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BASIC

RS Rhodes & LB Cook


ENGINEERING
DRAWING

R S RHODES
M Weld J, Diploma in Advanced Studies in Education.
Lecturer responsible for Engineering Drawing
Stafford College of Further Education.

L B COOK
B A (Hons), MIED, Cert Ed.
Lecturer in Engineering Drawing
Stafford College of Further Education.

Pitman Publishing
PITMAN PUBLISHING LIMITED
39 Parker Street London WC2B 5PB

Associated Companies
Copp Clark Ltd, Toronto
Fearon-Pitman Publishers Inc, Belmont, California
Pitman Publishing New Zealand Ltd, Wellington
Pitman Publishing Pty Ltd, Melbourne

© R S Rhodes & L B Cook 1975, 1978

First published in Great Britain 1975


reprinted (with corrections and amendments) 1978

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be


reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording and/or otherwise without the
prior written permission of the publishers. This book
may not be lent, resold, hired out or otherwise disposed
of by way of trade in any form of binding or cover other
than that in which it is published, without the prior
consent of the publishers.

Camera copy prepared by Morgan-Westley /W


Printed in Great Britain by Unwin Brothers Ltd
The Gresham Press, Old Woking, Surrey
A member of the Staples Printing Group ACCESSION
) No.

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ISBN: 273 318£7 X

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.

This book contains what we consider to be the "basics" of


Engineering Drawing. Orthographic Projection, Conventions,
Sectioning, Pictorial Representation and Dimensioning have
been covered in detail as we feel that a thorough under-
standing of these topics forms a sound foundation upon which
to build. All technical information, examples, exercises
and solutions have been compiled in accordance with the
latest "metric" drawing office standards - B.S. 308:1972.
The book has not been written for any specific course
but can be profitably used both by students being introduced
to Engineering Drawing and also by those who have acquired a
little knowledge of the subject and wish to consolidate and
increase their understanding by working through carefully
graded exercises. It should prove useful for Craft, Tech-
nician (T.E.C.), O.N.D., C.S.E. and G.C.E. students and
also for those H.N.D. and Degree students with little
drawing experience. The book is seen primarily as a student
self-educator though no doubt many teachers will find it
useful as a reference source and/or exercise "bank"
Topics have been presented in a similar manner wherever
possible. Generally the opening page introduces the topic,
the next imparts the basic facts - visually rather than
verbally wherever possible. An illustrative example is
provided to aid understanding and this is followed by a
series of carefully graded exercises.
We are well aware of the dangers of presenting exer-
cises which are known to contain errors. They have been
included because in our experience they are the common
misconceptions among students of engineering drawing. In
all cases the correct method and answers are given, some-
times immediately following the example, or in the solutions
at the end of the book.
It must be emphasized that this book not only trans-
mits information it is also a work-book. Do not be afraid
of drawing and writing on the pages! If maximum benefit is
to be derived from the book then the old maxim, "I do and I
understand" must be the students' guide.
We thank those people whose observations and suggestions
have helped us improve upon the first edition of the book.
We also wish to thank the British Standards Institution for
allowing, usf to use extracts from B.S. 308:1972.
Contents

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION 1

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION: FIRST ANGLE 2

Lines 5

Missing detail 11 •

Missing views 12 •

Sketching orthographic views 13 •

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION: THIRD ANGLE 14


Comparison of first and third angle projection • 15

SECTIONING 21
The rules of sectioning 22 •

Sectioning : exceptions 23 •

Staggered section planes 24 •

Exercises 25 •

TERMINOLOGY 33

ABBREVIATIONS 36

CONVENTIONAL REPRESENTATION 38
Screw threads 38 •

Springs 39

Shaft details 40 •

Knurling 41 •

Bearings 41 •

Long components 42 •

Gears •43

TESTS 45
Test for terminology 45 •

Test for abbreviations 46 •

Test for conventional representations 47 •

Test for abbreviations > terminology j and


conventional representations 48 •
PICTORIAL DRAWING 49

PICTORIAL DRAWING: ISOMETRIC 50


Inclined edges 51 •

Exercises 52

Construction of ellipses 55 •

Examples •5 7
Exercises 58

Isometric freehand drawing 59 •

PICTORIAL DRAWING: OBLIQUE 61


Methods of construction 62 •

Inclined edges 63 •

Methods of constructing oblique circles • 64


Methods of constructing oblique ellipses • 65
Examples •66

DIMENSIONING 68
Arrangement of dimensions * 72
Dimensioning circles 73 •

Dimensioning radii 74 •

Dimensioning angles 75 •

Designation of plain holes • 76


Location dimensions 77 •

Exercises 78•

LIMITS AND FITS FOR HOLES AND SHAFTS 84


Limit systems 86 •

Fit • 87
Conventional method of illustrating terms • 89

ISO METRIC SCREW THREADS 91

Designation 92 •

Screw threads 3 nuts and bolts • 93


Nuts and bolts exercises 94 •

ASSEMBLY DRAWINGS 95
General assembly 96 •

Sectioned assembly 98 •

Exercises 99•

DEVELOPMENTS 105

PARALLEL LINE DEVELOPMENT 106

RADIAL LINE DEVELOPMENT 120


Pyramids • 120
Right cones 124

TRIANGULATION 130
SOLUTIONS 136
First angle orthographic projection 137

Third angle orthographic projection 140


-

Sectioning • 144
Terminology 3 abbreviations 3 conventional representation • 148
Isometric drawing 149

Oblique drawing 153


Dimensioning 155

Limits and fits 161


Sectioned assemblies 162


Developments: parallel line 165 •

Developments : radial line 172


Developments : triangulation 180 •


Orthographic Projection
Communication
There are many different ways of communicating ideas, informa-
tion, instructions, requests, etc. They can be transmitted by
signs or gestures, by word of mouth, in writing, or graphically.
In an industrial context the graphical method is commonly used,
communication being achieved by means of engineering drawings.
If oral and written communication only were used when
dealing with technical matters, misunderstandings could arise,
particularly in relation to shape and size. The lack of a univ-
ersal spoken language makes communication and understanding even
more difficult because of the necessity to translate both words
and meaning from one language to another.
However, the universally accepted methods used in graphical
communication through engineering drawings eliminate many of
these difficulties and make it possible for drawings prepared by
a British designer to be correctly interpreted or "read" by, for
example, his German, French or Dutch counterpart.
Equally important, the components shown on the drawings
could be made by suitably skilled craftsmen of any nationality
provided they can "read" an engineering drawing.
Conventionally prepared engineering drawings provide the
main means of communication between the "ideas" men (the design-
ers and draughtsmen) and the craftsmen (machinists, fitters,
assemblers, etc.). For the communication to be effective, every-
one concerned must interpret the drawings in the same way. Only
then will the finished product be exactly as the designer envis-
aged it.
To ensure uniformity of interpretation the British Standards
Institution have prepared a booklet entitled BS 308:1972, Engin-
eering Drawing Practice. Now in three parts, this publication
recommends the methods which should be adopted for the prepara-
tion of drawings used in the engineering industry.
The standards and conventions in most common use and hence
those required for a basic understanding of Engineering Drawing
are illustrated and explained in this book.

Orthographic Projection
In the engineering industry communication between the drawing
office and the workshop is achieved mainly by means of engineer-
ing drawings. The principal method used to prepare these drawings
is known as Orthographic Projection.
Basically, Orthographic Projection is the representation of
a three-dimensional component on a flat surface (the drawing
sheet) in two-dimensional form. At least two orthographic views,
therefore, are required to indicate fully the shape and size of a
component. If the component is a complicated one then usually
more than two views are shown to aid understanding.
In this country two methods of Orthographic Projection are
used. One is known as First Angle Orthographic Projection (often
referred to as English Projection) , the other as Third Angle
Orthographic Projection (American Projection) . Both methods of
representation are illustrated and explained in this section.
5

Orthographic Projection: First Angle


The pictorial drawing opposite indicates
the shape of the component with a single
view. Fig.l
An orthographic drawing indicates
the shape of a component by using a
number of views each looking at a
different face of the component.
At least two views are necessary
to fully represent the component.
Usually, however, three views are
shown in order to clarify internal
and external detail:

(1) A Front View


(2) A Plan View
(3) A Side View

Fig. 2 (1) The front view, or front elevation,


represents what is seen when looking
at the front of the component in the
direction of arrow F.

Front View (F)


TTT '
Fig. 3
1
i
i 1 I

(2) The plan view represents what is


seen when looking at the top of the
component in the direction of arrow
P at 90° to arrow F.

Plan View (P)

(3) A side view, or side elevation, represents what is seen when


looking at the side of the component in the direction of either
arrow R or arrow L. These arrows are at 90 to both arrow F
and arrow P.

View looking in View looking in


direction of direction of
arrow R. arrow L.

Ri ght-Hand Left-Hand
Side View Side View
(R) (L)
Fig. 4 Fig.
.

The separate views of the component are combined to form a


complete orthographic drawing as shown below.
The front and side views are drawn in line with each other
so that the side view may be "projected" from the front view
and vice versa.
The plan view is drawn in line with and below tne front view.
In other words, the plan is projected from the front view.

R L
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< Note!
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:

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This symbol means

f'irst Angle Ortho-

. graphic Projection,
F i g . 6

Points to note when making a drawing using First Angle Ortho-


graphic Projection:

(1) Corresponding heights in the front view and side view are
the same
For example, the height of the hole from tne base, H, is
the same in both front and side views.
The thickness of the base, T, is the same in both front
and side views.

(2) Widths in the side view correspond to depths in the plan.


For example, the total width, D, in the side view is the
same as the total depth, D, in the plan.
The width, d, is the same in both plan and side views.

Projection of widths from side view to plan is made easier


by using the 4 5° swing line as shown.

(3) The plan view is usually projected BELOW the front view.
It can be above but this would be called an "inverted" plan.

(4) The R.H. side view is shown on the L.H. side of the front view.
The L.H. side view is shown" on the R.H. side of the front view.

Note: Drawings should be read (or interpreted) by viewing


from the R.H. side or bottom R.H. corner of the drawing.
The orthographic drawing of the bracket, Fig. 6, was constructed
step by step as follows:

STEP 1.The face to be used as the front view of the component was
chosen, in this case, looking in tne direction of arrow F (Fig-1) .

The selection of the front view is purely arbitrary.

STEP 2. The outline of tne


front view was drawn FAINTLY
in the position shown opp-
osite leaving room on the
drawing sheet for a plan
view and also both end views
to be added.

STEP 3. The outlines of the


plan view and side views
were projected FAINTLY from
the front view and
positioned as shown opposite

STEP 4. All remaining


external details were added
and centre lines inserted
as shown opposite.

STEP 5. All hidden detail, i.e. for hole and recess, was added and
the outline "heavied-in" to complete the drawing as shown in Fig. 6.
.

For general engineering drawings, the following types


Lines of lines should be used.

1 — Visible outlines

2 — Dimension lines
Projection lines
Construction lines
Hatching or section lines
Leader lines for notes
3 -- Hidden detail

Centre lines
4 ;Pitch circles

(Cutting or viewing
5 planes
(

(Short break lines


6 j Irregular boundary
( lines

Typical applications of some of the recommended types of lines


have been shown in previous figures and are further illustrated
below.

Hidden detail:
short
thin
dashes

©Centre Construc-
lines: tion lines:
long thin
thin continuous
chain I(these
are
erased on

©
Outlines
completion
of drawing.)

thick
continuous
£3-
HIDDEN DETAIL
The line numbered 3 above is used to represent hidden detail, i.e.
edges, holes, surfaces, etc., which are known to exist but cannot
be seen when viewed from outside the component
Note: A hidden detail line is a broken line
not a dotted line
The following drawings are further examples of components drawn
correctly in First Angle Orthographic Projection. Study each drawing
carefully until you understand how each view is obtained.

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the drawings 1 to 12. Insert the letter in the space provided.
Example: the missing view from drawing number 1 is C. Solns. p. 137

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Sketch ng orthographic
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The components shown below are
drawn pictorially.

