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Volume 6/Number 1/Jan - Jun, 2014

Volume 6/Number 1/Jan - Jun, 2014


Research
Library Peshawar
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
Volume 6, No. 1, Jan - Jun 2014

Contents

Editorial i
Policing Financial Crime: Challenges in White-Collar Defense Lawyer
Strategies
Petter Gottschalk 1
The Costs of the War on Terrorism: Revisiting the Methodology Used for
Cost Estimation in Pakistan
Kamran Adil 21
Cross Cultural Variations in Attitude towards use of Psychological Support
Among Police Officers
Dr. Sajida Naz, Dr. Helen Gavin, Dr. Bushra Khan & M. Shahjahan Raza 31
Causes for Delay in Civil Justice in Lower Courts of Pakistan: A Review
RazaUllah Shah, ShadiUllah Khan & Sumera Farid 47

Sufferings of Families who Became Victims of Bomb Blasts and Suicide


Attacks in Pakistan: A Case Study Of Three Cities
Saif- ur- Rehman Saif Abbasi, Muhammad Babar Akram & Sara Farooq 69

The Economic Position of Family and its Relationship with Child


Trafficking: A Study from the Perspective of Policy Analysts and Experts
Syed Rashid Ali & Niaz Muhammad 81

Students' Perspective on Corporal Punishment: A Case Study of High


Schools Students in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Mudasir Khan, Amir Zada Asad, Shakeel Ahmed & Imran Ahmed Sajid 97

A Critical Discourse of Child Victimization and Abuses through Labor in


Pakistan
Dr. Arab Naz, Dr. Hazirullah, Qaisar Khan, Waseem Khan & Umar Darz 123

The Role of Internet use in the Adoption of Deviant Behavior among


University Students
Sardar Ahmad, Asad Ullah, Bushra Shafi & Mussawar Shah 133
The Level of Distress Among the Victims of War and Terrorism and the
Role of Psychological Interventions in their Rehabilitation
Hayat Mohammad Bangash, Mohammad Jehanzeb Khan & Summiya Ahmad 143

The Crime of Rape and The Hanafi Doctrine of Siyasah


Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad 161

Disaster Relief Corruption A Case Study of Balakot Town


Amir Zada Asad, Imran Ahmad Sajid, & Basharat Hussain 193

Political Stability of Afghanistan: A Prerequisite for Stability of Pakistan


and South Asia
Manzoor Ahmed Abbasi & Muqeem ul Islam 207

Causes of Violence Against Women in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa


Humaira Nosheen & Prof. Dr. Sarah Safdar 235

Policing Money Laundering: A Case Study of Afghanistan


Basharat Hussain & Mohammad Omar Safi 245

Criminal Ideation: The Role of Personal Growth and Criminality


Mussarat Anwar, Ayesha Anwar, Jamil Ahmad & Shahid Ali Khattak 261

Culture Distortion and the Rise of Militancy in Swat


Zafar Khan & Khurshaid 283

Frontier Crimes Regulation (FCR) and Writ of the State:


A Study on Local People's Perception in Khyber Agency
Intikhab Alam, Niaz Muhammad & Musawir Shah 295

Global Anti-Money Laundering Regime and Pakistan


Raja Pervaiz Ahmed 307

Visit: http://www.pakistansocietyofcriminology.com
Email:pscatpeshawar@yahoo.com
pscatcriminology@gmail.com
Free access to tables of contents and abstracts.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
i

Editorial
Pakistan Society of Criminology has been working day in and day out to
expand criminology to Pakistan. PSC is not only interested in the expansion of
criminological research, but also in the overall expansion of other faculties of
knowledge.
Many predict that the modern era of online digital revolution will wipe out the
centuries old tradition of libraries. Despite such predictions, however, libraries are
still intact and have not lost their luster. Libraries are more than just a collection of
books. They provide an environment that is conducive to reading and writing.
Evidence suggests that those students who visit school/college libraries score high
on tests. “A 2005 study of the Illinois School Libraries shows that students who
frequently visit well-stocked and well-staffed school libraries end up with higher
ACT scores and perform better on reading and writing exams” (Wahab, 2009).
Unfortunately, the libraries culture is on considerable decline in Pakistan,
particularly in the Province of Pakhtunkhwa. The people of Peshawar, the capital of
Pakhtunkhwa, have very few facilities of libraries. There is public almost no worth
mentioning research library. The private libraries have no public access. As a result
of this lack of libraries and access to higher order knowledge, the people of this
region cannot compete in the Civil Services competitive examinations and tests for
various scholarships. Barring the local and religious bookstores, there are no mega
shops of modern books and journals in Peshawar. Almost all the mega bookstores
have shifted to other big cities like Islamabad due mainly to disruptive radical
activities.
Keeping in view the importance of libraries for students, researchers and the
general public, PSC has established the 1st private sector library in Peshawar (named
Research Library Peshawar, RLP) at Farman Manzil, Opposite FATA Secretariat,
Warsak Road, Peshawar. The Library is an extension of PSC. The President
Pakistan Society of Criminology, Mr. Fasihuddin (PSP) donated 7,000 books from
his personal collection. Dr. Shafique-ur-Rehman, a well known Psychiatrist in
Peshawar, contributed 1,000 books from his private library. The PSC's office has
been shifted to the same building. Besides this, scholars, professors, researchers,
and people of knowledge from all over the country and across the world have started
donating books to Research Library Peshawar (RLP).
This initiative has been received with applause by students, government
officials, scholars of social sciences, humanities, and other faculties of knowledge.
Print and electronic media has given huge coverage to the news of library
establishment. Daily Dawn (May 07, 2014) has given a comprehensive coverage to
Research Library. It says, “ The library has a marvelous and rare collection of books
Editorial
ii

on literature, Islamic studies, Pakistan studies, history, foreign affairs, international


relations, political science, biographies, criminology, policing science, sociology,
mysticism, poetry, social work, philosophy and dictionaries. Reference books of
Urdu, Pashto, and Persian and English literature are the most precious assets of the
library.” Similarly, daily The Nation has given another very appreciating story on
May 15, 2014 with a picture of library.

The RLP has a collection of high quality books, modern reading material, the
latest journals and magazines like Foreign Affairs, Foreign Policy, Newsweek, Time
and The Economist. It also has a collection of many of the latest edition of all the
major research journals published from Pakistan and around the world, especially
those recognised by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan.
The library is, however, in need of more books, journals and particularly the
personal and institutional donations for sustainability and further expansion. In
order to accomplish this task, the philanthropist, civil society and donors
community are requested to generously donate to this noble academic and much
needed endeavour in KP.

Imran Ahmad Sajid


Assistant Editor
Pakistan Journal of Criminology Volume 6, No.1, Jan - Jun 2014, pp. 1 - 19
1

Policing Financial Crime:


Challenges in White-Collar Defense Lawyer Strategies
Petter Gottschalk

Abstract
White-collar crime lawyer defense strategies represent challenges in policing financial
crime. The white-collar crime attorney is a lawyer who is competent in general legal
principles and in the substantive and procedural aspects of the law related to upper-class
financial crime. The lawyer applies three defense strategies: substance defense strategy,
information control strategy, and symbolic defense strategy. To meet this challenge, the
police have to apply four policing strategies: information management strategy, knowledge
management strategy, information systems strategy, and value shop configuration strategy.
Based on a sample of 310 convicted white-collar criminals and their defense lawyers, this
paper presents results from statistical analysis of relationships between crime characteristics
and defense characteristics.
Keywords
Financial Crime, Defense Lawyer, Statistics, White-collar Crime, Police Strategy,
Knowledge Management.

Introduction
Baitar et al. (2012) argue that the only responsibility of a lawyer in the Western
legal tradition is to maximize the interests of his or her own client without regard to
the impact on the client's opponent or on law enforcement. When white-collar
criminals are suspected of and prosecuted for financial crime, they typically hire
defense lawyers at a very early stage. Lawyers try to hinder and stop the
investigation based on their defense strategies. White-collar lawyers are experts in
defense of powerful and rich clients. They are often well-paid by their clients, either
by a wealthy individual client or by a corporate client. White-collar lawyer defense
strategies represent challenges to traditional policing, which is more used to street
crime than financial crime.
In his classic book on «Defending White-Collar Crime: A Portrait of Attorneys
at Work», Kenneth Mann (1985: 5) wrote about the differences in guilt issues in
crime:
The white-collar crime defense attorney, like his counterpart handling
street crime, typically assumes that his client is guilty. Certainly that
assumption held in every case I describe in this book. But unlike the street-
crime defense attorney – and this is a critical difference – the white-collar
defense attorney does not assume that the government has the evidence to
Petter Gottschalk
2

convict his client. Instead, he starts with the assumption that, though his
client is guilty, he may be able to keep the government from knowing this
or from concluding that it has a strong enough case to prove it. Though in
the end he may have to advise his client to plead guilty and bargain, he
often starts his case with the expectation of avoiding compromise.
The guilt assumption as well as the lack of proof assumption leads white-collar
attorneys to select defense approaches depending on the situation. They apply a
contingent approach to the defense work.
White-collar crime is defined both in terms of the offence and in terms of the
offender. The offence is typically financial crime such as fraud, tax evasion,
corruption and insider trading. The offender is typically a person of respectability
and high social status, who commits crime in the course of his occupation
(Sutherland, 1940, 1949, 1983). Sutherland's (1949) theory of white-collar crime
has served as a catalyst for an area of research that continues today (e.g., Alalehto
and Larsson, 2009; Benson and Simpson, 2009; Blickle et al., 2006; Goldstraw-
White, 2012; Robb, 2006).
The purpose of this article is to link four policing strategies to three defense
strategies. When defense lawyers apply substance defense, information control, and
symbolic defense during investigation, prosecution and court procedures, the police
needs to apply information management, knowledge management, information
systems and value shop configuration.

Characteristics of White-Collar Criminals


In Sutherland's definition of white-collar crime, a white-collar criminal is a
person of respectability and high social status who commits crime in the course of
his occupation. This excludes many crimes of the upper class, such as most of their
cases of murder, adultery, and intoxication, since these are not customarily a part of
their procedures (Benson and Simpson, 2009). It also excludes lower class criminals
committing financial crime, as pointed out by Brightman (2009).
What Sutherland meant by respectable and high social status individuals are
not quite clear, but in today's business world we can assume he meant to refer to
business managers and executives. They are for the most part individuals with
power and influence that is associated with respectability and high social status. Part
of the standard view of white-collar offenders is that they are mainstream, law-
abiding individuals. They are assumed to be irregular offenders, not people who
engage in crime on a regular basis (Benson and Simpson, 2009: 39):
Unlike the run-of-the-mill common street criminal who usually has had
repeated contacts with the criminal justice system, white-collar offenders
are thought not to have prior criminal records.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
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When white-collar criminals appear before their sentencing judges, they often
claim to be first-time offenders. However, some have extensive histories with the
legal system. They are typically wealthy, highly educated, and socially connected.
They are mostly elite individuals, according to the description and attitudes of
white-collar criminals as suggested by Sutherland.
Therefore, it seems that very few white-collar criminals are put on trial, and
even fewer upper class criminals are sentenced to imprisonment. This is in contrast
to most financial crime sentences, where financial criminals appear in the justice
system without being wealthy, highly educated, or socially connected.
White-collar criminals are not necessarily entrenched in criminal lifestyles as
common street criminals. They belong to the elite in society, and they are typically
individuals employed by and in legitimate organizations.
What Podgor (2007) found to be the most interesting aspect of Sutherland's
work is that a scholar needed to proclaim that crimes of the "upper socioeconomic
class" were in fact crimes that should be prosecuted. It is apparent that prior to the
coining of the term "white-collar crime," wealth and power allowed some persons to
escape criminal liability.
The research field of white-collar criminals has now got beyond Sutherland.
Although Sutherland's observations are not inaccurate, research illustrates that
white-collar crime is a broad category, including high-level corporate misconduct
such as corruption, occupational fraud schemes such as insider trading, and
technology abuse such as computer fraud. Recently, scholars in the accounting and
financial field who write about white-collar criminals have begun to incorporate
psychological perspectives, such as psychological trait theory in terms of narcissism
and psychopathy (Perri, 2013).
Characteristics of White-Collar Defense Strategies
Three themes are particularly noteworthy when distinguishing white-collar
crime defense strategies from other defense strategies for lawyers. First, the role of
white-collar criminal lawyers is radically different from the typical criminal lawyer
who defends persons charged with street crime. For instance, the former spend far
more time on each case, both in terms of work load and in terms of calendar time.
This implies that a white-collar crime lawyer works on fewer cases in parallel. The
white-collar lawyer gets the case much earlier and is far more likely to keep charges
from being filed. Second, information control is at the center of the attorney's work.
The lawyer is concerned with acquisition of crucial information and keeps
damaging information out of the hands of government investigators and
prosecutors. A third theme centers round a major dilemma of these lawyers: how to
vigorously defend the client without thereby becoming a party to the criminal act
(Kiser, 1986).
Petter Gottschalk
4

In line with these themes, three specific strategies applied by white-collar


crime attorneys can be identified. First, substance defense strategy is concerned with
when and how an attorney decides to defend the client in a substantive way. Often,
the substantive defense starts at a much earlier stage than in a street crime case.
Second, information control strategy is concerned with what and how crucial
information is controlled to make it difficult, and sometimes impossible, for the
police and prosecution to get the complete picture. Often, information control
defense is able to keep secrets and to claim that pieces of information are irrelevant.
In police investigations, there are normally a number of information sources, often
more than a dozen, as we shall see in this chapter. Controlling and limiting some
source can cause the crime puzzle never to be solved in police investigations. Third,
symbolic defense strategy addresses all other means that the attorney can apply to
divert attention away from legal issues. An example is to portrait the offender as a
victim in the press.
The counterpart for an attorney in crime cases are the authorities, which decide
whether a suspect shall be prosecuted or not. To avoid and prevent a prosecution
decision, the defense lawyer will try to convince the police and prosecution that the
client has done nothing that justifies court proceedings. The strategic issue for the
attorney is how to succeed in stopping the state prosecutor from advancing the
investigation and case from suspicion to prosecution in court. While very different
from other crime cases, an attorney's active defense work often starts in the initial
phases of a police investigation, when there are only rumors of wrongdoing that may
or may not be relevant for criminal law. It does not matter for the attorney whether
the client has done something wrong or not, as long as rumors may develop into
accusations from colleagues, subordinates, management, customers, suppliers,
journalists or authorities.
If a white-collar attorney would behave in a white-collar case as in a street-
crime case, then the attorney would wait for evidence presented against the client.
Then the attorney will react to the evidence. A street-crime lawyer will mainly be
reactive, while a white-collar lawyer will be proactive. A street-crime lawyer will
wait for evidence, and then make up his or her mind what to do. Typically, the lawyer
will argue that the evidence is not sufficient to prove guilt, because presented
evidence does not document in an adequate and convincing manner that the client
has done something which can lead to a prison sentence for the client.
Defense lawyers in white-collar crime cases tend to take charge over
information control at an early stage. Instead of being at the receiving end of
documents from the police and prosecution, the attorney is in a position where the
flow of information can be monitored. Of particular interest to the attorney is crucial
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
5

information that can harm the client's case. The flow of harmful pieces of facts,
insights and knowledge of causes and effects, that might become legal evidence in
the police, is restricted and stopped by the lawyer. Know-what, know-how and
know-why that is damaging for the client, is controlled by the lawyer.
Strategic substance defense is not necessarily the first defense strategy applied
by the attorney in a white-collar case. The defense lawyer's very first goal can be to
prevent that the police obtains evidence that is harmful to the client and prevent that
information is applied by police detectives to define and justify a formal charge for
crime.
At this stage, it is not laws and verdicts that are of concern to the lawyer. At this
stage, all the lawyer is worried about is the flow of information that is transformed
into evidence in police investigations. It is all about preventing the police from
acquiring evidence, and making it difficult or even impossible for the police to
understand pieces of information that they have obtained. It is all about stopping the
investigation at an early stage, so that the case is closed. This is the defense lawyer's
information control strategy.
Third and final defense strategy is symbolic defense. A symbol is an object or
phrase that represents, stands for, or suggests an idea, belief, or action. Symbols take
the form of words, sounds, gestures, or visual images and are used to convey ideas
and beliefs. Symbolic defense is concerned with activities that represent and stand
for defense, but in itself is no defense. Symbolic defense is an alternative and a
supplement to substance defense. Substance and symbolic defense are different
arenas where the white-collar attorney can work actively to try to make the police
close the case, to make the court dismiss the case, and to enable reopening of a case
to enable the client to plead not guilty.
Characteristics of Policing Strategies
Police financial crime requires appropriate strategies that are put into action.
Four important policing strategies are presented in the following: information
management strategy, knowledge management strategy, information systems
strategy, and value shop configuration strategy. In general, police strategy is
concerned with choices to reach law enforcement goals (Ortmeier and Davis, 2012:
29):
A policing strategy is an approach to delivering police services based on
specific assumptions about matters such as how police and community
residents should interact, what causes crime to worsen, and how
technology might be leveraged. Each strategy has unique advantages and
disadvantages. Some strategies are mutually exclusive, while others
complement or support one another.
Petter Gottschalk
6

An information management strategy is concerned with issues such as sources


of information and quality of information in police work. A knowledge management
strategy is concerned with personnel and their knowledge areas. An information
systems strategy is concerned with information and communication technology to
store and retrieve electronic information. A value configuration strategy is
concerned with the choice between value chain, value shop and value network, and
how to apply the chosen value shop configuration strategy to police work. These
strategies may be partly mutually exclusive as well as partially compliment and
support one another.
Information management strategy is one of several strategies that law
enforcement organizations develop and implement to improve white-collar crime
detection and prevention. Police intelligence is an important element of the strategy.
An information management strategy defines management approaches to the
organization, control and application of police information resources through
coordination of people and technology resources in order to support policing
strategy and processes. While knowledge management strategy focuses on
personnel resources, and information systems strategy focuses on technology
resources, information management strategy focuses on the identification, retrieval,
storage and application of information resources. Important issues in this strategy
are information relevance and timeliness (Chaffey and White, 2011).
In policing, performance risk and execution risk reflect the knowledge deficits
impeding process performance. Where knowledge deficits exist, incomplete
information and know-how give rise to uncertainties that obscure prediction and
execution. Performance risk and execution risk are lowered through knowledge
transfer mechanisms developed to avoid and handle uncertainties. Such knowledge
transfer permits knowledge reuse, and the recombination of existing knowledge is
an important antecedent of uncertainty resolution (Mitchell, 2006). Knowledge
management strategy focuses on personnel resources, where the knowledge of each
police officer as well as the combined knowledge in the police represents resources
that are to be explored and exploited for better police work. The knowledge
management strategy process include developing a working definition of
knowledge, developing a working definition of knowledge management, doing a
knowledge audit, defining knowledge management objectives and strategy
approaches, and implementing strategy with quality measures (Chaffey and White,
2011).
Information systems are needed to support investigation and prevention of
white-collar crime. Information technology is applied to organize intelligence and
analyses in electronic format, and to enable easy retrieval, combination and sharing
among executives and colleagues.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
7

Information technology is identified as an effective enabler in promoting


information sharing and knowledge management in organizations. Information
systems strategy is concerned with defining how information systems will be used to
support and impact police work. It is a portfolio of computer-based applications to
be implemented. It brings together the business aims of the police, and
understanding of the information needed to support those aims, and the
implementation of computer systems to provide that information. The emphasis is
on delivering an applications portfolio of appropriate software tools and systems to
support the future direction of an organization in general and knowledge work
within the police in particular. Information technology can play an important role in
leveraging knowledge resources in organizations. Organizations often implement
information systems that are specifically designed to support various aspects of
knowledge management in organizations. These systems include features such as
intranets, search engines, document repositories, and collaboration tools that allow
virtual communities of practice to be organized (Choi et al., 2010).
Fourth and final policing strategy is the value shop configuration. Investigation
and prevention of white-collar crime has the value configuration of a value shop. As
can be seen in Figure 1, the five activities of a value shop are interlocking and,
although they follow a logical sequence (much like the management of any project),
the difference from a knowledge management perspective arises in terms of the
manner in which knowledge is used as a resource to create value in terms of results
for the organization. Hence, the logic of the five interlocking value shop activities in
this example pertains to a policing unit and the manner in which it carries out its core
business of conducting reactive and proactive investigations.
The sequence of activities commences with problem understanding, moves
into alternative investigation approaches, investigation decision, and investigation
implementation, and ends up with criminal investigation evaluation. However,
these five sequential activities tend to overlap and link back to earlier activities,
especially in relation to activity 5 (control and evaluation) in policing units, when
the need for control and command structures are a daily necessity due to the legal
obligations that policing unit authority entails. Hence, the diagram is meant to
illustrate the reiterative and cyclical nature of these five primary activities when it
comes to managing the knowledge collected during, and applied to, a specific
investigation in a value shop manner.
Petter Gottschalk
8

Figure 1: The Knowledge Organization of Investigation and Prevention Units as


Value Shop Configuration Activities.

Performance Evaluation

Investigation Implementation

Approach Decision

Investigation Approaches

Problem Definition

Develop an understanding of the law enforcement problem

Develop alternative strategies for problem solving through investigation

Prioritize and plan investigative actions for detectives

Carry out the investigation by interviews, surveillance, technical evidence, etc.

Evaluate investigation process and results to change or complete case investigation

Furthermore, the figure illustrates the expanding domain of the knowledge


work performed in financial crime investigations, starting in the center with problem
understanding and ending at the periphery with evaluation of all parts of the
investigation process.
The five primary activities depicted above of the value shop in relation to a
financial crime investigation and prevention unit can be outlined as follows:
1. Problem Definition.
This involves working with parties to determine the exact nature of the crime
and hence how it is to be defined. For example, depending on how responding
officers perceive and/or choose to define it, a physical assault in a domestic
violence situation can be either upgraded to the status of grievous bodily harm
to the spousal victim or it may be downgraded to a less serious common, garden
variety assault and defined as a case where a bit of rough handing took place
towards the spouse. This concept of making crime, a term denoting how
detectives choose to make incidents into a crime or not, is highly relevant here
and accounts for why this first activity has been changed from the original
problem finding term used in the business management realm to a problem
definition process here in relation to policing work. Moreover, this first
investigative activity involves deciding on the overall investigative approach
for the case not only in terms of information acquisition but also (as indicated in
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
9

Figure 1) in terms of undertaking the key task, usually by a senior investigative


officer in a serious or major incident, of forming an appropriate investigative
team to handle the case.
2. Investigation Approaches
This second activity of identifying problem solving approaches involves the
actual generation of ideas and action plans for the investigation. As such it is a
key process as it establishes the direction and tone of the investigation and is
very much influenced by the composition of the members of the investigative
team. For example, the experience level of investigators and their preferred
investigative thinking style might be a critical success factor in this second
primary activity of the value shop.
3. Approach Decision
This solution choice activity represents the decision of choosing between
alternatives generated in the second activity. Despite being the least important
primary activity of the value shop in terms of time and effort, it might be the
most important in terms of value. In this case, trying to ensure as far as is
possible, that what is decided upon is the best option to follow to achieve an
effective investigative result. A successful solution choice is dependent on two
requirements. Firstly, that alternative investigation steps were identified in the
problem solving approaches activity. It is important to think in terms of
alternatives, otherwise, no choices can be made. Secondly, the criteria for
decision-making have to be known and applied to the specific investigation.
4. Investigation Implementation
As the name implies, solution execution entails communicating, organizing,
investigating, and implementing decisions. This is an equally important
process or phase in an investigation as it involves sorting through the mass of
information coming into the incident room concerning a case and directing the
lines of enquiry as well as establishing the criteria used to eliminate a possible
suspect from further scrutiny in the investigation. A miscalculation here can
stall or even ruin the whole investigation. Most of the resources expended on an
investigation are used here in this fourth activity of the value shop.
5. Performance Evaluation
Control and evaluation involves monitoring activities and the measurement of
how well the solution solved the original problem or met the original need. This
is where the command and control chain of authority comes into play for
investigation and prevention units and where the determination of the quality
and quantity of the evidence is made in terms of whether or not to charge and
prosecute an identified offender in a court of law.
Petter Gottschalk
10

Knowledge Competition Challenge


When policing strategies are applied to financial crime, the police are trying to
establish the facts about the crime, evaluate what laws and previous court decisions
are relevant in the case, and what role the prosecuted individual plaid in the crime.
This is the core of police work as illustrated in Figure 2. To success, the police apply
information management strategy, knowledge management strategy, information
systems strategy, and value shop investigation strategy.
The police task is made difficult and challenging because of defense lawyer
strategies, as illustrated in Figure 2. Defense attorneys apply substance defense
strategy, information control strategy, and symbolic defense strategy for his or her
client.

Figure 2: Knowledge Rivalry between Police and Defense in Crime Investigation

Policing Strategies

Defence Lawyer Strategies

Financial Crime

Facts About the Crime


Laws and Court Decision
Role of Criminal

Substance Defence Strategy


Information Control Strategy
Symbolic Defence Strategy

Information Management Strategy


Knowledge Management Strategy
Information Systems Strategy
Value Configuration Strategy

The purpose of symbolic defense is to communicate meaning and opinions by


means of symbols. Examples of meaning are delays in police investigations, low
police work quality or other issues related to police and prosecution work.
Complaining about delays in police investigations is not substance defense, as the
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
11

complaint is not expressing a meaning about the crime and possible punishment.
Complaining is symbolic defense, where the goal is to mobilize sympathy for the
white-collar client.
From a legal perspective, a court situation is characterized by efforts to
conclude whether the charged persons and company are guilty or not guilty. From a
knowledge perspective, this situation is characterized by a competition as illustrated
in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Knowledge Rivalries between the Prosecution and the Defense in Court

Public Prosecutors’ Knowledge level

Expert
Defense

Defense Innovative Knowledge


Defense Lawyers’ Advantage Know-Why
Knowledge Level Competition

Advance Knowledge
Know-How

Prosecution Core Knowledge


Advantage Know-What

Expert
Prosecution

Core Advanced Innovative


Knowledge Knowledge Knowledge
Know - What Know - How Know - Why

Depending on the relative knowledge levels of prosecution and defense, a


knowledge rivalry with three alternative situations might exist as illustrated in
Figure 3:
1. Defense lawyers are experts, while prosecutors are not experts in areas such as
international tax regulations, tax havens, global company operations, and
management of international operations. Defense lawyers have innovative
knowledge (know-why), while prosecutors have core knowledge (know-
what).
Petter Gottschalk
12

2. Prosecutors are experts, while defense lawyers are not experts in Norwegian
laws and regulations. Defense lawyers have core knowledge (know-what),
while prosecutors have innovative knowledge (know-why).
3. Both parties are at about the same knowledge level, leading to a real knowledge
competition in court between the defense lawyers and prosecutors.
While street criminals such as burglars and rapists seldom can afford several
top defense lawyers for weeks and months in court, white-collar criminals often can
afford it. This discrepancy emphasizes the importance of Sutherland's (1949)
seminal work on white-collar crime. The most economically disadvantaged
members of society are not the only ones committing crime. Members of the
privileged socioeconomic class are also engaged in criminal behavior (Brightman,
2009) and the types of crime may differ from those of the lower classes. Some
examples of the former are business executives bribing public officials to obtain
contracts, chief accountants manipulating balance sheets to avoid taxes,
procurement managers approving fake invoices for personal gain (Simpson and
Weisburd, 2009).
Knowledge competition can be understood in terms of three defense strategies
applied by white-collar lawyers: substance defense strategy, information control
strategy, and symbolic defense strategy. The counterpart for an attorney in crime
cases are the authorities, which decide whether a suspect shall be prosecuted or not.
To avoid and prevent a prosecution decision, the defense lawyer will try to convince
the police and prosecution that the client has done nothing that justifies court
proceedings. It is all about substance defense strategy at an early stage. The strategic
issue for the attorney is how to succeed in stopping the state prosecutor from
advancing the investigation and case from suspicion to prosecution in court. While
very different from other crime cases, an attorney's active defense work often starts
in the initial phases of a police investigation, when there are only rumors of
wrongdoing that may or may not be relevant for criminal law.
Defense lawyers in white-collar crime cases tend to take charge over
information control at an early stage, which is according to the information control
strategy. Instead of being at the receiving end of documents from the police and
prosecution, the attorney is in a position where the flow of information can be
monitored. Of particular interest to the attorney is crucial information that can harm
the client's case. The flow of harmful pieces of facts, insights and knowledge of
causes and effects, that might become legal evidence in the police, is restricted and
stopped by the lawyer.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
13

Third and final defense strategy is the symbolic defense strategy. A symbol is
an object or phrase that represents, stands for, or suggests an idea, belief, or action.
Symbolic defense is an alternative and a supplement to substance defense.
Substance and symbolic defense are different arenas where the white-collar attorney
can work actively to try to make the police close the case, to make the court dismiss
the case, and to enable reopening a case to enable the client to plead not guilty. The
purpose of symbolic defense is to communicate opinions and intentions by means of
symbols. Examples of meaning are publicly announced complaints about delays in
police investigations, poor police work quality or other issues related to police and
prosecution work.
Empirical Study of White-Collar Lawyers
Several options exist to identify a substantial sample of white-collar criminals
and to collect relevant information about each criminal and his or her lawyer.
However, in a small country like Norway with a population of only five million
people, there are limits to available sample size. One available option would be to
study court cases involving white-collar crime and criminals. A challenge here
would be to identify the relevant laws and sentences that cover our definition not
only of white-collar crime, but also the required characteristics of white-collar
criminals. Another available option is to study newspaper articles, where the
journalists already have conducted some kind of selection of higher class, white-
collar individuals convicted in court because of financial crime. An advantage of this
approach is that the cases are publicly known, which makes it easier to identify cases
by individual white-collar names. The selective and otherwise filtered information
in newspapers might be a problem in other kinds of studies, but is considered
acceptable in this study. Therefore, the latter option was chosen in this research.
Out of 277 convicted white-collar criminals, 238 convicts were defended by a
male lawyer and 39 convicts defended by a female lawyer. Among 277 white-collar
convicts, there were 253 men and 24 women. An emerging question is whether men
defend men, and women defend women. This was not the case, as 20 women were
defended by men, and 4 women by women. This reflects the general gender
distribution and cannot tell anything about gender preference in attorney selection.
While 16.7 percent of the women selected a female lawyer, 13.8 percent of the men
selected a female lawyer as well. In total, women represent 14.1 percent of the
lawyers and 9 percent of the convicted criminals.
There are a total of 172 lawyers in the sample, which implies that each lawyer
defended 1.6 criminals on average. The lawyer with most clients defended 20
convicts in the sample.
Petter Gottschalk
14

Average age of lawyers was 51 years, while average age of criminals was 48
years old. The youngest lawyer was 26 years, while the oldest was 83 years. Average
taxable income was 200.000 US dollars (1.253.000 Norwegian Kroner), and the
best earning attorney had an income of 2 Million US dollars.
Correlation analysis indicates a positive relation between the number of white-
collar crime clients and lawyer taxable income. Furthermore, older lawyers have
higher incomes. No relationship was found between number of clients and age of
lawyer.
Some lawyers are more famous than others. How well-known a lawyer is to
potential clients and in the public, might be measured in terms of media coverage.
Financial newspapers represent a relevant source of fame for white-collar people.
The largest Norwegian financial newspaper, Dagens Næringsliv, was searched for
hits on their website. The most famous lawyer achieved 219 hits, followed by the
second most famous lawyer with 112 hits on the newspaper web site.
This fame factor in terms of web site hits was correlated with other variables for
the lawyers. A significant and positive relationship emerged between fame factor
and number of clients, as well as between fame factor and lawyer income. Results
are listed in Table I.
Table I: Correlation Analysis for White-collar Crime Lawyers

Average Deviation Clients Age Income Fame

Clients 1.6 1.8 1 -.059 .576** .947**

Age 51.3 11.3 1 .185** .002

Income 1.3 1.4 1 .608**

Fame 8.1 24.0 1

Furthermore, there is significant correlation between income and clients, as


well as income and age. In the first two columns, average values and standard
deviations are listed. The average number of white-collar clients for each white-
collar lawyer in the sample over a three-year period is 1.6 criminals, with a standard
deviation of 1.8 criminals.
White-collar criminals commit their crime in terms of a money amount. The
amount of money varies from case to case, where the average in the sample is 8
million US dollars (51 million Norwegian Kroner). The largest sum of money in a
single case was 200 million US dollars in a bank fraud by a large company. An
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
15

interesting issue is whether characteristics of lawyers can somehow predict money


amount and jail sentence. Correlation analysis indicates that significant
relationships exist between crime amount and lawyer fame (.141*), lawyer income
(.234**) and lawyer age (.145**). There is no significant correlation between
number of clients and crime amount.
White-collar criminals in the data base were convicted to prison sentence.
Average jail sentence for 277 convicted white-collar criminals was 2.3 years. An
interesting issue is whether characteristics of attorneys in any way might predict
sentence length. Potential predictors include number of clients, lawyer age, lawyer
income, and lawyer fame. Correlation analysis indicates no such relationships.
When disregarding characteristics of defense lawyers, the most important
predictor of a jail sentence for white-collar criminal is the crime amount. With a
significant and positive correlation coefficient (.249**), imprisonment increases as
crime amount grows in the sample.
So far, it is established that prison sentence becomes more severe with a larger
crime amount, and the crime amount is larger when a famous lawyer is defending the
case. When these two factors are combined with the number of clients, some
interesting results emerge from regression analysis:
A larger amount of money in the crime is positively related to a longer jail
sentence.
A defense lawyer with more fame is positively related to a shorter jail
sentence.
More defense lawyer clients are positively related to a longer jail sentence.
These regression results are significant and taken together amount, fame and
clients can predict variation in prison sentence, as listed in Table II.

Table II: Regression analysis with jail sentence as dependent variable

Slope T-value Significance

Number of white - collar clients 0.183 2.552 .011

Web site hits for lawyer fame -0.15 -2.516 .012

Amount of money involved in crime 0.03 0.03 .000

All three factors in the table are significant from a statistical point of view (p<.05).
The interesting minus sign in front of fame indicates that fame is related to shorter
jail sentence for the client.
Petter Gottschalk
16

The Case of Attorney Stordrange


Bjørn Stordrange, a well-known white-collar lawyer in Norway, defended Acta
entrepreneur Fred Anton Ingebrigtsen, who was suspected of insider trading in the
Acta stock. Early on, Stordrange expressed in public his frustration with several
delays in police investigations (Haakaas, 2009: 2):
When the charge was out last summer, we were told that the investigation
would be completed last fall. The time limit was changed to Easter and
then again to October this year. Now we are told that it might be completed
by Christmas, says Stordrange.
Stordrange's many appearances in the media indicated both active substance
defense in the Acta case, as well as symbolic defense, which will be discussed later
in this chapter. Stordrange was extremely proactive in terms of an organized crime
suspicion, where the police wanted to use the Norwegian mafia rule on the case.
Stordrange succeeded in convincing the police to drop the organized crime charge
against Ingebrigtsen and his crime associates.
In Norway, white-collar attorneys are typically trying to influence police
investigations at Økokrim, which is the Norwegian national authority for
investigation and prosecution of economic and environmental crime. Økokrim is
the main source of specialist skills for the police and prosecution authorities in their
combat against financial and environmental crime (www.okokrim.no). Økokrim is
similar to SFO – the Serious Fraud Office in the UK. SFO is an independent
government department, operating under the superintendence of the Attorney
General. Its purpose is to protect society by investigating and, if appropriate,
prosecuting those who commit serious or complex fraud, bribery and corruption,
and pursuing them and others for the proceeds of their crime. For example on March
11, 2013, SFO charged three men in a Ponzi-style scheme, and the men appeared at
City of London Magistrates Court charged with conspiracy to defraud investors in
an alleged investment fraud related to electrical contracts in the hotel sector
(www.sfo.gov.uk).
As defense lawyer for white-collar criminal Kjell Gunnar Finstad in Norex
Group, attorney Bjørn Stordrange was upset about the elapsed time of police
investigation (Vanvik, 2010: 14):
It doesn't matter what explanation the police has to give. Time speaks for
itself and this case, both in terms of evidence and in terms of the law. If this
case had been presented in court five years ago, it might have been
another issue. But now, witnesses in the case hardly remember what
happened anymore. We find it quite surprising that the police now spend
so many resources on a case that is mainly history, says Stordrange.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
17

The defense lawyer has noise as strategy, to get attention away from the core of
this criminal case, said state prosecutor Harald L. Grønlien (Ravn and Schultz, 2011:
13):
Some defense lawyers have s strategy to make noise and divert attention
away from the core of the case. Therefore, they bring in as many
formalities into a case as possible, to cause derailing, says Grønlien.
White-Collar Lawyer Team
Some white-collar criminals do not only hire a few lawyers to defend them,
they hire a complete team of lawyers and other experts to work on their defense. An
example is finance acrobat Christer Tromsdal, who hired nine attorneys, an auditor,
an investigator, and a data specialist in 2013. Tromsdal got his own office in well-
recognized law firm Hjort in Oslo. Among the lawyers were Skjerdal, Lyngtveit,
Østgård, Aagaard and Holmen (Solem, 2013b).
Christer Tromsdal (born 1969) was in 2005 sentenced to six months in prison
for have influenced a witness in a criminal investment case. In 2012, he was
sentenced to six years in prison for bank fraud. However, his team of lawyers
discovered that the judge in an earlier case had said something about Tromsdal that
disqualified him to rule in this case. So the 6-year sentence was removed, and the
prosecution had to start all over again (Borgarting, 2013c).
Two defense lawyers are paid by the state at a low standard hourly rest. All
others are paid by Tromsdal. Annually it may cost him one million US dollars. He
argues that the money comes from legal investment activities in property and
financial markets. The prosecution is not so sure about that (Solem, 2013b).

