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MINI RESEARCH

"CONCEPT OF SOLUTION AND BIO - ORGANIC"

MAKING SOAP

BY:

INDAH LESTARI

4171121014

PHYSICS BILINGUAL 2017

FAULCTY MATEMATIC AND SCIENCE

THE UNIVERSITY OF MEDAN

2018
FOREWORD

Thank God we pray to the presence of God Almighty, for our guidance we can complete
this task in accordance with the task given to us, so that this paper can be solved completely. And
of course with his bounty the number of authors can complete the writing of this Paper in time.

I hope MINI RISET with the title "MAKING SOAP" helps me in supporting the
assessment in this subject of Applied Chemistry, to be better.

This paper I admit there are still many shortcomings. Therefore, I hope for teachers and
friends to provide constructive inputs for the perfection of this paper so that I can improve the
form and content of this paper, so that the future can be better.

Medan, May 19, 2018

Author
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER I

PRELIMINARY

1.1. Background …………………………………………………. 4

1.2. Formulation of the problem ………………………………………………. 5

1.3. Purpose ..................................................................... 5

1.4. Benefits ...................................................................5

1.5. Literature review ……………………………………………………5.

1.6. Research methods ………………………………………………..6

CHAPTER II

DISCUSSION

2.1. results of research ........................... .. 7

2.2. discussion of research ..................... 8

CHAPTER III

COVER

3.1. Conclusion ............................................................ .. 10

3.2. Suggestion ……………………………………………………………10

BIBLIOGRAPHY ……………………………………………………. 11
CHAPTER I

PRELIMINARY

A. Background

The use of soap is familiar in everyday life. In its development as now, more and more
types of soap on the market, ranging from special to beauty and general to clean the dirt one of
them is dish soap. Dishwashing soap has two forms, namely dishwashing cream soap and
dishwashing liquid soap. Practicality factor and the speed of soluble soap in water in liquid soap
causes many people prefer to use it than dishwashing cream soap. In addition, the smell of soap
cream smell more attached to the kitchen equipment and less soft in the hand.

Soaps are generally sodium or potassium compounds that have long carbon sequences
and are reacted with fatty acids, especially triglycerides from vegetable oils or animal fats. The
soap is produced by the saponification process, which is the hydrolysis of fat into fatty acid and
glycerol under alkaline conditions. In the development of soap form to be various, namely solid
soap, soft soap, liquid soap, and soap powder. If the base used is NaOH, the reaction product is
hard soap (solid), whereas if the base used is KOH, the reaction product is liquid soap.

B. Problem Formulation

Based on the background, the authors formulate the following issues:

1. What are the tools for making liquid soap.

2. Does making liquid soap save household expenses.

3. How to make liquid soap.

C. Library study

Soap which derived from the Hindi / Hindi language is a surfactant that is used degan
wateruntuk wash and clean.Sabun usually shaped solids in the for usually. Especially on public
facilities.
Soap (soap) also comes from the ancient Roman legend of the sapo mountain, the place
where animals are sacrificed. Cleanliness and bathing became a trend in Europe in the 17th
century. In the Middle Ages bathed every day of the Japanese nation. In Iceland the hot spring
bath pool became a gathering place in saptu night.

The ancient Greeks bathed for sheer beauty and did not use soap. They cleaned their
bodies with sand, pumice and ash, and anointed them with oil and soil with a metal tool called
strigil.

Italy, Spayol, and France became the first center of soap manufacture in Europe, because
they have a supply of raw materials such as olive oil. There are several benefits of soap, as
follows:

1. Clean the body by removing dirt and odor.

2.Membantumembadah water container.

3. Gives a feeling of comfort and freshness.

4.Provide theeffolive as well as fraknance on the skin.

5. Provide an aesthetic effect in the bath with the addition of perfume and color on the water.

soap types

1.Sabun transparent

2.Souns foam

3.Shun scrup

4. Acne soap

5.Sabu Natural / Natural


A. research methods

Making bath soap with cold process method is the easiest method. You can produce a
beautiful and soft soap on the skin with this method. The process is also quite simple and does
not take much time.

But, a lot of limitations with this method of making bath soap. You can only produce
sterile bath soap that is not transparent. Yes that's it. Produce liquid soap, transparent bar soap,
and soap cream requires further processing. We can not produce bath soap with these
characteristics using cold process method.