For each component sketch in good ^Xf\<

vided, a front view, a plan


view and a l.n. side view.
Sketch the front view look-
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as shown on the right. Solns. p. 139
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Orthographic Projection: Third Angle


You may remember from information presented
earlier in the text that there are two
methods of orthographic projection used in
the preparation of engineering drawings.
You should, by now, be quite conversant
with one of them - First Angle Orthographic
Projection. The other is known as Third
Angle Orthographic Projection. j

When representing a three-dimensional


component in Third Angle Orthographic
Projection, the basic views are exactly
the same as those shown when using First
Angle Orthographic Projection. The
difference between First Angle and Third
Angle is in the positioning of the views
relative to each other.

In Third Angle Orthographic Projection the individual views are


placed on the drawing sheet in projection with each other as shown;

'
1

i I I

Note!

This symbol means


PLAN VIEW
looking from P Third Angle Ortho-

graphic Projection.

LEFT-HAND SIDE VIEW FRONT VIEW RIGHT-HAND SIDE VIEW


looking from L looking from F looking from R

Special points (1) The plan is always projected ABOVE the front
to note: view

(2) The right-hand side view is shown on the


RIGHT-hand side of the front view.
(3) The left-hand side view is shown on the
LEFT-hand side of the front view.

14

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17
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18
.

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the
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missing •
component 1
which
method
_, 1

Angle xi
opposite
Projection
Orthographic
w O H
been also
Oh H
projection
w ft >
the space H 141
a view

First which has and <D


rH p.
of drawing.
add
1
the the e
Angle
of 1

drawings added X
views
either
thographic

ojection
Decide
ojection
then in a) w 1
Solns.
each
Name
c ft 1

ird
thod
< low.

e o d ew en
<
Xi •? G S-l xi U •h a) a) CD X
Eh 4-1 -H o Eh ft a,
:

) : > xi e *
H X! w

19
- f

The components below are drawn pictorially. For each component


sketch an orthographic drawing, in good proportion, using Third
Angle Orthographic Projection. Sketch a front view in the
direction of F, a plan view and a right-hand side view showing
all hidden detail. Use the 5 mm squared grid on page 6 7 with
tracing paper to aid sketching if you wish. Solution on p. 142.

2
1
S
I**- s
N
/
f <Z\
\
*—
<%s 1 —
_^ K\ ; , /
(\
\ *

/
—r /
/ * / /
r
1
/
f

/
/
f 1

\\
— ^

. ,/
f"

—1~
/
/J' ^m /
/
/ L

\\
>»-. *.*
/J
,

/
i
/
t
/j '

F-
"
^
r „,l

3.
\ >l
5""^
\v
\
4
5p—
/\ nJ5 — S— \
\ s \ \\
Jr*\
s
Iti k
\
s_. \ \
\r
i

I J
\\ \ s^ ^ /
]

//
:: - I
pH r *\
> ^ KJ
- Sw S
— f
_M-<
s
-

\
\
\ r—
\
s

\
\
F \^
F
5. A partly sectioned assembly drawing in shown on page 48.
Sketch, in good proportion, using 5 mm squared paper or the
grid on page 67, an EXTERNAL front view, side view and plan
view of the complete assembly using Third Angle Orthographic
Projection. Solns. p. 141 and p. 142

20
Sectioning
Drawings of the outside of simple components are often
sufficient to convey all the information necessary to make
the component. More complicated components, however, may
require sectional views to clarify internal details.
A sectional view is obtained
when one imagines the
component to be cut through
a chosen section plane - often
on a centre line.

If the vee-block is cut


on section plane C-C as
shown above, the result-
ing sectional view
projected from the plan
replaces the usual front
view of the outside of
the block.

End view Sectional Front View


looking on cutting plane C-C
-E3
Sectional views are drawn only when it is necessary to explain
the construction of a complex object or assembly. Some of tne
examples used in the next few pages have been chosen to illus-
trate the rules of sectioning although in practice, as in the
case of the vee-block drawn above, a sectional view may not
have been necessary

The draughtsman has to decide how a component or assembly


should be sectioned in order to provide the fullest possible
information. The recommendations of BS 308 enable him to do
this in a way tnat is understood by all engineers.

21
.

The rules of sectioning

1. A sectioned object is shown Size of sectioned


by lines drawn preferably part determines line
at 45' Thin lines touch spacing - preferably
the outline. not less than 4 mm.

2. If two adjacent parts '/ti Lines are staggered


are sectioned, the
section lines are
y
Wk where the parts are
in contact.
drawn in opposite
///, >§^
directions

3 . Where more than two Section lines are


parts of an assembly closer together on
are to be sectioned, the third area —
the lines cannot all usually the smallest
be opposite.

The sectional view of


a symmetrical object 7
is obtained when the
section plane cuts
V///X
through the obvious
centre line.
Hatching may be omitted
if the meaning is clear A
without it.

cz
Secti onal Vi ew
5. If an object is NOT
symmetrical the section
plane chosen should be
clearly stated, ^-j

Section A-A

22
Sectioning: exceptions
There are a number of features and parts which are NOT normally-
sectioned even though they may lie in the section plane. A
good way to accept these exceptions to the general rule is to
imagine how complicated the drawing would look if they were
sectioned. They are sectioned, however, when they lie ACROSS
the section plane. See section D-D. *

Sectioned shaft Shaft lying


is more difficult in the
to visualize than secti on plane
it is when
not sectioned.

Secti onal
End View

BS 308 states that the following are NOT sectioned even if they
lie in a given section plane:

Shafts Keys Rivets Ribs Pins Dowels


Cotters Bolts Gear Wheels Nuts Webs Washers
Some of these are illustrated in BS 308 by this diagram:

Shaft D
Spindle)
(
\

Washer

Section D-D
Cas ting only

23
Staggered section planes
Each part of the section
plane is swung to the
vertical before projecting
to the sectional End View.

By using this convention


the draughtsman avoids using
too many auxiliary views.

A staggered section plane


Section X-X should only be used when
Examples there is a resulting gain
in clarity.

-*-r !
+
1<t3>
TB
IM . n,
T
B

Section A-A
Re-al igned
Section B-B
Staggered or offset

Applications of this
convention to Spoke
specific cases are
given below. Solid

Section C-C Section D-D Section E-E


Re vol ved Revol ved Revol ved

24
Errors in sectioning occur in each of the drawings below.
Trace or re-draw a correct sectional view in each case.
State the method of projection used where applicable.
Solns. p. 144

25
~.
i

A
V
I -d
A
Example
N
H V
i

qj 7
'A h
v,
~d

-4.

e 7"

i • i

7 8 PT
A
IM
W EZ
7
YZA
K G
From the lettered drawings choose the correct
sectional view for each numbered drawing.
Sketch the view in the space provided. Solns. p. 144 s
26
(XX)

\y
K
-LLL
B
rv

td
M
}
r\

7
a 8

f\
cffi
10 N

1 ..1

Q
From the lettered drawings choose the correct
sectional view for each numbered drawing.
Sketch the view in the space provided. Solns. p. 144
-e*

27
Sectioning
exercises
Solns. p. 145

j 'j

B
-i 6
i

Tc

1. Complete the sectional front view looking on plane C-C,


2. Complete the sectional end view looking on plane B-B.

F — End View
Section E-E

F^-
(Both holes

right through)

1. Draw an end view looking in the direction of arrows F-F.


2. Complete the sectional front view looking on plane D-D.
3. Complete the sectional end view looking on plane E-E.

28
1 '

c 0) m
s
r -p
P
U
<
(0
u
0)
H
C

> o
n
u -P
Q) -P
XI 0) u
-P > o (D
-H •H p. Di
H ft tn en fe (0
ft

G •
O m
h-
n C
Z
O
x\
w
G
<-\

ft

in

r-\
o o
X\
-p

o
w 0)
w
o

—— 1
1
en

ft
e
o

H
(d t3
X 0)
03

0)
>
o O
•H
-rH
(0 -P
-p O
p 0) 0)
•n
0)
U -H -P O
> U
P.
C ft
0) -P •H
IH
c
-p o O
-H u
w atjiutu -h o
-p
(U 0)
XI e
h- p
xi
-p -p
d)

ftp
g (0
O -P
aw

C 0)

C 0)

U(D
!

C/)(D
I-

29
Sectioning exercises Solns. p. 146

IT n rn—
_1L
r
i .
— \

1
r- ^

-0-^—- i-

30
r

Sectioning exercises Solns . p. 146

1 IT

—— i II

O:

^
1
'
i
i i ii
1

J L J_
1

i
._..i

\
3
nn

L i

31
f\.
TJ
(1)

c tn
3
a,
rH tP rn
fO c -H
C -H CO
r* C c
-H O n rH
P o •H O
O rH P
<u
03 +J
C)
(l)
~ CO

G •r-i
i
<H 0) n
C u
«• o 0. 3
wo Q
(U
o g
fO o
04
a m C) Q 4-1
n
\u b.^-^. s
*-\ CU

u o CU cu cu
p
CD
c c c C
rO (0 m
(1)

<fl
TI
o
o CD
T3
M -G -I rH rH rH n
O -P Pu 0. Pu &. +j
cu
^m tn en tn d R
XJo C c c C .if
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p & -P p p -P C)
0) 0) P pp P •H
r* -H 3 ^ 3 3 XJ
CO > U UUU 3:

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t-^.-_"
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L

32
.

Information on Engineering Drawings


Communication between the drawing office and the workshop is mainly
achieved via the engineering drawing - orthographic and/or pictorial.
In order to reduce drafting time a number of standard parts are '

drawn in a simplified form and many items of written information are


abbreviated. In BS 308 Part 1:1972 recommendations have been made for

Conventional representation of commonly used parts & materials and


Abbreviations of terms frequently used on drawings.
Before this engineers' "shorthand" can be used correctly it is
necessary to understand the terms used to describe features of
engineering components. This terminology is common to both drawing
office and workshop and is often used when discussing the various
manufacturing and machining processes used in engineering.

Terminology
HOUSING A component into which

a "male" mating part fits, sits


or is "housed".

BUSH A removable sleeve or liner.

Known alternatively as a simple


Bush
(bearing) bearing. Fig. shows a flanged bush.

BASE (or FOOT) That part upon


Vee
Block which the component rests

RECESSED SURFACE Ensures better


seating of the base. Minimises

Recessed machining of the base.


Base or Foot
Surface
BOSS A cylindrical projection on
Curved
Slot the surface of a component -

usually a casting or a forging.


CURVED SLOT An elongated hole
whose centre line lies on an arc.
Boss
Usually used on components whose
position has to be adjusted.

33
Terminology
FILLET A rounded portion, or

radius, suppressing a sharp

internal corner.
Rib

RIB A reinforcement positioned

Fillet: to stiffen surfaces usually at

right angles to each other

KEY A small block or wedge

inserted between a shaft and

mating part (a hub) to prevent

circumferential movement.

KEYWAY A parallel sided groove


or slot cut in a bore or on a

shaft to 'house' a mating key.

Tee Flat
Groove
(slot) FLAT A surface

machined
parallel to

the shaft axis.

Usually used to

locate and/or lock a mating


TEE SLOT Machined to "house"
mating fixing bolts and prevent component.
them turning

HEXAGON HEXAGON TAPER DOWEL


PIN COTTER
HEAD HEAD PIN
or SPLIT
BOLT SCREW STUD PIN
f4=* n ®
Note
thread
lengths
A cylindrical
A pin pin used to (3D
used locate mating
for parts, Used for
4=4=^1 yj fastening fastening

34
. ,

Terminology
Many different types of holes may be seen on engineering drawings.

The more common ones, associated with drilling, reaming and/or

tapping, are shown below in Fig.l. The name and where appropriate

the application of each is indicated.

Figures 2 and 3 indicate the different terms which may be seen on


drawings that are associated particularly with lathe work.
1 2 3 4 5

///
1

i
//7 7///

W
i
1 1

Fig.l
/
//
1
7/
s\
V
y// 1
i

w>
1. A drilled hole or, if greater accuracy is required, a reamed hole,
2. A 'blind' tapped hole i.e., a threaded hole which passes only part
way through the plate.
3. A countersunk hole. Provides a mating seat for a countersunk
headed screw or rivet.
4. A oounterbore Provides a 'housing' for the heads of capscrews
.

bolts, etc.
5. A spotfaae A much shallower circular recess.
. Provides a
machined seat for nuts, bolt heads, washers, etc.
Straight
Knurling Shoulder Undercut
(or groove)

Chamfer Keyway Taper Domed or Spherical


F i g . 2 End
This is a machining symbol. (It indicates
Standard that a surface is to be machined, without
Centre defining either the surface texture
grade or process to be used)

Radius Collar or Splines Fig. 3


Flange

35
H

Abbreviations
Many terms and expressions in engineering need to be written on
drawings so frequently as to justify the use of abbreviations which
help to reduce drafting time and costs. Many of these abbreviations
have been standardized as can be seen in BS 308: 1972: section 11.
A selection of the more commonly used ones are stated and clarified
in the following tables.