Conclusion
The difference in defense lawyers and their strategies in defending white-collar
criminals compared to those who primarily defend those who commit general street
crime is certainly an interesting topic in need of exploration. White-collar crime
lawyers are different from other specialist lawyers because of the knowledge gap,
the resource gap and the uncertainty whether or not it is a crime. Corporate financial
crime cases have a tendency to be associated with great uncertainty in terms of
know-what, know-how and know-why. This uncertainty makes judges – who are not
necessarily familiar with international business operations – uncertain whether or
not it is a crime. A situation is then created in court, where it is very much up to
defense lawyers to present the case in such a manner that it seems to be outside
punishable conditions. Defense lawyers can presents causes and links in the case as
business evidence for pleading not guilty, where judges have a hard time following
the business lines, business actors and consequences in relation to Norwegian law.
Petter Gottschalk
18

Based on exploratory research, this paper has established a competitive link


between police knowledge and defense knowledge. While defense lawyers carry out
substance defense, information control and symbolic defense, the police have to
carry out information management, knowledge management, information systems
use, and work in the value shop configuration. Our findings regarding the interaction
between white-collar defense attorneys, prosecutors, and law enforcement officers
open up avenues for future research. For example, future research may concentrate
on exploring these links in terms of relative knowledge competition between the two
opposing parties in crime investigations.

References
Alalehto, T. and Larsson, D. (2009). The Roots of Modern White-Collar Crime:
Does the Modern Form of White-Collar Crime have its Foundation in the
Transition from a Society Dominated by Agriculture to One Dominated by
Industry, Critical Criminology, 17, 183-193.
Baitar, R., Buysse, A., Brondeel, R., Mol, J. and Rober, P. (2012). Toward High-
Quality Divorce Agreements: The Influence of Facilitative Professionals,
Negotiation Journal, October, 452-473.
Benson, M.L. and Simpson, S.S. (2009). White-Collar Crime: An Opportunity
Perspective, Criminology and Justice Series, Routledge, NY: New York.
Blickle, G., Schlegel, A., Fassbender, P. and Klein, U. (2006). Some Personality
Correlates of Business White-Collar Crime, Applied Psychology: An
International Review, 55 (2), 220-233.

Borgarting (2013c). 12-199711A S T -B O R G /04, Borgarting lagmannsrett,


(Court of appeal case) 16.09.2013.
Brightman, H.J. (2009). Today's White-Collar Crime: Legal, Investigative, and
Theoretical Perspectives, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, NY: New York.
Chaffey, D. and White, G. (2011). Business Information Management, Second
Edition, London, UK: Prentice Hall.
Choi, S.Y., Lee, H. and Yoo, Y. (2010). The Impact of Information Technology and
Transactive Memory Systems on Knowledge Sharing, Application, and Team
Performance: A Field Study, MIS Quarterly, 34 (4), 855-870.
Goldstraw-White, J. (2012). White-Collar Crime: Accounts of Offendig Behaviour,
London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
19

Haakaas, E. (2009). Acta-saken kan smuldre bort (Acta case can mold away), daily
newspaper Afteposten, fredag 27. november 2009, Økonomidelen, side 2.
Kiser, G.C. (1986). Book Review of Defending White-Collar Crime, Social Science
Quarterly, 655-656.
Mann, K. (1985). Defending White-Collar Crime: A Game Without Rules, Yale
University Press, New Haven.
Mitchell, V.L. (2006). Knowledge Integration and Information Technology Project
Performance, MIS Quarterly, 30 (4), 919-939.
Ortmeier, P.J. and Davis, J.J. (2012). Police Administration – A Leadership
Approach, McGraw Hill, New York, NY.
Perri, F.S. (2013). Visionaries or False Prophets, Journal of Contemporary Criminal
Justice, 29 (3), 331-350.
Podgor, E.S. (2007). The challenge of white collar sentencing, Journal of Criminal
Law and Criminology, Spring, 97 (3), 1-10.
Ravn, L.K. og Schultz, J. (2011). Tiltale sendt i retur (Prosecution returned), Dagens
Næringsliv, mandag 15. august, side 13.
Robb, G. (2006). Women and white-collar crime, British Journal of Criminology,
46, 1058-1072.
Simpson, S.S. and Weisburd, D., editors (2009). The Criminology of White-Collar
Crime, Springer, New York.
Solem, L.K. (2013b). Har eget kontor hos Hjort (Has his own office at law
firm Hjort), daily Norwegian business newspaper Dagens Næringsliv,
tirsdag 24. september, side 6-7.
Sutherland, E.H. (1940). White collar criminality, American Sociological Review,
5, 1-12.
Sutherland, E.H. (1949). White collar crime, New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston.
Sutherland, E.H. (1983). White collar crime: the uncut version, New Haven: Yale
University Press.
Vanvik, H. (2010). Har vært en heksejakt (Has been a witch hunt), Dagens
Næringsliv, onsdag 13. oktober, page 14.

The author Mr. Petter Gottschalk is Professor of Information Systems & Knowledge Management
in the Department of Leadership and Organizational Management at BI Norwegian Business
School. Dr. Gottschalk has published a number of books and research articles on Crime and
Policing. He has been Managing Director of several corporations, including ABB Data Cables and
the Norwegian Computing Center.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology Volume 6, No.1, Jan-Jun 2014, pp.21 - 29
21

The Costs of the War on Terrorism:


Revisiting the Methodology used for Cost Estimation
in Pakistan
Kamran Adil

Abstract
Pakistan paid a huge 'cost' for war on terror. Here, the term 'cost' refers to the economic cost.
In policy and media discussion, only the qualitative aspects of the cost for war on terror have
been discussed. As far as the quantitative aspect of this cost is concerned, there have been
little attempts, if any, to calculate such cost. There is, however, only one official report that
estimated the cost of war on terror, i.e. Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2010-11. However,
there are significant methodological issues with this estimation. This article discusses the
methodological issues in the estimation of cost for war on terror.
Keywords
War on Terror, Cost, Methodology, Fight, Pakistan

Introduction
In the backdrop of the All Parties Conference (APC) convened by the
th
Government of Pakistan on 9 September, 2013, it is appropriate to revisit the
question of the costs and benefits of the war on terror for Pakistan. For policy
makers, there is a dearth of quantitative material to consider; they usually have
1
differing qualitative narratives emanating from official and unofficial sources . On
the quantitative side, normally there is only access to statistics related to registered
2
and reported terrorism cases, and the number of dead and injured civilians . The only
official publication on the subject is a special report within the Economic Survey of
Pakistan 2010-11(ESP 2010-11)3, which showed that the total cost of war on terror
4
from 2001-02 to 2010-11 to be approximately US $ 67.926 billion . The participants
of APC 2013, however, chose not to express themselves quantitatively. Instead their
preferred mode of expression was to identify the qualitative vis-à-vis 'costs' of war
on terror. Accordingly, the Resolution of APC 2013 recorded:
“There have also been colossal damages to social and physical
infrastructure and huge consequential financial losses and adverse
5
effects on our economy”
Conversely, no 'benefits' of the war on terror were alluded to in the Resolution6.
The preference of qualitative expression of 'costs' may be due to political and
diplomatic reasons; however, it is a fact that there is little or no research by
independent sources on the issue and this might well be one of the reasons for not
Kamran Adil
22

expressing the costs in quantitative terms. The situation, therefore, supports the need
for serious quantitative research on the issue. This article, however, is not designed
to fathom and quantify the 'costs' of the war on terror for Pakistan; it only proposes to
explore and preface, to the extent possible, the methodology and framework for any
such research in the future.
Literature Review
In Pakistan, on the official level, the two-page special section of the ESP 2010-
11forms the basis of any discussion. It may also be noted that after 2010-11, the
subsequent issues of the annual ESP have omitted the special section on the costs of
7
the war on terror as it relates to the Pakistan economy . There is no dedicated portion
in the ESP 2010-11 on the methodology of assessing or estimating the costs of this
war. Two things are reported in the ESP 2010-11 about the assessment of the costs.
First, the assessment of 'direct and indirect costs' was performed by an inter-
ministerial committee constituting the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) and
having representatives from Finance, Interior, Commerce and 'some other
ministries' including representatives of two provinces that border Afghanistan8.
Secondly, four assumptions that were the basis of the estimation of costs for the first
year of the war on terror (2001) have been mentioned. The four assumptions were:
(i) end of war by December, 2001; (ii) resumption of normalcy by January, 2002;
(iii) ouster of the Taliban in Afghanistan (regime change) resulting in normalcy in
Pakistan; and (iv) removal of an additional increase in freight cargo and war risk
premium. It is also noted in the ESP that the assumptions have not yet been
materialized, and the costs have continued to increase over the following years.
Comprehensively addressing this subject is an article by Stiglitz (2012)9. The article
focuses on the estimation of the costs of wars by the US in Iraq and Afghanistan. It
addresses the methodological issues in assessing the costs and also tries to complete
the picture by talking about the 'benefit' side of the equation. Without defining the
term 'benefit' in the war on terror, the paper observes that assessing 'benefits' is
10
'difficult' and complex as two issues affect it, namely: first, the issue of choosing
between threat diversion and threat destruction; and second, the endogeneity of
opposition forces. On the other hand, the article argues that estimating the costs of
war is 'easier' (though problematic in some elements). Before estimating the costs
and while delineating the taxonomy of costs, the author divides all the costs into two
broad categories, specifically: (i) economic costs and (ii) budgetary costs. In this
sense, the methodology introduced by Stiglitz is conceptually sounder than the
approach posed and used by the authors of ESP. Benmelech (2009)11 focuses on the
impact of suicide bombings and is related to Palestine-Israel conflict. The focus of
the article is on economic costs on the country harbouring terrorism. Crawford
12
(2013) heavily relies on the methodology expounded by Stiglitz (2012); it takes
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
23

into account the costs incurred by the US in waging war in all the three countries, i.e.
Iraq, Afghanistan and Pakistan. Like Stiglitz (2012), Crawford (2013) observes that
the US has been fighting modern wars on the bases of resources generated by
borrowing and if the interest due on the borrowing is added up to the cost estimation,
the overall costs will further rise.
The Case of Pakistan
Legal Analysis of The Term 'war'
The Resolution of the APC in 2013 on terrorism has chosen to use the word
13
'war' while referring to the fight against terrorism. The usage may be politically
correct, but legally it is problematic. The problem emanates from assuming that the
discussion on the terminology of a 'war' on terror belongs to semantics and has no
relevance in the pragmatic and real world. This assumption is flawed as legal
consequences flow from the terminology employed to describe a concept. In case of
'war' on terror, the usage of the term, imports in all of the legal effects. For example,
in the international law, there are two different sets of laws whose application is
invoked by using the word 'war' in diplomatic and political statements. The set of
laws that deals with 'the right to war' is called jus ad bellum and the set of laws that
14
deals with 'the conduct of war' is called jus in bello; the former belongs primarily to
the UN Charter provisions while the latter is called international humanitarian law.
An analysis of the legal provisions contained in both the sets of laws reveals that the
terminology of 'war' is certainly not universal.15 There is considerable difference of
opinion in usage of the term. The UK, one of the most closely allied allies of the US,
has certainly legally not used the term of 'war'16. The national law of Pakistan, as
embodied in the national Constitution, has offered a separate set of rules for war and
the President is authorized to proclaim an emergency in case of 'war'17, which
implies that at least in Pakistan's context, the policy makers and the officials do not
have the luxury to call the 'fight' against terrorism with the terminology of their
choice as such statements have the potential of offering empowering circumstances
to the President of Pakistan to exercise such provisions. The upshot of the discussion
then is to urge the officials of Pakistan to carefully choose the terminology and to be
cautious of the legal consequences of their words.
Estimating The Benefits
As noted above, Stiglitz (2012) stated that it is easier to estimate the costs of
war as compared to the estimate of its benefits. In case of Pakistan, the stated goals
of the war are not clear, therefore, any attempt at quantifying the benefits may not
yield concrete and obvious results18. The latest APC in 2013 has once again given a
19
'chance to peace' , which means that, if any, the methodology to estimate benefits
will be quintessentially qualitative and not quantitative.
Kamran Adil
24

Estimating Costs
a. Concept of 'Costs' and the Taxonomy of Costs
The concept of costs is relative and defies definition. In the context of
estimating costs in the fight against terrorism, the cost has clearly to be defined
to precisely elucidate inclusions and exclusions. There is no universal
taxonomy of costs related to terrorism. Stiglitz (2010) has used two types of
costs: (i) budgetary costs (inclusive of resources spent to date, resources
expected to be spent in the future, and budgetary costs to the government); and
(ii) economic costs (which include micro-economic and macro-economic
perspectives). Two other factors that have found emphatic elaboration by
Steglitz vis-à-vis the US costs of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan are the mode
of financing the war and the role of the private sector (through contracts). In
Pakistan's context, the mode of financing is instrumental and must be included
at least in the explanatory notes on cost estimation.
b. Economic Survey of Pakistan 2010-11 Costs
The ESP has not elaborated the exact methodology for calculating the costs. It
has used the words 'direct and indirect costs.' This report has raised and
articulated the four assumptions, outlined above, that have been used as the
20
basis of the calculations. Table 1 of ESP 2010-11 has considered the
following as costs without elaborating much on the methodology:

Table I. Cost of War Estimate in 2001- 02 and 2010 - 11 ($ Billion)


2010 - 11
2001 - 02
(Est)
Exports 1.40 2.90

Compensation to Affectees 0.00 0.80

Physical Infrastructure 0.00 1.72

Foreign Investment 0.15 2.10


Privatization 0.50 1.10
Industrial Output 0.11 1.70
Tax Collection 0.25 2.10
Cost of Uncertainty 0.10 2.90
Expenditure Over run 0.11 1.60
Others 0.10 0.90

Total 2.72 17.82

Source : Ministry of Finance


Pakistan Journal of Criminology
25

21
The 'joint costs' shown in the Table 1 clearly are problematic . No explanatory
notes have been provided on the methodology. Besides, the categories of costs
used are not clear. For example, the category of 'compensation to affectees'
shows zero expenditure for the year 2001-02, while the same category has
grown to US$ 0.80 Billion in 2010-11; this is not verifiable as there is no
definition of 'affectees' and there is no elucidation on the formula of
compensation. Likewise, without showing the allocated costs, the ESP has
chosen to reflect the 'expenditure over run,' which is not only ambiguous, but
also ambivalent.
c. Methodology for Calculating Costs
As noted earlier, the new government of Pakistan is planning to come up with a
22
new and more reliable figure on the costs of the 'war' on terror . It is imperative
to recommend and analyze any possible future methodology. The methodology
for cost estimation will not be primarily different from the one provided by
Stiglitz (2010); the methodology, however, is not easy to follow. For example,
the national budget and provincial budgets in Pakistan do not clearly and fully
reflect expenditure on different components of the criminal justice system. For
example, the specific expenditures used on the police are difficult to pinpoint as
it is listed in 'joint costs' under the category of 'law and order'. Likewise, the cost
of the security of the courts and of the prisons and other installations is not
reflected in the budget under the relevant headings. It is usually perceived that
the role of the police has been transformed from investigation of criminal cases
to exclusively providing security. In the same manner, the category of 'foreign
investment' in Table 1 above again does not reflect exactly the impact on direct
or indirect investment. The extant methodology of estimating cost that has been
used by ESP 2010-11 refers to 'direct and indirect costs' without clearly
spelling out the difference between 'direct' and 'indirect' costs. In view of the
above, any future attempt by Pakistan to estimate the costs of the 'war' on
terrorism should include:
1. A detailed note on the methodology of the estimation of the costs and should
specifically clarify the inclusions and exclusions of the costs.
2. Explanatory notes should accompany any estimates as it relates to all key terms
and any special features of Pakistan's cost assessment. For example, in the case
23
of Pakistan, the influx and influence of refugees and Internally Displaced
Persons (IDPs) cannot be ignored in estimating the cost; hence, these should be
identified as a specific item and as a special feature of Pakistan as it relates to
cost estimation.
Kamran Adil
26

3. The budgetary allocations in Pakistan's case are not very well categorized and
in the places where it is so characterized, the expenditure on terrorism and
related costs is not indicated properly. For example, under the Punjab Police
Rules 193424, the protection guard for Judges of the High Court is authorized as
one head constable and three constables during the working tour. While the
Rules provide for authorization of a fixed number of guards, the judicial
25
officers are invariably provided many more guards for protection . Likewise,
jail breaks are on the rise, and inmates and those awaiting trial for terrorism
26
have escaped from the process of law . The added expenditure on the security
arrangements of prisoners, jails, prosecutors, witnesses, court complexes, and
judges usually do not figure into the budgetary allocations; therefore, the
possibility of having a correct estimate of costs does exist, but extra efforts
would be needed to collect expenditure details from the field units in addition
to the reference to budget documents. Another point worth mentioning is that in
the case of the police, the primary function of the investigation of criminal
cases has been virtually upstaged by security considerations, and accordingly
much of the police resources are now geared towards security-related
functions, rather than criminal investigation.
27
4. It may be noted that the latest National Finance Commission Award clearly
provides that 'one percent of the net proceeds of divisible taxes shall be
assigned to the Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to meet the expenses of
the 'war on terror.' Therefore, this one percent of divisible taxes must also be
included in the final cost estimation.
5. The security cost of doing business in Pakistan, which is estimated to be
'between 0.5-2 percent of the total cost' of a project may also be included in the
overall cost equation of the expenditure on the war on terrorism.28
6. Under the head of economic costs, besides considering both micro and macro
aspects as has been proposed by Stiglitz (2010), it should be required to
29
examine comprehensively all the other types of costs .
7. The opportunity cost of the resources utilized on fighting terrorism must also
be included in the final count to make it more reliable.
Concluding Remarks
It is axiomatic to state that what cannot be measured, cannot be managed. No
effort should be lost to overemphasize this point as it relates to the fight against
terrorism. The problem of not attributing value to all the related costs will persist,
but following a clearly defined methodology for estimating the costs of the 'war' on
terrorism within Pakistan will provide critical policy makers with an invaluable tool
to maximize the viability of their decisions and to carve out future foreign and
national security policies.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
27

End Notes
1
The Resolution passed by the All Parties Conference (APC) held on 9th September,
2013 has recorded that the participants were 'briefed' by Prime Minister,
Minister of Interior, Chief of Army Staff and Director General Inter-Services
Intelligence. The text of the Resolution was reproduced in the daily the News
International http://www.thenews.com.pk/Todays-News-2-201085-Text-of-
the-APC-resolution [accessed on 26th September, 2013].
2
According to Para 5 (b) of the Resolution of APC 2013, 'thousands' of state
personnel, innocent men, women and children lost their lives.
3
Economic Survey of Pakistan 2010-11 in a Special Section on the Cost of War
on Terror for Pakistan Economy. Available on:
http://www.finance.gov.pk/survey/chapter_11/Special%20Section_1.pdf[Ac
cessed on 16 July 2013].
4
Economic Survey of Pakistan 2010-11, Table I, pp 220.
5
Para 5(b) of the Resolution of APC 2013.
6
The general propensity in authors on the subject of costs on war is to only talk about
the 'cost' side; it is only very rare that anybody talks about 'benefits' of the war.
The discussion may sound artificial, but for providing complete picture on the
subject, both sides of the equation i.e., cost and benefit should be explored. The
point has been elaborated and well explained by Joseph E. Stiglitz and Linda J.
Bilmes in their article titled 'Estimating the costs of war: methodological
issues, with application to Iraq and Afghanistan.
7
The new government of Pakistan was elected into office on 5th June, 2013. The new
Finance Minister Ishaq Dar reportedly excluded the publication of costs on war
on terror in Economic Survey of Pakistan 2012-13 just before its publication.
The apparent reason as per news is that the figure of 'opportunity cost' or losses
was reported to be US $ 125 Billion, while the earlier reported figure was in the
range of US $ 68 Billion and US $ 85 Billion. The incumbent Minister
reportedly excluded the figure as he wanted to bring in more credible
information on the issue. The information was published on 12th June, 2013 in
the daily, the News International by Mehtab Haider.
http://www.thenews.com.pk/Todays-News-13-23427-Cost-of-war-on-terror-
dropped-from-Economic-Survey [accessed 26 September, 2013].
8
It appears that the reference is to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) and Balochistan
provinces.
9
Stiglitz, E. Joseph and Bilmes, Linda J, “Estimating the Cost of War:
Methodological Issues, with Applications to Iraq and Afghanistan”.
http://www2.gsb.columbia.edu/faculty/jstiglitz/download/papers/2012_Esti
mating_Costs_War.pdf [accessed on 26 September, 2013].
Kamran Adil
28

10
Stiglitz, E. Joseph and Bilmes, Linda J, Estimating the Cost of War:
Methodological Issues, with Applications to Iraq and Afghanistan, pp 3.
11
Benmelech, Efraim, Klor, Esteban F, Berrebi, Claude, the Economic Cost of
Harbouring Terrorism, NBER Working Paper No. 15465.
http://www.nber.org/papers/w15465.pdf [accessed on 26 September, 2013].
12
Crawford, Neta, US Costs of Wars Through 2013: $ 3.1 Trillion and Countng,
http://costsofwar.org/sites/default/files/UScostsofwarsum.pdf [accessed on
26th September, 2013].
13
APC Resolution, Para 5(c) states: “…We declare that we shall ourselves determine
the means and mode of fighting this war in our national interest and shall not be
guided by the United States of America or any other country in this regard”.
14
François Bugnion, Jus Ad Bellum, Jus In Bello And Non-International Armed
Conflicts, published in the Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, T. M.
C. Asser Press, vol. VI, 2003, pp. 167-198.
http://www.icrc.org/eng/assets/files/other/jus_ad_bellum,_jus_in_bello_and
_non-international_armed_conflictsang.pdf [accessed on 26th September,
2013].
15
For a detailed analysis of the legality of the term in international humanitarian law
please see: Coping with 9/11: Alternatives to the War Paradigm by Mathew
Evangelista. http://costsofwar.org/sites/default/files/Evangelista911.pdf
[accessed on 27th September, 2013].
16
Bingham, Tom, the Rule of Law, on pp 133 onwards, explains in detail the
differences of the UK and the US approaches towards terrorism. He has cited
Professor David Cole of Georgetown University who in his article 'The Brits
Do It Better' has quoted Sir Ken Macdonald Director of Public Prosecutions in
the UK, who has specifically stated that the UK 'fight' against terrorism is not a
'war'.
http://scholarship.law.georgetown.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1009&co
th
ntext=facpub [accessed 27 September 2013].
17
Part X comprising Articles 232 to 237 of the Constitution of Pakistan 1973 provide
for separate set of rules at the time of 'war'.
18
Tellis, Ashelly. J, Pakistan and War on Terror, Conflicted Goals and Compromised
Performance, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
19
Para of Resolution passed in 2013 All Parties Conference 2013.
20
Reproduced here from Economic Survey of Pakistan 2010-11.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
29

21
Stighlitz has used the terminology of 'joint costs' and has not that these are
inherently problematic.
22
See footnote 8 above.
23
According to United Nations High Commission for Refugees, the Statistical
Snapshot for Pakistan shows that the total number of refugees is 1.6 million
whereas the number of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) is0.75 million.
http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49e487016.html [accessed on 6 October, 2013].
24
Rule 18.20 of the Punjab Police Rules 1934.
25
Though there have been many instances in which judicial officers and premises
have been attacked by the terrorists, the latest and one of the most high profile
has been the attack on Justice MaqboolBaqar (now Chief Justice) of Sindh
High Court. Reported in the daily the News International on 27th June,
2013.http://www.thenews.com.pk/article-106926-Karachi:-Justice-Maqbool-
th
Baqar-attack-case-registered [accessed on 30 September, 2013].
26
Zahir Shah Sherazi, the daily Dawn reported escape of 175 hardened terrorists
from Dera Ismail Khan jail. http://dawn.com/news/1032777/pakistani-taliban-
free-over-175-inmates-in-di-khan-jailbreak. [accessed on 30th September,
2013].
27
Section 3(2) of the Distribution of Revenue and Grant-in-Aid Order, 2010.
28
Security cost of doing business by KhaleeqKiani, the daily Dawn published in
Dawn on 27 January, 2014. http://www.dawn.com/news/1082998/security-
cost-of-doing-business [accessed on 27th January, 2014].
29
Dr. Azhar Hassan Nadeem, PSP Ex-IGP, Punjab has centred his taxonomy of costs
around economic, social and cultural costs in his presentations at various
academic and media fora.

The author Mr. Kamran Adil (PSP) is a Police Officer and is a graduate of Oxford University. The
author would like to acknowledge the guidance and motivation provided by Dr. Azhar Hassan
Nadeem, (PSP) Ex IGP, Punjab.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology Volume 6, No.1, Jan-Jun 2014, pp.31 - 46
31

Cross Cultural Variations in Attitude


towards use of
Psychological Support Among Police Officers
Dr. Sajida Naz, Dr. Helen Gavin, Dr. Bushra Khan
& M. Shahjahan Raza

Abstract
A body of literature exists that emphasises the importance of understanding attitudes and
trends towards seeking psychological support in order to boost effective trauma
management. In the context of police work, appropriate understanding and utilisation of
support systems can help to gain mental preparedness and steadiness required to boost
performance. The research reported here used a mixed methodological approach. Thematic
and statistical analysis indicated that overall, the majority of police officers questioned
preferred speaking to friends and family for psychological support or engaging in religious
activities rather than consulting psychological services. A few of the police employed other
techniques such as reading self-help books, and seeking religious guidance. Cross
comparative analysis of anecdotal responses suggested significant themes around religion,
affirmations, positive outlook, and trauma awareness. Importance and challenges related to
individual differences in the use of psychological services are highlighted, along with
recommendations to modify existing policies. These findings are clearly relevant to police,
emergency, and relief workers.
Keywords
Psychological Support, Police Officers, Trauma Management, Anecdotes

Introduction
Psychological stress resulting from police work is often inevitable due to the
nature of the work. However, preparedness and appropriate support considerably
reduce the risk and vulnerability for physical/psychological ailments. Dominant
research in the area of police stress has revealed the possible negative impact of
dealing with work related distressing situations or conditions such as depression and
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (Chen, Chou et al., 2006; Brand, Gerber et
al., 2010). Additionally, a growing number of research has considered how
personnel adjust and cope with distressing experiences they are likely to be exposed
to in police work (Arnetz, Nevedal et al., 2009). This research has revealed that
besides personal efforts (du Preez, Cassimjee et al., 2009), beliefs and meaning of
life (Ghazinour, Lauritz et al., 2010), support network (social support) (Brough &
Frame 2004), and psychological support at work place (Page & Jacobs 2011) can be
very effective coping mechanisms. Such research acknowledges that resiliency
(Hunt, Irving, & Farnia, 2011) and personal traits (Tehrani, 2010) help personnel to
overcome psychological stress. However, readily available psychological support
groups play very a important role in assisting with maintaining mental stability
–(Inwald 2010).
Dr. Sajida Naz, Dr. Helen Gavin, Dr. Bushra Khan & M. Shahjahan Raza
32

Police authorities, who are concerned with the mental health and well-being of
its employees, must consider providing psychological services to its personnel who
may have become distressed while performing duties. Police organisations all over
the world have been utilising psychological services over the last two decades. The
role of police psychologists has progressed from screening individuals for
employment within the force, to providing /ensuring mental health support/care to
serving police personnel. As part of mental health care, different procedures have
been introduced by police psychologists. Some of these include Critical Incident
Stress Debriefing (Carlier, Voerman et al., 2000), EMDR1 (Bleich, Kotler et al.,
year), and other psychological services such as clinical counselling (Davis 2011).
Besides the support, stress management training is also provided, though not
systematically. The evaluation of such training programmes has continued to be
minimal.
Professional psychological support is considered more beneficial than spiritual
healing practices in a number of ways. Developed countries utilise psychological
services to assist people coping with all manners of difficulty such as patients
suffering from stress or trauma, which of course includes police personnel. The
most commonly utilised services include online websites, counselling services,
support groups, or consultation with psychologists/psychiatrists. Most of these
services are free of cost or require minimal expenditure. This disparity between
utilisation of psychological services across police departments raises the debate
whether local practices and trends should be preferred over the professional
counselling services – if available?
Such professional psychological consultation services are offered as part of
employee health assurances in most developed countries such as America (Reese,
1987), and Britain —(King and Waddington 2004). However appropriate
psychological support facilities such as police psychologists are not available in
many, if not most, developing countries such as Pakistan (Abbas, 2009). In addition
to the poor logistics and increased pressure to perform well, the modest law and
order situation and conflicts in Pakistan have raised concerns related to the mental
well-being of police personnel. In contrast to the rest of the developed world, where
mental health professionals are readily available to police agencies, the Pakistan
police do not have enough resources to cater to the mental and emotional well-being
of law enforcement personnel. Although social support may be available to
personnel (such as friends, parents or family), professional psychological services
are either absent or not functional in the majority of developing countries
In Pakistan, psychological support is functionally limited. Support systems
usually involve reliance on family and friends, or on religious affirmations.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
33

understanding (Karim, Saeed et al. 2004). Consequently, a high number of personnel


feel depressed, anxious and dissatisfied with life due to underlying subconscious
conflicts.
Considering the above evidence and limitations of psychological service
resources, the present study explores use of psychological support among police
personnel from two countries. This cross comparative survey will help to examine
needs and challenges regarding psychological support in police work. This paper
also addresses the gap in understanding as it relates to personnel views about
psychological consultation. It brings forward personal voices, views and opinions
about psychological services, agency related or otherwise.
Method
Using a survey technique, a semi structured questionnaire was designed around the
following research questions:
1. Is there any need for psychological help among police personnel?
2. How do police personnel reach out for support and how do they perceive it?
3. What are the main barriers towards seeking support in the police organizations
in the two nations?
An open-ended question was also included to obtain subjective responses to the
same questions listed above.
Respondents
The questions were part of an inventory used in a large scale trauma related
survey2 in specific departments of the regional police stations in the two nation,
Pakistan and the United Kingdom (UK). A total of 613 responded to the
online/postal survey (Response rate was 80% in the UK, 63% in Pakistan). These
participants belonged to a variety of police ranks (see table 1 for details). Pakistani
participants belonged to the Punjab region (mainly Lahore and Rawalpindi), while
in the UK, most of the participants belonged to the West Yorkshire region. The
participants were accessed based on convenience and accessibility. The average age
of the respondents was 32 years, having service duration of between 16 t0 20 years.
Instruments
A semi-structured interview schedule (refer to appendix for questions) was
developed to understand psychological support options during employment in the
British and Pakistani police, and was developed after literature review and
discussion with experts. The questionnaire was then translated in Urdu for Pakistani
Police. Both English and Urdu questionnaires were piloted on 20 police officers
Dr. Sajida Naz, Dr. Helen Gavin, Dr. Bushra Khan & M. Shahjahan Raza
34

each from the two countries and found to be understandable and unproblematic. In
addition, a demographic checklist that included, age, gender, ranks, service tenure
and marital status, the following questions were included in the questionnaire.
The detail of research questions and measurement method is illustrated in the
table below:

Research Question Instrument

1. Is there any need for This was measured by asking respondents to report as
psychological help among either yes or no, if they felt a need to seek psychological
personnel? support. This item was part of the questionnaire.

2. How do police personnel There were two types of questions included in the survey.
approach for the support and One structured question required participants to rate what
how do they perceive it as? type of professional/personal support they will prefer if they
require. Secondly an open ended question was placed to
register anecdotal accounts of any other support which
was not mentioned in the item.

3. What are the main barriers This was an open ended question requesting participants
towards seeking support in the to share their concerns about psychological support
two nation's police forces? related issues and challenges.

Procedure
Police departments of the UK and Pakistan were contacted and, after their
agreement to participate in the research, the questionnaire was sent to the UK police
through an electronic portal service in the UK, while questionnaires were posted to
Pakistani police. After receiving the data from them, it was analysed qualitatively in
addition to using descriptive statistics.
Ethical Considerations
Ethical issues such as anonymity and confidentiality were employed
throughout the research process. Informed consent was taken from the respondents
and only those were included who were willing to participate. The study was also
approved by University of Huddersfield's research ethics committee.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
35

Results
The following table shows demographic characteristics of the sample (n = 611)

Table I: Demographic Characteristics

Participant Characteristics Pakistani British


M F M F
Average Age (years) M (43) M (42) M (40) M (37)
SD (9.5) SD (8.1) SD (7.9) SD (7.5)
Service Duration 0-5 29 12 18 14
6 - 15 51 27 85 60
16 - 25 86 26 65 26
26+ 59 10 41 4
Service Rank Superintendent 2 0 3 2
Inspector 49 15 99 42
Sergeant 28 10 24 17
Constable 146 50 83 43

Mental Health Training Course Yes 19 2 16 9


No 206 73 193 95

Psychological Debriefing Yes 8 1 21 7


No 217 74 188 97
Psychological Consultation Yes 10 1 45 23
No 215 74 164 81

The table presents demographic characteristics of participants. A majority of the


sample were male police officers (71%), therefore gender based comparison was
statistically inadequate. The majority of the participants were police constables
(52.7%), with average service duration of 16.6 years (SD 8.8).
1. Is there any need for psychological help among personnel?
One of the objectives of this research was to examine the presence of need for
psychological help in police personnel from both countries. After application
of descriptive analysis, it was observed that the ratio of need was comparatively
low in the Pakistani personnel.
Dr. Sajida Naz, Dr. Helen Gavin, Dr. Bushra Khan & M. Shahjahan Raza
36

Table II: At some point in your service so far, have you ever felt the need to speak to
some expert about your psychological health?

UK Police Pakistan Police Total


(n = 313) (n = 300) (n = 613)

Yes (130) 41.5% (33) 11.0% (163) 26.6%

No (183) 58.5% (267) 89.0% (450) 73.4%

As shown in Table II above, 41.5% of the UK police personnel felt the need to seek
to an expert for mental health concerns, while only 11% of Pakistani police
personnel felt the similar need at some point in their career. This analysis led to a
further question to explore how “need” and “psychological help/support” were
understood by the respondents. Therefore an open ended question was cross
analysed to look at meaning of support among the personnel.
2. How do police personnel approach for the support and how do they perceive it?
According to the anecdotal evidence, the majority of Pakistani personnel were
either unaware or understood support in the context of “speaking to family or
close friends,” whereas a considerable number of police personnel in the UK
understood it in terms of seeking professional psychological services that
provided confidential support.

Anecdotes from each country are evidenced as below:


“No concept of psychological support, I hardly heard of it”.
(Pakistani, 41 yrs.)
“If I am distressed, I go to my parents or elders in my family, it helps
me in catharsis after tiring and distressing day time experiences and
problems.”
(Pakistani, 36 years)
“Counselling following cot death described earlier, due to intense
emotional reaction after the event”.
Related incident shared earlier was:
Attending a cot death in 2004. I was a patrol sergeant at the time (in
my previous force).
(British, 51 yrs.)
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
37

Preferred support units amongst personnel


In addition to this, the personnel were asked to indicate whom they would seek
support from, if provided, and the following results were obtained:
Table III: Who would you Seek Help from if you had a Psychological Problem7?

