instructions carefully

Read instructions carefully Select the choice that best completes the sentence. UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD

Select the choice that best completes the sentence.

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

1

Space exploration and underground mining both

is not too

surprising that technology developed for one field is now

take place in extreme environments, so

being applied to

A) each/another

C) that/the others

B) it/the other

D) either/each other

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

2

Since September 11th, 2001 companies that ship

goods, and other business involved in ocean transport

millions of dollars coordinating their security effort.

A) were spending

C) had been spending

B) would have spent

D) have spent

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

3

that

We

for three years for something to happen

our situation.

A) had waited/has improved

C) will have waited/ will improve

B) were waiting/will improve

D) have been waiting/will improve

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

4

Parents can learn to create an environment

their child can grow and thrive in a more resourceful and

less stressful manner.

A) which

C) where

B) what

D) that

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

5

Drivers

over

65

have

experience,

but

their

physical and sensory capabilities.

A) would be diminishing

C) were to diminish

B) must be diminished

D) may have diminished

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

6

The conversation between the airport control tower

and pilots

it crashed.

that the plane

A) revealed / had received

C) had revealed / will receive

approval to land before

B) has revealed / has received

D) revealed / would be received

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

7

The human brain goes through several large-scale

the individual progresses from embryo

changes

through old age.

A) so that

C) whereas

B) as

D) even if

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

8

Second-hand smoke is the exhaled smoke from the

the smoke that disperses from a lit

lungs of a smoke;

cigarette, cigar, or pipe.

A) as well as

C) consequently

B) so as to

D) thereby

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

9

works deal romantically with the

overwhelming power of nature and struggle for survival,

was a prolific American novelist and short story writer.

Jack London,

A) which

C) where

B) whose

D) who

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

10

Before the advent of satellite television viewers

a very wide selection of channels.

A) must not have

C) needn't have

B) didn't use to have

D) shouldn't have

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

11

Cell phones are dangerous when people use them

while they

cars.

A) would drive

C) drove

B) were driving

D) are driving

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

12

caused the

blackout and to take steps to prevent future problems

The mayor pledged to find out

with large-scale power outages.

A) what

C) That

B) which

D) how

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

13

The study was to determine

or not there was a

connection between gender and linguistic achievement.

A) what

C) whether

B) why

D) that

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

14

Jim

on the early flight the next morning, so he

his excuses and left the party before midnight.

A) was leaving / made

C) leaves / had made

B) will leave / will make

D) has left / will make

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

15

Brendan

to find the gas tank empty as he

the truck only twice that week.

A) was surprised / had been using

C) has been surprised / would use

B) is surprised I has used

D) was surprised / had used

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

16

We were unable

abandon the project.

A) therefore

C) however

to get funding and

B) notwithstanding

D) since

had to

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

17

When we have started the course, we needn't pay

for the whole course in advance,

?

A) don't we

C) need we

B) didn't we

D) have we

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

18

The bank robbery

newspaper today.

A) of which

C) about which

I told you

B) that

is

D) where

in

the local

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

19

The

board

was

reluctant

to

announce

the

they might upset the members.

A) For fear of

C) although

B) in case of

D) because

news

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

20

The man denied all responsibility for the rumors that

for some time.

A) to be circulating

C) to being circulated

B) have circulated

D) had been circulating

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

21

We

think

the

project,

relies

on

everyone

making an effort, will be successful.

A) what

B) for which

B) that

D) which

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

22

He showed me round the town,

of him.

A) where

B) what

B) that

D) which

was very kind

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

23

Fraud

three

of

arrested.

A) which

C) whose

detectives

senior

are

investigating

executives

have

B) that

D) whom

the

company,

been

already

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

24

I intentionally didn't have lunch

hungry tonight.

A) so that

C) hence

B) in case

D) however

I would be

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

25

You mustn't think that you can borrow it whenever

I'm lending you my dress for

you want to, just

tonight.

A) due to

C) yet

B) despite

D) because

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

Act. 3
Act. 3

Wrapping up

Purpose: To summarize today’s class.

Act. 3 Wrapping up Purpose: To summarize today’s class. Instructions: 1. Work in pairs. 2. Use
Instructions: 1. Work in pairs. 2. Use your notes. 3. Summarize this class by giving
Instructions:
1.
Work in pairs.
2.
Use your notes.
3.
Summarize this class by giving some examples of the parts of
a sentence.
4.
Use the given language functions and structures.
5.
Share the most important information with the class.

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO

Language functions and structures for this activity:

1. The parts of a sentence are

2. The classification of nouns is

3. Verbs are categorized into

4. The exercises we solved today proved that

UNIVERSIDADUNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICAPEDAGOGICA DEDE ELEL SALVADORSALVADOR DR.DR. LUISLUIS ALONSOALONSO APARICIOAPARICIO