ABBREVIATION MEANING SKETCH/NOTES

A/C Across corners

A/F Across flats


HEX HO
HEX HD Hexagon head

ASSY Assembly See page 96

CRS Centres "W~ 25 CRS *4s



+
£ or CL

CHAM
CH HD
Centre line

Chamfered

Cheese head
CHAM

^
I
^
U
]S ^
I CH HD
SCREW

CSK Countersunk CSK ^5 -CSK


SCREW

C'BORE Counterbore C'BORE

CYL Cylinder or cylindrical

DIA Diameter (in a note)

Diameter
t (preceding a dimension)
Radius (preceding a
R dimension, capital only)
DRG Drawing

FIG. Figure

LH Left hand

LG Long

MATL Material

NO. Number

36
ABBREVIATION MEANING SKETCH/NOTES

PATT NO. Pattern number

PCD Pitch circle diameter


4 HOLES
& 3 e<?u/-
s PACED ON
,/D Inside diameter 16 PCD

0/ D Outside diameter

RH Right hand

RD HD Round head /^r*\ RD HD


L * SCREW

SCR Screwed
S ' FACE

SPEC Specification

S'FACE Spotf ace

SO Square (in a note) See page 4 for


Square conventional
(preceding a dimension) representation

STD Standard

U CUT Undercut

M/CD Machined

mm Millimetre

NTS Not to scale

RPM Revolutions per minute SI symbol: rev/min

SWG Standard wire gauge

TPI Threads per inch


L
* Abbreviations commonly used in practice but not listed in
BS 308: Part 1: 1972

Notes
(1) Abbreviations are the same in the singular and plural.
(2) Capital letters are shown above, lower case letters may
be used where appropriate. For other abbreviations upper
or lower case letters should be used as specified by
other relevant British Standards.
(3) Full stops are not used except when the abbreviation makes
a word which may be confusing, e.g. NO. for 'number'.

37
Conventional Representation
of Common Features: Screw threads
There are many components commonly used in engineering which are com-
plicated to draw in full. In order to save drawing time, these parts
are shown in a simplified, conventional form. Some of the more
frequently drawn features are shown in this section.

Subject - STUD Convention


The screw thread is represented by
two parallel lines. The distance be-
tween these lines is approximately
i; equal to the depth of thread.
t
Note The inside line is THIN and
the circle is broken \

4 b».

External Screw Thread


(Stud, bolt, set-screw, etc.) Front view Side view

TAPPED The shape of the hole formed by


"BLIND HOLE" the tapping size drill is drawn
in heavy lines.

Note Section lines The outside


cross the line is THIN
thread and the circle
is broken

V

/
H
Internal Screw Thread Front view Side view

STUD INSIDE The external thread is super-


TAPPED HOLE imposed over the internal thread.

Note Section lines are not drawn


across the external thread.

Screw Threads
(Assembly) Front view Side view

38
Conventional representation: Springs
A spring is designated by stating the diameter of the wire, the
coil diameter (inside or outside), the form of the spring ends,
the total number of coils and its free length - See BS 1726.
In the case of the compression spring, the pitch of the coils
may be deduced from its free length and number of coils.

Subject Convention

t_I 9 ?I *I I i *
i I I

COMPRESSION SPRING
Note Diameter
of wire
The construction on
the right shows how
the convention may
be drawn from the
spring details.
Extreme accuracy is
not essential; for
example, a radius This method is only
gauge may be used used for quick dia-
for the small radii.
grammatic sketches

TENSION SPRING
Note

The construction on
the right shows once
again how the pitch
of the coils may be
used to set out the Diagrammatic
convention.
representation

39
Conventional representation: Shaft Details
It is frequently necessary to fix a component to one end of a shaft
or spindle so that a torque may be transmitted. Examples below are:
(1) Square on shaft Machine handles, valve wheel spindle.
(2) Serrated shaft Typical example - steering wheel to column on car,
(3) Splined shaft Drive shaft on machine or vehicle when sliding
also has to take place, e.g. in a gear box.

Subject Convention
See page 96 for
square on valve
spindle.

SQUARE ON the
end of a long
^
SHAFT Side view

The enlarged sketch


shows how the serrations
may be constructed

SERRATED SHAFT

Note Note
Thirty-six serrations are Vi ew on Only a few teeth
shown for convenience only serrated end need be shown

Splines are usually


drawn with parallel
sides as emphasized
in the enlarged sketch

SPLINED SHAFT

Note
Twelve splines are shown View on Refer to section on
for convenience only splined end terminology - page 35

40
.

Conventional representation: Knurling


Knurling is a common method of providing a roughened surface to aid
tightening or slackening of a screw by hand. This is formed by
pressing special rollers against the surface of the component whilst
it revolves in a lathe. The commonly used diamond and straight knurls
are shown below.
Subject Convention

I
s*m*wm**& j
>
i >
I'-'.:':"

DIAMOND KNURL on
a machine screw head

t *\
JT'

*'',

i ft
v /

STRAIGHT KNURL on
a circuit terminal

Bearings
Notice how ich it

less drawing is
necessary in order
to represent any
ball or roller
bearing in a
conventional
manner

E
Cross-section of a fl
double row
self-aligning
ball bearing.
332
m
See assembly BALL
drawing on page 103

41
Conventions I representat ion :

Long Components
There are occasions when bars, shafts, spindles or tubes may be
too long to be drawn to a reasonable scale. In such cases the
elevation may be interrupted as shown below.
Subject Convention

RECTANGULAR BAR

CIRCULAR SHAFT OR SPINDLE

HOLLOW SHAFT OR TUBE


«
Remember that this circle
is called the pitch circle
MULTIPLE HOLES diameter or PCD

When a large number of


holes of equal diameter
are equi-spaced around
a diameter or in line,
only one hole need be
drawn in full with the
remainder marked with
a short centre-line
as shown in the
drawings on the right.
Holes on a circular pitch

0- -0-

-p —0~"~^
p 0"

Holes on a linear pitch

42
Conventional representation: Gears (1)
Before gears can be drawn a great deal of background knowledge
about their nomenclature and construction must be acquired.
The following drawings of gears are presented as conventions only.

Subject - GEARS Convent-ion

Note

Side view
of gear
wheel is
in
section.

*'!.»»»!

SPUR GEAR Single spur gear

Note
jL
A pinion is so called Si de XS
when it has a relatively vi ew
small number of teeth
compared with its Pinion
mating gear wheel.

In mesh with a. pinion

Wheel

WORM AND WHEEL

Worm
and
wheel
in
mesh.

Worm

43
. .

Conventional representation: Gears (2)


A good example of how a complex component may be drawn relatively
simply is the bevel gear. The assembly shown below is of a pair of
gears of equal size, the direction of motion being changed through
an angle of 90°. In this arrangement, the gears are often referred
to as mitre wheels
The gears may be of differing sizes, of course, and the angle
between the shafts may be other than 90°. In this latter case, the
side view of the gear assembly would have to show one gear as an
ellipse

Sub j eat Convention

BEVEL WHEEL

Assembly
of a pair
of bevel
gears set
at 90° to
each other.

Note BS 308: Part I: 1972 deals with a number of features which


require to be shown less frequently than those illustrated
in this section. They are:
Thread inserts; repeated parts; semi-elliptic springs;
conical springs; torsion springs and a rack and pinion.
Summary In all cases, conventional representation should only be
used when it saves drawing time. Where it is not con-
sidered adequate, a more detailed view should be shown.

44

cu

Sh
oo O
i"
rH
U X)

CU
Q -p
(0
M
0)

4->
CU
3
13
CU
CT> 4-1
Sh
cu

tT> 4-1 Cn c x: G cu
rd M (0 G X! fO CO p X!
0j <U X! O CU -H 3 O 3
g
CO CO Eh £ fe PQ u Eh

o
g
>
H
C7>
13
CU
M O =
13 Sh >i 4->
13
CU
CU
u
cu
(0 G (0 (0 O G 4-1 <+H
•H CU iH S fr H 4-1
g
to rH rH rH >i •H H aj to
G 03
a
O O CD & ax; x:
•H >H
= u « CO CO CO u
P
3 g
rH «
o <
co

0)
>
4->
cu
CD 3 o
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46
Test for conventional representations
Select, from the array, the names of the items for which the
following diagrams are conventional representations.
Insert in the answer column the corresponding number and letter,

Solutions on page 148


Conventional reps Answer

Example
ea 4C
ARRAY

B
EL
E ET
Worm
Wheel
Shoulder
Knurling
Bevel
Gear

;K^-l;
Tension Round Spur
spring Shaft Gear

External Break in
Screw Splined
Shaft Rectangular
Thread Shaft
£
Break in
A Resistor Worm Tubular
Shaft

Square on Form of
Machining Compression

^
Shaft spring
Symbol

7 Internal
Machine
All Over Screw Counterbore
Thread

8
Serrated Diamond
7 Bearing
ri ^ Shaft Knurling
1

Weld-
Collar Straight
10
8 symbol Knurling

47
48
Pictorial Drawing

A component may be represented graphically in various ways.


An Orthographic Drawing, for example, requiring a minimum of
two views to fully communicate the size and shape of a com-
ponent, is used in engineering mainly to convey manufacturing
instructions from the designer to the craftsman. On the
other hand a well executed Pictorial Drawing, adequately
representing all but the most complicated components using
one view only, is used mainly as an aid to visualization of
the shape of a component rather than for communicating
detailed instructions for manufacture.
A pictorial drawing, generally, is a quickly produced,
approximately scaled representation of a component - a
"picture" rather than an accurately scaled line drawing.
There are many different types of pictorial representa-
tion. Two of the most commonly used ones are known as
Isometric Drawing and Oblique Drawing both of which are dis-
cussed in detail in this section.

Note! There is a method of isometric representation, more


precise than the one discussed here, known as Isometric
Projection. This method is much more time-consuming, and
therefore less commonly used, because all sizes for the
drawings have to be transferred from a specially constructed
isometric scale. It is the approximate method of represent-
ation, Isometric Drawing, which is used in this section.

49
» .

Pictorial Drawing: Isometric


\^ — |3 SC1 — Plan
P
Note:
All receding
lines are
in drawn
— -
at 300.
1
All lines
are drawn
7

t
full-size,

s P SV/^
Arrow L - Looking from LEFT
Arrow D - Looking DOWN. Isometric drawing
When making an isometric drawing from orthographic views of a
component use an isometric grid at first, as shown above.
Follow this simple procedure:
1. Choose the direction from which the component is to be viewed
so that the resulting isometric drawing will show the most
detail of the component. Compare the isometric drawings below.

Example A is drawn looking


from the left and down, and
is a good representation of
the component

Example C shows the same


detail but is drawn from
a different direction.

All of the other drawings


fail to; show some of the
details of the component.

Draw the outline 3. Use distances from Heavy-in the


of a box into which the orthographic views lines when
the component will to set out points the outline
just fit. within this box, e.g. P. is completed.

50
.

Isometric drawing: inclined edges


-hdU square

I sometri c

When components have sloping surfaces, the edge distances in


the orthographic views are transferred to the isometric box
as shown by the dimension D in the above example.

-• — ^m- 2iiOlJARtS
i

o < 1

in
/
(Nl
\ /
1
E
1

1 1
A |

E E

I \ k>
/ \ y
S,
I
I v N T
-kr

4t \
1
( > .

The component shown above has surfaces sloping in two directions


resulting in inclined edges, for example, IE. In this case,
pairs of distances from the orthographic views are used to plot
points within the isometric box. Distances used in this, way for
location purposes are called ORDINATES
Note:- The angles of inclination in the orthographic views are
never transferred to the isometric box. When I and E
have been located, they are joined to produce the
correct slope in the isometric drawing.