British Pakistani Totals


(n = 313) (n = 300) (n = 613)

Psychologist 79 (25) 267 (89) 346 56.4

Psychiatrist 34 (10.9) 233 (77.6) 267 43.6

Medical Doctor 149 (47.6) 254 84.67 403 65.7

Discuss with family 207 (66.1) 253 84.3 46075.0

Discuss with friends 160 (51.1) 244 81.3 404 65.9

Discuss with manager 92 29.4 84 28 176 28.7

Self 121 38.7 50 16.67 346 56.4

Other 20 6.4 8 2.67 267 43.6

Table III shows preferred modes of psychological support. Comparison


indicates that the majority of the UK police officers would prefer discussing their
concerns within family or friends, as well as with a General Practitioner (GP). A
total of 121 police personnel from the UK reported that they can manage their
problems by themselves without reliance on external support. Pakistani
participants, however, reported a preference for consulting a medical doctor,
psychologist, psychiatrist, friends and family.
The last option regarding any other mode, revealed the following themes:
Distrust over confidentiality regarding agency psychologist
Prefer reading self-help books, internet or positive mental health activities
Speaking to parents
Leaving it to God/faith
3. What are the main barriers towards seeking support in the two nation's police
forces?
Lastly, the research examined the main barriers towards seeking support in the
two nations' police forces. One of the responses about knowledge of any such
services was:
“Sometimes I don't feel I have the support I need”.
(Pakistani, 29 years)
Dr. Sajida Naz, Dr. Helen Gavin, Dr. Bushra Khan & M. Shahjahan Raza
38

It is ironic to note that despite the increase in the overall understanding about
the need for providing mental health support, present day policing appears to
have paid less consideration towards the views and opinion of their employees,
which can be a big obstacle in progression/success of mental health reforms in
occupations today. Looking at the anecdote mentioned above, the Pakistani
police, for example, need to strengthen its provision of support system to the
personnel, who albeit have a strong faith and social support, still feel need for
professional help.
The responses indicated several challenges involved in trauma management.
For example:
Fear of a black mark
A large number of responses showed concern over being held accountable for
performance and pressure from work as the larger challenges towards trauma
effects management.
“You don't contact anyone as doing so might hinder your police career, e.g.
'black mark on your file'”
(British, 52 years)
Similar fear was prevalent among Pakistani respondents who reflected their
frustration over the system of inequality
“There are no expectations….I have to think twice about the consequences
before I consider I want to lodge a complaint….it is just the system, you want to
make good points to your seniors…how can you reveal your weakness?
(Pakistani, 46 years)
Fear of Contempt
Another related theme was the presence of fear related to contempt. Although
unverified, such an unpleasant thought was highly prevalent among Pakistani
police personnel, who considered contacting a psychologist or someone related
to the problem as a possible threat to their career. This also shows a lack of trust
in management and poor psychological support infrastructure.
“I often feel stressed over work / personal issues, but feel unable to approach
anybody through work as I feel this could become a negative mark against me.”
(Pakistani, 44 years)
Sign of Weakness
Particular to Pakistani respondents though, seeking psychological support
from a professional was more considered to be more taboo. Few respondents
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
39

mentioned it as a sign of weakness in faith, and therefore denied that they


needed professional support at all.
“How can it be? I have parents, wife and kids to help me waive off my
stress…besides I am Alhamdollilah religious, I believe in Almighty and I have
faith which keeps me safe from negativity. If I need help, it means my faith is
weak!
(Pakistani 39 years)
Besides highlighting problems, the respondents also mentioned what helps
them in present times. The following graph/chart summarises themes related to
what works when “stressed or have problems:”

Figure 1: Seeking Psychological Support

I can manage myself

Discuss with my manager UK


Pakistan
Discuss with friends

Discuss with family

A Medical Doctor

A Psychiatrist

A Psychologist

0 50 100
Dr. Sajida Naz, Dr. Helen Gavin, Dr. Bushra Khan & M. Shahjahan Raza
40

Discussion
Exploring emotional support attitudes and psychological consultation among
Pakistani and British police personnel has resulted in a better understanding of the
awareness and tendency for seeking psychological support by law enforcement
employees. There were three main research questions that were posed:
 Is there any need for psychological help among personnel?
 How do police personnel reach out for that support and how do they
perceive it?
 What are the main barriers towards seeking support in the police agencies
within the two nation?
One of the important contributions of this study is that it highlighted individual
perspectives and opinions towards seeking psychological support in two different
and unique cultures. As was evident in the results exhibited in Table 1, the ratio of
those seeking support was comparatively less among Pakistani personnel as
compared to those in the UK. There could be a number of possible explanations to
this, however one possibility could be that the mental health issues are not as
acknowledged by the common person in Pakistani society, as it is in the west. As it
was indicated in the narratives, Pakistani police personnel considered professional
consultation as a symbol of weakness rather than a source of comfort. Although it is
encouraging to note that faith is an important protective factor towards mental
health problems, persistent increase in the levels of frustrations as observed in day to
day experiences of police officers, highlights drawbacks in the conceptualisation of
“support.” Therefore it is important to explore how support is conceptualised and
how such a conceptualisation is interlinked with reaching out for support. Although
the present study attempts to identify some of the factors (such as religion), further
exploration needs to be carried out in the cross cultural context.
One of the questions explored in the respective personal profiles was whether
there was any history of psychological consultation among participants. Responses
showed that only a small number of personnel had sought the assistance of
psychological services (see table 1,3). Albeit this, significantly more police officers
felt the need for an intervention at some point in their lives (see table 2). Anecdotal
evidence also revealed that the majority of the UK based police personnel consulted
psychological services for complaints such as depression, PTSD, behavioural
problems (such as bullying), anxiety and other personal concerns. The responses
from Pakistani police were limited, but revealed that few of the officers consulted a
psychological expert due to family problems and work related bullying issues.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
41

In countries such as Pakistan, mental health concerns are seldom discussed


with a professional. Most of the time, people tend to discuss their problems or issues
with close family members or friends (Karim, Saeed et al., 2004). In Pakistani
culture, parents are afforded the greatest respect and care and are the first point of
contact in times of distress. Since most families are extended (parents live with their
families), parents are the primary source of support when it comes to trauma or any
other difficulty. In other cases, spouses, children and close friends are the immediate
assistance options.
Research evidence supports the finding that when suffering from trauma,
police personnel tend to seek social support which helps them to cope with and
overcome difficult times (reference needed). Social support helps to reduce the
strains experienced in day to day work; it may also alleviate perceived stressors
(Viswesvaran, Sanchez et al., 1999). Much of the intervention programs now render
greater emphasis on including social support groups (such as those utilized by
metropolitan police force).
Besides the primary aim of assessing need/attitude, the research also examined
mental health awareness. Responses indicated that a small number of participants
had attended a mental health course or critical incident stress briefing (table 1). In the
sample of British police officers, the debriefing programmes had been stopped due
to their lack of productivity and use. In Pakistan, very few officers consult their
managers and discuss debriefings due to fear of being negatively perceived. They
did agree that speaking to managers and sharing problems, concerns or
achievements can be very helpful in boosting morale if seniors are supportive and
unbiased. However, although the majority of Pakistani police personnel suggested
seeking managerial support, such discussion was deemed risky.
These results are not surprising as in the police culture (the set of rules and
regulations related to police work), the police role creates several perceived barriers
for personnel when it comes to seeking support. Most of the personnel would
hesitate in officially reporting their psychological concerns or instability (Vincent
2004). Those who do report psychological issues are reportedly more vulnerable to
accusations of false claims and sick leaves/absentees (Orrick, 2004).
These findings are critical in understanding mental health care related
situations in both countries. Whilst support facilities are readily available in the UK,
the lack of trust towards agency psychologists, and the reported performance
culture, is still a major concern. For Pakistani personnel, the lack of appropriate
facilities as well as lack of awareness about mental health care can have devastating
effects. The effectiveness and credibility of psychological services is still a concern
when the existing conflicts remain unresolved (e.g. personnel security and safety
Dr. Sajida Naz, Dr. Helen Gavin, Dr. Bushra Khan & M. Shahjahan Raza
42

measures). The mental health of employees clearly is a major issue, especially


under conditions of poverty, corruption, poignant work conditions, poor
supervision, and lack of support. The police authorities need to understand the
importance of mental health support for agency employees. This study has also
identified the present problems and issues peculiar to Pakistani society, and also
indicates that the trends are not significantly dissimilar in the west. The need and
desire for support are equally felt in both cultures; however, the analysis of the
understanding and approachability to the support network has highlighted distinct
differences. The study suggests the need for further examination of such trends
across gender, which could not be incorporated into this study. Moreover,
comparison across rank cadres and duration of service could give more insight about
problems and challenges.
Although seeking psychological support is subject to personal will, police
organizations need to arrange appropriate intervention for not only those who have
suffered, but also to recognize and assist those who are at potential risk. This can be
done by implementing mental health awareness programs, workshops and other
activities. Inappropriate priorities (such as increasing salaries and monetary
compensation and overlooking the root causes of problems, such as supervisory
conflicts) and the inappropriate targeting of programmes (not personnel friendly,
rather organisational friendly, performance focused) are not the only problems for
the police within Pakistan (and the UK). In Pakistan, there is slow but persistent
growth in awareness about seeking psychological support and provision of such
services. Psychologists are emerging in the field that can offer considerable help if
that type of assistance was properly understood and accepted. Although fulfilling the
logistic barriers in the short term might be unrealistic, the encouragement and
support conveyed by agency supervisors can also mediate some of the stress
experienced by employees. Anecdotal responses showed that supervisors and senior
colleagues can play a crucial role in maintaining the mental health of staff.
Similarly, senior staff can consult professional support besides seeking help from
family/friends (which is always useful). The evidence supports pre- and post-trauma
care related interventions for police personnel to provide effective coping styles for
the prevention of mental instability. Such interventions should include being aware
of the potential effects of trauma, risks and vulnerabilities, knowing personal traits
(strengths and weaknesses), appreciating and rewarding achievements, and creating
cohesion between personnel from all ranks. Intervention plans must be holistic, seek
cooperation from all resources, and be sensitive to gender, culture and context.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
43

End Notes
1
Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing
2
This survey was constructed in a doctorate level thesis to examine psychological
trauma, resilience and coping in police personnel of the two countries. For the
purpose of this particular paper, a part of the questionnaire section is being
described. The validity and reliability of the said survey can be found in an
unpublished doctoral thesis of the main author (Naz, 2012).
3
The respondents could mark more than one option here
References
Arnetz, B., D. Nevedal, et al. (2009). "Trauma Resilience Training for Police:
Psychophysiological and Performance Effects." Journal of Police and
Criminal Psychology24(1): 1-9.
Abbas, H. (2009). Police & Law Enforcement Reform in Pakistan: Crucial for
Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorism Success. Institute for Social Policy
and Understanding, 16.
Bleich, A., M. Kotler, et al. date "EMDR: Trauma Research Findings & Further
Reading." Clinical Psychologist51: 3-16.
Brand, S., M. Gerber, et al. (2010). "Depression, hypomania, and dysfunctional
sleep-related cognitions as mediators between stress and insomnia: The best
advice is not always found on the pillow!" International Journal of Stress
Management17(2): 114
Brough, P. &R. Frame (2004). "Predicting police job satisfaction and turnover
intentions: The role of social support and police organisational variables." New
Zealand Journal of Psychology33(1): 8-18.
Carlier, I. V. E., A. Voerman, et al. (2000). "The influence of occupational debriefing
on post traumatic stress symptomatology in traumatised police officers."
Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice73(1): 87-98.
Chen, H. C., F. H. C. Chou, et al. (2006). "A survey of quality of life and depression
for police officers in Kaohsiung, Taiwan." Quality of life research15(5): 925-
932.
Davis, J. A. (2011). "2 Police-Specific Psychological Services." Handbook of police
psychology: 63.
du Preez, E., N. Cassimjee, et al. (2009). "Personality of Southafrican Police
Trainees." Psychological Reports105(2): 539-553.
Dr. Sajida Naz, Dr. Helen Gavin, Dr. Bushra Khan & M. Shahjahan Raza
44

Farberman, R. K. (1997). Public attitudes about psychologists and mental health


care: Research to guide the American Psychological Association public
education campaign. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28(2),
128.
Ghazinour, M., L. Lauritz, et al. (2010). "An Investigation of Mental Health and
Personality in Swedish Police Trainees upon Entry to the Police Academy."
Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology 25(1): 34-42.
Hunt, P., Irving, B., Farnia, L. (2011). Examining the UK National Policing
Improvement Agency's Workforce Resilience. TR-838-NPIA. RAND
Corporation
Inwald, R. (2010). "Use of the Inwald Personality Inventory, Hilson Tests, and
Inwald Surveys for Selection," Fitness-For-Duty" Assessment, and
Relationship Counseling (From Personality Assessment in Police Psychology:
A 21st Century Perspective, P 91-131, 2010, Peter A. Weiss, ed.–see NCJ-
231933)."
Karim, S., K. Saeed, et al. (2004). "Pakistan mental health country profile."
International Review of Psychiatry16(1-2): 83-92.
King, M. &D. Waddington (2004). "Coping with disorder? the changing
relationship between police public order strategy and practice—a critical
analysis of the Burnley Riot." Policing and Society14(2): 118-137.
Naz, Sajida (2012) Police and Psychological Trauma: A Cross-Cultural, Mixed
Methodological Study of How Police Cope With the Psychological
Consequences of Their Work. Doctoral thesis, University of Huddersfield,
UK.
Orrick (2004). From The Police Chief, vol. 71, no. 3, March 2004. Copyright held by
the International Association of Chiefs of Police, 515 North Washington Street,
Alexandria, VA 22314 USA.
Page, K. S. &S. C. Jacobs (2011). "Surviving the shift: Rural police stress and
counseling services." Psychological Services 8(1): 12.
Reese, J. T. (1987). "A history of police psychological services." Washington, DC:
US Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation.
Tehrani, N. (2010). "Compassion fatigue: experiences in occupational health,
human resources, counselling and police." Occupational Medicine 60(2): 133-
138.
Viswesvaran, C., J. I. Sanchez, et al. (1999). "The role of social support in the
process of work stress: A meta-analysis." Journal of Vocational Behavior
54(2): 314-334.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
45

Vincent, H. E. (2004). Death work: Police, trauma, and the psychology of survival,
Oxford University Press, USA.
Appendix
Psychological Support Scale (Electronic Questionnaire Sample)

Below items contain information about psychological support available. Please describe what best
describes you.
9. At some point in your service so far, have you ever felt need to speak to some expert about your
psychological health

Yes No

Please describe the details (Optional)

10. Who would you seek help from if you had a psychological problem?
(select all that apply)

A Psychologist

A Psychiatrist

A Medical Doctor

Discuss with family

Discuss with friends

Discuss with my manager

I can manage myself

Other (please specify):

11. Have you ever consulted a psychologist before?

Yes No
Dr. Sajida Naz, Dr. Helen Gavin, Dr. Bushra Khan & M. Shahjahan Raza
46

a. What was the nature of complaint?

b. Was the consultation helpful? Please describe (Optional)

12. Have you ever attended the Critical Incident Stress Debriefing?

Yes No

13. Have you done any course(s) related to managing mental health?

Yes No

Please describe some details of the courses you have completed

The corresponding author Dr. Sajida Naz is Assistant Professor at the Department of Behavioural
Sciences, Fatima Jinnah Women University the Mall, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. She can be reached at
email: sajida.naz@gmail.com.
The author Dr. Helen Gavin is Principal Lecturer in Criminal Psychology at School of Human &
Health Sciences, University of Huddersfield, UK
The author Dr. Bushra Khan is Assistant Professor at the Department of Psychology, University of
Karachi, Pakistan
The author Mr. M. Shahjahan Raza is graduate student at Forman Christian College, Lahore,
Pakistan.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology Volume 6, No.1, Jan - Jun 2014, pp.47 - 67
47

Causes for Delay in Civil Justice in Lower Courts of


Pakistan: A Review
Raza Ullah Shah, Shadi Ullah Khan & Sumera Farid

Abstract
Delay in civil justice is a chronic and ubiquitous problem; the situation is particularly
alarming in developing countries like Pakistan. The backlog of civil cases is piling up every
month, especially in the lower courts of the country. Different commissions have
periodically been appointed to investigate into the reasons for this delay. Current work
reviews this phenomenon in the light of studies conducted so far nationally and globally.
Delay is a product of different factors interlinked in a complex manner. Ideally judges,
lawyers and administrative staff should work in collaboration to achieve the single goal of
dispensation of justice at reasonable speed. However lawyers in a bid to earn more money
would always seek adjournments to increase their number of appearance in court. Judges on
the other hand are overburdened and would grant adjournments to manage their workload.
There are technical intricacies in the procedure & corruption in the administrative & clerical
staff is wide spread. These and other factor related to the role of judges, lawyers, fallacious
procedures and insufficient budget are taken up in this review in detail.
Keywords
Civil Justice, Court System, Pakistan, Delay
Introduction
Justice means to specify basic rights and duties and to determine the
appropriate distributive shares (Rawls, 1971). Within the context of the rule of law,
the notion of justice presumes an egalitarian society. An egalitarian society can
mean to each the same, or to each according to some distinctive particularities
(Perelman, 1963). Justice is as necessary to a nation-state as oxygen is to human
beings, and in its absence societies cannot thrive or stay alive for long (Iqbal, 2006).
A state may not be called a state in its true sense, if it has failed to discharge its
functions concerning the administration of justice (Chaudhry, 2012). Justice is
necessary for the maintenance of public harmony and conflict resolution, sustained
peace and safety, ensure development and good governance, and enable
enforcement of rights(Armytage, 2012). It is considered a very sacred duty of the
state in Islam, which will perform it in consonance with the injunctions of Allah in
most sincere and resolute way. Allah Almighty has ordained in the Holy Quran: “O
ye who believe! Stand out firmly for Allah, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not
the hatred of others to make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. But Just:
that is next to piety: and fear Allah, for Allah is well acquainted with all that ye do.”
(Chapter 5, Verse 8).
Raza Ullah Shah, Shadi Ullah Khan & Sumera Farid
48

Despite of all the importance justice system is still confronted with many
problems all over the world. Overcrowded dockets, legal costs, and delays are the
problems lamented almost all over the world (Hazra & Micevska, 2004). One of the
grey areas, where our justice delivery system has failed to come up to the people's
expectations is that the judiciary has failed to deliver justice expeditiously
(Krishnan & Kumar, 2011). Which is the most horrible and repeatedly complained
about and the same is considered the main reason for the prevalent dissatisfaction
with the legal system (Adler, Felstiner, Hensler, & Peterson, 1982).
It is worth mentioning that a law suit cannot be decided overnight and needs an
adequate span of time in between the first presentation of the case to a court and
obtaining a final judgment (Council of European, 2006). For the disposal of a case in
order to conduct inquiries, to collect evidence, to clarify all the questions of law, and
to establish the relationship between the parties and thus for the courts to conclude a
reasonable decision (Anderson & Gray, 2006)That is why we need to define delay;
so that to distinguish undue or unreasonable delay and the delay necessary for
procedural observance, also to establish its existence, depict its prevalence and to
discover its causes, because in the absence of a definition; delay is a matter of
individual perception (Martin, Prescott, Hudson, & Courts, 1981). What is
conceived as quick and efficient by a court or a party may be wrong to the other side
(Adler, et al., 1982). Delay in justice refers to the time spent in the disposition of
case, extra to the time within which the decision of the court was reasonably
expected (Balakrishnan, 2007).
Although the problem of delay is a universally present but in Pakistan the
position has worsened to such an alarming extent which is eroding the very system
of administration of justice. It has undercut the public confidence in the judiciary
(Iqbal, 2006). Secondly it is more prevailing in civil justice than the criminal
justice(Law & Justice Commission of Pakistan, 2003). The gravity of the situation
can be determined from the pendency of around 2.5 million of cases in the courts of
Pakistan which are estimated to take approximately 15 years to be cleared even if
new cases were not registered (Akhtar, Alam, Shafiq, & Detho, 2008). Normally an
ordinary civil suit is decided in twenty years and another five years are required for
the execution of the decree (International Crisis Group, 2008). The situation is
particularly threatening at the lower courts level where the litigants come in the first
instance to get justice. Delay in the dispensation of justice has caused distress and
anxiety all over the world for decades, but the causes for delay are still little known
and solutions presented for them are not up to the mark (DiVita, 2010).
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
49

International instruments for Disposition of Cases in Reasonable Time


The right to be tried within a reasonable time is well established at an
international level and many international instruments have made it binding on their
member countries by providing legal provisions against it. Some of these
instruments are given below.
i. American Convention on Human Rights adopted at November 22, 1969,
Article 8§ 1
ii. European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)1950,Article 6 § 1
iii. European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights2000, Article 47
iv. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), December
16, 1966, article 14 § 3 (c)
v. the African [Banjul] Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights June 27, 1981,
Article 7 §1
vi. The Convention on the Rights of the Child Article 40(2) (b) (iii)
vii. Fourth Geneva Convention (1950),
viii. The Bangalore principles of judicial conduct (2002)
ix. Latimer House guidelines (1998)

Causes of Delayed Justice


After thorough investigations into court delay for decades, researchers came to
the conclusion that the problem of delay is complicated, and multiple factors
contribute to the time taken by court proceedings. Delay is a blanket term covering a
host of different problems caused by various factors, all requiring different
responses (Feeley, 1983).
1. Judicial Causes of Delay
1.1 Corruption and Punctuality of Judges
The legal system in Pakistan is riddled with corruption particularly at the
subordinate judiciary level where the court staff will have to be bribed at every
step in order to move forward or halt one's case (NAB, 2002).There are some
cases regarding the corrupt practices of judges as in Ghulam Mustafa
Shehzadv. Lahore High Court (2007) the petitioner was dismissed from his
post for having a corrupt reputation and accepting illegal gratification; while in
Asif Ali Zardari and another v. The State (2001) the case was set aside because
of the judge being found biased against the appellant. Judges Sometimes after
receiving bribes from the parties and their practitioners either grant un-needed
Raza Ullah Shah, Shadi Ullah Khan & Sumera Farid
50

adjournments or withhold their judgments etc. in order to frustrate the opposite


party (United Nations office on drugs and crimes, 2004). The huge backlog of
cases provides opportunities for corruption within the subordinate judiciary, as
many judges seek bribes to fix an early hearing (Abbas, 2011).
The problem of punctuality of judicial officers in subordinate judiciary is also a
matter of concern in Pakistan. Complaints are voiced by the members of bar
that judges do not sit in court on time. Unless judges sit in court punctually and
for at least five hours on every working day, it is not possible to obtain the
maximum turnover in the matter of disposal (Sherwani, 2006). Courts should
"begin with the end in mind" (Wallis, 2009).
1.2 Transfer of Judges and Cases
Delays occur in civil cases due to transfer of Judges from one station to another
(Iqbal, 2006) Rotation and transfer of the judges, often meaning that the same
judge who heard testimony may not decide the dispute, taking away thereby
much of his incentive to push forward the proceedings to judgement and
seriously impeding the process of continuous trial; the new judge may have to
repeat some of the procedural requirements already fulfilled (Alam, 2010). The
survey conducted by Khan and Khan (2003) revealed that the judges were often
transferred without being replaced.
1.3 Judges Grant Unnecessary Adjournments
All the researchers agree that unnecessary adjournments are the main cause of
delay in the disposition of cases (Ghazi, 2006; Sherwani, 2006).Order XVII
Rule 1 of the CPC gives a discretionary power to the court to grant an
adjournment to the parties if sufficient cause is shown. But judges are least
perturbed in granting adjournments and prefer to give “blanket” approval to
adjournments rather than make the effort in every case to distinguish between
legitimate and “concocted” reasons for adjournments (Feeley, 1992). Although
it is impossible to totally eliminate the adjournments; there must be some cases
which do not follow the anticipated course and the adjournments are
unavoidable however the number of adjournments can be reduced by giving
one when it is really required (Whittaker, Mackie, Lewis, & Ponikiewski,
1997).According to Siddique (2010) the general tendency of lawyers to take
adjournments on frivolous grounds was a major cause of delay.Our judicial
system fall prey to manipulations especially by veteran lawyers well adept at
the art of getting adjournments not only for their clients but also for
management of their own case load (Heise, 2000).It is required that the court,
not the lawyers or the litigants, control the pace of litigation
however(American Bar Association, 1986). When a court having the control of
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
51

the case proceeding puts pressure on lawyers to prepare their cases extremely
quickly, they will do everything as rapidly as possible, because they know that
they have only one shot at winning (Adler, et al., 1982).
1.4 Relaxation Provided by Judges to Non-attending Parties and Process
Servers
The presence of both the parties is necessary to start court proceedings, unless
one of the parties is declared an ex-parte by the court. This decision is usually
made by the judges on the basis of indifferent attitude of one of the parties
towards court proceedings (Khan & Khan, 2003). The issue of ex-parte
decision is taken up by Superior Courts differently in different instances. In
some cases the Supreme Court justified the orders passed by the courts ex-parte
(M. Idressv. ShamimAkhtar, 1980; Rehmat Ali v.Javed Ur Rehman, 1985)
while in other they were set aside on grounds that the party was not given
proper opportunity of hearing and technicalities have to be avoided for
substantial justice (AshiqHussain Shah v. Province of Punjab, 2003; Nouroz
Khan v. Haji Qadoor, 2005). The Civil Procedure Code is quite clear about this
issue in its Order IX Rule 6 wherein it has declared that a court may proceed ex-
partein a case where the judge has found that summons are properly and timely
served on the defendant. If it is proved that judges in lower courts have
followed protocols correctly while giving an ex-parte decision; the decision
should be acceptable to the superior courts. Judges however are over cautious
about being accused of denial of justice and prefer grant of adjournments over
resolving the case expeditiously. This inability of Judges to take ex-parte action
against uninterested litigants leads to further delays (Macnair, 2004).
In civil cases when the plaintiff files a case, the respondent party is summoned
to the court through the process-serving mechanism (Khan, 2004). But cases
are often adjourned on the dates of hearing for want of service of summons to
the parties by the process serving agencies (Peshawar High Court, 2011).
Complaints are made against the process servers of getting mixed up with one
of the parties to the case and on that account not getting service affected. It is
stated, that the process server makes an incorrect report of his being not
available (Law commission of India, 1978). If the process is not issued well in
time or the process server is negligent in effecting service, it is the presiding
officer who has to inquire into the matter and bring them to book (Nawaz,
2004).One possible reason for this irresponsible behavior on behalf of the
process servers might be because of the lack of transport facilities and adequate
amount of TA/DA paid to them (Law & Justice Commission of Pakistan,
2003). Alternative service in the form of fax message and electronic mail (E-
mail and SMS) can make the process serving mechanism efficient (Law
commission of Bangladesh, 2010).
Raza Ullah Shah, Shadi Ullah Khan & Sumera Farid
52

1.5 Mismanagement of the Evidence Stage of a Case


The recording of evidence takes, on average, almost twice as long as the rest of
the steps in the case combined (Asian Foundation,1999). Because the
witnesses disobey the summons by not coming to court, and the court despite
having power to ensure that the summons are obeyed will grant adjournment
(Law Reform Commission of Tanzania, 1986).Secondlythe principle of
continuous hearing at the evidence stage of the suit is always not followed,
consequently it becomes impossible for all the stakeholders of the case to
remember what the witnesses have said, and to recall it the manuscript of
witnesses testimony prepared by the court clerk is used (Sato, 2001). Delay
thus follows from the manner in which trials are conducted, in a series of
segments, with each witness being heard weeks and perhaps months apart
(Asian development Bank, 2003). Another important reason behind the longer
evidence stage is that the law of evidence is silent about the maximum number
of witnesses a party can summon which is always abused by the parties to
prolong a weak case (Vos, 2004). It is also paradoxical that procedure requires
comparatively less important matters like interlocutory orders to be either
handwritten by the judicial offices themselves or typed by the stenographers
under their dictation while evidence is left at the mercy of inexperienced
counsels (Gondal, 2011).
1.6 Local Legal Culture a Cause of Delay
Presently the focus of the research has shifted to the shared expectations,
practices and informal rules of behavior of judges and lawyers named “local
legal culture” or socio-legal culture (Dakolias, 1999; Steelman & Fabri, 2008).
The concept of “local legal culture” is not only useful in practically improving
times of processing but also helps theoretically in understanding different
factors influencing court performance (Coolsen, 2008; Gallas, 2005). Delay is
most often perpetuated because the judges and lawyers accept it as the norm,
and to change a norm requires modifying the expectations and behavior of
those who are governed by it (American Bar Association, 1986). To acquire
changes in the pace of case processing, it is necessary to change the attitudes of
all members of a legal community (Buscaglia & Dakolias, 1996).
2. Procedural Causes of Delay
1.1 Case Management
The basic idea of case flow management is that the court controls the pace of
litigation by establishing meaningful events, setting scheduled dates and time
frame for pre-trial events and trials (Steelman & Fabri, 2008). It is the process
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
53

of managing individual cases as well as the entire case flow. It consists of time
standard management and case load management; it analyzes court work load
for improving planning and monitoring actions (Velicogna, 2007).
Good court management ensures the expeditious case resolution (Hoffman,
2005). It is the only cure for the wrong trial setting policies consistently
resulting in many more cases set for trial than can possibly be heard, thereby
precipitating vicious cycles of adjournments, which perpetually churn aged
cases (Armytage, 2004). Better case management by the judge will prevent the
wasted time and money often caused by overzealous or dilatory lawyers
(Burger, 1982).The weak institutional structure of the judicial system has
hampered the effective case management. Unlike the developed countries'
courts like sec. 479(c)(1)-(3) of the Civil Justice Reform Act, 1990
(28.U.S.SC) of United States, here we have little statutes or any other kind of
rules to regulate case and case flow management (http://lawcommissionofindia
.nic.in;Shah, 2005). Along with case flow management, alternative dispute
resolution (ADR) also proved very successful in minimizing delay in justice
which is always not applied; notwithstanding the statutory provision of 89A of
CPC. There are more than one reasons for this. Firstly, institutional support is
totally lacking. Secondly, not much has been done for training and capacity
building of the judges and thirdly the amendments in CPC were not followed
by amendments in the rules for procedural details to invoke ADR techniques
(Jillani, 2006).Lastly without a sufficient and balanced level of resources and a
manageable case-load effective case management is impossible (Coolsen,
2008).
2.2 Complexity of Procedure
Procedural simplification is of prime importance for the redressel of the
grievances (World Bank, 2002). As higher levels of procedural complexity
lengthens the disposition time of cases (Djankov, Porta, Lopez-de-Silanes, &
Shleifer, 2003). Technicalities in a case always play a step-mother role and at
times are fatal for the case from either contesting party (Nahaki, 2011). Those
technicalities of legal procedure can be exploited and a case could continue
almost indefinitely if so desired (Lone, 2011). Our procedural laws are
complicated and cumbersome and date back to colonial time. They preserve
excessively complex and tortuous procedural paths for cases through the
courts, which are mostly misused to prolong the litigations (Ghazi, 2006). The
complex procedure makes corrupt behavior easy to occur when lawyers desire
to move their cases faster or slower or even influence the outcome (Blue, et al.,
2008). So much time is wasted on the arguments of jurisdiction, cause of
action, sufficiency of notice, amendments of plaint and other procedural
Raza Ullah Shah, Shadi Ullah Khan & Sumera Farid
54

matters. Moreover, the words or terms used in the Bare Acts are highly
technical and difficult and hence beyond the comprehensions of a common
man (Aggarwal, 1978).
2.3 False and Frivolous litigation
There is comparatively a very small portion of genuine litigants in our courts
while the rest of them go to the courts not to seek justice but to perpetrate and
perpetuate injustice and treachery (Khan, 1988).Frivolous cases either consist
of entirely fabricated cases or an original claim along with baseless
supplementary claims filed by a party for the harassment of the other party
(Shah, 2005).It is argued that civil litigation does not attempt to peacefully
resolve the disputes; rather it presents an opportunity to pursue and prolong
local rivalries (Khan, 2004; Khan & Khan, 2003) Nelson in his unpublished
PhD thesis said that the root cause of delay in courts is the litigants' interest in
delaying rather than expediting the case.A case can be successfully impeded by
making any false claim, hiding any fact, raising any plea, producing any false
document, and by denying any original document; which will consequently
delay the case infinitely (Mohan, 2009). Frivolous cases are filed to harass their
opponent, to enhance their honour in the society, to affect the evidence of the
opposite party, to reduce value of an award of damages(Khan & Khan, 2003;
Adler, et al., 1982; Rehn et al., 2010). Unfortunately there is no law in Pakistan
to effectively discourage unnecessary and frivolous litigation (Azad, 2012).
2.4 Defective cost assessment system
Rules become powerless if effective sanctions are lacking or if sanctions are
lacking proper imposition (Uzelac, 2004).Imposition of higher costs on the
losing party is indispensable for the curtailment of the false and fraudulent
litigation (Khan, 1988). Under Section 35 of CPC, the court is empowered to
award actual costs in order to reimburse the expenses undergone by the
successful litigant (Muhammad Akram vs. Mst. Farman, 1990).However in
practice, the courts rarely award costs contrary to all other common law
countries that have made it necessary for the losing side to pay the expenses not
only of herself but also of the winning side (Uzair, 2011). While imposing costs
according to Khurshid Ahmed NazAfridi v. Bashir Ahmed (1993) the order of
granting costs should be based on well recognized principle of justice and
equity and this power of granting costs should not be interfered in appeal unless
these principles are violated.
2.5 Miscellaneous Applications and Orders
In a weak case frivolous interlocutory applications are made under various
enactments; which have the capacity to put a halt on the original proceedings of
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
55

a case and can substantially change it into a different case with a result that the
line of action and original structure of the suit goes changed for some time
which causes delay in justice (Qureshi, 1998). Secondly the rights of appeal
against interim and interlocutory orders are generally misused to delay a case to
an unknown time (Marrijuddin, 1996). Consequently the Sindh High Court
suggested restriction of appeal and revisions against interlocutory orders in
civil matters to reduce delay in case disposal (Law & Justice Commission of
Pakistan, 2003).
Order VI rule 17 of CPC; authorizes the court to allow a party amendment of
pleadings at any stage of the proceedings in such manner and on such terms as
may be just (Qureshi, 1998). This room for frequent amendments of the plaints
and written statements at any stage of the trial has become one of the main
causes of delay in civil justice (Alam, 2010). Eighty percent of the applications
filed for the amendment of pleadings are made for the solitary purpose of
delaying the case, fifteen percent of the remaining twenty percent are made
because of the lackadaisical approach and only five percent applications are
genuine (Mohan, 2009).
3. Budgetary Insufficiency a Cause of Delay
The National Judicial Policy (2009) necessitates the government to provide
necessary funds to support infrastructure, to increase the strength of judicial
officers and administrative staff and other facilities in courts and thus to cope
with rising trend of litigation in the country. But the government has allocated
very nominal amount on money for the judiciary (Muhammad, 2011).
3.1 Insufficient number of judges
The root cause of the delay problem is an imbalance between the demand for
court services and the court's ability to supply those services (Kakalik, et al.,
1990). In simplest terms, delay is conceived a problem of too many cases
chasing too few judges (Hamid, 2007). A human being, howsoever intelligent,
has a limited capacity to work, so do the judges (Blue, et al., 2008).How can the
court system be expected to deliver justice to the ordinary citizen when the
individual judge at all levels of the judicial hierarchy is stretched beyond
capacity (Sattar, 2012)? The judges would be comfortable in granting
adjournments, as it would give them a siege of relief in the present tense
workload situation in the courts (Aggarwal, 1978).
This heavy caseload per judge is also serious obstacle to improvement in
methods. Other causes of delay, such as lack of proper supervision,
unsatisfactory service of processes, non-attendance of witnesses and frequent
adjournments are only collateral and they can be relevant only if the presiding
officers will have time to address to these matters (Nawaz, 2004).
Raza Ullah Shah, Shadi Ullah Khan & Sumera Farid
56

