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power system plant - Equivalent circuits and parameters of 44. Introduction 42. Synchronous machines 4.3. Armature reaction 4.4 Steady state theory 45. Salient pole rotor 46 Transient analysis 47 Asymmetry 48 Machine reactances 49 Negative sequence reactance 410 Zero sequence reactance 4.11 Direct and quadrature axis values 4.42 Effect of saturation on machine reactences 4.13 Transformers 4.14 Positive sequence equivalent circuits 4.16 Zero sequence equivaient circuits 4.16 Auto-transformers 4.17 Overhead lines and cables 4.18 Calculation of series impadance 4.19 Calculation of shunt impedance 4.20-Qverhead line circuits with or without earth wires 421-Equivalent circuits 4.22 Cable circuits 4.23 Overhead line and cable data aa INTRODUCTION A knowledge of the behaviour of the pirincipal units of system plant under normal and fault conditions is 2 prerequisite for the proper application of protective gear. This chapter summarizes basic synchronous machine, former and transmission theory and gives equivalent circuits and parameters so that a fault study can be suc- ‘cassfully completed before the selection and application of the pratective systems described in later chapters of this ‘book. Power system plant may be divided into two broad ‘groups: that which is rotating.and that which is static. The Problem with rotating plant is that its parameters change