51
— —
1

Isometr ic drawi ng exerc:ises , |


j
,

!
!
l
l '

i
i
j

j i

P >
5

i 1 1

1 2

I, i

V
I

_^ J
| i

\
\

-- tr
!
- "T
1
!

k
1
1
1 — i
—— 1 _

— ^!^ __l i
i

r
r,
/ ipm i
1,

1
I

3 ^ ' i
i ! 1 1 i

_ T<\ 1
1

\M /
r">k^ %/ j

U_i
\
|

1
j

V
!


:

\

1
1

!
— v
5 '
1 '
6
Make an isometric drawing of each component on tracing paper
placed over the isometric grid on page 60. Sizes for the ^__-,^ x^
isometric drawing are obtained by counting the relevant -£~~-\-
4rt/^
number of squares in the orthographic views * J v^x .

Solutions are given on p. 149.

52
— —

2
U
|
1
, : i

1
l


V>
i

V 1
"

1
|

' J

'
i
l 1 i i
1

3 j_ |

4
i

\ -U ^1 ^ -» /
I 1 I


— i
I

/

r—
\ /

qi A
y /
/ ^/
i

\
\ / \
U
n .J, / \
I [ 1
~1 1 1 ! i
n
— i

-i j—
!
5 6 L_ . 1 I

/
f
\
\
/
/


""

_,
'
'
1

1
'
'
i

i
n
Make an isometric drawing of each component shown above
using isometric paper. If the isometric grid size
differs from that of the squared grid, transfer EQUAL
numbers of divisions from the orthoqraphic views to the -TO.
1 so met ric dr awi ng S ol ut ic ns are give>n an P ag e 14 9. <
_*
iff^
^ ^T
53
Make an isometric drawing of each component shown above
using tracing paper with the isometric grid or using
isometric paper. Solutions are given on page 150.
Always start with a faintly drawn "isometric box" which
provides three faces from which to set out ordinates.

54
. . .

Isometric drawing: construction of ellipses (1)

s*
r
B-4
I ^\ A shape which is circular on
an orthographic view is shown
H as an ellipse on an isometric
drawing.
The following constructions
\V
y J illustrate 3 different methods
of producing the elliptical
shape

s Lines, called ordinates, are


drawn on the circle in the
orthographic view as shown.
Corresponding ordinates are
drawn on the isometric draw-
ing with the same spacing S.
The height H of each ordinate
on the true circle is trans-
ferred to the corresponding
ordinate on the isometric
drawing to form the outline
of the ellipse. These points
are joined with a neat
freehand curve
The more ordinates, the more
accurate the ellipse.
As the circle and ellipse are
symmetrical, the ordinates
need only be constructed in
a quarter-circle.

2. Diagonals are drawn on the


orthographic side view as
shown on the left.

Horizontal and vertical


ordinates are drawn to touch
the points where the circle
crosses the diagonals.

The ordinates are transferred


to the isometric box as shown
and the resulting points of
intersection P are joined
with a neat freehand curve.

As in method 1, only a
quarter-circle need be drawn
to obtain the four points
required
This method is useful for quick
freehand sketching but is not
as accurate as method 1.

55
. .

Isometric drawing: construction of ellipses (2)


In this method, the ellipse is
constructed on the isometric
box with compasses and several
construction lines are needed
to find the centres of arcs.

Centre lines and a diagonal


are drawn across the face of
the isometric box as shown.

Lines are drawn from the


bottom corner of the box B
to the mid-points of the
opposite sides.

The intersections C provide


the centres for both minor
arcs of the ellipse.

The corners of the box B


are the centres for the
major arcs of the ellipse.
If the centres have been
constructed accurately,
the arcs drawn with
compasses will blend
perfectly.

FRUSTUM
(a"beheaded" The ellipses of the conic
cone or frustum opposite have
pyramid) been drawn using method 3,
i.e. with compasses.

Make further isometric


drawings of the frustum
using methods 1 and 2 to
plot the ellipses

Compare the shapes and


sizes of the ellipses ob-
tained by the 3 methods

In general :

Method 1 gives the best


shaped ellipse and is very
useful when there is only
part of a circle to draw
on the face of the
isometric box.
However, methods 2 and 3
are more rapid than 1.

56
. .

Isometric drawing examples


EXAMPLE 1

An isometric drawing
of the Vee-block shown
The Vee and the
on page 21
sloping face
have been con-
structed by
using pairs of
ordinates as
shown on
page 51

The small
radius at the
intersection
of surfaces I
may be drawn:
The ellipses (a) using ordinates
have been or
constructed (b) with a radius
using method 3, gauge if the
i.e. with compasses. curve is small.

EXAMPLE 2
The incomplete
isometric drawing of
the component below
is viewed from the
right and
>v looking down

Use the procedure suggested on page 52 to complete the


isometric drawing in the space provided or make a complete
isometric drawing on isometric grid paper. For further
examples use the drawings provided for sectioning exercises
on pages 28-31 (solutions are not given)

57

Isometric drawing exercises

+
)

-1-1

IN ^ —
1-

i
m
*e-
Make an isometric drawing of each component shown above.
Construct the ellipses by using one of the methods —
illustrated on pages 55 and 56. L^_~T
^~~-J
In each case view the components in the direction
indicated by the arrow and looking down. Solns. p. 151.

58
— .

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of the
not
152.

p.
1 i\ I

<\
given

component
in need

of view
Solns.

on projection.
views,

Angle
is
provided.

consists
a component
detail

\/
drawing
sometric

reehand
of these isometric

example
7
First shown

raphic
pace idden
iews elow
ach age rom ach
n n e n
-M w Q4 > rH tn U-i <fl 0) 03 K £) <d X!

59
ISOMETRIC GRID - to be used for isometric sketches.
The above grid is composed of lines drawn at an angle of 30° which
intersect with vertical lines The equilateral triangles thus
.

formed have lengths of side equal to 5 mm.


Use the grid with tracing paper or detail paper.

60
Pictorial Drawing: Oblique
An oblique pictorial drawing
presents the component with
one of its faces as a true shape.
This true shape is drawn on tne
front face of the oblique box
L
y ^
as shown below.
v
L) N The longest face is usually-
drawn on the front of the oblique
box with receding lines between
h and \ full size.
_
Compare tnese oblique drawings.
1
'
Drawings 7, 8 and 9 represent
the shape of the component
better than the others.
Arrow L Looking from LEFT
Arrow D Looking DOWN. Note:- TL= TRUE LENGTH

S=£K3
5 HK
H
45'\!_TL
TL
'/2TU f
«fNL_TL
(D
30° r^ ©
TL

TL

61
. . .

Oblique drawing: methods of construction


There are many variations in angle, length of receding lines,
and directions from which a component may be viewed in order
to produce an oblique drawing, as can be seen by the examples
on the previous page. Different oblique drawings of the same
component may each provide the detail required.
In general: 1. The receding lines may be drawn at any angle
to the horizontal but an angle of 30°, 45°
or 60° is preferred as lines can be drawn
with set-squares.
2 Receding lines may be any proportion of their
true length. A good pictorial representation
is obtained if lengths from \ to \ x actual
length is used.

\^ Note: All vertical and horizontal lines are drawn true length.
__ -
r 11

i
/oTL
^i

This oblique drawing is of


r ,
the component viewed from
i

the left (arrow L) and


4 SCI
looking down (arrow D)
V ' I

Receding lines are drawn


at 45° and \ true length
using tee and set-squares
When making freehand oblique sketches it is convenient to use
5 mm squared paper and to draw the receding lines at 45° and
7 x true length. As the diagonal of a square is 1*4 x side
of the square, then each diagonal can be used to represent
two squares on the orthographic views as shown below.

N XL
Construct the shape with faint
lines. Complete by lining in An alternative view
the outline heavily.

62
Oblique drawing: inclined edges
D 6 SQ £>Q D
l

j' 'I

'
/ \
/ \
/ \ 1

L represented
^< by
3 diagonals

When components have sloping surfaces, the edge distances in


the orthographic views are transferred to the oblique box as
shown by the dimension D in the above example.

-»]2S5QI*-

1
1
— i
,
\

2
SQ \ > :;

s?
\ H ii

t 1

i
1 diag
!

i
>
^
R^'

nP
i

i
\i
^*, E

\ \
\> \ \

/
f y
\
£f-
\ r- J—

The component shown above has surfaces sloping in two directions


resulting in inclined edges, for example IE. Pairs of ordinates
from the orthographic views are used to plot points within the
oblique box, for example point E.

Note: The angles of inclination in the orthographic views are


never transferred to the oblique box. When I and E
have been located they are joined to produce the correct
slope in the oblique drawing.

63
. .

Nlethods of constructing "oblique circles"


1

1
III!
1 1 : l l

1
1

1
i
1

A shape which is circular in an


j ^T |
f 1

orrnograpnic view may be snown


z \
\
i
\

as a circle on the oblique


drawing if the component is
L_ viewed as shown in example 1.
//
^v
^ 1
The end of the cylinder is a
true circle which may be drawn
with compasses.
The linfis nf t.hp "nhl irmp lir>v"
have been drawn to show the
size of a box into which the
cylinder will just fit.
"X If the circular face is receding,
\ *
e.g. at 45°, it will appear
elliptical and will have to be
plotted. Examples 2, 3 and 4
show ways of constructing
TL ,-, -r, ellipses.
1

T yf When making an oblique drawing


Tl_ «« v 45 view the component, if possible,
in a direction which will allow
circular and part-circular faces
to be drawn with compasses.

A S 1—
,

The oblique ellipses on the left


'*
=-—=q 1

are plotted by using a method


s,
Ci
similar to that used for
/
l.
\
^ plotting an isometric ellipse.

L .
The ordinates, however, have
to be proportionately spaced
y/
V l

^- ^.^
i
along the receding lines.

\lxS
k
In the case of the freehand
\ "
oblique drawing shown in
1
"^.
— jr-i example 2, the spacing S is
0*7 x s i.e. trie length of
J" *
^
1 diagonal represents 2
1 N l\ squares on the orthographic
V ^ \ s
^ v J 1
i
^s \ view
As in the construction for
— s
J
\ >
u an isometric ellipse, the
ordinates need only be
/..t. T L \ X>
constructed in a
quarter-circle
45 > L, ri_

64
Methods of constructing "oblique ellipses'

The method for constructing an


oblique ellipse shown opposite
is only used when the receding
lines are drawn at
0*7 x true length,
mainly for quickly drawn
freehand sketches.

The larger scale drawing below


shows how the length CD is
obtained. The length ^CD can
be judged by eye.

Note: The
actual length
of CD is
transferred
to the oblique
box.

The ellipses of the conic


frustum in example 4 have
been drawn freehand using
the ordinate method.

The ordinates used for plotting


the points on the ellipse have
been measured along horizontal
lines spaced proportionately.

Ordinates are true lengths.

Spacings are true length,


The ordinate method is also
useful when there is only
Represents part of a circle to be drawn
8SQ in the oblique box.
/
Exercises: Make oblique
TL
drawings of the components
shown on page 58. Solutions
\/r JL are not given.

65
— . .

Oblique drawing examples


EXAMPLE 1 Two oblique drawings of the Vee-block shown ortho-
graphically on page 21. Compare these with the isometric
drawing of the same component on page 57.

TL

Fig lb TL - True
Length
Ordinates are spaced to suit the size of ellipse oeing plotted and
the accuracy required. More ordinates will make the drawing more
accurate but it will take longer to draw. Note that ordinates set
off from receding lines are spaced at proportionate distances along
these lines.
Fig. la has been drawn The length, width and height dimensions
using the actual dimensions of Fig. lb have been rounded off to
of the vee-block. Receding multiples of 5 mm so that the squares
lines at 45° and \ TL. of the 5 mm grid may be used to full
advantage, particularly for lines
EXAMPLE 2 receding at 45° and 0-7 true length.

This view
z~ shows the
z maximum
use of
N -._ i _L.- i^z^E" compasses

Complete the
~t
l"\
-^Sv> — -p-
.
r
oblique view
^t ^f
X'V^4
! — _ ,
on the right.
This view in-
volves the most
construction
-»-

-T
For further exercises: Make oblique drawings of the
components shown on pages 52, 53 and 54, using tracing paper and the
5 mm squared grid on page 67. Draw receding lines at 45° and 0*7 x TL,
Solutions are given on pages 153 and 154.