3.2 Training and Education of Judges and Lawyers


For decades, researchers and court analysts have touted adding judges as a
solution to delay in the courts, yet delay persists. Hence, the idea of adding
more judges is an "old" solution that hasn't worked; what is really needed is
more efficiency in litigation (Kakalik, et al., 1990). Appointment of a new
judge is like establishing a court, which is both expensive and complicated,
having no substantial effect on the time of litigation if the judges are
incompetent (Iqbal, 2006; Hunter, 1975). The concept of competence includes
mastery of theoretical knowledge, developing problem-solving capacity,
cultivating collegiate identity, relating to allied professionals, conceptualizing
the judicial mission, maintaining an ethical practice and self-enhancement
(Armytage, 2004).
To increase the efficiency of the judiciary there is a pressing need to train the
judges and the ministerial staff of the court in modern ways(Rehn, et al., 2010).
Along side this we also need to train the judges in Islamic perspective and thus
to enable them to interpret all our laws in the light of the holy Quran and Sunnah
as required by the constitution of Pakistan(Mughal, 2013). Notwithstanding
the rhetoric about judicial training, here in Pakistan despite the establishment
of Federal Judicial Academy (FJA) in 1988 the commentators have, noted that
substantive training needs both pre-service and on job are yet to be addressed
(Armytage, 2004) neither the quality of training meted out by the federal and
provincial judicial academies has changed nor has performance during training
programs been made a prominent consideration for professional advancement
within district judiciary (Sattar, 2012).Lack of training facilities impedes the
adoption of modern tools and techniques like case flow management, and
computer technology (Shah, 2005).
The concept of continuous training is not limited to judges alone it is also
considered necessary for lawyers all over the world, but here in Pakistan it is
practically non-existing (Adhi, 2010). It will develop proficiencies necessary
to maintain quality performance, and to keep abreast of new developments are
all regarded as very important reasons (). And according to Warraich (2013) the
bar councils are the best option to impart this training. What we need is to do a
critical survey of training needs assessments conducted by the federal and
provincial judicial academies to find the gaps in the trainings conducted and
actual requirements of a training program (Munir, 2013). To increase the
judicial competence we need to facilitate our judges by providing them quick
and easy access to judicial training particularly through video games and
virtual reality via internet and electronic media (Munir, 2014).
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
57

3.3 Deficient Strength of Ministerial Staff and Process Servers in the


Courts
A great deal of preliminary work for getting cases ready for disposal is done by
the ministerial staff (Law commission of India, 1958). They can cause delays
through the fixation of case, transfer of case from one court to another,
relocating files for restoration and giving incorrect information (Nahaki, 2011).
There is a chronic and pervasive shortage of ministerial staff in the courts, and
they are paid nominal amount of salaries and TA/DA (Law & Justice
Commission of Pakistan, 1997). The staff at lower level is an easy prey to
temptation owing to their fragile financial position and lack of adequate
training. They are grossly underpaid and depend on small bribes to feed and
educate their families (Irshad, 2011). Changing dates by paying off the staff of
judges is a routine practice in the lower courts (Siddique, 2011).Process servers
are also overworked, insufficiently paid, rank as the lowest grade of
government official, have insufficient logistical support, receive little or no
training, poorly monitored, their number is inadequate comparative to the
workload (Tariq, 2005).
3.4 Use of Modern Technology
The judicial system is lagging behind in the adaptation of IT, which is believed
to be an important tool for delay reduction and the elimination of huge backlog
of cases (Chaudhry, 2011). This is considered an important element of delay
reduction by judges in Latin America (Asian Foundation, 1999).The
computers efficiently speed up the court proceedings. Data processing is one of
the foremost uses to which computers are put in an attempt to ease case
backlogs and increase court efficiency (Law Commission of India, 1988).A
study of courts in Argentina and Venezuela found that the use of computerized
word processing is strongly correlated with faster disposition(Buscaglia &
Ulen, 1997). The Indian Supreme Court disposed of approximately twice the
rate of the previous year after the computerization of the court registry (Khan,
Pushpa, & Aparna, 1997). Lack of information technology facilities hinders the
adoption of modern case flow management techniques (Shah, 2005). While in
the absence of computerized record keeping, it is easy to get the date extended
by the ministerial staff without coming into the judge's notice (Siddique, 2011).
3.5 Defective Land Registration System
From fifty to seventy five percent of cases brought before lower level civil
courts and the high courts are land-related disputes. Countrywide over a
million pending land cases are estimated. Most of these land disputes are
because of inaccurate or fraudulent land records, inaccurate boundary
Raza Ullah Shah, Shadi Ullah Khan & Sumera Farid
58

allocation creating parallel claims, and multiple registrations to the same land
by different parties. It is almost impossible to find out a reliable evidence of the
land rights (Nasir & Ali, 2010). There is no denial of the fact that In most of the
civil cases the cause of action relates to wrong entries in the Record of Rights; If
revenue record is computerized, everyone will be aware about the entries in the
revenue record, and the litigation regarding land dispute will be decreased
considerably (Law & Justice Commission of Pakistan, 2010).
4. Lawyers' Contributions in the Problem of Delay in Justice
4.1 Lawyers Always Keep on Strikes from the Courts
Attending court proceedings for the protection of the rights of their clients is
the prime responsibility of lawyers; on the contrary they always find some
excuse to keep on strikes from courts (Kakar, 2011). The reasons for these
strikes could be any ranging from misbehavior with their colleague both inside
court and outside the court to implementation of some enactment (Aggarwal,
1978). These lawyers strikes have brought the sub‑ordinate judiciary in
between devil and the deep sea because on one side the High Courts are
pressing them hard to meet the targets viz a viz expeditious disposal while on
the other side lawyers are not co‑operating with them (Gondal, 2011).
4.2 Busy Schedule of Lawyers
In civil and criminal matters some leading lawyers are so popular that before
the trial courts in almost every third case one pair of leading popular lawyers
are engaged by parties (Nahaki, 2011). Lawyers as a group are never sure
whether they are going to have another case or not, make them take more and
more cases until they are so spread out they cannot possibly devote significant
energy to anything except a trial (Adler, et al., 1982). In order to maintain their
own caseload these lawyers always seek frequent adjournments for one reason
or the other (Lone, 2011).Due to their busy schedule lawyers' are often poorly
prepared for defending their cases appropriately, by presentation of clear and
well documented cases (Crook, 2004). The outcome of this unpreparedness on
lawyers' part is clogging our court system, wasting valuable court time and
public funds in listing and re-listing of cases without purposeful conclusion
(Sattar, 2012).
4.3 Lawyers Fighting for their Clients
Presently lawyers along with judges perceive the case as a battle instead of a
peaceful dispute resolution process; wherein the problems are solved through
mutual co-operation between the parties (Asser, 2004). These lawyers in the
name of zealous representation of their clients may cause delay in the dispute
resolution process (American Bar Association, 1986). They always take
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
59

adjournments from court proceedings on different pretexts to enable their


clients and their supporters to intimidate the witnesses (Krishnan & Kumar,
2011). The propensity of unnecessary long debates over the case' facts by the
lawyers at oral arguments stage is also one of the most important reasons of
delay, wherein lawyers are even reported for quoting Shakespeare and Ghalib
while arguing out tax related matters in detail (Khan, 2000). They are even
quite actively involved in bribing the economically deprived court employees
in order to ensure the determination of case in their favor (Irshad, 2011).
4.4 Lawyers Resorting to Technicalities of Procedure
Research has shown that in each court there is always a group of lawyers
notorious for being specialists in delaying cases (Krishnan, 2006). They will
prolong a case by taking procedural points to wear his opponent down; and can
keep a case continue in court almost indefinitely(Iruoma, 2005). It must have to
be realized that lawyers live in a competitive world in which law and legal skills
are for sale; they will sometime even feel obliged to do everything to use and
abuse the procedure rules in order to win the case (Asser, 2004).
Tamm (2004) discussing the problem of delays in justice in Denmark blamed
lawyers for worsening the problem after they had been involved in the dispute
resolution process in eighteenth century. To be cautious one must at least agree
with Uzelac(2004) who mentioned, that lawyers involvement in the justice
system has no significant effect on the speed and quality of case disposal.
Conclusion and Recommendations
The following suggestions can help us improve our judicial system and avoid
unnecessary delays in disposition of justice. Adding more judges to the system will
reduce the work load on existing judges but this might not be a solution to the
problem. Emphasis on increasing efficiency of the existing system through
introducing case management by judges and decreasing corruption in judiciary will
be more helpful. Blanket approval of adjournments should be stopped and
applications for adjournments or interlocutory orders should be thoroughly
reviewed. Judges should not hesitate to give an ex-parte decision against non-
attending parties. Introduction of effective system of costs on litigants and
empowerment of judges to impose severe sanctions on lawyers for filing frivolous
cases will be helpful in imposing curb on frivolous litigation. Adequate ministerial
staff and process servers should be recruited and pushed to work hard for timely
disposition of cases. The antiquated, intricate procedure should be updated and
simplified to expedite the court processing. Ministerial staff should be adequately
trained and modern information technology should be fully exploited to streamline
easy access to quick justice.
Raza Ullah Shah, Shadi Ullah Khan & Sumera Farid
60

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http://lawcommissionofindia.nic.in/adr_conf/Mayo%20Rao%20case%20mn
gt%203.pdf

The author Mr. Raza Ullah Shah is a Lecturer at the Department of Public Administration, Gomal
University DI Khan, Pakistan. He can be reached at Email : razaullahphd@gmail.com or Cell
phone:+92 331 506 7529.
The Author Mr. Shadi Ullah Khan is a Lecturer at the Department of Public Administration, Gomal
University DI Khan, Pakistan. He can be reached at Email : profdrshadiullahkhan@gmail.com
The author Ms. Sumera Farid is a Lecturer at the Department of Social Work, University of
Peshawar. She can be reached at Email : sumerafarid@upesh.edu.pk
Pakistan Journal of Criminology Volume 6, No.1, Jan-Jun 2014, pp.69 - 79
69

Sufferings of Families who Became Victims of


Bomb Blasts and Suicide Attacks in Pakistan:
A Case Study of Three Cities
Saif- ur- Rehman Saif Abbasi, Muhammad Babar Akram
& Sara Farooq

Abstract
The paper attempted to identify the social, economic and psychological sufferings of the
families whose members became victims of bomb blasts. It was carried out in twin- cities:
Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The study was conducted under quantitative research design. A
sample of one hundred and sixty respondents was selected among the families who suffered
from such kind of terrorism. The study considers how the families whose kith and kins had
lost their lives in bomb blasts find their family chain broken and to what extent their routine
life has been affected. The study shows that bomb blast disturbed the whole social structure
and function of the affected families in particular and society in general. The findings of the
study reveal that the ratio of bomb blasts and suicidal attacks was almost equal. Their
recreational activities were also affected as a result of these acts of terrorism. The study
further indicates that the victims were not satisfied with the aid provided by the government.
In fact the victim families were demanding proper financial compensation as announced by
the government after the incident, as well as better medical facilities and job opportunities
for one of the family member to restore their normal living. The study recommended that in
order to alleviate sufferings of victim families, the government may provide livelihood
support in the form of such equipment to female members which help them to generate
income for their families.
Keywords
Victims, Family Suffering, Bomb Blasts, Suicide Attacks
Introduction
Terrorism and violence are harmful for human life and property and creates a
high degree of insecurity in a society. The former is an organized effort that creates
panic in a community while the later may be an organized or unorganized effort to
achieve hidden motives. Mostly societies with history of ethnic violence,
undemocratic rule and weak institutions easily became victim of terrorism. For
some, terrorism is a crime and for others it is a tactic for hidden agenda. It is a crime
for victim and considered as a holy duty for those who use it for their attainment of
goals (Robert, 2006). Sponsors of terrorism select their target randomly. The motive
behind such strategy is killing of citizens, destruction of property, creation of panic
in the environment and generating insecurity in a society. In such situation everyone
Saif- ur- Rehman Saif Abbasi, Muhammad Babar Akram & Sara Farooq
70

feels to be the next victim. Multiple evidences suggested that security agencies and
military remain the prime targets of terrorists (Burns & Kate, 2005) and these
attacks also caused heavy damage to life and property of civilian population (Iqbal,
2010)
Pakistan is situated at important geo strategic position between South Asia and
South West Asia, a shortest route to Arabian Sea for China, Central Asian States and
Afghanistan. Security and business are the two aspects which accelerates the
interest of developed nations in this region (Hashmi, 2007). Due to the important
geostrategic and security position and to have control of this region, the Russians
invaded Afghanistan in December 1979 and, consequently, various countries from
Asia, Middle East, Europe and America were heavily involved in this war to end
influence of Russia in the region. During this period foreign aid influenced
Pakistan's economic and foreign policies and also facilitated common man to access
improved grade weaponry. The history of ethnic violence and easy access to weapon
provided opportunity for various ethnic groups to suppress opponents. Further,
Russian defeat in Afghanistan diverted the interests of USA and its allies and left
Pakistan alone to face the consequences of war. Moreover, the Indian occupation on
Kashmir and indiscriminate killings of Muslims exacerbated the aggressive
elements in a society. The ethnic violence, undemocratic rule, foreign elements left
behind by Russian defeat and Indian occupation on Kashmir collectively
contributed in the destabilization of peace in Pakistani society (Halena, 2005).
Poverty also fueled the terrorism and various interest groups used the poor segments
of society for their own benefits. The incident of 9-11 further changed the socio-
economic and geo-political scenario of the world. This act of terrorism brought
people in permanent state of emergency resulting war against terrorism
(Townshend, 2002). Pakistan joined this war as front line state with USA as
commanding position. The reaction of Anti-Allied Forces, US drone attack on
Pakistan territory and other such actions converted the country into an undeclared
battle field (Bush, 2008 and Gillani 2008c).
Anti-American sentiments prevalent in Pakistan further swelled when
violation of human rights in Palestinian, Kashmir and on Muslims in other parts of
the globe are supported by USA. Collaboration of Pakistan Government with USA
in war against Afghanistan made the people to oppose the government policies, state
agencies and general public. Multiple evidences suggested that lack o0f justice in
the global setting deeply influence collectivity behavior at national level (Appiah,
2006; Beitz, 1972). The war against terrorism embarrassed the Government and
destabilized Pakistan. Further dissatisfaction of USA and Allies on the performance
of Pakistan in war against terrorism and their “DO MORE” tactics put the
government and state agencies in embarrassing position in one hand and loss of
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
71

moral support from common man on the other. Pak Army operations namely; Rah-e-
Rast and Rah-i-Nijat displaced million of poor families and made them shelter less
for years increased hatered in effected families and their relatives in other areas. All
these tactics and actions collectively provided indirect support to anti-state elements
and terrorist groups. The daily incident of Target killing, kidnapping and suicide
bombing disrupted the peaceful environment in the country. Pakistan experienced
first suicide terrorism in 1995 and since then more than 280 such incidents have
occurred in the country (Haira, 2007, South Asian Institute of Conflict Management,
2012). The bomber employed a variety of methods of suicide attack to succeed.
These included use of car bomb, suicide vest, and suicide attack by bicycle or motor
bike laden with explosive material were some the tactics employed by the terrorist to
disrupt peace in a society (Pape, 2005). The effectiveness of such attacks can be
judged from the fact that even the
This form of terrorism caused loss of more than thirty five thousand human
lives in Pakistan which includes more than 30000 civilian and near about 5000
security personnel (Iqbal, 2010 ). In addition to loss of human lives, the destruction
of private and state property caused loss of billions of rupees to nation. The families
who lost their members in bomb blast and suicide attacks are continuously suffering
on multiple counts. Thirty four bomb blasts and suicide attacks in twin-city
Islamabad-Rawalpindi resulted 160 deaths comprising. Both cities are part of the
present study. The death of head of a family or earning member resulted social and
financial loss to the dependent members. Most of the victims were earning members
or head of their families belonging to the middle class. Consequently, the female
members had to manage food and other requirements for the dependents in these
families. The financial compensation announced by the government was either very
small or proved a mere announcement. These families are still living miserable life
and are not in a position to satisfy food, health, education and other socio-economic
needs of their children and other dependent members.
Many researchers have focused terrorism and its effect on economy at macro
level but few efforts have been made to empirically study the problems encountered
by these families. In view of importance of this social issue, a study was planned to
collect information from families who became victim of terrorism in three cities
namely; Wah Cantt, Rawalpindi, and Islamabad. It was an effort to study the
sufferings of the families who lost their family members in bomb blasts or suicide
attacks. It tried to explore how wife and children are affected economically and
socially when husband, head of the family is lost. The study also focused on
difficulties faced by the victims who survived but inflected with major and minor
injuries.
Saif- ur- Rehman Saif Abbasi, Muhammad Babar Akram & Sara Farooq
72

Material and Methods


The universe of the study was limited to families who became victims of bomb
blast and suicide attacks in three cities namely; Islamabad, Rawalpindi and Wah
Cantt of Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Islamabad is the capital city of the country;
Rawalpindi is one of the major cities of the Punjab, a most populous province while
heavy industries and other military installation are situated in Wah Cantt. All three
cities became target of terrorist activities resulting heavy loss to life and property.
With the help of police record and district administration, and by scanning media
reports, list of victim families in the three selected cities was prepared. A sample of
160 families was selected for the study. An interview schedule comprising
structured and unstructured questions was developed. The schedule was pretested to
check work ability in field situation, revised and finalized before its application in
full scale survey. The selected families were contacted for proper permission and for
their willing participation in the study. The study sample included 61 respondents
from families who lost their member (s) in terrorism and 99 respondents from
families whose members got injured in bomb blast or suicide attacks. One male or
female member from victim families formed the respondents of the study. The
collected data was analyzed to extract the findings and to draw the conclusion. The
result of analysis has been discussed in the forthcoming section of this paper.
Results and Discussion
Table I Percent distribution of the respondents according to the nature of blast,
physical loss and injury of the victims
N=(Injured:99+Deceased:61=160)
Name of City Where Blast / Suicide Attack Occurred % (Frequency)
Islamabad 48.7(48)

Rawalpindi 30.6 (49)

Wah cantt 20.6 (33)

Nature of Blast

Suicide Attack 50.6 (81)

Bomb Blast 49.4 (79)

Nature of Physical Loss to Live

Injured 61.9 (99)

Deceased 38.1 (61)


Types of Injury

Minor Injury 33.3 (33)

Major Injury 66.7 (66)


Pakistan Journal of Criminology
73

Table I shows responses of the respondents about name of city where bomb
blast/suicide attacks occurred and resulted major/minor injuries to them or death of
their family member(s). The table shows that 48.7 % incidents of blasts had occurred
in the Capital city of Pakistan; Islamabad, 36.6% incidents happened in Rawalpindi
and remaining 33% attacks played havoc to the Wah Cantonment and other areas of
this city where the military installation such as Ordnance Factory and its Heavy
Mechanical Industrial Complex are structured. The table also indicates that 50.6%
incidents were of grave nature i.e. suicide attacks while 49.4% were carried out
through improvised use of explosive devices. The table indicates that in such
combined attacks, 38.1% caused loss of human life and 61.9% resulted major and
minor injuries to the victims. Out of injured victims, 33.3% received major injuries
while remaining 66.7% secured minor physical wounds.
Table II: Distribution of the respondents according to the socioeconomic
characteristic of the respondents

Gender of the respondents

Categories Frequency Percentage

Male 99 61.9

Female 61 38.1

Age of the Respondents (in completed years)

16 - 25 40 25.0

26 - 35 37 2.1

36 - 45 27 19.6

46 - 55 34 21.2

Above 55 22 13.8

Family Pattern of the Respondents

Nuclear Family System 119 74.4

Joint Family System 41 25.6

Number of Children

Up to 3 16 10.0

4-6 106 66.2

7-9 30 18.8

Above 9 8 5.0
Saif- ur- Rehman Saif Abbasi, Muhammad Babar Akram & Sara Farooq
74

Table II shows data on socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents such


as gender, age, and family pattern and number of children in the family. The table
depicts that 61.9% of the respondents were male and 38.1 were female. It also shows
that 25% of the respondents were in the age group of 16-25 years, 23.1% were in
between 26-35 years of age, 19.6% were in age category of 36-45 years, 21.1% fall
in the age category of 46-55 years while remaining (13.8%) were more than 55 years
old at the time of interview. Moreover, the table explains that 74.4% respondents
were living in nuclear family system which is a main feature of urban lifestyle where
most of the bomb blast/suicide attacks had occurred. Remaining (25.6%) were
members of joint family system which elaborates that victims used to come to cities
to earn their livelihood or to satisfy educational or other needs. The table also
indicates that 66.2% of the respondents had 4-6 children in their families, 10% had
up to 3 children, and 18.8% reported 7-9 children. Being an important characteristic
of rural families, where families have more number of children than their urban
counterpart, another 5 % of the respondents' families had more than 9 children.
Table III: Percent distribution of the respondents according to the their marital
status and dependent members of the injured respondents at home

Marital Status of Injured Respondent at Home % (Frequency)

Categories Injured Deceased

Single 40.4(40) 37.7 (23)

Married 59.6 (59) 62.3 (38)

Total 100 (99) 100 (61)

Dependent Members of the Family


1-3 3 32.5 (52)

4-6 6 59.4 (95)

Above 6

Male Dependent Members of the Family

None 20.0 (32)

1-3 75.6 (121)

Above 3 4.4 (7)

Female Dependent Members of the Family


1-3 66.9 (107)

Above 3 33.1 (53)


Pakistan Journal of Criminology
75

Table III shows economically supportive status of the injured and deceased
victims of bomb blast and suicide attack. The table explains that 40.4% victims who
got injured during the blasts were single and 59.6% were married which explains the
dependency of wife and children on the injured victim. Similarly 37.7 % victims
were single who died in the blasts while majority of the deceased (62.3%) were
married. Marital status of majority of the deceased points towards the level of family
sufferings due to loss of husband or father. The table also reveals that 32.5% of the
victims had 1-3 dependents, 59.4 % had 4-6 dependent members while 8.1% were
supporting more than 6 family members as dependents. Out of these dependents,
majority of the victims had 1-3 male dependents, 4.4 % had more than 3 such
members, mostly the children. The remaining 20% had no dependent family
members as they were unmarried. Furthermore, 66.9 % victims had 1-3 female
dependent members. Similarly 33.1 % had more than 3 dependent female members.

Table IV: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to the earning


status, family income and changes in role after injury

Earning Status of the Injured and Deceased Person

Categories Injured Deceased

Earning Member 59.5 (59) 91.8 (56)

Dependent Member 40.5 (40) 8.2 (5)

Total 100.0 (99) 100.0 (61)

Family Income Before and After Blast / Suicide Attack


Categories Before After

Up to 10000 26.9 (43) 41.9 (67)

10001 - 20000 30.6 (49) 25.6 (41)

20001 - 30000 16.2 (26) 10.0 (16)

Above 30000 26.2 (42) 22.5 (36)

Changes in Role After the Injury

From earning to dependent family member 17.2 (17)

Loss of fitness due to physical disability 26.3 (26)

Loss in educational attainments 16.1 (16)


Individual having no change due to injury 40.4 (40)

Table IV explains earning and dependency status of the victims of terrorism,


their family income before and after the blast/attack and the subsequent changes in
the role of the injured members in family. As loss of earning hand is a major financial
suffering of the victim families hence it is significant to compare income of the
Saif- ur- Rehman Saif Abbasi, Muhammad Babar Akram & Sara Farooq
76

victim families before and after blast. According to the table, 91.8% respondents
said that deceased person in their families were earning members and 8.2% were
non-earning members of their families. Similarly, among terrorism victims who
received major and minor injuries, 59.5% were earning members, while 41% of
them were dependents. The table further explains the family income of the
respondents before and after suicide attack/blasts. As it is obvious when an earning
member of a family is lost there is a sudden change in family income from higher to
lower level. A similar kind of results were observed in the study where there were
42.4% of the families with income more than Rs 20,000 before members became
victim of blast and suicide injuries. However, after becoming victim of blast 32.5%
families reassured this income band. As a result of loss of income in higher
categories, the percentage of families with lower income (up to Rs 10,000)
increased from 21.9 to 41.9%. This shows that there was a fall of 10% victim
families from higher income and 5% from middle income, collectively contributing
15% to lower income group. Such fall of income was due to injury and death of the
earning member in family caused by bomb blast or suicide attacks.
The table under discussion further shows the changes in role of injured family
member in the respondent families. The table shows that 17.2, 26.3 and 16.2%
experienced change in their roles as from earning to dependent member in family,
suffered from physical disability and loss of educational attachment respectively. In
brief 60% encountered change in their role due to two act of terrorism.

Table V: Percent distribution of the respondents according to the members of


victim families suffering from psychological effects

Victim Family Members Suffering from Psychological Effects

Yes 155 96.9

No 5 3.1

Total 160 100.0


Types of Psychological Effects

Categories Frequency Percentage

No Psychological Sufferings 5 3.1

Depression 30 19.4

Stress 23 12.9

Fear 80 51.6

Aggression 28 16.1
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
77

Table V reveals the psychological sufferings and its type which the victim
families encountered after their family members became victim of bomb blast or
suicide attack. The data in table under discussion reveals that 96.9 percent of the
respondents' families were facing psychological sufferings whereas about 3 percent
did not report such problem. The lower half of Table V further shows that majority of
the respondents were still living fearful life due to various uncertainties after the
death or injury caused to their family members. Besides the element of fear, 19.4
percent of the respondents reported depression, 12.9 indicated element of stress in
their lives and 16.1 percent of them were suffering from aggression. The study data
convincingly indicates that families who became victims of bomb blast or suicide
attacks in Pakistan are continuously facing financial, general health and
psychological health problems in their lives. The loss of earning member and
dwindling financial resources made it impossible for them to meet their domestic
expenditures on food, health, children education and to meet other social
responsibilities such daughter marriage etc.

Table VI: Distribution of the respondents according to the suggestions to minimize


sufferings of the victim families

Suggestions to Minimize Sufferings of Victim Families

Categories Frequency Percentage

Provision of financial assistance through social safety net 67 41.9

Provision of skill development opportunity 23 14.4

Provision of free medical &educational facility to the children of victims' families 24 15.0

Provision of job to one of victim family member 20 12.5

Allocation of special quota in housing schemes 26 16.2

Table VI elaborates the suggestions of the respondents to cope with the grave
situation confronted by the victim families. The table explains that 41.9%
respondents suggested that immediate financial assistance may be extended to the
victim families, 14.4% suggested skill development opportunities to change their
status from dependency to independency and 15% were of the opinion to provide
free medical and educational facilities to children and other dependent members of
victim families. Similarly, 12.5% supported job provision by the government to any
eligible member in victim family while remaining 16.2% proposed an allocation of
special quota in housing schemes for provision of shelter to families who became
target of bomb blast or suicide attack.
Saif- ur- Rehman Saif Abbasi, Muhammad Babar Akram & Sara Farooq
78

Conclusion
Pakistan has been suffering from severe wave of terrorism in the form of
suicide attacks and bomb blasts. The victim families are passing through critical
situation either due to the death or as a result of major injury to the earning members
in their families. These acts of terrorism are continuously pushing them towards
poverty and below poverty level. The families are unable to meet food, health and
educational needs of their children and to fulfill their other social obligations.
Besides, general health problems, psychological problems such as element of fear,
depression, aggression and stress are common in these families.
Recommendations
Government of Pakistan, non-government agencies and international relief
agencies need to establish social safety nets to help out victims of suicide attacks and
bomb blasts. Provision of free education to children in these families as well as free
medical care to injured and dependent members may help them come out of poverty.
Skill development programs and provision of income generating equipment may
save them from falling into below poverty line.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
79

References
Appiah, Kwame Anthony (2006). Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers.
Princeton, Princeton University Press.
Beitz, Charlles. (1979). Political Theory and International Relations. Princeton
University Press.
Burn, V & Kate, P.D. (2005). Terrorism, a documentary and reference guide.
Bush, G. W. 2008. Lecture at the National Defense University's Distinguished
Lectur Program, Discusses Global War on Terror, September 9. Available at
http://w.w.w.whitehouse.gov/mews/re;eases/2008/09/200809.html.
Dixon, W &Marry, F. (1957). An introduction of Statistical Analysis. McGraw Hill
Book Co. New York.
Gilani, Y. Raza. 2008c. Stop border violations. BBC Urdu. September 16.
http://w.w.w.co.uk/urdu/pakistan/story/2008/09/080916
Goode &Hatt.(1952). Mehtod in Social Research 2nd ED. McGraw Hill Book Co.
Inc, New York.
Halena Ragg-Kornu (2005). My Life is a Weapon: A Modern History of Suicide
Bombing, Translation. Princeton University Press
Hashmi, R. (2007). War on Terrorism: Impact on Pakistan's Economy.
Iqbal, Khurram 2010. Evolution of Suicide Terrorism in Pakistan and Counter
Strategies. Pakistan Institute for Peace Studies, Islamabad.
Pape, A.R. (2005). Dyning to win, the strategic logic of suicide terrorism, New york
Robert, A. (2006). The Changing faces of Terrorism, War and Conflict.
Townshend, C. (2002). Terrorism a very short, Introduction. Oxford University
Press.

The author Mr. Saif- ur- Rehman Saif Abbasi is Associate Professor at Department of Sociology,
I n t e r n a t i o n a l I s l a m i c U n i v e r s i t y, I s l a m a b a d , a n d c a n b e r e a c h e d a t e m a i l :
saif_abbasi2002@yahoo.com.
The author Mr. Muhammad Babar Akram is Assistant Professor at Department of Sociology,
International Islamic University, Islamabad his Email: drmbabar@gmail.com.
The author Ms. Sara Farooq is working at the Department of Sociology, International Islamic
University, Islamabad
Pakistan Journal of Criminology Volume 6, No.1, Jan-Jun 2014, pp.81 - 96
81

The Economic Position of Family and its Relationship


with Child Trafficking:
A Study from the Perspective of Policy Analysts and
Experts

Syed Rashid Ali & Niaz Muhammad

Abstract
The prevalence of child trafficking reflects the omnipresent poverty, deterioration of
institutional norms, lack of relevant laws, and deficient implementation in both the source
communities and destination locations (ILO, 2002). However, most of the countries respond
to the problem of child trafficking from solely a legal perspective. They declare it an act of
violence and focus on prosecuting the offenders. Such approach is limited in its scope as it
ignores to probe into the underlying factors of the problem and hence, lacks the appropriate
and long term effective strategy of an effective resolution. The issue of child trafficking is
rooted in the multidimensional factors associated with socio-economic, political, cultural,
and educational aspects (Broderick, 2005; Limanowska, 2005). It is inevitable to explore
and analyze these issues in order to develop a comprehensive and everlasting solution to the
problem. In this context, the present study is designed to investigate the economic factors
associated with child trafficking. The study is based on the results and findings of a survey
carried out in Peshawar, the provincial capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. A sample of 392
respondents was selected through a stratified random sampling technique from a list of
lawyers, crime reporters, and academicians.
Key words
Child Trafficking, Economic Factors, Family, Opinion Leaders, Peshawar.

Introduction
The factors associated with the vulnerability of children to trafficking have
been analyzed by researchers in different regions and cultures of the world. The
demographic information of the victims mostly represents their belonging to a
family of low socio-economic status, in a larger population, with lack of sufficient
employment opportunities, and the deficiency of an alternate income source.
Families with low socio-economic position often lack the resources and will to
socialize their children and protect them from the evils of society like trafficking
(Mirza, 2010; Bales, 2007; Demarest et al., 1993; Kielland and Ouensavi, 2001).
The abolition of child trafficking is unlikely to be realized through legislation
advocacy alone but by raising the socio-economic status of the people (Skeldon,
2000).
Syed Rashid Ali & Niaz Muhammad
82

Similarly, intensive rural poverty forces many poor families to give up their
children to traffickers, under the pretext of providing them the opportunity to secure
good jobs and better lives (Bales, 2001; Dottridge, 2002; Lloyd, 2005). Being a
member of certain socio-economic status or ethnic group cannot determine the
likelihood of being subject to trafficking, however, poverty, lack of access to
education, unemployment, and being a member of a minority group enhances the
likelihood that young persons will become vulnerable to trafficking (ILO, 2003;
Moore, 1994; Clawson, 2009; Estes and Weiner, 2001, 2005; Flowers, 2001).
Children from such homes are often neglected and abused and the parent's socio-
economic status is a hurdle in the development of children (Albanese, 2007;
Anderson and Michaelson, 2007; Royal, 1998; Williams and Frederick, 2009;
Williamson and Cluse-Tolar, 2002; Wilson and Dalton, 2008).
Poverty alone is not responsible for child trafficking; however, it is supported
by other factors like ignorance of parents as reported by UNICEF (1998, 2000) in
Sudan and Mauritania. Broderick (2005), while conducting research on
transnational human trafficking under the title “Identifying factors in human
trafficking,” established a hypothesis that there is a significant difference between
victims' countries of origin and the destination countries as it relates to the economic
factors of poverty, unemployment, income, and literacy. The research findings
reveal some significant differences in economic factors that exist between the two
nations.
Beyond poverty, other major community conditions that inflate minors' risk for
entrapment into prostitution include residing in an urban environment characterized
by high crime and elevated levels of police corruption (Clawson, 2009). Situational
conditions such as low socio-economic status of family, existence of prostitution
market in the nearby area, the irregular and frequent movement of people like
tourists, truckers, or military personnel are the common risk factors most often
associated with child trafficking (Estes and Wiener, 2001, 2005).
There are many risk factors which have been titled 'poverty plus,' a situation in
which poverty does not by itself lead to a person being trafficked, but where one or
more of the 'plus' factors, such as gender based violence, illness, domestic violence,
and lack of educational opportunities, combines with poverty to increase
vulnerability (ILO and UNICEF, 2009; Tumlin, 2000; and Mirza, 2010). Parents'
ignorance, lack of general awareness, lack of education, absence and lack of
implementation of existing laws, internal conflicts, lust for money, and involvement
of influential individuals are the most common factors related to child trafficking
(NET, 2008; Gunatilleke, 1994; Demleitner, 2001; Goździak and Bump, 2008).
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
83