Therefore, we need an advanced method that is the method of hot process. This method is
actually only an extension of the cold process method. The soap is still thick and then heated for
2-3 hours. In order for all fatty acids to react with alkali. After that the soap can be directly used.
CHAPTER III
DISCUSSION

A. RESEARCH RESULTS
Soap is one of the surfactants made from the reaction between oil or fat with an alkali.
The reaction is known as saponification reaction. The process of making soap is divided into
three namely: cold process, semi hot process, and hot process. In the cold the preparation process
is carried out only by mixing between oil and alkali and then stirred until thick and finally
printed. While in semi hot process, fat or oil is heated first until it reaches 70˚C, then just mixing
in hot condition, stirring until thick about 30 minutes. After stirring it will occur two layers, the
top layer of glycerin and the bottom layer is a soap, separate between the two, the soap added
additives such as deodorizer and dye, stir back until blended, last printed and let stand for two
weeks and soap ready for use . In hot process, soap making process is not much different from
semi hot process, that is oil or fat is heated up to 120˚C, then mixing, stirring, separation between
glycerin and soap that happened, last added supporter substance that is dye and perfume, after a
flat print and leave for two weeks new soap ready for use.
Based on the theory of heat, When compared with the other two processes, the cold
process is the process of making the most simple and environmentally friendly soap. With cold
process we can save the energy of 20090 calories up to 34440 calories in a single production,
because it does not require heat or heat it does not add to the air pollution that has been
increasingly apprehensive.

In addition to making soap with cold process requires ingredients that are easy to get
around us. Semi hot process and hot process generally require material of animal fat (tallow)
which is still foreign and difficult to get. Another ingredient that is needed in hot process is salt
which is a catalyst that helps to precipitate soap. The advantages and disadvantages of these three
processes can be seen in the table below.
Table 1. Comparison.
Proses Procedure calori material Polution
Cold Proses Chalk, stir, print 0 Oil, alkali, nothing
perfume

Semi Hot Chalk, stir, separate, 31.500 kal Oil, alkali, there’s
Proses print perfume, energy
source

Hot Proses Chalk, stir, separate, 54.000 kal Oil, alkali, there’s
print perfume, energy
source, catalyst

A. Discussion

Each soap is made by reaction between oils with a substance called alkali or a very strong
base, because it is made by mixing an organic compound with an inorganic compound, soap
molecules retain some of the characteristics of the two compounds. The soap molecule has a
bipolar compound. The soap molecule has a hydrophilic (water-soluble) head and a hydrophobic
tail (soluble in oil or fat). The soap molecule has an organic foot that likes to hold hands with
oily organic ingredients and an inorganic head that loves to join the water compound. That is
why soap has unmatched ability in pulling oily dirt from the body into the water.

Everything we call foreign dirt or material is an oily material or attached with the help of
oil. And soap is a good and unique oil repellent. The way the soap works is to bind the oil into
the water, so that the oil and dirt can be rinsed off easily.

The soap molecules are long and thin. For almost the entire length (or "tail") the structure
is exactly the same as the oil molecules, because it has an affinity or familiarity with oil
molecules. But, at one end of the other (or "head") there is a pair of atoms that are electrically
charged so that they are merely happy to join the water molecules, and this is the head that keeps
the whole soap melting into the water that makes it dissolve.
When swimming in the water, when a group of soap molecules meet with oily dirt
particles on clothing, their oil-loving tail will bind themselves to oil molecules, while the head
keeps the soap molecules firmly in contact with water. As a result of oil attracted into the water,
then the dirt particles that were originally held hostage by oil are now free to come flowing with
water.

Alkaline in soap is obtained from NaOH solution that we can buy in building stores as an
anti-compression chemicals or can also be purchased at chemicals stores.

Meanwhile, the ingredients used in the manufacture of this soap greatly affect the
resulting soap. If oil is used with unsaturated acids and short chain, it will produce liquid soap.
Meanwhile, when used oil with saturated fatty acid content and a long chain, it will produce soap
that is not soluble at room temperature (soap solid).
CHAPTER IV

COVER

CONCLUSION

From the research that has been done then it can be concluded as follows:

1. The soap can be made by cold process without heating (cold process), ie only by mixing
between oil with alkali (NaOH) and then stirring until thick and last print. And the saponification
process will be perfect within two weeks.

2. Soap made from oil which is an organic compound and alkali compound which is an inorganic
compound, so the soap has bipolar nature where one end is hydrophilic which mean likes to
water compound and other tip is hydrophobic which mean likes to oil. That is why soap can
attract impurities attached to the skin and wasted along with water.

3. With cold process, many advantages obtained compared to the other two processes are: need
materials that are easy to obtain, cheaper cost, does not require heating so it does not require
energy, can save energy by 20090 calories up to 34440 calories. Because it does not require
heating so reducing air pollution.

SUGGESTION

While the suggestions put forward in this study are:

1. Need for socialization in making this simple and environmentally friendly soap or making
soap with cold process.

2. Can be improved by trying to make soap using active agent (mixture) other than olive oil such
as milk, honey and other herbal compounds in accordance with the needs of the skin.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

http: // insidewinme.blogspot.com/2007/09/membuat-sabun-mandi-sendiri.html

http://id.answer.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080925015947AAR3Icd

http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sabun

Purwanto, Budi, 2006. Physics 1B Theory and Its Implementation. Three Musketeers; Solo

Sumpena.files.wordpress.com/2007/03/make your own soap.ppt

Sutresna, Nana. 2004. Chemical Science for SMP class VII. Grafindo Media Pratama.Bandung