66

"

SQUARED GRID - to be used for oblique pictorial drawing and ortho-


graphic drawing and sketches.
The above grid is composed of lines drawn to form squares which have
lengths of side equal to 5 mm.
Use the grid with tracing paper or detail paper.

67
.

Dimensioning
Any drawing from which a component is to be made must convey
information from the designer to the craftsmen in three ways.
It must

Describe the shape of the component by using orthographic


and, sometimes > pictorial views

Give sizes by dimensioning

Provide information about the workshop processes involved

Draughtsmen and designers should understand not only methods


of projection, but also dimensioning methods and processes required
for the manufacture of an engineering component, so that correct
instructions may be issued to the craftsman. Most of the problems
of dimensioning may be solved by the application of a few simple
rules. Some may be simply stated, e.g. 1, 2 and 3 below whilst others
can be more easily explained by reference to diagrams (next page)

(1) Dimensions should be placed on drawings so that they may be


easily "read". They must be clearly printed and placed outside
the outline of the most appropriate view wherever possible.

(2) The drawing must include the minimum number of dimensions necessary
to manufacture the component and a dimension should not be stated
more than once unless it aids communication.

(3) It should not be necessary for dimensions to be deduced by the


craftsman.

The way a draughtsman dimensions a component or assembly is influenced


also by the need to consider the "type" of dimension he will use.
These may be classed broadly as

(i) SIZE DIMENSIONS - used to describe heights, widths, thicknesses,


diameters, radii, etc., and, where appropriate, the shapes of
the component.

(ii) LOCATION DIMENSIONS - necessary to locate the various features


of a component relative to each other, to a reference surface or
to a centre line, etc.

(iii) MATING DIMENSIONS - applied to parts that fit together. This


implies a certain degree of accuracy, and in the case of shafts
which fit into holes, the application of limits and fits will
most likely be necessary. For details of limits and fits refer
to pages 84-90.

All the examples in this section are intended to explain the rules of
dimensioning which are set out as recommendations in BS 308: Part 2:1972,
It must be stressed, however, that the dimensioning of any component
depends on the draughtsman's interpretation of the recommendations.
A component may be dimensioned in a number of different ways yet still
be dimensioned correctly.

68
Dimensioning

A number of the basic rules of dimensioning can be


explained by
reference to the above drawing of a thin plate.
_

The sides marked A and B are known as DATUM faces. They


are used
as reference edges from which dimensions are drawn.
Datums may
or may not be machined. Even if they are not machined it is
practice to choose reference edges in order to simplify the good
layout of dimensions.
Points to note:

(1) DIMENSION LINES - thin full lines placed outside the component
wherever possible and spaced well away from the outlines. The
longer dimension lines are placed outside shorter ones.
(2) PROJECTION LINES - thin full lines which extend from the
to provide a boundary for the dimension line. view
Drawn at 90° to
the outline.
(3) ARROWHEADS - drawn with sharp strokes which must touch the
extension lines.
(4) A LEADER LINE is a thin full line which is drawn from a note
a dimension or, in this case, a "balloon" and terminates
in an
arrowhead or a dot.
(5) Relatively small gap.
(6) Relatively short tail.
(7) Crossing extension lines - usually a break to ensure clarity.
(8) Dimension placed above the dimension line. This is preferred
to the alternative method of placing the dimension in a gap in
the line. Avoid using both methods on the same drawing if
possible.
(9) Dimension placed so that it may be read from the bottom or
(10) Dimension placed so that it may be read from the right hand
side of the drawing sheet.

Study this information before turning to the next page.

69
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71
. .

Arrangement of dimensions
Dimensions should be placed so that they may be read from either
the bottom or right-hand side of a drawing, for example:

25

The arrangements at 1 and 2 are the Avoid placing dimension


most usual but there are occasions lines in the shaded area
when it may be necessary to use the - zones of about 30°
arrangement at 3
Various methods of dimensioning narrow spaces or widths are shown
below. Note the placing of the arrows outside the extension lines.
3
m
A
T? J? )

/
% //
n ^n
The figures shown below are Exercise : Dimension the figures
dimensioned incorrectly. correctly. (Solns. p. 155)

2-8 — V^O)
^v c y

1 2

20
-. ,
\ to
K -M

\ t^
\
)
..
25 \

-J 5: -if
%o
/ / / \A
\ 4

H ss sn J
vTTT-n
>
'V /
D
7 7

72
Dimensioning circles
On an engineering drawing a circle may be one of the following;

~e-
A thin A hole in a The side view The side view of a
di sc thin plate of a cyl inder cylindrical hole

The way a circle is dimensioned is influenced by the factors shown


above and also by the size of the circle and the space available
within the circle.
Points to note: The dimension always refers to the diameter and
(i)
NOT the radius
(ii) A circle is never dimensioned on a centre line,
(iii) The conventional symbol for diameter is <j>

Methods used for dimensioning relatively small circles

In 3 and 4
10
the leader
line must
<±^ be drawn in
in line
with the
centre of
the circle
and larger circles

When the dimension line


has to be drawn as in
example 6 it is prefer-
able to place the
dimension as shown so
that it may be easily
read from the bottom
of the sheet.

For diameters of cylinders


7
In this example it
is preferable to
dimension the side
o o view even though
<r> CM
*-4 IS the cylindrical
is
7 Z3 shape is not apparent.
Dimensions in this
view, however, must
always be preceded
Side view Front view by the symbol <J>

73
:

Dimensioning radii
On an engineering drawing a radius usually describes the shape or
contour of a component in a particular view and may be
either

An external radius An internal radius or A spherical radius

A radius should be dimensioned by a dimension line which passes


through, or is in line with, the centre of the arc.
The dimension line should have one arrowhead which should be
placed at the point of contact with the arc.
The abbreviation R should always precede the dimension.

The above statements may be interpreted as follows:

For small radii — \


For spherical radii
R 5

re yR 5

R 5
s pH£B&
R20

ZJ -R 10
For larger radii

The circles shown below are incorrectly dimensioned,

Exercise Dimension the


circles on the
right correctly
using the
information given
on the previous
page (Solns. p. 155)

74
Dimensioning angles
Angles should be expressed in: (1) degrees e.g. 90°
or (2) degrees and minutes e.g. 27° 30'
0° 15'
The placing of the angular dimension depends on:

the position of the angle in relation to the bottom and/or the


right-hand side of the drawing sheet and the size of the angle.
Angles may be dimensioned using one of the methods shown in these
examples qo
o

Alter-
native /

Alter- Arc struck


native from apex
of angle

L /
DIMENSIONING CHAMFERS
45° chamfers should be specified by one of the methods shown below:
2x45
25
1
e 2x45

Chamfers at angles other than 45° should


be shown as a dimension and not as a note, e.g
Chamfers should not be specified by
a note and a leader line.

The radii below are dimensioned incorrectly.

lORad
cfps
Exercise:- Dimension the radii below correctly using the information
given on the previous page. (Solutions on page 155)
22V
-26

75
Designation of plain holes
It is often necessary to specify not only the diameter of a hole
but also, the way the hole is produced. Processes for forming holes
include drilling, boring, reaming and coring (holes made when
casting). The drawing below shows how these may be designated.
-c
A HOLES EQUI- SPACED
<f>
5 DRILL THROUGH

**• s

Note:- The 40 mm
diameter circle is
referred to as the
Section CC Front view Pitch Circle Diameter
PCD

Designation of "special" holes


COUNTERSINKS SCREW THREADS

^4 CSK AT 90°
M 12- 6H
TO 8

25 Ytifa
-J I— 04 mm«
Note:
A coarse ISO
thread is
designated by MI2-6H
diameter and THROUGH
COUNTERBORES tolerance grade
only.
M I2-6H
J*6 C'BORE 06 C'BORE 10 I— 12 MIN
0IOx 5 DEEP x 5 DEEP

OR

OR

SPOTFACES MI2- feH

w>
12MIN LENGTH
FULL THREAD
S'FACE (f> /2

OR
OR
M 12 - GH
12 MIN LENGTH
FULL THREAD

76
. .

Location dimensions
Examples on previous pages have shown how components and features
may be dimensioned when size is the main consideration.
Figures 1, 2 and 3 show how to dimension a component when
location is necessary. The features can be located from a machined
surface or centre line. Such a surface or line is known as a DATUM.

e 00
(^
r
>B

-+ o Jh
oc cc R

.m ^ 10
«-
15

25

1. 3.
Spigot located from Both holes located Hole A located from
two reference from two reference two reference edges
edges (R) edges (R) (R) then hole B
related to hole A.
Size an d location dimensions and
use of the machining symbol
4.
The simple bearing
30 S
bracket casting on the
20 REAM left shows both size
S
CD and location dimensions.
o
Reference surfaces are
marked wj.th a machining
symbol:- s/

This is placed so that


it may be read from the
L-r-t-r- 1

CD CO bottom or from the right


of the sheet.
34 S
It is preferable to
44 L place the symbol on the
appropriate projection
line rather than as
0\2 DRILL
shown on the left.
S
No symbol is required
where the machining is
specified i.e. in the
20 S'FACE case of the drilled
S SCALE holes, the reamed holes
and the spot-face.

The location dimensions are those shown with a letter L and size
dimensions by a letter S. Some of the size dimensions are less acc-
urate than others e.g. the thickness of the rib is fixed during the
casting process whilst the 20 mm diameter hole is accurately reamed.
The 20 mm diameter reamed hole is located by the dimension from the
machined base to the centre line of the hole.

77
Dimensioning exercises
Each drawing below shows a component made from mild steel plate
15 mm thick. Dimension both drawings so that accurate marking out
and subsequent manufacture of the plates may be carried out.
Use the machined surfaces as reference edges. The holes are to
be reamed. Sizes may be obtained by measuring the drawing.
All dimensions in millimetres.

>

sL

Note: Each machining symbol in the following dimensioning


exercises has been placed so that it appears "upright"
when viewed from either the bottom right hand corner or
right hand side of the drawing sheet.
"The symbol is placed on the machined surface itself
provided that when it is so positioned it "falls" outside
the outline of the component. Alternatively, it is
placed on a suitable projection line.

Solutions to the above exercises are given on page 156

78
a
o
•H
4J
D 0)
rH
O
CO

^
n
rH
d)
rH
3 rH 0) •
tn
(0 o •H X! o C
o U P O H

(f)
^^
i+-r •d nJ <Tl M
O -P 4-1 3 .

o
t tn
•H d>
XI
O M
0)
d)
X!
CO
(0
to
a)
C -P tl cu > d) u
<D •H Ifl (1) O O O O £ p
£ X! u P
-P P
X nJ
M
P -H
3

10
T3
WOO) to
>l
X)
d)
g
•h
CD O O ffd) •h x: o •H I-l

MOPC -p rH
to d> CO TJ
to
•HX
0) 4-1 d) d) H I

to t3 1 d) c
0) £ OlH (d a -p • > •H
c O -H 3 O g
HC
-P >h X) tO
i-l M o & £ d) •p
c xi 'a nJ <D U W X! X!
'c O 1 d> to xi to O -P O to
-h 0) }-i en P d) CN c
03 3 0)
0) trj XJ 4-1 d) . o
C > -P o C d) 4-1 O X! tn •H
O 0) -H O o C
CO BCUC
d>

H O 4-1
S-l

ctj -P d) >itH
to
C
c -O ^ 3H
d)
rH 0) to
U
d)
r-i
tP
fOS
& ca
d)
6
-H G rH O x! -H p fi M •H
>t (d n) X! -P a> 0} CO 13 TJ
H4Jg a

E
^—
rH
3
10
(0 d)
T3
T3
(1)

Xi
13 rH
G O
QJ
(0
•h x:
d)
d)
N
•H Xi
d) rH
rH

Q fo O X! < ^ (« x; tj ^ CO P <

79
Di mensioni ng exercises
Fully dimension this drawing assuming that the component is to be /

machined all over. Take the datum as the face of the flange marked V
Sizes may be obtained by measuring the drawing.
All dimensions in millimetres.
Note: Holes - 4 mm drill equi-spaced
Chamfer - 2 mm at 45°

#--E3-

BUSH

Solution
Section CC Front view on
page 158

Fully dimension this drawing assuming that the component is to be /

machined all over. Take the datum as the face of the flange marked v
Note: (1) Use the horizontal centre line for locating the countersunk
holes in the front view
(2) The countersink is 90° and enlarges the drilled holes from
5 mm diameter to 10 mm diameter.
(3) The internal chamfer - 3 mm x 60°

GLAND

Solution
Section CC on
page 158

80
Dimensioning exercises
The component below is to be made of brass. Fully dimension the
drawing to enable the bracket to be manufactured.
Note:- (1) The only parts to be machined are the back face (which
should be used as the datum) and the tapped holes.
(2) Locate the holes from the centre line in the front view.
(3) Locate the holes and slot from point X in the side view,

"^"
*1

LOCATING
BRACKET Solution
Side view Front view on
page 159

Fully dimension the drawing so that the adjusting screw may be manu-
factured. Take the shoulder marked v' as the datum face.
Note:- The thread is M 6. The head is knurled (fine diamond).
The chamfers - 2 mm at 45°
The radius at the end of the screw is 8 mm.