Child trafficking in Sub Saharan Africa is a demand-driven phenomenon (ILO,


2002). The existence of an international market for children in the labour and sex
trade, coupled with an abundant supply of children from poor families with limited
or no means for education in a cultural context that favors child fostering, with
restrictions on legal migration possibilities, have clearly opened a niche for
traffickers. Fifty percent of the trafficking victims are children below the age of 18
(ILO, 2002; Broderick, 2005; Van, 2006). A number of studies have analyzed the
labor market and have concluded that excess of labor in origin countries and
shortage in the destination propels the business of child trafficking, as can be seen in
the destination nations in Europe (Skeldon, 2000; ILO, 2003).
Similarly, from a broader perspective, the practice of child trafficking is
associated with demand and supply. The demand in international sex and labour
market and the abundance of a vulnerable population which is supported by the
trafficker as a profitable and low risk trade (Joffres et al., 2008; Schauer and
Wheaton, 2006). In most cases, trafficking results from the interface of multiple risk
factors (ADB, 2003; Sinha, 2005; ILO, 2006; EPCAT, 2001). Thus vulnerability
results from a range of inter-related economic, social, political, and familial factors
(e.g., poverty, lack of sustainable livelihoods, inter and intra familial conflicts,
structural inequities and discrimination).
Becker (1995) introduced the dialogue on the economic approach to crime.
Like rational choice theory, a person evaluates the cost and benefit of a crime. The
benefit according to Becker may include money, property, and psychic prices
(“getting away with something”). Costs could be money, “the opportunity cost of
not working in legitimate work,” and the likelihood of conviction and punishment.
Becker perceives trafficking offenders as risk takers, who gauge the potential for
profit to the threat of apprehension due to their illegitimate actions. As the benefit of
child trafficking is construed to be more than its cost, it will continue. Similar
arguments are made by Schloenhardt (1999), Hughes (2003), O' Neil (2000), and
Makisaka and Marc (2009) that traffickers are making money from the business of
trafficking of children and women and hence, the crime prevails. Miko (2000),
Yinusa and Basil (2008), Olateru (2004), ILO (2006), and Kapstein (2006) claim
that next to arm and drug smuggling, trafficking of women and children is the third
principal income source for criminal syndicates worldwide and the key players and
contractors across the world. However, the feminist approch has looked into this
crime and analysed it (Jeffreys, 2009), finding that prostitution and the sex business
is a globalized industry where from girls' bodies result in enormous profits.
Child trafficking, routinely referred to as modern day slavery, has prevailed due
to its profitable nature. Human trafficking is a high profit and relatively low risk
trade with availability of supply and constantly increasing demand (Joffres et al.,
2008; Bales, 1999, 2007; Naim, 2005; Hughes, 2000; Kapstein, 2006). Similarly,
Syed Rashid Ali & Niaz Muhammad
84

camel racing in the Gulf countries attracts poor people from Pakistan through the
manipulation of parents by agents to surrender their children. Many law
enforcement officials and immigration personnel have perceived that high profit and
low risk and the absence of significant fear of prosecution and penalties encourage
the trafficking gangs to work in those countries (Mirza, 2010).
Studies show that trafficked children are exploited in diverse ways. They are
trafficked for sexual abuse and/or for forced labour, and sometimes for both. They
are coerced into prostitution (Albanese, 2007; Priebe and Suhr, 2005; Williams and
Frederick, 2009). They are detained, locked up to the point of starvation, along with
severe physical and verbal abuse (Anderson, 2003; Makisaka and Marc, 2009). A
variety of tactics that the traffickers use for controlling the victims have been
reported by Makisaka and Marc (2009); the victims are routinely tied into the web of
debt-bondage. They are deprived of their identification and traveling documents, e.g
passport, with the aim that they may not be able to escape. They are psychologically
tortured. Victims, due to their illegal status are afraid of the authorities, and are fear
that they cannot ask for help. In Europe and Central Asia, children are mostly
trafficked for forced begging, marriages, and prostitution. Their forced services are
utilized in bricks kilns, agriculture, rice mills and other factories. Both girls and boys
are also used as domestic workers (UNDOC, 2009).
Afghan boys in Pakistan and children in Colombia are trafficked for
exploitation in militant and paramilitary operations and even suicide bombing. In
Nepal and Pakistan, one of the major forms of human trafficking involves bonded
labor. In East Asia, Pacific area children are often trafficked for the purpose of sexual
exploitation, domestic servitude, and forced begging. In Latin America and the
Caribbean, poor families often push their young daughters to provide sexual favors
to wealthy older men in exchange for school fees, money and gifts (Trafficking in
Person Report, 2003). Noor Education Trust (NET, 2008) reported the findings that
the purpose of sale through marriage (i.e. bride price in Pakistan) was quoted as sex
trade by 32 (16%) respondents, exploitation as cheap labour was quoted by 27
(13%) respondents, while 73 (34.4%) said they were used for both. However, Mirza
(2010) reported that even children are trafficked for removal of their organs.
Literature reveals that children are trafficked for the purpose of performing forced
labour of all types, including agriculture, domestic services, construction work, and
sweatshops, in addition to commercial sexual exploitation (Brodrick, 2005;
Trafficking in Person Report, 2003; Bales, 1999). Trafficking clearly violates the
fundamental right to a life with dignity. It also violates the rights to health and health
care, rights to liberty and security of person, and the right to freedom from torture,
violence, cruelty or degrading treatment. In addition, it violates for children who
have been trafficked or victims of child marriages, their right to education; it also
violates the right to employment and the right of self determination (Mirza, 2010;
NET, 2008).
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
85

reported to be labeled as a source, transit, and destination country. Men, women,


girls, and children are trafficked for exploitation in forced labour and sex markets.
The report further states that the big problem faced in Pakistan is bonded labour,
which is concentrated in Sindh and Punjab provinces, particularly in brick kilns,
carpet making, agriculture, fishing, mining, leather tanning and production of glass
bangles. The estimates of Pakistani victims of bonded labour, including men,
women and children, vary widely but are likely to be over one million. Other
practices include the sale of daughters into domestic servitude, prostitution, or
forced marriages, and tribal or family disputes are settled through trading girls
(known as swara in Pashto) or as payment for debts.
Research Methodology
The present section explains the methodology adopted for carrying out the
research study.
Study Area
The present study is conducted in Peshawar, the cradle of Pakhtun culture. The
incidents of various issues related to child trafficking are likely to be high in this city.
The city houses a large population of Afghan refugees who are prone to child
trafficking (Azam, 2009). Moreover, it has also provided shelter to the internally
displaced peoples (IDPs) due to military operations within the Federally
Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), as a result of the war against terrorism. Both of
the mentioned groups are prone to child trafficking and other socio-cultural evils.
Further, the city hosts old established academic institutions like Islamia College, the
University of Peshawar, and the University of Agriculture. It also houses the
Peshawar press club where journalists have been covering every aspect of life in
their reports, including crimes. A Bench of the Supreme Court, a full-fledged High
court, Special courts, and Peshawar District courts are running its affairs in both its
civil and criminal jurisdictions. Due to the combination of these features, District
Peshawar has been selected to thoroughly examine the issue.
Sampling Procedure
Originally an attempt was made to approach the victims of trafficking which
are handled by the Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) in Peshawar. However,
access was not granted to the victims due to a law prohibiting such interaction. In
the absence of information from victims, it was decided to approach social
scientists, legal experts, and crime reporters who are the eyes and ears of the society
and critical policy analysts for their perception of the issue. Moreover, the stratum
that has been used in our sampling includes these “opinion leaders” within this
particular society that are capable of influencing the society at large, the local
government administration, and the regional and national legislature. It is, therefore,
worthwhile to better understand their perception of the issue.
Syed Rashid Ali & Niaz Muhammad
86

For data collection, a proportionate stratified random sampling technique was


used, while the membership list of the Peshawar Bar Council, Peshawar Press Club,
and Teachers' Association was utilized as the sampling frame. For gathering
consistent and reliable data, this technique was deemed to be the most appropriate.
As mentioned, the population is trifurcated into strata of social scientists, crime
reporters, and lawyers working within district Peshawar. A sample size of 392 has
been drawn from the total population of 453 by using formula n= K2V2 /d2, as
proposed by Casley and Kumar (1989). The calculated sample size is divided into
the mentioned strata on the basis of a proportional allocation method where NI =
Ni/N*n formula is used (Chaudhry and Kamal, 1996).
Data Collection
A comprehensive questionnaire, based on the Likert scale, was developed for
data collection. The questionnaire was first discussed with experts and amendments
were made accordingly. Thereafter, the questionnaire was pre-tested for its
relevance to objectives of the study. Again, the inconsistencies and ambiguities will
be addressed before starting the final phase of data collection.
Data Analysis
Data has been analyzed through SPSS 2010 computer software. Bivariate
analysis has been carried out to measure the level of significance of hypothetical
association and direction of the relationship between the dependent variable (i.e.
child trafficking) and the independent variables (e.g. economic position of victim's
family) by using Chi square (2) and Gamma (γ) analyses.
Results and Discussion
In this section, major results will be discussed and have been presented in Table
No. I, which highlights the association and direction of the relationship between
child trafficking and the economic position of the family.
A positive (γ=0.460) and highly significant (p<0.05) relationship was observed
between low socio-economic status and child trafficking (Table I). Findings of the
present study suggest that parents with low socio-economic status may not be fully
capable of being responsible guardians. In other words, families with middle and
high socio-economic status may be more capable of effective guardianship than
families with low socio-economic status. These findings are consistent with what
has been reported by ILO (2003); Moore (1994); Clawson (2009); Estes and Weiner
(2001, 2005); Flowers (2001); Dottridge (2002); and Lloyd (2005).
Similarly, a positive (γ=0.485) and significant (p<0.05) relationship has been
found between growing unemployment and child trafficking (Table I). A large
proportion of the young population in Pakhtun society remains illiterate and
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
87

unskilled, and likely unemployed. This situation of joblessness has deteriorated the
psycho-social make up of individual personality, and many remain unable to cope
with the challenges such as dealing with inflation, thus becoming easy prey to
trafficking. These findings are in agreement with the findings of Kielland and
Ouensavi (2001); ILO and UNICEF (2009); Tumlin (2000); and Demleitner
(2001).
However, a non significant but positive (γ=0.324) relationship was revealed to
exist between the increasing number of children in poor households and child
trafficking. The positive value of this Gamma value could be interpreted to mean
that the more vulnerable poor families are, the higher the potential for the
involvement of their children as trafficking victims. A plausible explanation for this
increase could be the existence of the common psyche that “sons are guns.” These
findings are in line with those reported by Bales (2001).
Contrary to the above, a positive (γ=0.403) and significant (p<0.05)
relationship was observed between non-cooperative behavior of economically
sound people and child trafficking. The significance and positive result of this study
reveals the non-cooperative behavior of well off people, when compared with the
indigent in Pakhtun society. This practice of non cooperation can best be understood
in terms of Karl Marx ideology of dialectical materialism, where there is a gap
between the two classes i.e., the bourgeoisie and the proletariat, which he explained
in his concept of historical materialism. The ideology of the Pakhtunwali focuses on
helping the needy and deserving people, however, this ideal is not apparently
occuring in practice. This brings massive problems to the regional poor, and
ultimately they may be deceived by the traffickers with an offer of employment,
education, better career, etc. Lack of social capital, social solidarity, and
homogeneity in the existing strata of the “haves” and “have nots” could be the main
contributing factors. For bringing harmony and equilibrium between two classes, it
is an imperative need to implant social capital on sound footings within Pakhtun
society (i.e. the study area).
Moreover, a positive (γ=0.189) and significant (p<0.05) relationship was
observed between cheap labor for business activities and child trafficking.
Similarly, a positive (γ=0.314) and significant (p<0.05) relationship has been found
between demand in the international market for cheap labor and child trafficking
(Table I). The findings of the present study suggest that the traffickers may get
motivated when observing high demand in the national and international labor and
or sex markets, along with an increase in the number of vulnerable populations. The
findings of the present study are in line with those concluded by Joffres et al. (2008);
Broderick (2005); Van Impe (2006); ILO (2002); Schauer and Wheaton (2006);
Skeldon (2000); and ILO (2003).
Syed Rashid Ali & Niaz Muhammad
88

Similar results (γ=0.469; p<0.05) are observed between profitability of the


business and child trafficking. The findings suggest that continuity of the trafficking
business may be subject to the return it warrants for the investors. The higher the
potential profit, the more would be the frequency of the crime and vice versa. The
findings are in much corroboration to that of the reports prepared by Miko (2000);
Olateru (2002); UNODC (2008); Joffres et al. (2008); Bales (1999 and 2007); Naim
(2005); Hughes (2001); King (2004); Kapstein (2006); Schloenhardt (1999); and
Hughes (2003).
A highly positive (γ=0.464) and significant (p<0.05) relationship was found
between exploitation of victims in diverse forms and child trafficking (Table I). The
findings suggest that it may be very difficult for the law enforcement agencies to
trace the victims as they may be engaged in various fields like, bricks kilns,
factories, sex industry and militancy, forced begging, marriages, domestic work,
and debt bondage. These findings are in high degree of agreement the conclusions
reported by Albanese (2007); Priebe and Suhr (2005); Williams and Frederick
(2009); Anderson (2003); Makisaka and Marc (2009); UNDOC (2009); and TIP
(2009).
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
89

Table No. I Relationship between Economic Aspect and Perception on Child


Trafficking.

Perception on Child Trafficking


Statements Attitude Total Statistics
Agree Disagree Not sure

Agree 281 (71.7) 40 (10.2) 1 (0.3) 322(82.1) 2 =36.761


Children from low socio-
economic status are more Disagree 47 (12.0) 9 (2.3) 0 (0.0) 56(14.3) (.000)
susceptible to trafficking.
Not sure 4 (1.0) 10 (2.6) 0 (0.0) 14(3.6) γ =.460
Agree 290 (74.0) 40 (10.2) 1 (0.3) 331(84.4) 2 =15.242
Growing unemployment
provides room for traffickers Disagree 19 (4.8) 10 (2.6) 0 (0.0) 29(7.4) (.004)
to groom around.
Not sure 23 (5.9) 9 (2.3) 0 (0.0) 32(8.2) γ =.485
Non-cooperative behavior of Agree 235 (59.9) 27 (6.9) 1 (0.3) 263(67.1) 2 =14.699
economically sound people
is proportional to child Disagree 42 (10.7) 14 (3.6) 0 (0.0) 56 (14.3) (.005)
trafficking.
Not sure 55 (14.0) 18 (4.6) 0 (0.0) 73 (18.6) γ =.403
Increasing number of Agree 252 (64.3) 35 (8.9) 1 (0.3) 288 (73.5) 2 =7.499
children at poor household
Disagree 52 (13.3) 15 (3.8) 0 (0.0) 67 (17.1) (.112)
breeds the chances of
trafficking. Not sure 28 (7.1) 9 (2.3) 0 (0.0) 37 (9.4) γ =.324
Agree 253 (64.5) 29 (7.4) 1 (0.3) 283 (72.2) 2 =18.652
Trafficking is a profitable
business that's why it is Disagree 26 (6.6) 10 (2.6) 0 (0.0) 36 (9.2) (.001)
increasing day by day.
Not sure 53 (13.5) 20 (5.1) 0 (0.0) 73 (18.6) γ =.469
Agree 248 (63.3) 38 (9.7) 1 (0.3) 287 (73.2) 2 =3.189
Protection is being given to
traffickers by the high ups of Disagree 31 (7.9) 7 (1.8) 0 (0.0) 38 (9.7) (.527)
the society.
Not sure 53 (13.5) 14 (3.6) 0 (0.0) 67 (17.1) γ =.212
2
Agree 268 (68.4) 45 (11.5) 0 (0.0) 313 (79.8)  =12.366
Trafficking is encouraged to
gain cheap labor for market / Disagree 41 (10.5) 5 (1.3) 1 (0.3) 47 (12.0) (.015)
business activities.
Not sure 23 (5.9) 9 (2.3) 0 (0.0) 32 (8.2) γ =.189
2
Agree 222 (56.6) 32 (8.2) 0 (0.0) 254 (64.8)  =19.754
Demand in international
market for cheap labor is a Disagree 49 (12.5) 4(1.0) 1 (0.3) 54 (13.8) (.001)
reason of trafficking.
Not sure 61 (15.6) 23 (5.9) 0 (0.0) 84 (21.4) γ =.314
2
Agree 283 (72.2) 38 (9.7) 1 (0.3) 322 (82.1)  =12.352
The trafficked children are
exploited in diverse forms. Disagree 20 (5.1) 11 (2.8) 0 (0.0) 31 (7.9) (.003)

Not sure 29 (7.4) 10 (2.6) 0 (0.0) 39 (9.9) γ =.464

Source: Field Survey, 2012


Note*Values presented in the above table indicate frequency while values in the parenthesis
represent percentage
Syed Rashid Ali & Niaz Muhammad
90

Conclusions
It is concluded that children from lower socio-economic families and strata are
more susceptible to becoming victims of illicit trafficking. Growing unemployment,
increase in population, especially in poor families, along with the non-cooperative
behavior of the economically sound people, has been shown to be positively
associated with child trafficking. In addition, the demand for cheap labor in national
and international markets is a major motivating factor for the traffickers. Trafficking
has been shown to be a profitable business and protection granted to traffickers by
those in society with power often results in exploitation of victims in diverse forms.
The findings of the present study can be said to confirm the Routine Activities
Theory introduced by Cohen and Felson (1979), which states that the interaction of
three variables: suitable targets, absence of capable guardian, and motivated
offender at the same time and place can result in the commission of crime. Applying
this theory to the present study appears to support that lower socio-economic
families, high unemployment, the lack of social solidarity and homogeneity, and a
decrease in the capability of guardians to safeguard their wards can combine to
support the existence of child trafficking. Further, overpopulation in poor
households can turn them into an easy and suitable target for illegal trafficking
organizations. Furthermore, demand in the national and international market for
cheap labor, the ready availability of a vulnerable population, and the low risk and
high profitability of this illicit business may motivate the offender to carry out this
illegal enterprise in child trafficking.
Policy Recommendations
The following recommendations are made in the light of the findings of this
study:
1 Poverty and gender inequality are perceived to be large contributors to illegal
child trafficking. In this regard, serious and sustained efforts should be made
for promoting gender equality and alleviating poverty in all segments of
society.
2 Government and other agencies should encourage and support academicians to
conduct research on child trafficking and to highlight the issue.
3 The government should increase the salaries of immigration enforcement
personnel, human trafficking investigators, and police officials who are
specifically working on human trafficking cases. However, along with this,
government officials should issue a policy of zero-tolerance for corruption. If
any official is convicted of corrupt behavior or actions that support illegal
human trafficking, then severe punishment should be inflicted. Another
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
91

strategy to adopt is the “naming and shaming” policy. Government should publish
and publicize the names of all the involved people in the trafficking chain,
whether government officials, private citizens, politicians, or other powerful
people. Media should give proper time and place for publishing and
disseminating the name and cases. After all, personal reputation does matter.
4 Rehabilitative measures by the government in collaboration with the national
and international organizations should be initiated, which include programs for
psychological support and therapy for the those in vulnerable communities and
particularly for the survivors of trafficking victimization.
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The author Syed Rashid Ali is a Lecturer of Sociology and Deputy Registrar Establishment,
Department of Social Work & Sociology, Kohat University of Science & Technology-Pakistan. He
can be reached at bukharasani@gmail.com
The author Niaz Muhammad is a Professor and Director, Institute of Social Work, Sociology, &
Gender Studies, University of Peshawar-Pakistan. He can be reached at niazk30@hotmail.com
Pakistan Journal of Criminology Volume 6, No.1, Jan-Jun 2014, pp.97 - 121
97

Students' Perspective on Corporal Punishment:


A Case Study of High Schools Students in Peshawar,
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Mudasir Khan, Amir Zada Asad, Shakeel Ahmed
& Imran Ahmed Sajid

Abstract
Corporal punishment has been a part of the education culture not only in Pakistan but the
entire Indo-Pak subcontinent for centuries. There have been two conflicting arguments of
teachers and educationists and the liberals who oppose the practice. This empirical study was
conducted to know the students perspective as a stakeholders. Majority of the Students of
highs schools did not support the practice as it badly affects the students' performance. The
results revealed that corporal punishment fails to motivate students for studies. However,
when administered after a mistake, corporal punishment also makes some students realize
their mistakes. It creates hate amongst students against the teachers who use such violent
methods of disciplining.
Keywords
Corporal Punishment, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Motivation, Feelings, Teacher, Attitude.
Introduction
Punishment for disciplining is a centuries old practice that has and is prevalent
in almost all cultures and societies. Corporal punishment has been a part of the
education culture not only in Pakistan but the entire Indo-Pak subcontinent for
centuries. There have been two conflicting arguments of teachers and educationists
and the liberals who oppose the practice. Those who plead the practice are of the
opinion that light punishment like psychological shaming) physical (beating with
sticks and slapping/punching the students and the economic punishment (fines) are
given to correct the students for their minor wrongs associated with the norms of the
class and educational institutes like low performance in studies, bullying and
harassing other students and misbehaving with teachers and elders.
Punishment for disciplining is a centuries old practice that has and is prevalent
in almost all cultures and societies. Corporal punishment has been a part of the
education culture not only in Pakistan but the entire Indo-Pak subcontinent for
centuries. There have been two conflicting arguments of teachers and educationists
and the liberals who oppose the practice. Those who plead the practice are of the
opinion that light punishment like psychological shaming) physical (beating with
sticks and slapping/punching the students and the economic punishment (fines) are
Mudasir Khan, Amir Zada Asad, Shakeel Ahmed & Imran Ahmed Sajid
98

given to correct the students for their minor wrongs associated with the norms of the
class and educational institutes like low performance in studies, bullying and
harassing other students and misbehaving with teachers and elders.
Those who argue against are of the opinion that the practice has added negative
consequences and led to a major dropout from schools particularly during the early
years of education. The third stakeholders i.e. the students are never considered as
the sufferers/beneficiaries phenomenon but never consulted on the issue.
Methods and Material
This empirical research was conducted in four public sector High schools of
Peshawar City KPK Pakistan to know the students' perspectives on the subject and
the impacts of punishment on their academic performance.
The research is based on two assumptions namely; (1) Students form a negative
attitude towards the teaching and teacher who award punishment and (2) Corporal
punishment motivates students and creates a sense of competition among them in
their academic performance. The assumptions are operationalized as;-

Assumption - I

Operationalization:

Independent Variable Dependent Variable

Modes of Corporal Punishment Attitude of Student

Indicators: Indicators:

 Physical punishment (Beating with  Not attending class of that teacher.


stick/slapping/ punching).
 poor performance in that subject.
 Psychological punishment (shaming, jeering,
forcing to stand up in certain way.  Ignore/ indifferent to that teacher in private life.

 Economic ( fines ).
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
99

Assumption - II

Operationalization:

Independent Variable Dependent Variable

Types of Corporal Punishment Results in

Indicators: Indicators:

 Physical punishment (Beating with  Regularity in attendance of that teacher class.


stick/slapping/ punching)
 Improved performance in that subject.
 Psychological punishment (shaming, jeering,
forcing to stand up in certain way.  Creates respect for that teacher in private life even
after schooling
 Economic ( fines ).

Objectives
The present study was undertaken for the following objectives
 Extent of corporal punishment prevalent in Schools.
 What types of corporal punishment are awarded in the said schools in
Peshawar?
 What is the students' perspective on reasons and results of receiving
corporal punishment?
 How do the students' feel after receiving corporal punishment?
 What is the attitude of student towards those teachers who award corporal
punishment?
 Does corporal punishment motivate student?
Universe of the Study
The universe of the study was four Government High/ Higher Secondary
Schools in the city center area of Peshawar city namely GHS-No.1, II, III and IV.
Sampling Strategy
There are four high /higher secondary schools in the city center area namely
GHS-I and II on the main GT Road, GHS-III at Khyber bazaar and GHS-IV at
Kakshal area of the city. These are the biggest and the oldest prestigious schools of
the province even. The first two schools were established before independence (
Please ask someone or see the foundation stones of these schools for authenticity) of
the country.
Mudasir Khan, Amir Zada Asad, Shakeel Ahmed & Imran Ahmed Sajid
100

The overall sampling strategy was stratified-purposive.


Three classes i.e. 8th, 9th and 10th from each school were selected as human
universe for sampling. 20 students from each class were sampled on the basis of
their seating arrangements. It is generally believed that the brilliant students sit in
front rows of the class while those who are slow, shy or dull or least interested, sit on
the back benches to avoid direct discussion/ active participation in class activities,
were selected purposively. This gave us a sample of 60 students from each school
and the total sample size from the four schools as 240.
Tools of Data Collection
Survey research design was used. Tool of data collection was structured
interviews. We could use other method/ techniques like questionnaires (the same
structured interview schedule) but that would have given different result as students
in this age are mostly careless, un-attentive to things which they do not know or
understand.
Secondly, the quality of education is so low that most students would have not
expressed themselves in either languages of Urdu or English. Urdu, no doubt, is
spoken and understood by most if not all people of the country, but internalization of
a language is different than understanding the words.
Results
The students were asked about the occurrence of corporal punishment, the
types of punishment they met, their feelings after having been punished for their
minor wrongs and impacts of the punishment on their academic performance. The
statistical data is presented below;

Table I: Occurrence and Frequency of Corporal Punishment

Have ever been Frequency Total


punished 1 2 3

Yes 192 (80%) - 136 56 192

No 48 (20%) - - - 48

Total 240 (100%) - 136 56 192

Denotations for Frequency; 1=Frequently, 2= Occasionally,3=Rarely.


Pakistan Journal of Criminology
101

Table I: The students were asked about the frequency of corporal punishment.
It was found that 80% (192/240) students have had experienced corporal
punishment with the hands of their teachers during the last one year and 20%
(48/240) never received corporal punishment. This means the practice of corporal
punishment is very common (objective No.-I).

Table II: Methods of Corporal Punishment?


Instrument of Punishment
Have ever
been Frequency By Stick Slapping Pulling/ Ridiculous Fine Standing in Total
Punished Twisting Ears Postures* Class

Yes 192 (80%) 117 (61%) 17 (9%) 25 (13%) 8 (4%) 08 (4%) 17 (9%) 192

No 48 (20%) - - - - - - 48

Total 240 (100%) 117 (61%) 17 (9%) 25 (13%) 08 (4%) 08 (4%) 17 (9%) 240

Table II; As far as methods/instruments of punishment were concerned, they


include beating with a stick, slapping/smacking, pulling/twisting of ears. The most
ridiculous and the severe form of punishment were to ask make postures known as
Murgha Banana ( to get hold of the ears from beneath the knees). Fines are also
levied and asking students to stand in the class or stand on the bench for the whole or
part of class period of 40 minutes etc.
61 % (117/240) majority of the students reported being punished with stick, 9
% (17/240) received slaps or being smacked , 13 % ( 25.249) received their ears
being pulled/ twisted meant to shame the student, (the mildest punishment), 4 % (
8/240) were ordered to make ridiculous postures (murgha), 4 % (8/240) were fined
while 9 % were punished by standing for a while in the class as symbol of penalty
.(objective no.2) .

Table III: Reason Behind Corporal Punishment

Reason Behind When you You are Weak Incomplete Truancy Total
Punishment Miss About in Study Home
Assignments

Frequency 46 (19 %) 125 (52%) 43 (18%) 26 (11%) 240 (100%)

Total 46 125 43 26 240

*
This include to make someone sit and get hold of his ears from beneath the legs known as
“Murgha banana”.
Mudasir Khan, Amir Zada Asad, Shakeel Ahmed & Imran Ahmed Sajid
102

Table III. When the students were asked about the reason for such
punishments, 19% (46/240) said that when they miss about in the class or make a
mischief, they get punished or warned. 52% (125/240) respondents reported that
they receive such punishment on the pretext of being weak in their studies. 18%
(43/240) reported that when they do not complete or ignore the home
work/assignments, they get punished.11% (26/240) respondents stated that such
punishment is awarded due to partial or total truancy means either they do not attend
a particular teacher's class or remain absent form school .(objective no.3) .

Table IV: Feelings of Students after Being Punished

Feelings Realize Feel Hatred Still Feel Total


after my for Respect that Ashamed
Punishment Mistake that Teacher Teacher and Insulted

Frequency 120 (50%) 19 (08%) 31 (13%) 70 (29%) 240 (100%)

Table IV: What did the students' feel after receiving corporal punishment?
This was one of the key questions which resulted in some interesting findings
(Hypothesis 1). Almost 50% of the students who received corporal punishment said
they realized their mistake after the punishment. This means those who plead
corporal punishment for correction of the minor wrongs of a child, are correct in
their stance.
8% (19/240) students reported that as the punishment is mostly unjustified and
they did not commit any wrong but penalized, they feel hatred towards that teacher
who abuses his power and privilege. In contrast to this no. of 8% ho develops hatred
towards a teacher, 13% (31/240) respondents said that they still respect their
teachers as they have no personal grudges but do so for reforming us.
29% ( 70/240) respondents said that they feel ashamed and insulted if penalized
or beaten in front of the class. Again this impact may have positive results as
shaming may lead to competition and hard work but can also dishearten the students
who can leave the school and or continue but do not show good performance.
The present study reveals that 50% students realize their mistake and support
those who plead punishment as a means of correction and realizing civic senses
(objective no.4).
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
103

Table V: Impacts of Corporal Punishment

Attitude Towards and Impacts of Corporal Punishment

Do you Frequency Discourages Encourages Hurts Cause Total


Favor the the the Dropouts
Corporal Students Students Personality
Punishment

Yes 17 (7%) - 17 (7%) - - 1 7

No 223 (93%) 129 (58%) - 47 (21%) 47 (21%) 223

Total 240 (100%) 129 (57%) 17 (7%) 47 (21%) 47 (21%) 240

Table V: The table shows that a minority of thestudents7% supported the


practice of punishment and viewed that corporal punishment encourages and
motivate students to work hard and make them compete with other class mates.
Out of the 93% (223/ 240) students who did not favour the practice, a vast
majority 58% (129/ 223) said that punishment discourages the students in a number
of ways like being embarrassed, shamed in front of friends, cousins and relatives
who make joke of such students outside the schools or at home and in the street.
Many a times such taunting becomes unbearable for some students and they lose
their hearts in studies and have low performance. 21% (47/ 223) students believed
that when a student is punished in school, degrade his personality and such students
feel psychologically inferior to others. A similar number of students were of the
opinion that such punishment cause drop outs and students do not come to school or
change schools one after the other (objective no.3).

Table VI: Did Corporal Punishment Motivate you towards Study?

Does Corporal Punishment Motivate You Frequency % age

Yes, significantly 48 20 %

A little bit 120 50 %

Not at all 72 30 %

Total 240 100 %


Mudasir Khan, Amir Zada Asad, Shakeel Ahmed & Imran Ahmed Sajid
104

The specific question that is corporal punishment motivating or de-motivating,


was asked from the students. Majority were of the opinion that corporal punishment
does motivate students towards their studies. 20% ( 48/240) reported that this act
significantly motivated them and after having been punished, they improved a lot
and removed their weaknesses.
Again, 50% (120/240) respondents said that corporal punishment does help
improve a little bit and motivated them for their studies ( Hypothesis 2)..
30% (72/240) students totally opposed the idea and said that it does not help
them motivate in their studies.

Table VII: What Can be the Substitute for Corporal Punishment? (done)

Suggests About Substitute Arrangement for


Do you Favor Corporal Frequency Corporal Punishment
Punishment Total
a b c d e

Yes 17 (7%) - - - - - 17

No 223 (93%) 29 (13%) 62 (28%) 20 (9%) 45 (20%) 67 (30%) 223

Total 240 (100%) 29 (13%) 62 (28%) 20 (9%) 45 (20%) 67 (30%) 240

Denotation :
a = charge fine, b = inform parents, c = if repeat send to home, d. = advised, e = be stopped

Table VII: The students were asked that what should be the alternate to
corporal punishment to improve the behaviour and weaknesses of students who get
penalized.
Majority of the students i.e. 93% (223/240) were against corporal punishment.
Only a minority of the students' i.e.7% (17/240) favoured the practice.
On asking the students that what could be the substitute or alternate to the
corporal punishment to discipline the students? Many good suggestions were put
forth. Those 7% (17/240) who supported or favoured the practice were not asked the
question.
The vast majority of 93% (223/240) who opposed the prevalent practice of
corporal punishment suggested low;-
29 (13%) suggested that the students be fined but when they were asked that
why the parents be burdened for their wrongs, they had no answers.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
105

62 (28%)students suggested that the parents of such students be informed


instead of levying a fine on the students and the parents were the best to correct their
children.
20 (9%) of those who disapproved of the practice suggested that those students
who persistently creates problems in the class or do not reform themselves, should
be straight away sent homes.
45 (20%) students were of the opinion that constant persuasion and advice of
the teachers could solve the problems.
67 (30%) students were of the view that the practice be stopped immediately
and the students are no more harassed and embarrassed.
Discussion
According to UN Convention on the Rights of the Child,( herein after CRC) Article
19(1)
“States Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative,
social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of
physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent
treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in
the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the
care of the child.”
Corporal punishment is considered a very vivid form of violence by many.
Despite CRC's commitments, corporal punishment prevails throughout the world.
According to the UN sources, out of 198 countries, corporal punishment is not fully
prohibited in 164 (83%). Similarly, in 157 countries, it is also not fully prohibited in
alternative care institutions or day care centers. The situation is not much better in
schools. In 122 countries of the world, corporal punishment of children in schools is
not fully prohibited (US and Pakistan included). At the large, it seems that there is a
global consensus on corporal punishment of children. The consensus however is
changing in the 21st century.1
Pakistan is one of the few countries where corporal punishment is legal, both by
schools and by parents2. Pakistan is not alone in this respect. Angola, Bahamas,
Barbados, Bhutan, Batswana, Brazil, Brunai, Cuba, East Timor, Egypt, France,
India, Indonesia, Australia, China, the US, the UK, Mongolia and many other
countries hold policies similar to Pakistan towards corporal punishment of children.
The basic philosophy of punishment is to discipline an untamed member of the
society. Similarly, educational institutions have always used corporal punishment as
a mean to discipline undisciplined students. Corporal punishment is universal. Even
Mudasir Khan, Amir Zada Asad, Shakeel Ahmed & Imran Ahmed Sajid
106

in many of the states in the US, corporal punishment is not illegal. In the UK, parents
can give corporal punishment. It is lawful. However, it was banned in public and
private schools in early 2000s3.
The nature of corporal punishment ranges between minor/ psychological to
severe beating and even amputation. Based upon the severity of punishment for
children Doggart (May 26, 2011) categorize the countries into four tiers4.
Tier -4 countries are most violent towards children. It is those countries where
three groups of punishers can smack children: parents, teachers, and government
officials. Iran and Saudi Arabia are perfect examples of tier-4 countries. In Saudi
Arabia and Iran, state can amputate children. Malaysia, Indonesia and Bangladesh
5
are also included into tier-4 division .
Tier-3 countries are those countries where children can be smacked by parents
and teachers. Czech Republic, France, Iraq and the US (and most of the European
countries) are examples of this tier. In the US, most of the parents (72%) believe “it
is OK to spank a child”. Likewise, it also revealed that one in two American children
are getting spanked or slapped.
In tier-2 countries, only parents may beat their children. It is legal. These
countries included Canada, Russia, Japan, China, South Africa and most of Europe –
including the United Kingdom in this category. In Britain, the corporal punishment
in public schools has been outlawed by the Parliament in 1986 and in private schools
in 1998. Nonetheless, it remains legal in British homes.
Tier-1 countries are those nations that are practicing “universal prohibition” of
corporal punishment of children. There are total 29 countries in this group including
New Zealand, the Netherlands, Tunisia, Kenya, Spain, Israel and Venezuela. In
these countries, all forms of corporal punishment are legally prohibited.
Arguments for and Against Corporal Punishment
As mentioned in the above categorization, except a few countries, Corporal
punishment in a variety of forms and severity, is centuries' old practice in most of
the countries including Pakistan and the researchers assume that every person who
have been to school in Pakistan, must have experienced corporal punishment in the
form of canning on buttocks, slapping on face, rounding of ears, and being order to
do 100 sit-stand, or to stand for fifteen to thirty minutes with both the hands up in the
air and one leg above the ground.
Impacts of Corporal Punishment
Studies suggest that corporal punishment methods impact students' academic
6
achievement and long-term well-being . Recent studies suggest that improvement
in school behaviour or academic performance is negatively associated with corporal
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
107

punishment. In the US, one similar study found that in “states where corporal
punishment is frequently used, schools have performed worse academically than in
states that prohibited corporal punishment7.
Supporters of corporal punishment are usually the traditionalists who cite
references not only from religious sources, such as the Old Testament book of
Proverbs, chapter 13: “Those who spare the rod hate their children, but those who
love them are diligent to discipline them.”
Sanderson (2003) also favors corporal punishment in rising and teaching of
children. He states
“Discipline in rising and teaching of children is necessary if they are to
become social, productive and responsible adults. Punishment is only a
method of disciplining and corporal punishment is only one aspect of
8
punishment .
In the present day UK corporal punishment has been legally prohibited in
schools and other institutional settings except for parents. Those in favour of
corporal punishment call for the return of the rod. One teacher said
“Children's behaviour is now absolutely outrageous in the majority of
schools. There are too many anger management people who give children
the idea that it is their right to flounce out of lessons for time out because
they have problems with their temper. They should be caned instead.”9
A June 27, 2013 story of The Express Tribune revealed that in Pakistan, most of
the parents and teachers believe that “most kids need to be beaten. It further reveals
that teachers who experienced similar punishment as children, are more likely to
justify the use of corporal punishment10.
Despite being favored by teachers and parents, a May 18, 2008 report of the
Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN) which is the humanitarian news
and analysis service of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs,
11
suggested that corporal punishment is the key reason for 'dropouts' in Pakistan . The
report is full of case histories of how corporal punishment scared brilliant students
who were not going to school anymore.
Psychological studies also support the idea of negative impacts of
corporal punishment and would say that punishment decreases a child's
'self-esteem' and can lead to symptoms like depression and anxiety.
Studies suggest that it can also backfire; making the victim into a hero
whom subsequently gets more peer attention for unacceptable behavior.12
Likewise, Bauman and Friedman (1998) found that majority of family
physicians and pediatricians argue against corporal punishment. According to them,
13
corporal punishment does not work to correct negative behavior permanently.
Mudasir Khan, Amir Zada Asad, Shakeel Ahmed & Imran Ahmed Sajid
108

It can be concluded that there are numerous forms of corporal punishment.