-£3# ADJUSTING
SCREW
Front view
Machined
all Solution
Side view over on
page 159

81
Dimensioning exercise

Fully dimension the orthographic views shown above to enable the


bracket to be manufactured. Details of sizes, locations, screw
threads, etc., may be taken from the pictorial view of the same
component shown on the opposite page. (All dimensions millimetres)
Both the 8 mm base holes and the 35 mm bore must be located from the
machined face R. The tapped hole must be located from the 3 5 mm bore,
Note: This drawing can be fully and clearly dimensioned using two
views only. The drawing of a more complicated component would
possibly include a side view also to clarify both shape and
dimensioning. The solution to this exercise is on page 160.

82
MI2-6H. 16 MiN LENGTH -

FULL THREAD. S'FACE 20

2 HOLES DRILL,
THROUGH 0'p

BOSS 16

HEIGHT 2

In this isometric view of the cast-iron


bracket all the corner fillets
(or radii) have been omitted
in order to simplify the
drawing.

Cast iron
Bracket
for
Vertical
Spindle.

83
Limits and Fits
In the early days of engineering, "mating" parts, e.g. a
shaft and the bearing in which it is housed, were manufac-
tured individually and assembled only after laborious hand
fitting by craftsmen. This method of production demanded
great skill, was slow, and thus an expensive operation.
To overcome this the first system of limits and fits
was introduced around the turn of the century. When the
system was used correctly production costs were greatly
reduced because identical mass-produced components, even
those made in different places, could be readily inter-
changed without resorting to the time-consuming fitting
operation.
The use of a suitable system of limits and fits, the
latest of which (B.S. 4500) is outlined in the following
text, ensures that all identical components are made to a
specific size within narrow limits.
It must be stressed that when assigning limits to
the dimensions of a component it is necessary to consider
not only its function but also the skill of the operator
and the type and condition of the machines which are used
to manufacture the component.
Limits should be applied to the dimensions of a com-
ponent only if the resulting degree of accuracy is essential
for the efficient functioning of the component. It is un-
economical to limit the accuracy of a dimension to ± 0.005 mm
when ± 1 mm would prove satisfactory.

84
Limits and Fits for Holes and Shafts
A TOLERANCE on a hole
Tolerance zones or a shaft is a
V7, (exaggerated )
permissible degree
or error.
It depends on:

(1) Machining or cutting


7 operation used.

A Shaft A Shaft (2) Quality of work.


(normal with
Hole represeri' Hole tolerance (3) Type of fit between
tat i on )
zones hole and shaft.

Effect of manufacturing process on degree of accuracy obtainable


Numerical value of tolerance for
Process sample sizes
(typical) BS 1916 inch BS 4500 metric
0.001 in 0.001 mm

S- (U
0.119 1 .969 4.725 3 mm 50 mm 120 mm
-— £ to to to to to to
o z»
0.237 3.150 7.087 6 mm 80 mm 180 mm
1 Slip blocks, reference gauges 0.06 0„08 0.16 1 .0 2 3.5
2 High quality gauges 0.08 0.12 0.2 1 .5 3 5

3 Good qual i ty gauges 0.12 0.2 0.32 2.5 5 8

4 Gauges and precision fits 0.15 0.3 0.5 4 8 12


5 Ball bearings, fine grinding 0.2 0.5 0.7 5 13 18
6 Grinding, fine honing 0.3 0.7 1 .0 8 19 25
7 High quality turning, broaching 0.5 1 .2 1.6 12 30 40
8 Centre lathe turning and reaming 0.7 1 .8 2.5 18 46 63
9 Horiz. and vert, boring 1 .2 3.0 4.0 30 74 100
10 Milling, planing, extrusion 1 .8 4.5 6.0 48 120 160
11 Drilling, rough turn-ing, boring 3.0 7.0 10.0 75 190 250
12 Light press work, tube drawing 5.0 12.0 16.0 120 300 400
13 Press work, tube rolling 7.0 18.0 25.0 180 460 630
14 Die casting or moulding 12.0 30.0 40.0 300 750 1000
15 Stamping (approx) 18.0 45.0 60.0 480 1200 1600
16 Sand casting, flame cutting 30.0 70.0 100.0 750 1900 2500
For more detailed lists refer Tolerance i ncreases wi th size of component
to BS 1916 and BS 4500

The tolerance number is directly related to the manufacturing


process and hence to the quality of work in terms of the degree
of dimensional accuracy required. The permissible degree of error
increases (a) as the process becomes less precise and
{b) as the size of component increases.
Tolerance number should not be confused with the numbers which
relate to surface roughness.

Refer to British Standards for further information.


Use BS 1916 for inch sizes
and BS 4 500 for metric sizes.

85
. 1 1

Limit systems
v Hole size Shaft size
constant constant

Shaft size Hole size


varies to varies to
provide the provide the
required fit required fit

Clearance Interference Clearance Interference

HOLE BASIS SHAFT BASIS

BS 1916 and BS 4500 use the hole basis but there are occasions
when it is necessary to design a fit on a shaft basis.
Basic size and disposition of tolerance

Whenever possible, holes are designed and machined to sizes


obtained with standard tools and/or to preferred sizes in
millimetres (see BS 4318)
The basic size of a hole is the dimension used if no tolerances
were applied. Another name used is "nominal size".

Tolerances can be applied to holes and shafts in various ways.


o
Basic size = 24.000 Basic size = 24.000
'///, of Tolerance = 0.030 Tolerance = 0.030
o + 0-0 30 + 0-0 1 5
o
o Write 2 4.000
-0 015
-

Write 24.000 °

CM

or 24.030 or 24.015
V/// 24 000
. 23.985

Tolerance Tol erance


Uni 1 ateral placed to Bi ateral split above
disposition ONE side of disposition and below
basic size basi c size

BS 1916 and BS 4500 generally use the unilateral method of


applying limits to a size.
The tolerances can be represented as shapes on a graph. The
OX axis is the top side of the basic size, in this case, the hole,

Inches Mi 1 imetres
SHAFT ISHAFT
+

0.
HOLE 1
I
HOLE HOLE 1 HOLE 1

o ©*
o
15HAFT o 5HAFT o U
r* N
M
<2
<—
CD U> CO u>

CI earance Interference CI earance Interference

86
:

piT-the relationship between hole (or internal feature) and shaft


external feature)
(or
ALLOWANCE - the prescribed (algebraic) difference between the low
limit of size for the hole (or internal feature) and
the high limit of size for the "mating" shaft (or
external feature), i.e. maximum metal condition

allowance* The shaft is


lllllllftfllglllltf v vv
^_y (positive) *%
"loose" running or
T "easy" running or
e.g. "slide".
a simple
bearing
SHAFT (exaggerated) Verbal descriptions
of the fit may vary
CLEARANCE FIT BEARING widely. Numerical
Shaft is ALWAYS differences are more
smaller than hole. important.
e.g. for <j>2 inch (BS1916:53) for $24 mm (BS4500:69)
Hole sizes 2.0018 Hole sizes 24.033
2.0000 24.000
"Mating" shaft sizes 1.9988 "Mating" shaft sizes 23.980
1.9970 23.959
Smallest hole 2.0000 Smallest hole 2 4 000
.

Largest shaft 1.9988 Largest shaft 23.980


ALLOWANCE + 0.0012 ALLOWANCE 0.020
Note I Allowance is ALWAYS positive ( +) for a clearance fit.

/allowance* The shaft is forced


/ (negative) into the hole.

e.g. a gear 5252


The fit can be
wheel on a described in such
shaft terms as
(exaggerated) "light press" or
/ "press" or
"heavy press" or
INTERFERENCE FIT
2 "shrink"
Shaft is ALWAYS Numerical differences
larger than hole. are more important.
GEAR
e.g. for $2 inch (BS1916:53) for $24 mm (BS4500:69)

Hole sizes (as above) Hole sizes (as above)


"Mating" shaft sizes 2.0032 "Mating" shaft sizes 24.048
2.0020 24.035
Smallest hole 2 0000 . Smallest hole 2 4.000
Largest shaft 2.0032 Largest shaft 24.048
ALLOWANCE - 0.0032 ALLOWANCE 0.048
As shaft sizes are subtracted from hole sizes, the allowance will
always be negative (-) for an interference fit.
* The use of the word "allowance" has been omitted from BS4500. It
has been used here solely to explain the difference between clearance
fit and interference fit. It is still used, of course, in BS1916:53.

87
Both BS 1916 and BS 4500 recommend limits and fits for a wide range
of engineering processes and activities - even horology J For most
general purposes a carefully selected range of hole and shaft sizes
are given in each standard.
-Holes are lettered by capitals, A, B,C, etc., the limits allocated
to the H-hole being recommended. The H-hole always has the basic
size of the hole as one size. The letter is followed by the
tolerance grade number e.g. H8 Shafts are lettered by lower case .

letters, a,b,c, etc., and a range of fits is provided by those given


in the charts below.
BS 1916 01.182-1 .575 in BS 4500 <j)30-40 mm

+ 160 "•%£**• $ 30 40 mm
+ 10
+ 75.

+ 50 D
+ 25.
Hll H9 H8 H7 o-
- 25- DU
- 50
- 75-

-100
-125-

-150
-1 75- I- 0.02S mm
-20
-280 d
10
n
Tolerance grade number

If the tolerances on hole and shaft overlap it is possible in the


random selection of components to obtain either clearance or
interference. These are called TRANSITION fits e.g. H7 with k6,
and are described as "push", "easy keying", "tight keying" or
"drive". A fit between an H8 hole and an f7 shaft is written
H8-f7 and reference to the chart above will show that this must
always be a CLEARANCE fit. Further reference to BS 1916, parts
2 and 3 will show the types of fit recommended for particular
types of work.
Extract from BS 1916-Limit values. Extract from BS 4500-Limit values
Shafts Shafts
Hole Hole Size ot
H7 component e8 f7 h6 J6 s6 H7 component 96 k6 n6 s6
3.001 in between + 3.001 mm between + + +

i n i n mm mm
+ 0.5 - 0.8 - 0.4 + 0.2 + 1 .0 ES + 15 - 5 + 10 + 19 + 32 es
0.12 0.24 6 10
- 1.5 - 0.9 - 0.3 - 0.1 + 0.7 EI - 14 + 1 + 10 + 23 ei

+ 0.6 0.24 0.40


- 1.0 - 0.5 + 0.3 + 1 .4 ES + 18
10
- 6 + 12 + 23 + 39 es
18
- 1 .9 -1.1 - 0.4 - 0.1 + 1 .0 EI - 17 + 1 + 12 + 28 ei

+ 0.7 - 1 .2 - 0.6 + 0.3 + 1 .6 ES + 21 - 7 + 15 + 28 + 48 es


0.40 0.71 18 30
- 2.2 - 1 .3 - 0.4 - 0.1 + 1 .2 EI - 20 + 2 + 15 + 35 ei

+ 0.8 0.71 .19


- 1.6 - 0.8 + 0.3 + 1.9
1
2.8 0.5
30 40
- - 1 .6 - - 0.2 + 1.4 ES + 25 - 9 + 18 + 33 + 59 es
EI - 25 + 2 + 17 + 43 ei
+ 1 .0 - 2.0 - 1 .0 + 0.4 + 2.4
1.19 1 .97 40 50
- 3.6 - 2.0 - 0.2 - 0.2 + 1 .8

2.56 2.5
+ 2.7 - 10 + 21 + 39 + 72 es
+ 1 .2 1 .97 - - 1 .2 + 0.4 50 65
+ 2.0 ES + 30 + 53 ei

+ 2.9 EI
2.56 3.15 - 4.3 - 2.4 - 0.7 - 0.3 + 78 es
+ 2.2 65 80 - 29 + 2 + 20 + 59 ei

88
r

Conventional method of illustrating terms

BS 1916 - H hole

<
Q a
X 1LE J SHAFT x
< <
S 2i

For H hole.
Zero line coincides with basic size
line, hence lower deviation = 0,
as shown above.
BS 4500

BASIC SIZE The size to which hole and shaft are referred.

DEVIATION The algebraic difference between a size and the


corresponding basic size.
UPPER DEVIATION The difference between the maximum limit of size
and the basic size.
_ , ES for hole The letters stand
Designated:
. ,

c ~ .. _
es cfor shaft
, ,
^ for the French term
. .

ecart superieur.

LOWER DEVIATION The-difference between the lower limit of size


and the basic size.
for hole
Designated, EI
_
ecart inferieur,
.

ei for shaft

ZERO LINE The line to which the deviations are referred.


The line of zero deviation.
The line which represents the basic size.

FUNDAMENTAL For each pair of deviations, the fundamental


DEVIATION deviation is the one nearer to the zero line.
This defines the position of the tolerance zone
in relation to the zero line.

Graphical representation of fits - H holes


Clearance Interference Transi tion

HOLE

SHAFT KSSSSSa
'
H es
K ZERO
LINE o
SHAFT ^SECT
HOLE
'

±
TiT es
HOLE I

TT
es
t
ES

es
n
ES

es
BSSCT3.
ET EI
EI
eL
XERO
LINE
EI » et
vm
SHAFT
t

T
^
t
im^i. eL et el

89
.. '

Ho le
H 7
and
Shaft
96
Exerci ses

Fit v///,
^
-r^SV/////>/>/?/
x
H7-g6

0.001mm CL>
0.001mm
to
>
Y
/
including
1

ES EI o es ei ZERO V///A holeH 7


+ Up
Lirife

o
V///A shaft n h —
^^^
1
J
i ,_ . ///////////.
15 6 10 5 14 \_r

18 10 18 6 17 CI earan-ce i ^^
r

Hoi e Shaft
21 18 30 7 20
Basic Max. Mi n Basic Max . Mi n .
ES EI es ei
size si ze size size si ze si ze
25 30 50 9 25
10 0-015 10-015 10-000 10 0-0051)0»4 9-995 9-986

30 50 80 >0 29

Complete the table for any other two hole and shaft sizes.

Hole
H7-s6
-a co Shaft
H 7 s 6
Fit
ca -i-
0.001mm CD
> o 3
-a 0.001mm
ES EI
o r—
+->
es ei
S6&ZZ2 SHAFT
O
Q- C
+
ZD -i-
+ +
H7^hou E

15 10 32 23

18 10 18 39 28 Interference

Hole Shaft
21 18 30 48 35
Basi c Max Mi n.Basic Max Mi n . .
ES EI es ei
size size size size size size
25 30 50 59 43

30 50 80 78 50

Complete the table for any three hole and shaft sizes,

H7-k6
Hole
H 7
~0 CD
c c
(O -r-
Shaft
k 6
Fit ,^5^ Z. Y7>?>f///1
0.001mm J-
cu O
-o
=3
0.001mm
> +J 1—
k6
ES EI o o es ei SHAFT
+ Q- £=
+ + H7^ I HOLE

15 10 10 f5 V////S f/SM/S/^
Transition s:
18 10 18 12

Hole Shaft
21 18 30 15
Basic Max. Mi n Basic . Max Mi n
. .

size ES EI size size size es ei


size size
25 30 50 18

30 50 80 21

Complete the table for any three hole and shaft sizes. Solns . p. 161.

90
.

ISO Metric Screw Threads (BS3643)


One of the most common items which needs to be clearly described on
an engineering drawing is the screw thread which may be used for:

(1) Transmitting power, e.g. square thread in a vice or a lathe.


(2) Adjusting parts relative to each other (usually a Vee-thread)
(3) Fastening parts together, e.g. a nut and bolt (a Vee-thread).

The following section deals mainly with the ISO metric thread which
is recognized internationally and, over the next few years, will be
used in preference to the many varied types of threads which exist in
industry today. In order to specify an ISO metric thread on a drawing
it is necessary to understand the basic terminology of screw threads
and how the fit between internal and external threads is derived.

The fit is based NUT BOLT (EXTERNAL) Note: The


on the "effective" (INTERNAL) helix and

W
Thread
diameter, i.e. the angl e
thread form
diameter at which Pitch are drawn
the pitch is simplified.
measured.

CD
s_ >
<D
+-> +->
s_ CD CJ CD
o E CD
c fO
•1— •1—

2: -a
BOLT '

Secti on
showi ng
thread form
crest
or "profile"

Class of fit Right-hand thread

Although the thread profile is a Vee in section, the nuts are classed
as "holes" and the bolts as "shafts" and tolerances are applied
according to BS 4500 (Limits and Fits) They may be represented
.

graphically like any hole and shaft combination.


NUTS Close fit Medium fit Free fit
Internal thread
+
zero line 5H 6H 7H
4h
*
0)
> U
0)
K 8g
External thread -p -u

BOLTS CD
Fi
1
— minimum
fd «w
clearance
ffl 0)1

Fit designated as -*- 5H/4h 6H/6g 7H/8g

Coarse and fine pitches are available but it is expected that the
coarse pitch screw threads will suffice for most applications and
that the medium fit will be the most commonly used. This may be
summarized as follows:
Class of fit Bolts & screws Nuts
medium 6g 6H

91
ISO Metric screw thread designation
In production engineering it is necessary to provide information
about the size of thread and the tolerance allocated to it. On a
drawing, the thread would be "dimensioned" or designated by-
stating the information as shown in the following examples:

M 10 x 1.5 - 6H [NUT - capital H for hole or internal thread.]

M 10 x 1.5 - 6g [BOLT - small g for shaft or external thread.]

Thread tolerance grade number y— MI0~6H


-Pitch in millimetres

•Nominal size in millimetres

Symbol for ISO metric.

The ISO metric coarse is the thread most commonly used and a
designation for this would omit the pitch, e.g. M 10-6H as shown.

Isometric threads 13 ISO metric threads comp jred with (

Preferred sizes 74 Imperial inch and number sizes

Nominal Pitch UNC UNF ISO metric BA BSW BSF


di ameter coarse No. No. DIA mm No.
mm mm D] A D [A

1 .6 0.35 1-6 10
1 1

2 9
2 0.4 Note 2 2
8
2.5 0.45 In the 2-5
3 3
table on 4 4 7 1
the right, 5
"5
0.5
5 3
3 the inch 6 6 6 5
and number 8 8 5 T2"
4 0.7 sizes 4 4
relate 10 10 3 3
only c
2 T6
5 0.8 approx- 12 12 1
imately 1 1
to the
6 1 7 I
ISO metric 5 5
sizes in T* T5
8 1 .25 the centre 3 e\ 3
"8" "5
column,
10 1 .5
e.g. 7 i
7
5 . TE 1 TE 1

S ln 9
2
9
2
12 1.75 actually i 2
T6 c T5 K
equals 5 5
"5 "8
16 2
i 6
15. 875 mm 3 3
"ZF J
20 2.5 7
2 1
"5 "5

24 3
1 2 4 1

92
)

Screw threads, nuts and bolts (ISO metric series)


A rapid, easy-to-remember method of drawing screw threads, nuts
and bolts is essential if templates are not available. The drawing
should look right and slight discrepancies in size are not impor-
tant. The most used ISO metric bolts (up to <}>24 mm) are:

M6 M8 M10 M12 M14 M16 M20 M22 M24


Major diameter mm 6-00 8-00 10-00 12 «00 14-00 16-00 20-00 22-00 24-00
Minor diameter 4-77 6-47 8-16 9-85 11-55 13-55 16-93 18-93 20-32

Minor diameter 4-8 6-5 8-2 9-8 11-6 13-6 17-0 19-0 20-4
(approx.

Example of M 16 Stud
CD CD
application CO

Nut and bolt head sizes across the flats (spanner sizes) in mm.

Major diam. D. 10 12 14 16 20 22 24
Distance across
the flats 10 13 17 19 22 24 30 32 36

D x 1-5 24 30 33 36

(Dxl-5) + 1 mm"" 10 13 16 19 22

Thickness of nut 5-0 6-5 8-0 10-0 11-0 13-0 16-0 18-0 19-0

Height of head 4-0 5-5 7-0 8-0 9-0 10-0 13-0 14-0 15-0

Approximate method: Thickness of nut = D x 0-8 e.g. M10


Height of head = D x 0-7 e.g. M10

Example of application ,-No chamfer


D* 0.8
= 16x0.8
here =
M 12.8
16 Nut

Nuts are usually made


from hexagonal stock bar
and a 30° chamfer is
machined on at least one
surface.
In the plan view this
appears as a circle, the
diameter of which is
equal to the distance
across the flats.
The chamfer is drawn
in the front view but
not in the side view. D = I6

93
. . )

Nuts and bolts exercises


The drawing below is of an M 24 nut showing how the radii in the
front view and side view may be constructed. The major diameter of
the bolt is the size D for calculating the distance across the
flats and the thickness of the nut.

Major diameter D = 24 mm
Minor diameter = 20-4 mm approx. (See p. 93).

D x 1.5 = 24 x 1-5 = 36 mm A/F

and R = 18 mm - this value of R is used


to .find the centres for
radii (1), (2) and (3) Plan

D x o-8 = 24 x o-8 = 19-2 mm


T = 19 '2 mm

Procedure Side view Front


(1) Draw major and minor diameter circles in plan, view
according to BS convention (See page 38)
(2) Set out circle in plan with radius = 18 mm, i.e. distance A/F.
(3) Construct hexagon around this circle using 60° set-square.
(4) Set out thickness of nut = 19*2 mm and project the hexagon to the
front and side views.
(5) In the front view the centres for the radii marked (1) and (2) are
obtained by setting out the radius R = 18 mm from and 0] as shown.
(6) In the side view the centres for the radii marked (3) are obtained
by setting out the radius R from 2 and 3 as shown.
Note:

The length of
a bolt is
measured from
under the
head as shown

Exercise
Length of bolt = 60 mm
M 20 Bolt with nut.
Front view
1. Verify that
(a) minor diameter = 17 -0 mm
(fc) distance across flats = 30*0 mm
(c) thickness of nut = 16*0 mm
(d) height of bolt head = 14 '0 mm
(approx.
2. Complete the drawing.

94
Assembly Drawings
The purpose of an assembly drawing is to. provide visual inform-
ation about the way in which parts of a machine or structure fit
together. There are several types of assembly drawings and the
differences in presentation depend on the uses for which they are
intended. They are:
(1) LAYOUT ASSEMBLIES - in which the designer places together
all
the various parts in order to establish overall sizes,
dis-
tances, etc., and, as a result, the feasibility of his
design.
(2) OUTLINE ASSEMBLIES - these give general information about
a
machine or a group of components, for example, main sizes and
centre distances which would show how the unit would be
installed. This type of assembly is often used in catalogues
giving details of the range of units offered for sale.

(3) GENERAL ASSEMBLIES or ARRANGEMENT DRAWINGS - show clearly


how
components fit together and, more important, how the assembled
unit functions. Outside views, sectional and part-sectional
views may be used but dimensions are rarely needed. The
various
parts may be labelled by ballooning and a parts list would com-
plete the drawing.

(4) SUB-ASSEMBLIES - are drawings which show only one unit of a


multi-unit component. On more complicated or multiple part
components it may first be necessary to arrange parts into
sub-assemblies which are then built up into the main assembly.

(5) SECTIONED ASSEMBLIES - a simple assembly may be drawn without


the need for sectional views and be clearly understood.
more complex assembly drawings, however, too many hidden On
detail
lines tend to confuse and a sectional view of the assembled
parts conveys the information more clearly.

Note An assembly drawing should not be overloaded with detail.


The correct place to fully dimension and describe a" single
part is on a detail drawing.
The drawings shown on the next page are typical of the use of
a
general assembly to give a general picture of a valve and a sub-
assembly to show how the spindle unit is built up. A detail
drawing of one of the parts is added to emphasise that the physical
assembly of the valve depends on the manufacture of a large number
of individual items.