Students in school receive corporal punishment for this or that reason. It negatively
affects students' psyche. After receiving punishment, students are scared and form a
very dark attitude towards the teacher awarding the punishment but the positive
aspect can also not be ignored. It also motivates students.
Conclusions
Corporal punishment is a controversial phenomenon in most of the countries. It
is considered as a part of the in formal means of socialization in a particular cultural
set up. Like many other social phenomena this act is also contentious but it is for sure
that both the proponents and opponents have no personal agendas but work towards
the welfare of the young generation in their right socialization.
Recently, in Pakistan too, some NGOs have taken up this issue and made it a
serious problem but the reality is that majority of the main stakeholders (the student)
are not against the practice and considered it as a means of their motivation and
reformation.
Corporal punishment to a mild extent is reformative but the teachers should not
become a sadist to bruise and physically harm a child in the name of correction. In
Pakistani context in general and the Muslims' context in particular, a teacher is
considered as a spiritual father/ mother and if a child persistently makes wrongs and
mischiefs, the parents do slap and smack them. Similar is the case with corpora;
punishment in schools. The corporal punishment, as told by majority of the students,
does make him/her realize his/her mistakes or wrong doings.
On the other hand, it also has the potential to create hate in some students
against the teacher awarding corporal punishment. If punishment is awarded for
being weak in studies, doesn't make student work harder or overcome their
weakness. It does not have the necessary motivating force behind it. Students rarely
get agitated after receiving punishment from teachers. This needs a case-work
approach and individualization.
Moreover, evidences have been found through research that corporal
punishment plays a major role to hinder the learning capacity of students and slow
down the zeal of creativity. Severe punishment cause students stressed belligerent
and outrageous. Such an aggressive approach from teachers and re-aggression from
student's causes uneasiness and hooliganism rather than to correct their behavior
and conduct in classes. It was highlighted that the trend of punishment tends to
create abomination and the sense of hatred among the students. Further, those who
are frequently subject to corporal punishment develops an anti-social character
having rival thoughts towards society. Continuing with the anti-social attitude, it
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
109

hampers the adjustment of students in society where they imitate the submissive
methods for self- satisfaction and pervades long term adverse impacts on
personality of the individual.
In-short, the overall research findings come to a common conclusion that
corporal punishment is both positive and negative at the same time. But the positive
aspects are more than the negative at the same time.

End Notes
1
For example, CRC and other such international instruments against any form of
child abuse and violence against children
2
CNN. (November 9, 2011). Corporal punishment policies around the world. In The
CNN Freedom Project. Retrieved, December 13, 2013 from
http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/11/08/country.comparisons.co
rporal.punishment/
3
For details see also Global Report 2013. (2014). Global Initiative to End All
Corporal Punishment of Children. Retrieved Feb 28, 2014 from
http://www.endcorporalpunishment.org/pages/frame.html
4
Doggart, S. (May 26, 2011). Schools in Sweden can't be beaten: corporal
punishment around the world. in The Telegraph. Also available online at
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/expateducation/8530207/Schools-in-
Sweden-cant-be-beaten-corporal-punishment-around-the-world.html
5
Ibid.
6
Joint HRW/ACLU Statement. (April 15, 2010).“Corporal Punishment in Schools
and Its Effect on Academic Success.”In Human Rights Watch. Retrieved
March 2, 2014 from
http://www.hrw.org/news/2010/04/14/corporal-punishment-schools-and-its-
effect-academic-success-joint-hrwaclu-statement#_ftnref6
7
Hickmon, Michael. (2008). Study: Paddling vs. ACT Scores and Civil Immunity
Legislation. Retrieved March 2, 2014 from
http://www.stophitting.com/index.php?page=paddlingvsact
8
Sanderson (2003).Alternative to Corporal Punishment. Retrieved March 2, 2014
from www.sen.beck.org/Punishment-Alternatives.html
9
Doggart, Op.Cit.
10
Shaukat, Aroosa. (June 27, 2013). Corporal punishment: Most kids need to be
beaten, teachers and parents believe. In The Express Tribune. Retrieved March
2, 2014 from http://tribune.com.pk/story/568929/corporal-punishment-most-
kids-need-to-be-beaten-teachers-and-parents-believe/
Mudasir Khan, Amir Zada Asad, Shakeel Ahmed & Imran Ahmed Sajid
110

11
IRIN. (May 18, 2009). PAKISTAN: Corporal punishment: key reason for school
dropouts. Retrieved March 2, 2014 from
http://www.irinnews.org/report/78275/pakistan-corporal-punishment-key-
reason-for-school-dropouts
12
Committee on the Rights of the Child. (Friday, 28 September 2001) – OHCHR
Violence Against Children within the Family and in Schools. Retrieved March
2, 2014 from http://www.crin.org/docs/resources/treaties/crc.28/NCCR-
2.pdf
13
Bauman, L.J., Friedman, B. (1998). Corporal Punishment: Pediatric ClinNoAm
1998;45:403-14.
References
Bauman, L.J., Friedman, B. (1998). Corporal Punishment, in Pediatric ClinNoAm
1998;45:403-14.
Beck, S. (2003).Alternative to Corporal Punishment. In Sanderson Beck. Retrieved
March 2, 2014 from http://www.san.beck.org/Punishment-Alternatives.html
CNN. (November 9, 2011). Corporal punishment policies around the world.In The
CNN Freedom Project. Retrieved, December 13, 2013 from
http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/11/08/country.comparisons.co
rporal.punishment/
Committee on the Rights of the Child. (Friday, 28 September 2001). OHCHR
Violence Against Children within the Family and in Schools. Retrieved March
2, 2014 from http://www.crin.org/docs/resources/treaties/crc.28/NCCR-
2.pdf
Doggart, S. (May 26, 2011). Schools in Sweden can't be beaten: corporal
punishment around the world. in The Telegraph. Also available online at
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/expateducation/8530207/Schools-in-
Sweden-cant-be-beaten-corporal-punishment-around-the-world.html
Global Report 2013. (2014). Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of
Children. Retrieved Feb 28, 2014 from
http://www.endcorporalpunishment.org/pages/frame.html
Hickmon, Michael. (2008). Study: Paddling vs. ACT Scores and Civil Immunity
Legislation. Retrieved March 2, 2014 from
http://www.stophitting.com/index.php?page=paddlingvsact
IRIN. (May 18, 2009). PAKISTAN: Corporal punishment: key reason for school
dropouts. Retrieved March 2, 2014 from
http://www.irinnews.org/report/78275/pakistan-corporal-punishment-key-
reason-for-school-dropouts
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
111

Joint HRW/ACLU Statement. (April 15, 2010).“Corporal Punishment in Schools


and Its Effect on Academic Success.”In Human Rights Watch. Retrieved
March 2, 2014 from http://www.hrw.org/news/2010/04/14/corporal-
punishment-schools-and-its-effect-academic-success-joint-hrwaclu-
statement#_ftnref6
Shaukat, Aroosa. (June 27, 2013). Corporal punishment: Most kids need to be
beaten, teachers and parents believe. In The Express Tribune. Retrieved March
2, 2014 from http://tribune.com.pk/story/568929/corporal-punishment-most-
kids-need-to-be-beaten-teachers-and-parents-believe/
United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.

The author Mr. Mudasir Shah is a Research Scholar of Social Work at the University of Peshawar-
Pakistan.
The author Prof: Dr. Amir Zada Asad is Professor of Social Work at University of Peshawar. He can
be reached at email : amir_zada_asad@yahoo.co.uk
The author Mr. Imran Ahmed Sajid is a Research Scholar of Social Work at University of Peshawar-
Pakistan. He can be reached at email : imranahmad131@gmail.com
The author Mr. Shakeel Ahmed is an Assistant Professor of Social Work at the University of
Peshawar - Pakistan. He can be reached at shakeel@upesh.edu.pk, or
shakeel.socialwork@gmail.com
Pakistan Journal of Criminology Volume 6, No.1, Jan-Jun 2014, pp.113 - 132
113

A Critical Discourse of Child Victimization and


Abuses through Labor in Pakistan
Dr. Arab Naz, Dr. Hazirullah, Qaisar Khan,
Waseem Khan & Umar Daraz

Abstract
Critical discourse analysis of child victimization focuses on various social determinants that
pertain to social, cultural and societal aspects of child labor promotion. Research studies
have been analyzed to dig out aspects and facets of victimization in Pakistan. The qualitative
examination of these studies bring to the fore that child labor in Pakistan is the outcome of
traditional practices including family disorganization, familial conflicts, large population
and the traditional economy associated with agriculture. The analyses further reveal that
victimization seriously affects children, their families and has long lasting consequences for
overall progressive societal growth. The children working in dangerous conditions face
long-term physical, intellectual and emotional stress, which is detrimental towards
adulthood unemployment and illiteracy in young circles.
Keywords
Victimization, Social, Cultural, Capital, Demand, Supply, Joint Family, Familial Conflict.
Introduction
Based on variation in contexts, multiple discourses have their own approaches
towards defining child labor and victimization (Mazhar, 2008, Khan, 2014). There
are marked differences in the use of the term child labor due to differences in level of
intelligence, prevailing social, cultural and religious circumstances, cultural
relativism, prevailing laws and institutional differences, which generally accounts
for such apparent gradation and understanding of the concept (Okpukpara &
Odurukwe, 2003). Child labor, according to the reports published by International
Labor Organization (ILO), is the type of work which deprive children of their
childhood, their potential and their dignity; and is harmful to their physical and
mental development. The ILO reports (2005 & 2006) conclude that child labor is the
work that is mentally, physically, socially, or morally hazardous to children and/or
interferes with their schooling by depriving them of the opportunity to attend school,
obliging them to leave school prematurely, or requiring them to combine school
attendance with an excessively long and heavy workload. Likewise, the
International Program for the Elimination of Child Labor (1999 as cited in ILO,
2005) assert that work or situations where children are compelled to work on regular
basis to earn a living for themselves and their families and as a result are
disadvantaged educationally and socially; where children work in conditions that
are exploitative and damaging to their health and to their physical and mental
Dr. Arab Naz, Dr. Hazirullah, Qaisar Khan, Waseem Khan & Umar Daraz
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development; where children are separated from their families, often deprived of
educational training opportunities; are forced to lead prematurely adult lives.
Besides, as a factor, child labor deprives children of their childhood needs,
circumscribes their dignity by endangering their overall social, cultural, economic
and religious capabilities (Mazhar, 2008).
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) notes that
child labor is hazardous for child health, personality development and education. It
is harmful and is a key factor that retards growth that amounts to victimization
(CRC, 1989, Art. 32). Philanthropists debate the nature and extent of work that can
be conveniently categorized as child labor (Mazhar, 2008). This also makes the
situation more complex and poses the question of relativism in consideration (Khan,
2014). The ILO Convention if taken as a standard in the current debate, focus the
nature of work and individual characteristics of a child, however (Mazhar, 2008).
Child labor would then include children below the age of 12 who are economically
active; engaged in more than what is called lighter work; and all children enslaved,
forcibly recruited, prostituted, and trafficked to engage in hazardous work (ILO
138, 1973; 182, 1999). Victimization, according to UNESCO (2008), involves
recruiting or forcing children below 18 in work for economic (cash/kind) reward on
regular basis.
The debate at global level indentify child labor as a cultural and situational
need (Basu, 1999). Okafor (2010) opines that in poorer countries where agriculture
is the main source of production, children engage in farm activities which allow
them to learn about farms, markets, paid-jobs and later on enable them to integrate
into the mainstream society. He is of the view that that such kind of learning is the
compulsory aspect of life to face the economic challenges in future (Khan, 2014).
Therefore, Mazhar (2008) in his analysis of child labor concludes that all forms of
child labor need not be included in child labor as some of them are useful and can be
categorized as part of informal education and training. Similarly, Ray (2000) is of
the view that children found supporting their parents in household chores, in family
enterprise or in agriculture may be helpful in nurturing capabilities and learning
potentialities in children, which are considered socially valuable qualities.
Thus highlighting the subtle difference between the various manifestations of
child labor we come to victimization in the context of child labor which is not a new
phenomenon (Mazhar, 2008; UNSECO, 2008; Khan, 2014). It has existed in varied
forms tied up to cultural practices and traditions (Basu, 1999; Khan, 2014).
Research studies reveal that perhaps the oldest form of victimization of child existed
in the form of domestic labor but in recent history such victimization has been noted
during industrial revolution. In 1860s, 50% of children in England between the age
of 5 and 15 had been forced to work and it was only in 1919 that the issue was
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systematically addressed (ILO, 1999). Despite numerous agreements and


international endeavors to curb victimization in the 20th century, child labor has been
on the rise and is worsening particularly in the third world. Research indicates
(Basu, 2008; Unesco, 2008; Mazhar, 2008; & Khan, 2014) that the highest number
of child laborers exist in Asia-Pacific region. The recent realization of the gravity of
the issue in the 1990s is mainly linked to social workers and researchers who link the
issue with two main factors i.e. the rising interest in the field of human (child) rights
and fair labor standards in the global economy (Fyfe, 2004; ILO, 2006). After
1990s, there has been a dramatic change in the form of awareness and struggle to
properly address the issue of child labor and serious attention has been paid by
governments, civil society, media and international community (Mazhar, 2008;
ILO, 2006).
Analysis of recently published reports on the intricacies of child labor indicate
serious concerns with about 317 million children engaged in labor across the globe
to find means of survival for themselves or their families (ILO, 2006). According to
a study of Fyfe (2004), the largest numbers of children in the world who are out of
school are concentrated in Indian subcontinent including India, Pakistan and
Bangladesh, which accounts for almost half of all child laborers world-wide. The
International Labor Organization (2008) estimates of Child Labor Survey of
Pakistan is 3.3 million in 1996 (8.3 percent of the total children) out of 40 million
children (in the 5-14 years of age-group) and are economically dependent on their
work (active on full time basis in various occupations) in both formal and informal
sectors. Similarly, a considerable proportion of working children in 5-14 years age-
group (46 per cent) are engaged in work where their working hours are more than the
normal hours i.e. 35 hours per week while 13 percent of the working children work
for more than 56 hours or more per week.
Child labor victimization studies indicate that the problem exists both in covert
and overt forms (Khan, 2014; Naz & Khan, 2014 & Borges, 2014). In countries like
Pakistan, Brazil, China, India etc, child labor ranges from making a football to
charcoal, fireworks, footwear and diamond work in Coted'Ivoire etc while in sub
Saharan Africa according to Psacharopoulosv& Woodhall (1997) hawking/street
trading evidently, seems to be the most popular form of child labor. Estimates
indicate that 20 percent of children between the age of 10 and 14 are involved in
child labor and street trading (Mazhar, 2008). As such, children have come to make-
up about 17 per cent of Africa's Labor Force. Further, children hawkers involve a
wide range of labor in Nigeria and South-East zone where they sell a wide range of
cheap articles, edibles and products such as sachet water, plantain chips, bread,
biscuits, okpa, ugba, fruits, vegetables, wears, newspapers especially at damaged
portions of the roads where motorists and other road-users are constrained to slow
Dr. Arab Naz, Dr. Hazirullah, Qaisar Khan, Waseem Khan & Umar Daraz
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down (Nnaemeka, 2011; UNESCO, 2008). Besides, bondage labor is also a major
practice which refers to situations where services are offered in exchange for a loan
(Genicot, 2000) and this practice occurs for a child for a mentioned time period. It is
estimated that millions of children are tied up to such labor worldwide (Human
Rights Watch Asia, 1996). Such children are expected to work as 'house help'
(domestic servant), taking care of the house and making sure that the needs of the
entire family are met (Mazhar, 2008). They are expected to get up very early in the
morning to fetch water from a nearby well, to prepare and serve breakfast and
perform all household jobs till late in the evening (Okafor, 2010). Child labor and
victimization are thus linked with socio-cultural, economic and other such
determinants. The present study intends to analyze these determinants in the light of
the research studies and to link it to environment that trigger victimization in the
third world particularly Pakistan.
Argument and Discourse Analysis of Various Factors
(A Generalist Approach):
The analysis of various discourses on child victimization through labor asserts
that it is one of the major concerns for most of the world nations today (Mazhar,
2008, ILO, 2006). Being a multifaceted and multidimensional phenomenon, the
issue has got the attention of organizations and the need of eradication has been
globally recognized (ILO, 2008). However, the issue itself is rooted deeply in
societies where people live below poverty line and people are more vulnerable to
child labor and many other forms of work related to children and women (Khan,
2014). Children are more exposed to face the challenges of earning when they try to
contribute to household's economy. Such children are at higher risk to get engaged in
occupation, work or labor which is more hazardous with regard to their social,
cultural and educational growth (Mazhar, 2008).
In most of the societies, child victimization and labor is not formally approved
and legalized form of work; however such work is mostly concentrated in the
informal sector of the economy. Due to its hidden nature and informal structure, it
remains unnoticed and there is no such accurate statistics available to calculate its
impact and economic contribution (Nnaemeka, 2011). Studies on the effects of child
labor or victimization on children indicate that children who are thrown to child
labor in an early age destroy not only their learning potentials and capabilities but
also lower down their earning life span and capacities (Khan, 2014). Similarly,
Psacharopoulos' (1996) study asserts that working children lose their educational
attainment abilities as compared to the non-working children of similar age group,
reduce their educational attainment and increase victimization. The grade repetition
which is the outcome of excessive child labor is mostly found in children engaged in
child labor and such loss is said to be not only a personal loss but also leads to the
future loss of national human capital.
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Similar and most relevant debate on the impact of child labor as given by
Bhargava (2002) indicates that child labor at a crucial formative age and burdened
with hard labor deprive children of nutritious food, playtime and education. In this
regard, Psacharopoulos and Woodhall (1996) have pointed out towards its
detrimental effect on the accumulation of human capital and of course on the
subsequent private and social returns. Increase in child labor negatively affects labor
market as such laborers saturate the market forces and thus the demand for skilled
labor force decreases particularly in poorer economies (Mazhar, 2008). The low
wages paid to children is an advantage to the capitalist owners also.
Eradication of child labor is seen by many as a way forward to better education
prospects, increased prosperity and upward social mobility for the victimized. This
thinking is also at work in the design of Millennium Development Goals (MDG).
The same is reflected by UNESCO (2008) which admits eradication of child labor
as indispensable for ensuring primary education for all. The same theme is also
commonly found in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989 (CRC), The
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Articles 25 & 26), the UN (CRC) 1989,
the ILO Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention (C182:1999) and Decent Work
Agenda of ILO. Such internationally approved principles recommend doing away
with child labor for better education in terms of prosperity and emphasize access to
basic education (ILO Convention 182, 138). To Heady (2003), education is a key to
improve quality of human life in developing countries and is significant to reduce
poverty by increasing employability.
The main reasons of child labor and victimization include poverty, illiteracy,
unemployment, cultural reasons, large family size, loss of parents in early age,
divorce and broken marriages (Mazhar, 2008; Khan, 2014). Further, the ineffective
role of law enforcing agencies, faulty policies and their implementation, lack of
proper social security and social safety, and the desire to avail maximum economic
benefits encourages child labor (Basu, 1999). As a mother of all social evils, i.e.
poverty which gives rise to many social problems is a major contributing factor in
motivating people at all levels for hazardous options like child labor. Oloko, (2004)
is of the view that poverty is characterized by vulnerability and exposure to risks,
low life expectancy and purchasing power, insufficient access to social and
economic services. The National Human Development Report (NHDR 2008-9)
indicates that poverty is a state of long term deprivation of essential material and
non-material attributes of wellbeing which are considered necessary for a decent
living.
The situation of child labor in Pakistan with accordance to national laws
confirm that no child below 14 years of age should be sent for labor to any factory,
mine or places considered to be unsafe for children health, education, physical and
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118

mental growth. However, there has been huge lacuna found in theory and in practice
because the existing child labor situation in the country does not correspond with the
constitutional provisions (Constitution of Pakistan, 1973 Articles 11,17,18,25 and
37e). The constitution is loud and clear in prohibiting exploitation of any kind
against children and their employment below the age of 14 years. Besides,
parliamentary acts also voice the grand agenda of eliminating child labor. These acts
and legislative provisions include Factories Act 1934, The Mines Act 1923, The
Shops and Establishment Ordinance 1969, The Bonded Labor System (Abolition)
Act 1992, and The Employment of Children Act 1991. But the problem lies with
implementation and the country is plagued by the ineffective laws that have resulted
in a rapid increase in the forms and types of child labor from time to time (SPARK,
2012).
The discussion so far made in the above paragraphs declare that the issue of
child labor and child victimization is one of the worst form of exploitations of
human beings particularly of children which spoils human capital and has
complicated consequences for future generation in terms of multiple abuses that
causes their victimization (Khan, 2014). According to Jafarey (2002), child labor is
an undesirable social evil and its elimination itself is a worthy and pious goal to be
achieved while the literary debate and various discourses associate the phenomena
of child labor to various and multiple factors. The current discourse has been framed
to analyze and establish a link between secondary information with regard to the
social and cultural dimensions and factors promoting child labor in most of the
regions. The children's victimization is continually moving throughout the globe
along the proliferation of numerous physical and psychological abuses.
Discourse Analysis of the Various Socio-Cultural Factors behind Child
Victimization through Labor
In the following section, various social, cultural and traditional practices as
factors have thoroughly and critically been examined with a view to establish their
link with child labor and victimization. Prominent among them include poverty,
social norms and values, household structure.
Poverty, Child Labor and Victimization
Deprivation leads to exclusion that restricts sections of society to farewell in
the mainstream. One way of explaining such exclusion can be summed up in the
term poverty. According to Khan (2014) and Sen (1999), poverty is a condition that
deprives people of living the life they value and have reasons to value it. The World
Bank (2001) reflects that poor are suffering from vulnerability in terms of mal-
treatment and powerlessness in decisional process. Statistical research data
indicates a strong link between poverty and the incidence of child labor where
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increase in one corresponds with increase in the other. Many researchers agree that
children from well-off families remain away from child labor (Edmonds, 2007). It
can be said that fair level of family income and support of children decreases child
labor in majority of cases. On the contrary, absence of income and support lead to
human capital under-utilization thereby increasing poverty amongst the citizenry,
social alienation and weak purchasing power among others (HDR, 2010).
Economic development of nations and with the rapid growth of
industrialization, there has been a decrease in the ratio of child labor in many
countries i.e. the case of China, where a tremendous decrease has been found in the
rate of child labor (Nnaemeka, 2011). However, food and economic crises aggravate
child labor and cause victimization (NHDR, 2008). Such crises not only have
serious implications for the families but also have consequences for child's poverty
as well. In recent year, the poverty of the child (deprivations of young people below
the age of 18) is a serious challenge towards development and for the development
of any nation; child poverty eradication is a major concern (ILO, 2006). Such kind
of poverty of the child deprives them from their health, physical and mental well-
being and even psychological and emotional development as well (Mazhar, 2008).
The non accessibility of children to resources which help in upbringing of the child
in terms of health, education, etc and to live a good and safe life are the determinants
in this regard (NHDR 2008-2009). Similarly, child poverty can also be linked with
parent's economic position and family income generation resources as well. The
issue of land distribution, deprivation of family from ancestral assets, agricultural
productivity is commonly approved norms in many of the communities that make
the parents and children as victims of the poverty as well as child labor. The
economic instability of the family and poverty of the children also give rise to many
of the social issue i.e. crimes, street wondering, increased unemployment, poor
living conditions, high infant mortality rate, low life expectancy, low school
attendance, high drop-out rates and most importantly, child Labor (ILO, 2006,
Khan, 2014, SPARK, 2012).
The socio-cultural poverty and the normative social structure are regarded
crucial determinants that direct and increase child labor (Siddiqi, F. & Harry A.
Patrinos, A.H. 1995 & Brown, D.K. 2001, Anker, R. 2000). Poverty can be
measured through income per capita (GNI) and gross domestic product per capita
(GDP) and thus child labor is associated with such factors (Alectus et al., 2004).
Studies and researches have indicated that children of economically strong family
background are less attracted towards child labor as compare to poor families (Basu,
K. 1999) while the extreme poverty ratio will also contribute in low-quality
education, cultural and social acceptance of child labor, and economies reliant on
low-productivity (Fares, J. and Dhushyanth R. (2007) while low income level of
parents is leading factor in sending children towards labor market (Grootaert, C.&
Ravi K. 1995, & Kambhampati, U.S., & Raji R. 2006).
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120

The analysis of child labor is compulsory with respect to the traditions and
cultural norms because the social and cultural environment is playing a dominant
role in increase or decrease of child labor. In many developing countries, it is a
popular notion and socially accepted norm that child labor do not contribute
negatively in the development of a child. While it has been observed from secondary
sources that working of children in the labor market have valuable contributions
towards child growth and professional grooming, making them a responsible citizen
(Bachman, S. L., 2000,). Similarly, Anker, (2000) expresses that many changes have
been there in the form and structure of child labor due to technological
advancements and globalization and still in most of the social and cultural aspects
where child work is not treated as hazardous to the child's development.
Besides, such work can be in the child's interest while such labor is the main
source to contribute in family's income, making children decision-makers at home
and the external social world (Bachman, L. 2000 and Anker, 2000). In many
societies, it is a social value that all members shall contribute towards family
economy and the role and division of labor favor both children and adults to perform
certain tasks (Cristina, 1994 and Naz, 2011). In many of the traditional social
structures, children are traditionally treated and are put to labor according to the
given environment i.e. in agriculture work, poultry, animal husbandry etc (UNICIF,
2012). Besides, in traditional manner, a male child is best for work outside the house
while a female child shall perform role within the domestic domain (Khan, 2012). In
a study conducted in Guatemala, the act of child labor is mainly rooted in the
traditional values (Najeeb, M. S. Harry A. Patrinos., 2008) and culturally, it is
believed that child labor is considered as a form of education through which children
are instructed in the work and responsibilities of an adult (Ramírez, Pablo W.,
Miriam de Celada, Erwin Díaz, and Ada Cáceres, 2000).
Similarly, in many countries, it is a social value and normatively accepted
behavior to send a child for plantation of farms, agriculture fields, sowing and
reaping in the field or care for herd (Quiroz, L., 2008a, b). Besides, for parents in
many societies, sharing working beliefs with children is a cultural duty to keep the
children busy and to make them responsible adults (Delap, 2001). Further, in the
context of traditions, fear of idleness is another reason why parents are inclined to
send their children to work (Quiroz, L., 2008b and Delap, 2001). Thus, the social
and cultural norms, traditional social structure with large population, are few of the
reasons that allow parents to send their children in the labor market.
Traditional Household Structure and Child Victimization through
Labor:
Among the many determinants of child labor in most of the countries; large
household size also has association with increasing child labor. Large households'
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size which was an important impetus in family productivity, especially in


agricultural economy (which needs lot of labor force) has been on decline due to
modernity and form mechanization and small holdings of lands. The many children
which were hands of the family some year ago are now becoming a liability in
developing countries that is ultimately a leading factor in promoting child labor. In
this context, Ayara, N. N. (2002), is of the opinion that parents and extended family
members tend to persuade their sons whose wives have either few or only female
children or none, to marry more or have children from outside thus an increase in the
birth of children finally becomes an easy source of child labor and child work (Basu,
K., 1999). Similarly, the large households have thus a common feature for
persuading and forcing their children towards engaging in worst form of child
Labor.
Recent debate over the traditional household structure and child labor included
the work of Mazhar, (2008), Khan, (2014) where they have elaborated that large
household size and traditional social structure are leading factors in child labor in
Third World. The study of Grootaert and Kanbur (1995) has emphasized that there is
an association between household's structure and struggle for survival among
human beings in various communities. Similarly, household size, relations with
parents and economic output of the family has a role in increase or decrease of child
labor i.e. Basu and Van (1998), Basu (1999), Basu et al. (2000) reflect that the
incidences of child labor have been found in association with household size,
income and parental relationship whereas more child labor cases have been
observed in large and poor families. Similarly, the household size, structure of
family and relations with parents provide either increase (in case of worst relations)
or decrease (good relations) in ratio of child labor. The study of Boyden (1991) on
such relationship shows that the economic viability of the households depends on
placing as many members as possible in the labor market. Besides, as for as the level
of poverty is concerned Ghayur (1997) is of the opinion that the existence of poverty
at the household level is a major factor that pushes a child to work where there is a
strong possibility of no recognition of the work performed by a child as well. In the
context of Pakistan and Peru, the involvement of children in child labor is more as
compared to other countries and their contribution to the household's total income is
considerably higher as compare to rest of the nations (Ray, 1999).
In a similar context a study conducted by Baland and Robinson (2000) in
which they have developed their own separate model about inequality between
families concludes that families having rich economic background do not send their
children to work and mostly they provide education to their young children.
Literature on the issue of association of household and child labor indicates that the
household survival becomes an overwhelming concern when adult male members
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122

of the household become unemployed due to unfavorable labor market conditions,


then households are faced with the prospect of sending their children to work (Basu
et al. 2000). Binder and Scrogin (1999) in their study conclude that child's wages,
parents earning capacity, household expenditure and composition of family play an
important role in the labor force participation of children. In this regard, the
discussion verifies the facts regarding the indicators related to the structural and
functional aspects of households that determine the aspects and ratio of child labor
in various communities.
With respect to child labor debate in Pakistan, traditional social structure is
dominant and the traditional joint family system is in vogue in many parts of the
country which is considered as greatest source of social insurance, which provides
security not only to old and aged but to women as well as children (Naz, A. 2011, and
Naz, et al. 2012). Similarly, this system is preferred for provision of unity, strength
and integration of family members bearing common expenses not only for food but
for other related household items as well. The research study of Khan (2014) asserts
that the existence of joint family is one of the major contributing factors towards
child work and child labor because economic support to family is difficult to meet
from one person living in extreme poverty. Besides, Naz, et al (2014) reflects that
traditional system of dwelling provide more earning hands in family provide more
support to family and can strengthen the economy in future. Again, the secondary
information also support the existence of joint family and it is noted that the
dependence on agriculture economy also necessitates system, as farming requires
services of many, so this system is best suited for division of labor in the research
community (Khan, 2012 and Naz, 2011). The debate over such factors that the
traditional social structure, large household size, agricultural and traditional
economy, backwardness of the living area give a logical support to people because
accommodation to many siblings and even the elders while no such chance for a
person to live and support oneself in isolation (Naz, 2011).
Analysis of Family Disorganization and Child Victimization through
Labor:
Studies confirm that family is a permanent and basic social institution that
providing care and sustainable socialization to the young generation (Macionis,
1993). Similarly, family organization plays an important role in upbringing and
socialization of the young one and trained them towards future career building as
well as profession (Corson, D. 1992). Family institution is made on the relationship
between husband, wife and their children, while this relation is in a coordinated way
provides stability to the next generation and children. However, when there is no
such coordination among the family members, the result is broken families and even
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divorce (Naz, 2011). The same situation is also the result of family breakdown or
marriage or death of one or both parents in many communities resulting to make
children responsible for family income and finally contributing towards child labor
(Khan, 2011).
Besides many of the factors, family disorganization in the form of familial
conflicts and husband wife divorce dominantly pushes children and young family
members towards severe form of victimization through child work and child labor.
Tharenou, P., Saks, M. and Moore, C. (2007) in their study links the issue of family
organization and parental role as an indicator that can better control children from
severe child labor while lack of family organization and disputes among parents are
maximizing the chances of child labor in third world countries.
Family disorganization is also related with the ratio of divorces occur in society.
As human being is a productive resources and the utilization of such resources can
contribute in more capital in terms of economic development as well as production
of other resources (Mazhar, 2008). Similarly, as for as the issue of child labor as a
human capital is concerned, the ILO (2006) estimation shows that around 218
million children (aged 5 to 17) were economically engaged in child labor while in
such estimation the children of the broken families are the major concern. In this
context, age 5 to 14 children were 191 million while 166 million and 126 million
among them are the worst laborer. The demand and supply to the issue is based on
the determinants mostly associated with the social, cultural, economic and political
nature. Economist's considered children as part of capital or wealth of nations
(Goode 1959:147; Kiker 1966:485). To them, human capital includes skill,
knowledge, and many other capabilities contributing to production of any society.
Besides, increase in human capital depends upon family organization and decrease
in conflicts and ratio of divorces as well (Baland and Robinson, 2000). Similarly,
Canagarajah and Nielsen (2001) augment that child labor is mostly associated with
the risks of family disorganizations and particularly with increase in the ratio of
conflicts and divorce. Further, Amin, S, Shakil, M, and Rives, M, Janet (2004)
relates the financial crises of many households with family disorganization, low
level of productivity and non availability of suitable environment to young ones. In
this context, such issues then become the core reasons to make children workable
potential earning members of the families (Grimsrud, 2003). Thus a cost and benefit
is the issue which is prior in consideration for many of the poor parents and many
times the victim of this analysis are children (Jafarey, 2002).
Similarly, with broken families and marriage breakdown or death of one or
both parents in many communities, the children are thus made responsible for
family income and finally contributing towards child labor. Children become the
victims mostly due to the non-availability of social security and safety measures
Dr. Arab Naz, Dr. Hazirullah, Qaisar Khan, Waseem Khan & Umar Daraz
124

from any of the party i.e. the parents and other family members as well as
community in which they are residing. Similarly, in such a situation the children
grow up without such support and care and sometimes may be unfortunate to
become victims to accident or sickness like HIV/AIDS. Similarly, the lack of social
security, support and safety towards children in their familial and social set-up
amount to child labor in most of the developed countries. In relations to many other
factors, the recent inflationary trends and prices hike and pressure over families to
supports the young one have badly affected the poor families (Naz, et al, 2012),
where it has been the major contributing factor in throwing children in child labor in
mechanical workshops. Besides, there has been the prevalence of lack of
enforcement of laws and implementation of policies particularly legislation failure
towards the eradication of child labor, promoting child education and to bring
children into the mainstream in accordance with the life standards available to other
children.
Aspects and determinants of child labor have been identified by Awan, M. S.,
Waqas, M. & Aslam, M. A. (2011), who believe that child labor as an issue and
monster that not only hampers the growth of human resources but reduces child's
educational attainment and personality development. Children are forced to work in
the market due to familial dependency and survival creating many problems to both
children and even parents. In this context Mahmood, S., Maann, A. A., Tabasam, N.
& Niazi, S. K. (2005) are of the opinion that children's entrance to the labor force in
an early age is due to various socio-economic and socio-demographic “push and
pull factors” including poverty, family size, schooling system and illiteracy of
parents. The results in all of the cases are deprivation of children from education,
health, psychological development, and human rights in general form.
Another aspect as analyzed from the study is children's disobedience that
promptly is produced among many of the children due to family disorganization and
even conflicts among parents. Such effects are very much prominent in damaging a
very large number of human capitals and are caged towards child labor (Silvers, J.
1996). Similarly, in developing countries, the population increase, poverty of the
masses, family disorganization, divorces, family conflicts and disobedience among
children are observed as factors producing child abuses and child labor (Baland and
Robinson, 2000). Furthermore, such issues then affect the socialization process and
even education level of the children making them dependent upon uneven labor
force as well as child work (Rosenzweig, M. 1982; Lavy, 1996; Nielsen, 1998 and
Grootaert, 1998).
Conclusion and Recommendations
The detailed analysis of various factors contributing to child labor and the
subsequent victimization reveal that it is a complex of socio-cultural and economic
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125

determinants that provide breeding ground for this social evil. In order to properly
address the issue, many societal arrangements like traditionalism, normative social
structure, agricultural economy, joint family system, household size, illiteracy,
poverty and familial disorganization need attention before really overcoming the
problem and securing the future of a child. Poverty is seen as a major obstacle that
paves the way for child labor as it severely restrict chances of education, creates
hurdles in family daily expenses, health facilitation, and access to recreation and
proper support in other aspects of life. It is also viewed as a contributing factor in
child victimization in any work environment by considerably reducing chances of
finding means of survival.
The household structure is also noted for its contribution in promoting child
labor. People residing in predominantly joint families are observed to be suffering
from low income and more consumption that force them to expose their children to
earn and feed them. Further, this structure is also observed to be more prone to
conflicts and feuds that also reduce chances of economic prosperity. Ripe with land
disputes and ownership of means of production, joint families have the potential to
encourage child labor. Family disorganization in shape divorce, elopements, broken
marriages expose children to work in a very young age and the rest of the job is done
by the stone-hearted capitalist who is bent upon exploiting and victimizing them to
increase his/her share in the market. Victimization is further aggravated by the law
and order situation where less attention is paid to ensure law enforcement to secure
the rights of laborers. Lack of education also contributes in maximizing the chances
of exploitation and victimization as those victimized really don't know that their
rights are jeopardized.
To do away with child victimization through child labor, it is necessary to
implement the laws in letter and spirit. It is the responsibility of the state to devise an
effective mechanism to check the trespassers. Education for all must be made really
working and the law enforcing agencies need to have a record of all children at local
level. The state must establish a special force to check the excesses of capitalist
owners. It is also desirable to engage social activists at local level to help the
government in devising strategies for introducing gradual reforms in the traditional
social structure for a more progressive future.
Dr. Arab Naz, Dr. Hazirullah, Qaisar Khan, Waseem Khan & Umar Daraz
126

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Dr. Arab Naz, Dr. Hazirullah, Qaisar Khan, Waseem Khan & Umar Daraz
132

The author Dr. Arab Naz is Associate Professor and Chairman Department of Sociology University
of Malakand, Pakistan. He can be reached at email: hod.sociology@uom.edu.pk (Corresponding
Author).
The author Dr. Hazirullah is Lecturer at Department of Sociology, IIU Islamabad.
The author Mr. Qaisar Khan is Assistant Professor at Department of English, University of
Malakand, Pakistan.
The author Waseem Khan is PhD Scholar / Lecturer in Sociology at University of Malakand,
Pakistan.
The author Mr. Umar Daraz is PhD Scholar / Lecturer in Sociology, at University of Malakand,
Pakistan.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology Volume 6, No.1, Jan-Jun 2014, pp.133 - 141
133

The Role of Internet use in the Adoption of Deviant


Behavior among University Students

Sardar Ahmad, Asad Ullah, Bushra Shafi & Mussawar Shah

Abstract
This is the age of criminological theory. Every criminological theory tries to find the cause of
crime and deviant behavior among the masses and finds ways to mitigate those crimes. The
present study was conducted to analyze the role of internet use (as an independent variable)
in causing deviance among university students (as dependent variable). A sample of 360
respondents was proportionately allocated and randomly selected from two universities
situated in Peshawar, in July 2012. Chi square test was used to examine the association of
independent and dependent variables. The result showed a highly significant association
between deviant behavior among university students and immorally chatting with friends
(p=0.000), immoral online activities (p=0.000), parents objection on using internet
(p=0.000) and place of internet access (p=0.000). Enhanced stress on moral well-being of
students in family, community and university, keeping proper check on students' online
activities and regular interaction and association among students, teachers and their parents
on the intellectual, academic and moral issues were the major study recommendations.
Keywords
Internet Use, Social Networking System, Deviance, Deviant Behavior, University Students.