The exercises which follow are of relatively simple assemblies


which could be drawn with reasonable clarity without the use of
sections but the resulting increase in clarity will show the
advantage to be gained by their use.

The solution to the example on page 98 indicates the way in which


the exercises should be carried out.

95
General assembly (or General arrangement)
The above drawing is a general assembly of a screwdown valve

used to control the flow of water.

The purpose of this sectional view is to label the various parts

of the valve and to show how they fit together. A parts list

which matches the ballooned letters is necessary and this may be


either on the assembly drawing or on a separate document.
The general assembly is not dimensioned in detail although the

sizes of the inlet and outlet and a few overall sizes may be

shown as the drawing may be typical of a range of valves of

differing sizes.

96
3+ _J

_i
n i

*

!

*
^
at !

M24-6 3
i—
i

t t

SUB-ASSEMBLY DETAIL DRAWING

The above sub-assembly The detail drawing shown above

drawing shows how several parts is of one of the numerous com-

are assembled together before ponents which make up the com-

being fitted into the main body plete valve and in this case is

of the valve. This type of a single-part drawing.

drawing is particularly useful All the dimensions and processes

if information more detailed required to manufacture the part

than that shown on the general must be shown on the drawing.

assembly is required, for It is probable that the machin-

example, by the person ist who makes this item will

assembling the valve or the take no part in assembling the

maintenance worker. valve and will therefore use

only this detail drawing.

97
. t

Sectioned assembly - Typical exercise

>

End view
on bol
£3-

H
-
*J -

i :

"1

H
| | 1 1
i (

Front view

Exercise Build up a sectioned assembly drawing of the component


parts looking on cutting plane CC to obtain a sectional
front view and cutting plane SS to obtain a sectional
end view, by tracing over and correctly positioning
each part

Solution Note that most of the outlines are unaltered.

Sectional Front View looking Sectional End View


on cutting plane CC looking on
cutting plane SS.
Note The bolt and rib are not
sectioned in the front view, but are sectioned in the end view.

98
m S
CU

3
Oj
>1

O
-H
-P

rH
CM

CU
CP
O (0
CO
to

m
to cj
B> >1p >1
V-l (U >H
43 (0 C P
S Oj to o
d) .H <1J
to -P ftH
H to
to cu cr> o
<:
w
ceo
o
-p
a,
m CUP -a to
c S P c &
o o O 3 tO
H o o X!
-p O
o oj in a) m
> (0
w 01 P -P o

to m C
CT>
o c H
X! cu •w
CO 03 3 tn On O o
W C C to H
Q -d •H -H U P
H P S M -P H
t0 O CO
— - ' - •* 2: H 3 M O >i O
CQ T3 rH ,Q a

to u
CU P cu cu
X! U £ Q) > >1
P tO P C o
Cu 10 p
tO MH G rH o> o
-a o •P O CU G CU -H P
a cu H SH G >H
>i C c CM
CO 3 G tu cr> tn o M o tO
" r-\ &> o
CQCCfiflU O-Hft •H
t3 O -H -H M O -P p
is rH cu.* p p •H £!

H
•H o to to TJ to o
cu to u o o 3 >i G O f0
SOP o
CU
tn
tO
0) PQ to t0 13 O rH o Xi to cu tu CO

o
CO

.Q
E
CD 5
0) CD

(/)
CD
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CD
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IS
w
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99
Sectioned assembly exercises
HINGE FOR VICE
1

!; I
HI

e
I

niT\
Upper hinge
Lower Hinge

I I

i
! !

i
i

1
I

-m
•»

1 1
2L Ji
1
^Nri i i

<k 1

h
i i
:
i

ca
For both exercises Hinge Pin -& Solution
on
page 162
Build up a sectioned assembly drawing of the component
parts looking on the cutting plane CC by tracing over
and positioning each part.

ANT I -VI BRAT I ON MOUNTING

Pivot Arm
Steel Liner

-E3-

Rubber Bush Rubber Bush


Side View Front View
^
Hinge )
^ Pin V-

--&-- Welded
Base
for
Solution
on

m Pivot Arm page 163

-i — L.

Side View Front View

100
ft w
xt S >1-p
C (d-P P 0)

SOS .Q fO G 3 P G
g ft to
tn<H
tfl -P ft ft-H
w g £ H CD G
(0 U o
G H o
g g g CO h m+i •H
p
•H -H to G o ,c c
a<
to ftp •H P CD CU
g G T3 o rH
o o o
H o so •HO G G to
ft
t0 O (U en ft
e -p -P Si si
to
rH O 0) Q) H X! -P
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to
-C x! tn
-P P
CO
G O
cd a>
si G4-4
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to m g o •H
o O (0 >1-P* -P T3
ft M •H H o U G
CO 3 tn tn+j P fO X! 0) (0
G G O ft (0 .G
T3 H -H >, CD
rH rH Si
-H (0 O M O
3 ^ ou
ffl^HU
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,
// fei

Eh

o w //
s
CD
EH H / s -P
D fO
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> 0<

CD
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m U
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Sectioned assembly exercise JOURNAL BEARING

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t:

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Housing
-e

Front view with R.H. half in section


Solution
on
Exercise Build up a sectioned assembly drawing page 163
of the component parts looking on the
cutting plane CC by tracing over and
correctly positioning each part.

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104
.

Developments
Many objects in everyday use are made from thin materials such as
cardboard, plastic, aluminium, copper, brass and steel. Metals not
more than about 3 mm thick are referred to as SHEET METALS.

The objects made from these materials are developed from the flat
sheet. A pattern is drawn on the sheet which is then cut to the
outline of the pattern. The material is bent, folded or rolled into
the required shape, these processes giving the object stiffness and
strength for a comparatively small weight of material.
A pattern which is used to mark out further patterns is called a
TEMPLATE

There are four basic shapes in sheet metal development from which
a wide variety of work is fashioned, including hoppers, bins, chutes,
vessels and ducts for ventilation and dust-extraction.
1. PRISM 2 . PYRAMID
L= Slant Height
on edge

CYLINDER 4 . CONE

H TTD
E

L=Slant Height

Simple shapes based on prisms, cylinders, pyramids and cones may be


developed by three commonly used methods of construction. They are

1. PARALLEL LINE DEVELOPMENT: for prisms and cylinders mainly.

2. RADIAL LINE DEVELOPMENT: for pyramids and cones.

3. TRIANGULATION: for transition pieces which are used to join


different shapes.
A pattern is usually folded so that the lines indicating its shape
appear on the inside of the component. In practice, allowances may
have to be made for extra material required for joints, stiffened
edges, bends and seams.
No such allowances have been made in the exercises in the
following pages so that basic principles can be emphasized.

105
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107
EXERCISES

Joint

True shape of
duct A

Start the shape of


the hole at this point,
(1) Develop the
pattern for
branch A.

(2) Develop the


Solutions pattern for
on p. 166 one half of
branch B
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find the
true shape
of half of
the hole.

Measure the orthographic


views to obtain dimensions. 30° TEE-PIECE DIAMOND SECTION

All dimensions in millimetres PARALLEL LINE DEVELOPMENT

108
EXERCISE

Typi cal
chute
True shape appl i cati on
of cross-section

of chute

looking in

direction X

Complete the pattern for

the | | -section chute in Solution


on p. 166
the space provided.

Measure the orthographic


views to obtain dimensions. -SECTION CHUTE

All dimensions in millimetres PARALLEL LINE DEVELOPMENT

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112
EXERCISES

Front Cylinder T
vi ew T is shown in
two plan
views, both
of which are
divided into

-e# 12 equal
parts

Note how the


projection
lines inter-
sect to pro-
vide points
on the curve
Plan on T of intersection.
These corres- 2
Plan on T
pond to points
obtained by
the construction
used on page 112

(1) Complete the curve of


intersection at XX.
S D
D3
(2) Complete the pattern
c for one half of the
C2
cylinder B (SSS)
B showing the shape
A of the hole in B.
A 12

90° TEE-PIECE FORMED WITH

CYLINDERS OF

Solutions on p. 168 UNEQUAL DIAMETERS.


All dimensions in millimetres PARALLEL LINE DEVELOPMENT

113

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9

EXERCISES

Front view &

(1) Complete the end view looking on the


inclined circle YY.

(2) Show that the curve of intersection is


a straight line in the front view.

(3) Develop the pattern for the cylinder A.

Solutions on p. 16 30 TEE-PIECE FORMED WITH CYLINDERS


OF EQUAL DIAMETERS

All dimensions in millimetres. PARALLEL LINE DEVELOPMENT

116
.

EXERCISES
-GJ

(1) Construct the


ellipse in the
end view which
represents
the inclined
circle YY.

30 u TEE-PIECE

FORMED WITH

CYLINDERS
OF EQUAL

DIAMETERS

Solutions
on p. 170

Pattern B

(2) Complete the pattern for the


cylinder marked B showing
the shape of the hole in B.

All dimensions in millimetres. PARALLEL LINE DEVELOPMENT

117
EXERCISE

True shape "

of cross-section
of chute looking
in direction A.

Complete the pattern for

the \^J -section chute in the


space provided.

Solution on p. 170

All dimensions in millimetres. PARALLEL LINE DEVELOPMENT

118
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123
(b) Development of There are two methods
right cones commonly used for dev-
eloping patterns of
conic shapes Both are
.

explained below.
Fun
circumference = 2ttL
(360°)
(1) The accurate method (Fig.l)

The true length of the sloping


edge of the cone is L
Using as centre, an arc is
drawn of radius L
Before the circumference of the
base of the cone can be drawn
along this arc, angle 6 must
be calculated as follows.

9 _ 360° 2-rrr 360°


ft
27Tr 2ttL 2-rrL

6 = j- x 360°

ise: Measure r and L (in milli-


metres) from fig.l, calculate
angle 6 , and check that the
pattern is correctly drawn.

Fig.l (2) The approximate method (Fig. 2)

An arc is drawn with as


centre and radius L as in
method 1
The plan view is divided into
equal parts as shown. 12 parts
are convenient, being easily
obtained using a 30° set-square.
Distance d, which is the approx.
length of the distance between
pairs of points on the base
circle, is stepped off around
the arc 12 times to complete
the development.
The sketch below shows clearly
that a distance stepped off in
this way is the true length of
the chord between the points and
not the true length of the arc.
Fig. 2

Exerc%se. Compare the pattern constructed


by this method with the one
obtained using the accurate
method by measuring the
angles at 0.

124
. , .

DEVELOPMENT OF THE FRUSTUM OF A RIGHT CONE


(1) Develop the full surface area
Radial by using either the approximate
1 ines method or the accurate method.

(2) Add radial lines as shown. These


correspond to the radial lines
drawn on the surface of the cone.
True
length (3) From the points where the radial
line 0- lines on the surface of the cone
intersect the cutting plane SS
project horizontally to the true
length line e.g. 2 to 2 3 to 3„ etc.
T,
(4) Swing these true lengths from O
to the corresponding radial lines
on the pattern, e. to line 2
3 to line 3 etc.
T
Exercise: (5) Complete the pattern by adding
the remaining points and joining
with a heavy line.
Note: All lengths on the pattern must
be true lengths
The shortest edge is usually
used as the joint line. In this
case it is along line 0-1.
'As an aid to visualizing the shape of conic
frusta the construction of the front and
plan views is illustrated and explained below.
Construction of plan view and
side view of a conic frustum

Plan view
Front Project the points of inter-
view section of the radial lines
and the cutting plane S-S from
the front view to the corres-
ponding radial lines in the
plan as shown.
e.g. points to lines 6 and 8.
g

Side view
Project the points of inter-
* section of the radial lines
and the cutting plane S-S from
the front view to the corres-
ponding radial lines in the
side view as shown.
4
e.g. points ,. to lines 4 and 10.

Exercises : Complete the plan


and side view.
Plan Solns
RADIAL LINE DEVELOPMENT p. 175

125
EXERCISES

Complete
cone

\\ Side
vi ew

(1) Complete the development of the pattern of the surface


area of the frustum in the space provided.
(2) Complete the plan view.
Solutions (3) Complete the side view. RADIAL LINE
on p. 176. DEVELOPMENT

126
to •

177

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