Introduction
Every society has some standard of right and wrong for the guidance of their
members called norms(Horton and Hunt 1984). Violation of these norms is known
as “deviance”,which ranges from a harmless life style against the common culture
(style of dress, hair) to odd behavior(sexual preferences, beliefs against the common
theology, ways of eating and behavior in the presence of the elders) and criminal
acts(killing, kidnapping and hurting etc.). All forms of deviant behavior makes
individual unpopular in a society. Every society has its own formal and informal
mechanism in the form of social sanction and law to bring the deviant people toward
conformity. Deviance is common to all societies with variations in the degree of
observance of norms according to the situation irrespective of dominant religious
beliefs or strength of law. An individual who considered as a person with deviant
behavior will not be considered or punished as criminal in the society. By obtaining
the status as deviant the person will be placed slightly away from the normal line of
action. (Macionis, 2002)
Sardar Ahmad, Asad Ullah, Bushra Shafi & Mussawar Shah
134

Biological theories consider that deviant behavior is instinctive and people


having special genetic makeup are most likely to be involved in act of deviance.
Further, the traits of deviance are transmitted from generation to generation.
Psychological and socialization theory explains that it is due to the psyche,
environment and the process of socialization which guides individual towards a
specific behavior. If we judge the causes of deviance in the light of socialization
theory we will see that today's electronic media, especially the internet acts as a
change agent towards the positive or negative socialization of our children.
However, the negative effects of technology use are more prominent due to its
unlimited negative use (Haralambos and Holborn, 2000).
Materials and Methods
Despite its manifest importance, the role of internet use in the adoption of
deviant behavior among the university students in Pakistan remains an under-
researched area. To obtain the required objective that to find out the role of media in
causing deviance in youth at university level two universities namely the
Agriculture University Peshawar and Preston University Peshawar were selected as
universe of the study. Secondary data reveals that there are a total number of 6444
students enrolled in Peshawar campuses of both the universities, including both
male and female students in the year of 2012. The required sample size of 360
respondents was obtained according to the criteria devised by Sekoran
(Sekoran2003). The sample size was proportionately allocated and randomly
distributed among both the universities on the basis of their gender.

Table I: Allocation of Sample Size

Population Size Sample Size

University
Male Female Total Male Female Total
Students Students Students Students Students Students

The Agriculture University 4954 560 5514 277 31 308

Preston University 889 41 930 50 2 52

Total 5843 601 6444 327 35 360

Source: Administration offices of both the Agriculture University and Preston University
Peshawar.

As the study was based on primary data, a well thought out questionnaire was
prepared which covered all the aspects and variables of the study. The questionnaire
was pretested on a limited scale for the validity of information. The data was
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
135

collected according to observational method in order to validate the findings of the


study. The collected data was comprised on different parameters such as the
educational background of the respondents and their parents, occupation of the
respondents' parents, economic condition of the respondents' family, immoral
online activities, chatting with friends, place and time of using internet.
Chi-square test was used to test the association between independent and
dependent variables. The dependent variable (deviance) was indexed and cross
tabbed with independent variable. Following statistical procedure devised by Tai
was adopted to calculate the chi-square.

(Tai, 1978)
r c
2
X = . .

i=1 j= 1

Where
X2= Chi-square for categorical variables
Oij = observed frequency inith row and jth column
th th
= expected frequency corresponding to i row and j column
The degree of freedom was calculated as:
Df (degrees of freedom) = (r-1) (c-1)
r = number of rows
c = number of columns

Results and Discussion


Time Spent over using of Internet and use of Social Networking System (SNS).
The following table show that majority of the respondents i.e. 90% were in the
habit of using internet from which 83% spent 1-3 hours a day on internet surfing,
5.8%spent 4-6 hours a day, and 0.6% spent 7-9 hours a day on internet use.
Furthermore, all the 90 % respondents who use internet had an access to SNS as
well. Access to internet facilities and its use for social networking reveals that
majority of students' access to internet facility which is encouraging on one side but
the potential of its misuse is a major threat on the other side.
Sardar Ahmad, Asad Ullah, Bushra Shafi & Mussawar Shah
136

Table II:

Using Internet f (%)* Hours Use f (%) SNS Using f (%)

Yes 324 (90.0) 1 - 3 hours 301(83.0) Face book 314 (87.2)

No 36 (10.0) 4 - 6 hours 21 (5.8) Twitter 9 (2.5)

7 - 9 hours 2 (0.6) Any other net works 1 (0.3)

Total 360 (100.0) Not using internet 36 (10.0) Not using internet 36 (10.0)

Total 360 (100.0) Total 360 (100.0)

* Values in parenthesis are Percentage.

Purpose of use of Social Network System (SNS)


Table No. III explains that the purpose of internet use by respondents was in
diverse in nature, such as 46.4% respondents used internet for chatting with friends,
25.3%used internet for news updates, 13.1% were not using internet, 9.2%preferred
to listen to online music, 3.6% were watching pornography clips, 2.2 % were
involved in playing online games, and 1.48 % respondents were using internet for
educational purposes. Moreover, 45.6% respondents did not use internet for online
chatting with friends, however, 44.6 % respondents did chat with friends out of
which 32.2%female respondents used SNS to chat with boyfriends, 40.5 % were
chatting with both boys and girlfriends and 17.5% were chatting with girlfriends
only. The result shows that majority of the respondents used internet for chatting
purpose with both boy and girlfriends. The internet allows youngsters to overcome
cultural restriction of interacting and communicating with members of opposite sex.
However, the highest attraction in this chat is involvement in fantasies and
immoralities, which probably can be one of a cause of deviation from local social
norms and a cause to degradation of character. Similar result were found by
Kuppuswamy (2010) who stated that majority of the students both male and female
use internet for the purpose of chatting with each other without any social or cultural
bondage.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
137

Table III:

Do You Chat f (%)* With Whom Chat f (%) Most Doing Online f (%)

Yes 160 (44.4) Boy Friends 116 (32.2) Chat 167 (46.4)

No 164 (45.6) Girls Friends 63 (17.0) Music 33 (9.2)

Not Using 36 (10.0) Both 145 (40.3) News 91 (25.3)


Internet

Not Using internet 36 (10.0) Gaming 8 (2.2)

Total 360 (100.0) Total 360 (100.0) Pornography 13 (3.6)

Not Using internet 36 (10.0)

Study Purpose 12 (1.48)

Total 360 (100.0)

* Values in parenthesis are percentage.

Parent's Attitude Towards the use of Internet and Place of its use.
Following table show that majority of the respondents as64.7%were of
the opinion that their parents' has no objection on the use of internet.
However, 25.3% admitted that their parents do not like the use of internet
accept educational purpose. The result shows a greater acceptance towards
the use of internet among youth, while the parents do not like and allow their
children for its use. This probably is because of the undesirable use of
technology by the people all age. Furthermore, 51.9% respondents used the
internet inside hostels,23.9%at home and 14.1% had liberty of its use both in
hostel and at home. It is concluded that use of internet technology has
diffused in local culture to a greater extent and its use is on rise yet there is a
profound resistance to its acceptance as its use is disliked by elders.
Sardar Ahmad, Asad Ullah, Bushra Shafi & Mussawar Shah
138

Table IV:

Parents Objection f (%) Where Using Internet f (%)

Yes 91 (25.3) At Home 86 (23.9)

No 233 (64.7) At Hostel 187 (51.9)

Not Using Internet 36 (10.0) Both Places 51 (14.1)

Not Using Internet 36 (10.0)


Total 360 (100)
Total 360

* Values in parenthesis are percentage.

Associations Between Internet Using and Deviance


Following table displays a significant relation (p= 0.001)between using
internet and deviant behavior of youth. Hence those respondents who were involved
in using internet frequently were mostly involved in deviant activities. It is probably
because of the reason that students were addicted to the use of internet and mostly
were involved in its futile and immoral use, which leads to their deviant behavior.
Similarly, a highly significant (p= 0.000) relation was found between type of social
networking system used and the deviant behavior. Most of the social network sites
have no moral regulations to access and share immoral videos and photographs,
which automatically encourage the immoral activities in the society and the deviant
behavior. A highly significant relation (p=0.000) was found between immoral chat
with friends and the deviant behavior. Majority of the university students were
involved in immoral chatting with the friends that paved the way for their deviant
behavior. Majority of the parents had no objection over the use of internet and
mostly they do not pay any serious attention to their children's activities over the use
of internet, due to which they start immoral and anti-social activities over internet.
The parent's reaction and their check and control towards the use of internet was
found highly significant and showed (p=0.000) association with their children's
deviant behavior. Another high significant association was found that a proper check
from parents' ensuring moral use of internet on their children which can reduce the
deviant behavior among the university students. Moreover, the relationship of place
and use of internet and the deviant behavior had a highly significant association
(p=0.000). A proper use of internet at home under the strict supervision of parents
can reduce deviance. These findings are in line with Maqsood (2008) that proper
check can reduce the deviance among the students. A highly significant relationship
(p=0.000) was found between various online activities and the deviant behavior
among the students. It was found that online activities like chatting with boy and
girlfriends and watching pornographic videos online without any check causes
deviant behavior.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
139

Table V:

Deviance
Internet Using Chi Square
Attitude Total
Association P Value
Attitude No

Yes 133 (36.6) 191 (53.1) 324 (90.0) 2=10.608


Using Internet
(0.001)
No 25 (6.9) 11 (3.1) 36 (10.0)

Not using internet 132 (36.7) 182 (50.6) 314 (87.2)

Social Network Home 0 (0.0) 9 (2.5) 9 (2.5) 2=18.302


Services
Using (0.000)
Hostel 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.3)

Both 25 (6.9) 11 (3.1) 36 (10.0)

Not using internet 90 (25.0) 70 (19.4) 160 (44.4)


Chat Immoral 2=33.921
Chat 45 (12.5) 119 (33.1) 164 (45.6) (0.000)
with Friends

Music 25 (6.9) 11 (3.1) 36 (10.0)

News 55 (15.3) 36 (10.0) 91 (25.3)


Objection of 2=29.927
Parents Gaming 78 (21.7) 155 (43.1) 233 (64.7) (0.000)

Study Purpose 25 (6.9) 11 (3.1) 36 (10.0)

Pornography 14 (3.9) 72 (20.0) 86 (23.9)

Where use Not Using internet 88 (24.4) 99 (27.5) 187 (51.9) 2=42.974
Internet (0.000)
38 (10.5) 14 (3.9) 51 (14.4)

25 (6.9) 11 (3.1) 36 (10.0)

79 (21.9) 88 (24.4) 167 (46.4)

28 (7.8) 5 (1.4) 33 (9.2)

11 (3.1) 80 (22.2) 91 (25.3)


2=80.653
Online Activities 2 (0.5) 6 (1.6) 8 (2.1) (0.000)

3 (0.8) 9 (2.5) 12 (3.3)

13 (3.6) 0 (0.0) 13 (3.6)

25 (6.9) 11 (3.1) 36 (10.0)

*Numbers in table represent frequencies and numbers in parenthesis represent percentage


proportion of respondents and in the last columns numbers in the parenthesis represent p
value*.
Sardar Ahmad, Asad Ullah, Bushra Shafi & Mussawar Shah
140

Conclusion and Recommendation


It is evident from the above results and findings of the study that internet is
playing its role in the adoption of deviant behavior among university students. It is
concluded from the study that chats over internet, online activities, immoral chats
with friends, and poor check of parents' on the use of internet was influencing the
individuals significantly to adopt deviant behavior.
It is recommended that a proper check of parents' towards their children is
necessary to enhance their sense of responsibility and moral behavior. Furthermore,
to keep proper check on the inner environment of home and the activities of their
young family members especially in the choice of using media technologies should
be properly checked. A proper check and balance system for controlling the
legitimate expenditure of the youngsters by providing sufficient money according to
their needs and its proper audit is utmost necessary. Moreover, a system of regular
interaction and association between the parent teacher meeting to discuss the
intellectual academic and moral progress of youngster is essential to ensure proper
control of their deviant activities. Educational institutions have to form proper rules
and regulations to identify and rehabilitate the students having deviant behavior as
such institutions are the need of the day.

References
Harolambos and Holborn.(2000). Sociology (5th edition) theme and
perspective.Farhanraza printer, Lahore.P. 800.
John, J. M. (2005).Sociology (tenth edition), Upper Saddle River. New Jersey 0458.
Maqsood, A. S. (2008). Social network and students. Journal of international
information and library review.40(3). p. 142-147.
Macionis. J. J. (2005). Sociology (10th edition), New Jersey. Pearson Prentice Hall.
Paul B. H, L. Hunt. (1984). Sociology. McGraw-hill international editions sociology
series.Network. 500.
Sekaran, U. (2003). Research Method for Business.USA, Hermitage publishing
services.p.468.
Sunetha, Kappusamay. (2010) the Impact of Social Networking Websites on the
Education of Youth. International Journal of vitual communication and social
network. 2 (1) p. 67-79.
Tai, Simon. W. (1978).Social Science Statistics, Its Elements and Applications.
California, Goodyear Publishing Company.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
141

The author Mr. Sardar Ahmad is M.Phil Scholar at the Department of Rural Sociology, Agricultural
University Peshawar, Pakistan.
The author Mr. Asad Ullah is Lecturer at the Department of Rural Sociology, Agricultural University
Peshawar, Pakistan.
The author Dr. Bushra Shafi is Assistant Professor at the Department of Rural Sociology,
Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan.
The author Dr. Mussawar Shah is Professor at the Department of Rural Sociology, Agricultural
University Peshawar, Pakistan.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology Volume 6, No.1, Jan-Jun 2014, pp.143 - 160
143

The Level of Distress Among the Victims of War


and Terrorism and the Role of Psychological Interventions
in their Rehabilitation
Hayat Mohammad Bangash, Mohammad Jehanzeb Khan
& Summiya Ahmad

Abstract
The present study was carried out to investigate the psychological effects of war and
terrorism and the role of psychological interventions in the rehabilitation of affectees. The
sample included two hundred participants (N=200) from two districts of Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa i.e. Swat and Buner based ,by using convenient sampling technique. It was
further divided into two subgroups, males (n=100) and females (n=100).Pre and posttest
design was used for the study because it was carried out in two phases. Demographic
Information Sheet and Impact of Event Scale (IES) (Horowitq, Wilner, & Alvarez, 1979)
were administered for the assessment. It was hypothesized that the Victims of war and
terrorism will score high on Impact of Event Scale (IES) and the prevalence distress will be
high among females as compared to males. It was also assumed that males will show
improvement in decreasing symptoms of distress, than females after receiving
psychological interventions. The results supported the hypotheses. Results of the research
explored (p<0.05) that people who are the direct victim and those who are eyewitness of the
traumatic event (war between army and militants) suffered from distress. In the second phase
of study, results indicated that psychological interventions play a pivotal role in the
rehabilitation of affectees.
Keywords
War and Terrorism, Stress, Male, Female, Psychological Interventions and Rehabilitation.
Introduction
Since time immemorial, especially the twentieth century, the world has
experienced terrorism in different forms, faces and with varying different
expressions. Therefore, we know that terrorism is not a modern trend. Undoubtedly,
a terrorism disaster (whether an attack like that of 9/11 in 2001 or a natural event
such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005, earthquake of Pakistan in 2005) have caused
tremendous damage to individuals (e.g., buildings, roads, factories) and humans
(e.g., injuries, deaths). The twentieth century seems to be the century of massive
sufferings in human history, manifests a persistent increase in malicious and
destructive activities. Yet, this was not the main challenge for the international
community, until the hijack of aeroplanes and the attacks of 9/11 on the towers of
World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the main symbols of American economic and
military supremacy (Musarrat, 2009).
Hayat Mohammad Bangash, Mohammad Jehanzeb Khan & Summiya Ahmad
144

Method
Participants
The targeted sample for the present study was drawn from the two medium-
sized districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
province is divided into 24 districts. The study included sample from District
Buner and District Swat. Convenient sampling technique was used. The
sample consisted of 200 adults (N=200), with the representation of both men
and women from all walks of life. Further, two hundred sample (N=200) was
divided into two groups. One hundred (n=100) were male respondents and one
hundred (n=100) were female respondents from Swat and Buner. 100
respondents each from the two districts further equally divided between male
respondents and female respondents. Average age of the sample was 40 years.
Instruments
For this research one information sheet and instrument were used namely Data
Information Sheet (DIS) and The Impact of Event Scale (IES)
1. Demographic Information Sheet (DIS)
Demographic Information sheet was used to get information from the
participants. Demographic Information sheet included Name, Gender, Area,
Address and Date.
2. Impact of Event Scale (IES)
The Impact of Event Scale was used to measure the current subjective distress
related to a specific event (Horowitq, Wilner, & Alvarez, 1979). The Impact of
Event Scale (IES) consists of 15 items. The Impact of Event Scale (IES)
consists of 15 items, 7 of which measure intrusive symptoms (intrusive
thoughts, nightmares, intrusive feelings and imagery), 8 tap avoidance
symptoms (numbing of responsiveness, avoidance of feelings, situations,
ideas), and combining provide a total subjective stress score. Corcoran and
Fisher (1994) found that the sub scales of the IES show very good internal
consistency based on 2 separate sample groups. The coefficients ranged from
.79 to .92, with an average of .86 for the intrusive sub scale and .90 for the
avoidance subscale.
Horowitz' Impact of Event Scale (IES; Horowitz Horowitz et al, 1979) was
created for the study of bereaved individuals, but soon it was used for exploring
the psychological impact of a variety of traumas. It was constructed before the
diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was entered into the DSM
III (American Psychiatric Association, 1980), and although many measures of
PTSD symptoms have emerged (Wilson & Keane, 1997), the IES remains
widely used.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
145

Procedure
The sample of two hundred (N=200) participants were selected by using
conveniently sampling technique from different areas of District Swat and District
Buner. The sample was divided into two groups, hundred were males (n=100) and
hundred were females (n=100). Fifty male (n1=50) and fifty female (n2=50)
participants from District Swat and fifty male (n3=50) and fifty females (n4=50)
from District Buner were selected. Criteria for selection of sample was convenient
sampling technique.
Participants were approached at different mental health team clinics run by
different non-governmental organization. Rapport was developed with the subjects.
Pre and post-test design was used in the study because the study was carried out in
two different phases i.e. Phase I and Phase II. In Phase I, data was collected to find
out the psychological consequences (prevalence of psychological distress in
victims) of war and terrorism. After three months, in Phase II, the same instrument
was used for collection of data to analyse the role of psychological interventions in
the rehabilitation of affectees from the same sample assessed in phase I. All the
participants and Organizations (both National and International) were thanked for
their cooperation in this study.
Intervention
After the advent of war on terrorism, almost everyone in the province of
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, in general, and District Swat and Buner, in particular, were
facing different kinds of psychological problems. Different international non-
governmental (INGOs) and national non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
started providing mental health services. For the data collection purpose, different
organization's mental health services were keenly observed and those who hired
professional psychologists for providing psychological interventions were selected.
They handled clients in a very professional way and most of the time applied
counselling strategies (cognitive behavioral technique) depending on the problems
that clients faced at that time.
Data was collected from clients who were taking individual counselling.
Duration for each individual session was 45 minutes according to international
standard. Those who were taking individual counselling and psychotherapy got
surprised in initial session because before that the attitude of general public was
developed that psychological problems can only be eradicated by using medicines.
But after taking sessions, they were very much satisfied that their psychological
healing is increasing day by day by attending counseling and psychotherapy
sessions.
Hayat Mohammad Bangash, Mohammad Jehanzeb Khan & Summiya Ahmad
146

Control of Extraneous Variables


Controlling of extraneous variables is important to make it sure that dependent
variable is changed because of the effect of independent variable. Controlling of
extraneous variables in field experiment is difficult from laboratory experiment.
During the study, the clients were asked not to take any other service during
counseling and psychotherapy taking duration which they were receiving from
those mental health clinics established by different international and national
organizations (INGOs). After a traumatic event, it is a parameter that people are
naturally healed upto 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, if people still remain in the same
stressful condition, then they were advised to take counselling and psychotherapy
services.
Inclusion / Exclusion Criteria
People who were the victims or eye witnesses of the traumatic event
during war on terror were included.
The research focussed and included elderly people both males and
females.
The present research did not focus on children and adolescents because
that group of the targeted area were under special consideration of security
agencies due to their close exposure to suicide attack training.
Individuals who visit mental health clinics were included in the study
because approaching
Result
The present study is aimed to see psychological effects of war on terrorism and
the role of psychological interventions in the rehabilitation of affectees. It is further
directed to explore the psychological reactions shown by male respondents and
female respondents of the community and to measure its level of intensity between
male respondents and female respondents by using Impact Event Scale, Civilian
Mississipi Scale and Geriatric Scale. Internal consistency and reliability of the
scales were determined by using Cronbach's alpha. All the scales deemed reliable
for the current study with alpha reliability of .84, .83 and .79 respectively. Following
tables show the results obtained from the data analysis:

Table I: Alpha Reliability of IES scale (N=200)


Scale No. of Items Alpha

Impact of Event Scale (IES) 15 .84


Pakistan Journal of Criminology
147

Table I shows the alpha reliability of IES, GDS and CMS scales. Results
shows that all scales are internally consistent and can be used for present sample.

Table II
Means, standard deviations and t-value of the stress scores of the male and
female affectees phase I on Impact of Event Scale (N=200)

Male Female
(n=100) (n=100) 95% CI
Scale

M S.D M S.D t p LL UL

Stress 25.34 7.20 31.18 9.70 4.80 0.001 -8.20 -3.4

df = 198 p <.0 01

Table II shows the mean, SD and t values of male and female affectees on stress
scale. Result shows that there is a highly statistically significance at (p<.001, t=4.80)
which means that females score high on perceived stress scale as compared to male.

Table III:
Means, standard deviations and t-value of the stress scores of the pretest and
post-test of Affectees (phase II) on Impact of Event Scale (N=200)

Stress Pretest Stress Post-test


95% CI
(n=100) (n=100)
Scale

M S.D M S.D t p LL UL

Pair I 28.25 9.00 23.70 9.84 5.99 0.001 3.05 6.05

df = 198 p <.0 01

The above table shows highly significant difference between the pretest
and post-test of Affectees on stress scale by stress scores (t=5.99, p<.001).
The figures show that the level of stress was high (M=28.25, SD=9.00)
among the participants on pretest as compare to post-test (M=23.70,
SD=9.84).
Hayat Mohammad Bangash, Mohammad Jehanzeb Khan & Summiya Ahmad
148

Table IV:
Means, standard deviations and t-value of the stress scores of the pretest and post-
test of Male Affectees (phase II) on Impact of Event Scale(N=100)

Stress Pretest Stress Post-test 95% CI


(n=50) (n=50)
Scale
M S.D M S.D t p LL UL

Male 25.35 7.20 20.94 9.06 4.33 0.001 2.38 6.42

df = 198 p <.0 01

Result indicates highly significant difference between the pretest and post-test
of male Affectees on stress scale (t=4.33, p<.001). The table show that the pretest
males have more stress (M=25.35, SD=7.20) as compared to post-test males
(M=20.94, SD=9.06).

Table V:
Means, standard deviations and t-value of the stress scores of the pretest and post-
test of Female Affectees (phase II) on Impact of Event Scale (N=100)

Stress Pretest Stress Post-test 95% CI


(n=50) (n=50)
Scale
M S.D M S.D t p LL UL

Female 31.18 9.70 26.48 9.86 4.13 0.001 2.44 6.95

df = 198 p <.0 01

The above table shows highly significant difference between the pretest and
post-test of female Affectees on stress scale by stress scores (t=4.13, p<.001). The
figures show that the pretest females have more stress (M=31.18, SD=9.70) as
compared to post-test females (M=26.48, SD=9.86).
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
149

Discussion
The objective of this study was to examine the psychological consequences of
war and terrorism among the victims in affected areas (Swat & Buner) of Pakistan
and to investigate the role of psychological intervention strategies in the
rehabilitation of affectees. Our findings indicate significant difference between
phase I and phase II scores which shows tremendous role performed by
psychological intervention in rehabilitation of affectees. In phase 1, it was
hypothesized that affectees of war and terrorism will have high score on
psychological distress, 2) psychological distress will be low in males than females.
These research findings are consistent with the earlier research findings (Delisi
et aI., 2003; Farooqi, & Tariq, 2010; Khan, Alam, Warris, & Mujtaba, 2007; Nasky,
Hines, &Summer, 2009; Pat-Horenezyk et aI., 2007; Pfefferbaum et aI.,
1999;Solomon, 2009; Solomon, Gelkopf, &Bleich, 2005; Summers
&Winefield,2009; Tolin & Foa, 2006 and Willenz,2006) which suggest that the
female victims are more prone to develop psychological stress, depression and
PTSD as compared to the male victims of war and terrorism.
The psychological effects of terrorism on threatened civilians have not been
extensively investigated in the literature. Descriptions of gender differences in
response to terror attacks are even sparser. Gidron (2002) reported that the
prevalence of PTSD after terrorist attacks worldwide is estimated to be
approximately 28%. Consistent with these results, Galea and colleagues (2002),
who interviewed 1008 adults in Manhattan after the September 11 terrorist attacks,
showed a substantial burden of acute PTSD and depression in the population after
the attacks. Experiences involving exposure to the attacks were predictors of current
PTSD, and losses as a result of the events were predictors of current depression.
Research findings regarding gender differences in response to traumatic events are
equivocal. Several studies have not identified gender differences at all (Amirkhan,
Risinger, & Swickert, 1995; Aranda et al., 2001; Lomranz et al., 1994). Many
researchers, however, report a female-to-male lifetime prevalence ratio of as high as
2:1 for PTSD symptoms, even when levels of exposure are lower in females as
compared to males (Ai, Peterson, &Ubelhor,2002; Ben Zur & Zeidner, 1991;
Breslau, 2001, Fullerton et al., 2001; Karanci et al., 1999;Saxe & Wolfe, 1999;
Seedat & Stein, 2000). These data appear to be consistent with a review of 180
articles and chapters on 130 distinct samples involving over 50,000 individuals in
80different traumatic events (Norris, Friedman, Watson, Byrne, Diaz & Kaniasty,
2002). There viewed data reveal that in the aftermath of disasters, women appear to
be at greater risk than men for developing long-term psychological problems,
especially PTSD. The effects of gender were found to be greatest in samples from
traditional cultures and within the context of severe exposure.
Hayat Mohammad Bangash, Mohammad Jehanzeb Khan & Summiya Ahmad
150

The study reveals that 26.7% of women and19.8%of men have scored on
psychological distress on the General Health Questionnaire(GHQ). However, this
difference in gender with respect to psychological disorder is much less than
reported by studies conducted on civilian and military populations.
Auerbach&Kilmann (1997) psychological interventions are the interventions
in which different techniques and approaches are used like initial psychological and
social methods for proper assessment/diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of
different psychological and mental disorder. Psychological interventions are
comprises of different planning and activities which included psychological therapy
(psychotherapy), psycho educational treatments, counseling, activities with
families, rehabilitation activities (from less to more structured activities such as
leisure and socializing activities, interpersonal and social skills training,
occupational activities or vocational training, sheltered employment activities) and
provision of social support. Intake interviews, assessments and follow up
psychopharmacology are not included in initial psychological intervention services.
Individual's strength and ability that they normally use effectively to cope in
the face of a perceived challenge or threat is overwhelmingly affected by stressful
life event when psychological sever distress prevailed (Auerbach&Kilmann, 1997;
Everly & Mitchell, 1999; Raphael, 1986; Sandoval, 1985; Schwartz, 1971;
Wollman, 1993). According to Caplan and Everly & Mitchell (1964, 1999),
particular or narrow down it, a crisis or stress may be taken as a reaction/response
situation wherein the following important changes can take place:
 Psychological homeostasis will be disrupted;
 Individuals coping mechanisms usually failed to reestablish homeostasis;
and,
 It is based on evidence that there is functional impairment caused by
psychological distress engendered by the crisis.
There is a huge difference and distinction between “Critical incident” and
“crisis” as it is taken normally confused and mixed with each other. Critical incident
in opposition of crisis reaction consider any stressor that has the strength to lead to
crisis reaction in many people. Peculiarly, crisis reaction is the ultimate result of any
sort of critical event (American Psychiatric Association, 1994; Everly & Lating,
1995; Flannery, 1994, 1995). Threatening situations or real death, serious injuries or
any other direct or indirect threats to the affectees physical and psychological
integrity will be considered Catastrophic, traumatic events or critical incidents.
People can also be victimized by eye witnessing the causalities happening in front of
them (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). If there happened anything
contradictory or in opposition of one's belief system can also become a cause of
being traumatic (Everly & Lating, 1995).
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
151

Since long time, for victims and affectees of all kind of traumatic events
(disaster and critical incidents) psychological intervention has been proved an
effective, important, unavoidable and front-line intervention especially in result of
severe psychological distress and trauma (Everly, Flannery, & Mitchell, 2000;
Everly & Mitchell, 1999). According to the definition of psychological intervention
given by Everly & Mitchell (1999), “it is the provision of emergency psychological
services and care to victims as to help those victim's in returning to normal and an
adaptive level of functioning and to prevent or mitigate the potential negative
impact of psychological trauma.”
Conclusion
As a result of the sabotage activities carried out by terrorists, there will be large
number of casualties like injuries, death, and destruction. Psychological impact is
the ultimate goal i.e., create a situation of uncertainty, vulnerability and fear. Long
lasting psychological reactions of terrorism, are the perpetrator's main political
goals. Psychological reactions exert sever and persistent impact on human
neurological system. That's because a neurological perspective is very important to
develop the knowledge of terrorism and its long lasting impact on the lives of the
people.
Consequently it is explained by Karanci (1999) including that all kind of
terrorism activities have widespread long lasting impact on the people of the
affected areas, psychological interventions will help and involves for the
preparation of it, including social support and multiple levels within the community;
respondents, professionals and community-based organizations. The approach is
social rather than clinical, which is exploited in the natural mechanisms of
community interventions for psychological support.
Limitations
Researchers face several unique challenges while conducting rigorous
studies/researches and interventions based on evidence in the conflict areas.
Researchers always face the problem of security and their lives are always at risk
and other people working in mental health team are also at high risk because of the
installation of landmines and unexploded ordinances. There is also security measure
taken by peace keeping troops and restricted from general travel which creates
hindrances while providing services in different sectors by organizations.
This study was limited to only two districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa i.e. Swat
and Buner just because of security risks. General local conditions of these districts
aftermath of conflict were better as compared to other areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
i.e. Waziristan Agency and Orakzai Agency etc.
Hayat Mohammad Bangash, Mohammad Jehanzeb Khan & Summiya Ahmad
152

Replication of such study is possible in other districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa


when complete control of the areas in ensured and minimizes the risks of security.
Recommendations
Psychological evaluation and assessment of the people of the targets area risks
and needs after the advent of a conflict or disaster must be formulated and conducted
with a focus on the types and strength/levels of symptoms experienced and formal
diagnosis should be avoiding until two phases of emergency situations are elapsed.
After the initial phases of the emergency situations that formal assessment and
diagnosis will be made legitimately by the experts, then it will be helpful in
providing treatment to illnesses people will face. Population and individual's
resilience assessment if the integral to assessing risks.
Mental health support should be provided with relief activities. To achieve this
goal, workers who are involved in rescue activities should also be given training for
emotional first aid or treatment. One of easiest ways to deal with issue of
coordination through help with cultural norms after post disaster requirement that
help should be taken from local volunteers or residents. Local people related to
health care profession and teachers can facilitate in the management of
psychological impact of disasters. It is important that mental health problems of
children should be reported as soon as possible and appropriate measures should be
taken at school and home accordingly. As children spend much time with their
family members, they can contribute a lot to save this purpose (Wooding & Raphael,
2004).
To help and prevent people from the onset of psychological disorder/trauma
related illness especially in vulnerable groups of women and children required great
investment in research to identify those risks.
With the help of conducting researches, it can become easy then to determine
long term effects of terrorists attacks on people mental health (brain), physical
health and specially on their behavior and will help us to understand that the effects
of terrorism are seriously different form the effects of other disaster especially when
there is continuity in terrorists actions.
If we want to know about the needs of the people when they are exposed to
emergency situations like terrorism especially in country like Pakistan, new styles,
ways and abrupt research planning should be formulated otherwise will not be able
to know people's need then. Along this we will never be able to discover ways and
techniques to identify who is at high risk, and what kind of intervention will be
needed to eradicate and prevent people from developing psychological disorders on
long term basis.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
153

Disaster planning and research findings should be incorporated more rapidly.


Training in clinical and other schools and even in psychology departments, disaster
preparedness programs and disaster/emergency response are not included in their
syllabus which is an attention seeking situations. It is advised that such training
program should be included in schools, colleges and universities syllabus for prior
preparation for any sort of emergency situation.

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Hayat Mohammad Bangash, Mohammad Jehanzeb Khan & Summiya Ahmad
160

The author Mr. Hayat Mohammad is a PhD scholar at the Department of Psychology, University of
Peshawar. He can be reached at hayat_bangash@hotmail.com, hayat_bangash2@yahoo.com,
+92-3339139020
The author Dr. Mohammad Jahanzeb Khan is the Vice Chancellor of the University of Swat. He can
be reached at yosafzai@yahoo.com
The author Summiya Ahmad is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Psychology, University
of Peshawar. She can be reached at summiya_ahmad@hotmail.com
Pakistan Journal of Criminology Volume 6, No.1, Jan-Jun 2014, pp.161 - 192
161

The Crime of Rape and


The Hanafi Doctrine of Siyasah

Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad

Abstract
The issue of rape has remained one of the most contentious issues in the modern debate on
Islamic criminal law. It is generally held that because of the strict criterion for proving this
offence,injustice is done with the victim of rape. This essay examines this issue in detail and
shows that the doctrine of siyasah [the authority of the government for administration of
justice] in the Hanafi criminal law can make the law against sexual violence more effective
without altering the law of hudud. The basic contention of this essay is that a proper
understanding of the Hanafi criminal law, particularly the doctrine of siyasah, can give
viable and effective solutions to this complicated issue of the Pakistani criminal justice
system. It recommends that an offence of sexual violence is created which does not involve
sexual intercourse as an essential element. That is the only way to delink this offence from
zina and qadhf and bring it under the doctrine of siyasah. This offence will, thus, become
sub-category of violence, not zina. The government may bring sex crimes involving the
threat or use of violence under one heading and, then, further categorize it in view of the
intensity and gravity of the crime. It may also prescribe proper punishments for various
categories of the crime. Being a siyasah crime, it will not require the standard proof
prescribed by Islamic law for the hadd offences. In extreme cases, the court may award death
punishment which can be commuted or pardoned only by the government, not by the victim
or her legal heirs.
Keywords
Rape, Sexual Violence, Zina, Qadhf, Hirabah, Hadd, Ta`zir, Siyasah, Circumstantial
Evidence.
Introduction
One of the most contentious issues in the modern debate on Islamic Criminal
1
Law is that of rape . As this offence involves sexual intercourse, the jurists had to
2
discuss its implications in relation to the hadd of zina (illicit sexual intercourse) .
This has given an impression that because of the strict criterion for proving the
offence of zina, Islamic law fails to do justice with the victim in rape case. This essay
examines this issue in detail and shows that the doctrine of siyasah in the Hanafi
criminal law can make the law against sexual violence more effective without
altering the law of hudud, but for that purpose it is necessary that this offence not
involve sexual intercourse as the primary element so that it becomes a sub-category
Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad
162

of violence, instead of zina. The basic contention of this essay is that a proper
understanding of the Hanafi criminal law, particularly the doctrine of siyasah, can
give viable and effective solutions to this complicated issue of the Pakistani criminal
justice system.
For analyzing the law relating to sexual violence, the essay first traces the
historical background of this law and the various stages through which this law
passed; then legal issues are framed and the way these issues have been dealt with by
the Pakistani judiciary has been thoroughly examined; after this a thorough analysis
of the juristic discourse on this issue has been given; and finally a solution has been
given which is compatible with the principles as well as with the higher objectives of
Islamic law.

Part One

Historical Development of the Law about Rape


The discourse on the crime of sexual violence in Pakistan initiated with the
promulgation of the Hudood Ordinances in 1979 even though the law dealing with
this crime was much older3. In order to keep the things in their proper context,
therefore, it is essential to draw a brief sketch of the different stages through which
this law passed. Moreover, in Pakistan the discourse of the religious scholars
generally revolved around the issue of whether the crime of sexual violence is a sub-
category of zina or hirabah. This issue will be analyzed in detail here.
From 1860 to 1979
The origins of the present Pakistani law on the crime of sexual violence can be
traced to the Indian Penal Code 1860 (renamed in Pakistan as the Pakistan Penal
Code or PPC) Sections 375 and 376 of which dealt with the crime of rape4. Later,
these Sections were repealed by the provisions of the Offence of Zina (Enforcement
of Hudood) Ordinance 1979, which renamed it as zina bil jabr and made it either
5
liable to hadd or ta`zir. In Rashida Patel v The Federation of Pakistan , the Federal
Shariat Court concluded that rape was a form of hirabah, not zina, but the law could
not be changed because appeal was preferred against this decision to the Shariat
Appellate Bench of the Supreme Court which did not dispose of the case till the law
was changed in 2006 by the Protection of Women (Criminal Laws Amendment) Act.
This latter Act repealed the provisions of the Offence of Zina Ordinance relating to
the offence of zina bil jabr and revived the PPC provisions on rape.
The Indian Penal Code did not criminalize “fornication” – consensual sexual
relationship between unmarried couple. It only criminalized “sexual intercourse
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
163

with a married woman”, calling it “adultery” and prescribed punishment for the
6
female partner as an abettor only . However, even adultery was essentially deemed
a violation of the right of the husband. That was why no criminal proceedings could
start against the man committing adultery except after the filing of complaint against
him by the “aggrieved” husband and the culprit could not be given a punishment if
he could prove the “connivance” of the husband. This was based on the English law
concept of “tort against marital relationship”. Both fornication and adultery were
forms of consensual sex. Sexual intercourse without the consent of one of the
partners was deemed a serious crime named as “rape” in Section 375 of the Code.
Pakistan inherited this law (renamed as Pakistan Penal Code or PPC) and it
remained in force till the promulgation of the Hudood Ordinances in 1979.

The Hudood Ordinances, 1979


The Offence of Zina (Enforcement of Hudood) Ordinance 1979 brought
adultery, fornication and rape under the umbrella concept of zina and it renamed
rape as zina bil jabr. The offence of zina bil jabr, like that of zina, was either liable to
hadd or liable to ta`zir. The standard of proof for zina bil jabr liable to hadd was the
same as that of zina liable to hadd (confession by the accused or four adult eye-
witnesses), while zina bil jabr liable to ta`zir could be proved through any form of
evidence proving the commission of the crime beyond a reasonable doubt in the
particular circumstances of the case.
The Offence of Qazf (Enforcement of Hudood) Ordinance 1979 made false
7
accusation of zina an offence called qazf, which again was either liable to hadd or
ta`zir. As the definition of qazf was borrowed from the definition of defamation in
8
PPC, the exceptions of good faith and public good were declared as valid defenses .
This not only made the Qazf Ordinance ineffective but also increased the chances of
misuse of the Zina Ordinance9. Many critics noted that the victim of rape could be
further victimized under the Qazf Ordinance if she would bring a case against the
culprits, although the allegation of rape was out of the scope of the definition of qazf
because this definition confined qazf to allegation of zina only. Yet the fact remained
that sometimes a victim of rape was accused by the other party – as well as the police
– of not only consensual zina but also of committing qazf. As the offence of zina
liable to ta`zir did not require the proof of four witnesses and as the defenses of good
faith and public good were also available, the adverse party as well as the police
could easily escape prosecution under the Qazf Ordinance. It was, however, also
possible that sometimes a willing partner might bring an accusation of rape against
the other partner so as to save itself from the operation of the Zina and Qazf
Ordinances.
Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad
164

The Interplay Between the Hudood Ordinances and the Muslim Family
Laws Ordinance 1961
The issue was further complicated by the fact that some people started using the
provisions of the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance (MFLO) 1961 and the relevant
case law to bring cases of zina against their former spouses. Section 7 of MFLO
gives a detailed procedure for making the divorce effective. In Ali Nawaz Gardezi v
10
Muhammad Yusuf, the Supreme Court held that if the husband did not follow that
procedure after pronouncing divorce, he would be deemed in the contemplation of
law to have revoked the divorce and as such the couple would continue to be
husband and wife.
As consensual sex was not deemed a grave offence under the law, no serious
problem arose from this rule despite the fact that most of the people did not follow
the Section 7 procedure after divorce. However, after the promulgation of the
Hudood Ordinances in 1979 people started troubling their former wives who got
married to other persons in the meanwhile and because of the good faith and public
good defenses the complainant could evade the operation of the Qazf Ordinance. In
11
Shera v The State , the Federal Shariat Court declared that one such couple was
guilty of zina. Many such cases were registered by different people against their
former wives.
As the Shariat Appellate Bench of the Supreme Court had already declared in
Federation of Pakistan v Farishta,12 that MFLO being included in the meaning of
“Muslim Personal Law” was beyond the jurisdiction of the Federal Shariat Court,
the provisions of the same could not be examined for conformity with Islamic
injunctions. Finally, the Shariat Appellate Bench of the Supreme Court in Bashiran
v Muhammad Hussain13, formulated a kind of compromise between the provision of
MFLO and those of the Hudood Ordinances by declaring that because of the
bonafide belief of the couple that the divorce and the subsequent marriage were
valid they could not be deemed guilty of zina. It simply meant that for the purpose of
the provisions of the Zina Ordinance, the provisions of MFLO would be
overlooked. Despite the fact the problems were actually created by the provisions of
the MFLO, these cases were used by critics to launch propaganda against the
Hudood Ordinances because of which scholars and judges who were working for
the Islamization of the criminal law were on the defensive.
Zina or Hirabah? The Dilemma of the Federal Shariat Court
It was in this background that the Federal Shariat Court in Rashida Patel v The
Federation of Pakistan14, declared that zina bil jabr was a sub-set of hirabah, not
zina. For reaching this conclusion, the Federal Shariat Court heavily relied on the
views of Mawlana Amin Ahsan Islahi (d. 1997), a renowned scholar who had
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
165

expertise in the Qur'anic studies, particularly the theory of coherence (nazm) in the
Qur'an. Islahi opined in his commentary on the verses of hirabah that one of the
punishments of hirabah is taqtil (and not qatl) which does not simply mean killing
but killing through an exemplary way15. Thus, he made the ground for asserting that
rajm (stoning) was a form of taqtil and as such a punishment for hirabah. Islahi went
to the extreme of asserting that those persons whom the Prophet (peace be on him)
had given the rajm punishment were habitual offenders and that they were given this
punishment not for zina but for hirabah16.
The Protection of Women Act 2006
The Protection of Women Act (Criminal Laws Amendment) Act 2006 repealed
all the provisions regarding zina bil jabr from the Zina Ordinance and revived the
crime of rape in PPC. Thus, rape is no more a hadd offence. Moreover, the new
Section 375 PPC17 does not give exception to husband, which simply means that
now the Pakistani law also has the crime of “marital rape”18. It also created a new
crime of fornication in PPC by inserting section 496B in it. The definition of this
offence is essentially the same as that of zina as defined in Section 4 of the Zina
Ordinance19. Thus, one and the same act has been given two different names and two
different sets of legal consequences. Moreover, the crime of fornications has been
inserted in the chapter of “offences relating to marriage”, while fornication in
common law essentially involved unmarried partners.
Fornication is, thus, the new name of the old crime of “zina liable to ta`zir” with
the difference that fornication does not attract the rules of the Qazf Ordinance but
those of another crime called “false accusation of fornication” in Section 496C of
PPC. This latter crime, in turn, is the new name of the old crime of “qazf liable to
ta`zir”. The net result is that the Qazf Ordinance has been made even more
ineffective.
The Pakistani Law on Sex Offences Now
As noted above, the offence of illicit sexual intercourse is being treated under
20
two different laws: the Zina Ordinance makes it a hadd crime , while PPC gives it
the name of fornication and makes it an ordinary (ta`zir) crime21. Similarly, the
offence of allegation of illicit sexual intercourse is dealt with as qadhf under the
Qazf Ordinance and as false accusation of fornication under PPC22.
There are two grave sex offences under PPC, of course both of which are ta`zir:
Rape and Unnatural Offence.23 Intercourse is an essential ingredient of both of these
offences. Hence, insertion of other foreign elements or oral sex, for instance, does
not fulfill this requirement. Some more serious forms of rape – gang rape and rape
accompanied by robbery – have been deemed acts of terrorism under the Anti-
24
Terrorism Act, 1997.
Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad
166

Most of other offences are found scattered in different chapters of PPC. For
instance, selling of obscene literature, doing obscene acts or singing obscene songs
have been mentioned in the chapter of offences against 'morals'.25 Some offences
26
come under the title of “criminal force and assault” . Many such offences can well
come under the provisions of the Qisas and Diyat Act relating to “hurt” which are
27
now found in Chapter XVI of PPC. The offence of abortion also comes under the
provisions of the Qisas and Diyat Act.28 Several offences have been mentioned under
the broader concept of “abduction”29. Finally, some offences have been mentioned
30
under the title of “offences relating to marriage” . There is no logical relationship
between these different classes of offences and there are several inconsistencies and
gaps in the law.
Three Approaches to the Issue of Rape
In Pakistan, the issue of rape has been approached from thee different
perspectives:
 The traditional scholars insist that rape is a form of zina and that it can
only be proved by the confession of the culprit or the testimony of four
31
witnesses in accordance with the prescribed standard;
 Mawlana Islahi developed the wider doctrine of hirabah that includes all
forms of fasad (mischief), including rape, and also asserted that
circumstantial evidence can also prove a hadd offence;32
 Some of the traditional scholars who uphold the concept of “conflation”
(talfiq), or mixing of the opinions of the various schools of law, tried to
make a kind of compromise between these diametrically opposed views
by suggesting that even if rape was covered by the law of zina it could be
33
proved on the basis of circumstantial evidence.
As far as this third approach of conflation is concerned, it needs separate
detailed analysis as it involves serious issues of legal theory and principles of
interpretation. Hence, it is the first two approaches that will be discussed and
analyzed here. The purpose is to find out a viable solution to the problem of rape
without undoing the law developed by the jurists.

Part Two

Rape as a Form of Hirabah: The Theory of Islahi


Generally, an analysis of the offence precedes that of the punishment, but the
debate on the issue of rape in Pakistan initially started with the assertion of
Mawlana Islahi that rajm was the punishment of hirabah, not zina34. Hence, it is
essential to analyze the two issues separately, namely:
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1. Is rajm the punishment of hirabah?


2. Is rape a form of hirabah?
1. Is Rajm the Punishment of Hirabah?
Islahi briefly referred to the punishment of rajm while commenting on the
verses about hirabah in Surat al-Ma'idah (Chapter 5), but gave a detailed
exposition of his views while commenting on the verses regarding the
punishment for zina in Surat al-Nur (Chapter 18).
Main points of his theory are summarized here:
 Offences are committed in two ways: one, when a person or a group of
persons is overwhelmed by the evil inclination and commits a crime
without disturbing the whole system; two, when a gang shakes the very
foundations of the whole system; the former is ordinary crime, while the
latter is hirabah.35
 The term hirabah, thus, is not confined to armed robbery; rather it covers
many other forms, such as rebellion, kidnapping and abducting as well as
36
rape, particularly gang rape.
 The Qur'an mentions taqtil among the punishments for hirabah; taqtil is
different from qatl, as the latter means killing while taqtil means killing
37
through an exemplary way, such as stoning.
This was how he tried to make a case for proving that rajm was the punishment
of hirabah, not zina. As far as the verses of Surat al-Nur about the punishment of
zina are concerned, Islahi is of the opinion that these verses are general in nature and,
thus, the punishment of one hundred lashes mentioned therein is both for the muhsan
38
and ghayr muhsan offenders.
Here, a serious question arises about accommodating the traditions and
precedents of the Prophet (peace be on him) and his Successors (God be pleased
with them) about awarding the punishment of rajm to convicts in cases of zina.
Islahi and his students hold in principle that the Sunnah, even if it is Mutawatirah,
cannot abrogate the Qur'an.39 Thus, although they admit that the fact of the Prophet's
awarding the punishment of rajm to some offenders has been definitively proved by
40
mutawatir reports, they assert that these reports cannot override the text of the
Qur'an. They divide the traditions into three categories:
 Traditions that are acceptable to them as they do not go against their
understanding of the Qur'an, such as those mentioning the the rajm
punishment generally without specifically linking it with the offence of
zina or any other offence;41
Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad
168

 Traditions which are accepted after being interpreted in the light of their
understanding of the Qur'an, such as the traditions that report that the
Prophet (peace be on him) asked if the accused was muhsan or not;42
 Traditions that are rejected because they are deemed contradictory to their
understanding of the Qur'an, such as those report that the Prophet (peace
be on him) appreciated the character and conduct of one of the convicts
after he was awarded the rajm punishment.43
The foremost problem with Islahi's theory is that it ignores, rather invalidates,
44
the whole legal literature of fourteen centuries. This is a novel idea which has never
been accepted by any school of Islamic law. Earlier in Islamic history, only the
45
Khawarij denied the punishment of rajm. All other schools accepted this as the
46
hadd punishment for zina. None of the schools deemed it a punishment for
hirabah. Even when some of the Maliki jurists considered sexual violence as a form
of fasad (mischief), they did not take the position that rajm was the punishment for
47
this fasad.
As mentioned above, Islahi that the punishment of rajm has been proved
through khabar mutawatir and that is why he even criticizes the Khawarij for
48
denying the reports about the Prophet's awarding this punishment. If the reports
about the punishment have reached the status of tawatur, how then can one assert
that this punishment was given for hirabah, not zina? There is not a single report
about the Prophet's giving this punishment for any crime other than zina. Nor did the
Prophet (peace be on him) ever give this punishment to anyone committing robbery,
which was the more obvious form of hirabah.
49
In an earlier case, Hazoor Bukhsh v The State, Aftab Hussain, CJ, who was
much influenced by the views of Mawlana Islahi, asserted that rajm was not a hadd,
50
but a ta`zir punishment . In revision, however, the learned judge overturned his own
decision on a technical ground asserting that the provisions regarding the rajm
punishment being applicable only to Muslims were included in the meaning of
“Muslim Personal Law” and as such beyond the jurisdiction of the Federal Shariat
Court.51
2. Is Rape a Form of Hirabah?
The Federal Shariat Court concluded in Rashida Patel that rape is a form of
hirabah, not zina. Influenced by the theory of Islahi, Fida Muhammad Khan J,
observed: “Zina bil jabr is different from the other cases of zina and in our
opinion it is a serious kind of fasad fi 'l-ard (creating mischief and disorder in
the land) and hirabah. Hence, for proving this offence the required standard of
52
evidence is that of hirabah, not zina.” It is surprising that the Court even did
not take up the question as to why the jurists discuss the rules about coercion in
sexual intercourse while discussing the rules about zina? This issue will be
discussed in detail later.
On what ground the Federal Shariat Court considered rape as serious form of
hirabah? The Court has come up with an interesting argument:
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If attack on the property of a person is called hirabah, why not the attack
on a person's honor should also be deemed so? After all, in all that a person
has what is more precious than his honor and as such what can be the worst
53
form of fasad except attacking his honor?
This may appeal to emotions but legally speaking this argument does not carry
any weight. Firstly, does the Court have the authority to expound new principles of
Islamic law and go against the established boundaries of the schools of Islamic
54
law? Even if this basic question is ignored and it is assumed for the sake of
argument that the Court has such an authority, the next question is: did the Court
check the compatibility of this 'new' principle with the already established norms of
the system?55 The answer to this question is clearly in negative. Thus, the Court did
56
not consider the consequences of considering “honor” as “property” . Thus, it did
not explain if this property will be mutaqawwam (marketable) or ghayr
57
mutaqawwam (non-marketable) ? If it is ghayr mutaqawwam, how can it be
brought under the concept of hirabah? If, on the other hand, it is presumed
mutaqawwam, what will be the standard of taqwim (valuation)? Will the honor of
different persons have different qimah (value) and, as such, the one “looting” this
property from different persons will deserve different punishments? How will the
law prescribe a minimum nisab for this “property” for the purpose of imposing the
58
hadd of hirabah?
Even if all these questions are ignored and rape is presumed hirabah, some
more serious questions arise on the way the Court disposed of this issue without
checking the analytical inconsistency. Thus, even though it declared that rape was a
form of hirabah, it did not order the government to remove the provisions regarding
rape from the Offence of Zina Ordinance and place them in the Offences against
Property Ordinance. It also did not ask the government to change the definition of
hirabah so as to include rape in its scope. Finally, the Court did not apply the
punishment of hirabah to rape even after declaring that rape was a serious form of
hirabah. Significantly, the Court declared that the hadd punishment could not be
given on the basis of the testimony of women. It also reaffirmed the legal position
adopted by the Hudood Ordinances that ta`zir can be awarded on the basis of any
evidence which satisfies the court about the guilt of the accused. Hence, the only
change directed by the Court in the law regarding rape was to reduce the number of
witnesses from four to two for the punishment of hadd.
Can Circumstantial Evidence Prove the Hadd Offences?
For accepting circumstantial evidence in a rape case and considering it a form
of hirabah, the Federal Shariat Court relied on an incident that is reported to have
taken place during the lifetime of the Prophet (peace be on him). Before we evaluate
the inferences of the Court it seems proper to briefly mention the report of the
incident:
Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad
170

A woman went out during the time of the Prophet (peace be on him) for
offering the fajr prayer. She was caught by a person who fulfilled his
desire from her. She cried and he ran away. When people gathered she
informed them of the incident. She also came across a group of the
muhajirin and told them about it. They went to capture the culprit and
brought the person whom she believed to be the culprit. She said: “Yes,
this is the one.” They brought him to the Prophet (peace be on him). When
he ordered that he be stoned, the actual culprit (who was watching all these
developments silently) stood up and said: “O Messenger of Allah! I am the
one who did it to her.” The Prophet said to the woman: “Go. Allah has
forgiven your mistake.” He also said good words about the first accused
and told the about the actual culprit: “He has repented in such a way that if
the whole population of Madinah had repented his way it would have
sufficed them.”59
This incident has been narrated by different reporters, who contradict each
other in some details, but they agree on the following points:
 That sexual violence was committed against the woman;
 That when the woman claimed that sexual violence was committed
against her, she was not asked to bring four witnesses;
 That the detailed procedure for proving the hadd offence was not
followed; for instance, no inquiry was made about the culprit if he was
muhsan or not;
 That the first accused was given punishment on the basis of circumstantial
60
evidence.
The Federal Shariat Court raised some important questions on this report:
Whether the first accused was awarded the rajm punishment or he was
about to be awarded this punishment when the actual culprit came
forward? Whether he was muhsan or ghayr muhsan? The punishment
awarded to him by the Prophet (peace be on him) was hadd or ta`zir?
Whether this punishment was actually awarded for the purpose of being
enforced or the Prophetic genius had seen that because of the spontaneous
reaction of awarding this punishment the actual culprit would come out
with his confession? Whether the first accused was awarded the
punishment on the basis of the testimony of the complainant alone or on
the basis of the overall corroborative circumstances of the case? Whether
that person remained silent or had denied the allegation? If he denied the
allegation, why was his denial not accepted? Why was the woman not
61
asked to bring four witnesses?
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It is, however, surprising that even after raising these questions the Court
preferred not to answer them and quickly jumped to conclusions. The fact remains
that unless these questions are answered, the true nature of this punishment cannot
be understood and this report cannot be used to modify the structure of the hudud as
developed by the jurists. We have the following objections on this summary
treatment of the issue by the Federal Shariat Court:
 This report is used in this summary fashion by those who assert that hadd
punishment can be awarded on the basis of circumstantial evidence.62 If
this report is accepted on the face of it, the same conclusion must be
accepted even if it was deemed an issue of the hadd of hirabah, not of zina,
as the Court wants us to believe.
 The report mentioned above explicitly mentions that the first accused was
awarded the punishment. Hence, it becomes necessary to ascertain if this
punishment was hadd or ta`zir. If it was the hadd punishment and even
then the rest of the questions are not answered, it simply implies that these
questions are not important even in cases of hudud.
 Is there any other example of the Prophet (peace be on him) using his
“prophetic genius” in awarding punishment to someone with the intention
of getting the real culprit on the basis of a “spontaneous reaction”?
 How could the Court ignore the most important question of the standard of
evidence?
 Even if the real culprit was awarded punishment on the basis of his
confession, the procedure for the confession of zina was not followed.
63
Even then, the Court ignored this issue and deemed it a case of hadd.
To conclude then, instead of changing the structure of the hudud on the basis of
this solitary report, the proper way to deal with this report is to interpret it in such a
way that it becomes compatible with the structure of hudud, which in turn is based
not only on a number of texts but also on the principles of law. Such an interpretation
is not only possible but also plausible.
The woman was going for fajr prayer and was attacked near mosque. This was
undoubtedly an act of fasadfi 'l-ard (creating mischief and disorder in the land)
attracting the principle of siyasah. The circumstances clearly suggested that
violence was committed against the woman. It must be presumed here that the
woman was complaining about violence, even if it was in the form of sexual assault,
and was not specifically alleging the offence of zina. Thus, the allegation did not
attract the rules of zina and qadhf. This becomes the basis for absolving the woman
from the liability of bringing four witnesses or facing the qdhf punishment.
Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad
172

The only question that remains unanswered is: can circumstantial evidence
prove a siyasah offence?
Circumstantial Evidence in Siyasah Cases
If one examines the instances where the Prophet (peace be on him) awarded a
punishment and the jurists call it siyasah, one finds that in many of these cases the
conviction was based on circumstantial evidence or previous record of the convict.
A glaring example is the following case.
During the time of the Prophet (peace be on him) a woman was found seriously
injured and when asked about the culprit she could not pronounce his name; people
mentioned many names and on one name she nodded. This was considered a
conclusive proof against the culprit who was given similar punishment for causing
the death of the woman. The illustrious Sarakhsi commenting on this incident says:
The true purport of this report is that the punishment was awarded as
siyasah because the culprit was creating mischief and disorder in the land
(fasad fi 'l-ard) and was well-known for such activities. This is evident
from the fact that when the woman was found seriously injured, people
asked her about the culprit and mentioned many name which she rejected
by the movement of her head and finally when the name of that Jew was
mentioned she nodded in favor. Obviously, only those people are named
in such a situation who are well-known for such activities and in our
opinion the ruler can give death punishment to such a person under the
64
doctrine of siyasah.
This implies that in cases of siyasah, any kind of evidence that satisfies the
court can be deemed admissible.65 Thus, the siyasah punishment can be awarded
on
the basis of the testimony of women alone, or of non-Muslims alone, or
circumstantial evidence. It is now time to turn to the Hanafi classification of offences
and punishments.

Part Three

The Hanafi Classification of Offences and Punishments


The Hanafi School links all punishments to various kinds of rights and for this
purpose divides all rights into three broad categories: rights of individual, rights of
community and rights of God.66 This is presumably the most important feature of the
Hanafi criminal law and it ensures analytical consistency in the system. All the
punishments are linked to one or more of these rights. Thus, all the hudud
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punishments – except the hadd of qadhf – are linked to the pure rights of God; ta`zir67
punishments are linked to the rights of individual, while siyasah punishments are
linked to the rights of the community. Sometimes a wrong is considered violation of
the joint right of God and of individual. In such a joint right, sometimes the right of
God is predominant – such as in case of the hadd of qadhf – while sometimes the
right of individual is deemed predominant – such as in case of qisas. Thus, qisas
attracts some of the rules of the rights of individual, such as the possibility of waiver
and compromise, as well as some of the rules pertaining to the right of God, such as
suspension of the punishment due to the existence of shubhah (mistake of law or of
fact).68
The Right of God Distinguished from the Right of the Community
One of the reasons for the confusion of modern scholars in this area of law is
that because of a superficial reading of the texts of the jurists they did not appreciate
this intricate system of rights and equated the right of God with the right of the
community. For instance, Kasani while elaborating the nature of the punishment of
qadhf says: “If the evil effects of a wrong reach the general public and the good
effects of its punishment also reach the general public, the obligatory punishment
for such wrong is the pure right of Allah, Great is His Majesty.”69 This statement may
be wrongly construed to prove that the right of God is the same as the right of the
community. This wrong construction ignores the fact that Kasani uses the word
“obligatory” for the punishment which is awarded as a right of God. The use of this
word indicates that the punishment can neither be commuted nor pardoned. This is
what Kasani explicitly says in the next part of the same statement:
The obligatory punishment for such wrong is the pure right of Allah, Great
is His Majesty, so that the general public surely gets the benefits of this
punishment and is surely protected from the evils of that wrong. This
purpose can only be achieved if a human being does not have the authority
to waive this punishment. That is exactly what is meant by ascribing these
rights to Allah, Blessed and High is He.70
Hence, the right of God cannot be deemed equivalent to the right of
community.
Kasani further elaborates this point by enumerating the consequences of
considering the hadd of qadhf as the right of God. Thus, he says:
Now that it has been proved that the hadd of qadhf is pure right of God, or
at least the right of God is predominant in it, we conclude: it cannot be
pardoned because the authority to pardon vests in the one whose right has
been violated; it cannot be waived through compromise or compensation
Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad
174

because a person cannot get compensation for the violation of the right of
another; it cannot be inherited because the rules of inheritance apply to the
property owned by the deceased or his rights… and as nothing of the sort
exists, the rules of inheritance will not apply; and only one punishment
71
will be given even if the wrong was committed more than once.
The net conclusion is that the rules relating to the right of God are generally
applied to qadhf. On the contrary, ta`zir is the pure right of individual.72
Some of the later Hanafi jurists, who were influenced by the views of the Shafi`i
jurists, asserted that ta`zir can be awarded in the right of God also. However, this led
to analytical inconsistency and Ibn `Abidin had to assert that in such cases, ta`zir
cannot be pardoned because the right of God cannot be pardoned by any human
authority.73
Significant Features of the Doctrine of Siyasah
Here, we should also briefly mention some important features of the siyasah
punishment. As this punishment involves a right of the community, the ruler may
pardon the offender because he acts as the agent (wakil) of the community. As ta`zir
is not suspended even in the presence of a mistake of law (which the jurists call
“shubhah”), the same is true of the siyasah punishment. The standard of evidence
has been fixed by the texts of the Qur'an and the Sunnah for the hudud, qiṣaṣand
ta`zir offences, but for the siyasah punishments the authority for prescribing the
standard of evidence has been given to the ruler. Resultantly, the court may award
the siyasah punishment on the basis of the testimony of women alone, or of non-
Muslims alone, or circumstantial evidence. Similarly, the court may decide about
the minimum or maximum limit of the punishment keeping in view the restrictions
imposed on it by the texts of the Qur'an and the Sunnah as well as by the general
principles of Islamic law.74
75
Ta`zir and siyasah have many characteristics in common which is why
76
sometimes these terms are used interchangeably. However, an analysis of the
sections on ta`zir in the classical manuals of Islamic law suggests that the jurists
were dealing with two kinds of ta`zir: one, the cases that fall under the notion of
ta'dib (disciplinary measures), such as rebuking a child of ten years for non-
performance of prayer or a master's punishing his servant for not obeying his lawful
commands; two, the cases where the court awards a lesser punishment because a
condition of the hadd punishment is missing or a shubhah exists. In the former case,
ta`zir is a pure right of individual. In the latter case, it is the right of the community
and when the jurists use the word ta`zir for this punishment it is just because in its
wider sense the word includes siyasah. In the former case, ta`zir is not “punishment
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proper” and that is why it can be awarded even to a minor above the age of seven and
77
it is neither necessary nor convenient for the government to enforce it. In the latter
case, it is the government which will enforce the punishment because it involves the
right of the community at large.78

Part Four

Relationship of Rape and Zina: The Approach of the Jurists


After analyzing and refuting the theory of Islahi about considering rape as a
form of hirabah, it is time now to turn the manuals of the jurists to see how do the
jurists analyze cases of sexual violence? It is only after identifying the legal
principles developed by the jurists that one can think of bringing the offence of
sexual violence under the rubric of siyasah without violating those principles.
Hence, this Section will first identify the legal principles developed by the jurists for
this issue.
Unfortunately, the discussion of the issue of rape has generally been marred by
a kind of emotional and sentimental approach which is based on the presumption
that only is this crime invariably committed by man but also that the complainant in
79
a rape case is always considered a victim of rape. The jurists, however, had to
analyze this issue dispassionately and objectively. Hence, they looked at it from all
the various perspectives and divided the issue of rape into three sub-issues:
Legal Position of the Complainant and the Victim
Legal Position of the Accused
Legal Position of the Convict
Each of these sub-issues will be analyzed separately here.
Legal Position of the Complainant and the Victim
There are two possible situations for determining the legal position of the
complainant: when she proves that she was coerced and when she does not prove
coercion. In both cases, the application of the rules of zina must be examined
separately from that of the rules of qadhf.
Thus, if it is proved that the woman was forced to have sexual intercourse, she
cannot be given the hadd of zina under any circumstances80 even if it was ikrah naqis
81
(deficient form of coercion). She cannot be given the punishment of qadhf also as
her being a victim of the worst form of sexual violence will be deemed a shubhah to
suspend the operation of the law of qadhf.
Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad
176

On the other hand, if no proof of her being coerced is given, the accusation will
attract the rules of qadhf because it is an accusation of illicit sexual intercourse.
Sarakhsi, for instance, says that if two witnesses give testimony of consensual
sexual intercourse and two witnesses say that the woman was coerced, neither the
82
man nor the woman will be given the hadd punishment of zina. It simply means that
the case attracts the rules of zina because the guilt can be proved only through the
testimony of four witnesses. A necessary corollary of this rule is that if four
witnesses are not there, the rules of qadhf will be applied. However, this complaint
will not be deemed a confession of zina on the part of the complainant because
83
confession of zina has a peculiar form and procedure.
Legal Position of the Accused
When a person is accused of a crime, he cannot be given a punishment unless it
84
is proved beyond a reasonable doubt that he committed that crime. When a woman
accuses a man of committing rape with her, there are many possibilities, apart from
the truth of the accusation. Thus, for instance, she might have been a willing partner
who later turned hostile against her friend; or it might be a plot against the accused.
The court will have to consider all the hypothetical possibilities and will not punish
the accused unless all other possibilities, except his guilt, are eliminated.
Even when it is proved that the woman was assaulted and that she was not a
willing partner, this will not be enough to prove the guilt of the accused. The
complainant being innocent or aggrieved does not automatically prove that the
accused is the culprit; positive evidence of his being guilty is required. Hence, the
position of the complainant must be dealt with separately from that of the accused.
Legal Position of the Convict
When it is proved that the accused had committed sexual violence, the next task
before the jurist and the judge is to determine the nature and extent of the crime
because different forms of sexual violence will attract different rules. A thorough
analysis of the manuals of the jurists shows that they checked various possibilities to
assert or deny the application of various rules:
If the culprit causes a hurt or injury while committing the offence of zina, he is
also liable for the hurt or injury. Thus, if he caused a minor damage to her sex organ,
he will pay one-third of diyah for causing jurh ja'ifah,85 while he will be liable to pay
86
full diyah if he completely damaged it. Similarly, if he broke her limb, he will pay
87
the arsh for it.
If a person coerces a minor girl for sex and causes damage to her, hadd
punishment will not be imposed on him because the act lacks an essential condition
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of zina, but he will be given ta`zir88 and he will also be liable to pay one-third of diyah
as well as mahr (dower). But if he is to pay full diyah, he will not be asked to pay
89
mahr. In such situations, mahr does not mean recognition of marital relationship
between the couple; rather, it is based on the principle of law that illicit sexual
intercourse will attract one of the two rules: either hadd or mahr. Thus, this mahr
results from illicit sexual intercourse, not from marital relationship.
The `aqilah (allies of the convict) will not share the responsibility of paying
90
such diyah or arsh because it is deemed `amd (intentional murder or hurt).
One the same principle, if a person commits sexual intercourse with a
concubine and thereby causes her death, he is liable to hadd punishment as well as to
pay the qimah (value) of the concubine.91
Zina coupled with violence or ikrah (coercion) is a more grievous offence than
92
ordinary zina. It means that in some cases of rape the court may award death
punishment as siyasah even if the offender is not muhsan.
93
Similarly, unnatural sexual intercourse also attracts the rules of siyasah.
The jurists disagreed on whether or not a man can be coerced to have sexual
intercourse because sexual intercourse is not possible in the absence of erection and
94
erection shows the desire for sex. However, the official position of the Hanafi
95
School is that erection can be caused by other causes, such as intoxication.
Moreover, even if erection shows desire it does not prove “consent”.96 Hence,
Sarakhsi has mentioned it explicitly that if a man is coerced to have sexual
intercourse, hadd punishment will not be imposed upon him provided this was ikrah
97
tamm.
Now, if a man can be coerced to commit this act, the coercion may come from
another man who wants him to have sexual intercourse with a woman or it may come
from a woman. Last but not least, a woman may coerce a man to have sexual
intercourse with her. While this final act may or may not be called “rape”, it has to be
criminalized.
If a man is forced to have sex with a woman he has to pay mahr. This rule is
applicable in case where the man under coercion coerces that woman as well as in
case where the woman willfully allows him to have sexual intercourse with her
98
because such permission has no legal consequence.
Creating the Siyasah Offence of Sexual Violence
This overview of the various rules of Islamic law proves that the legal regime as
developed by the jurists is based on fundamental principle: that whenever sexual
intercourse is there, the rules of zina and qadhf will be applicable. Hence, the only
way to avoid the application of the rules of zina and qadhf and to bring this offence
Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad
178

under the doctrine of siyasah is to define it in such a way that sexual intercourse does
not constitute the essential element of the offence. The essential element of this new
offence shall be coercion or violence, not sexual intercourse.
Thus, oral sex, unnatural offences and other forms of sexual violence can all be
brought under this wider concept. It will, thus, fill the gaps found in the present rape
law. Last but not least, it will not require four witnesses.
Importantly, the new offence will become a sub-group of violence, not zina.
This question is important from the perspective of the theory of purposes of Islamic
law (maqasid al-shari`ah)99.According to Ghazali, the purposes of the Shari`ah are
of two types: the dini or the purposes of the Hereafter and the dunyawi or the
purposes pertaining to this world. He further divides the worldly purposes into four
types: the preservation of nafs (life), the preservation of nasl (progeny), the
preservation of `aql (intellect), and the preservation of mal (wealth). When all types
are taken together we have five basic purposes of law, which are also called darurat
(primary purposes). The values in the priority order are: din, nafs, nasl, `aql and
100
mal.
The jurists hold that the punishment of zina is for the protection of the value of
101
nasl. However, the offence of sexual violence is different from zina as it does not
have the element of sexual intercourse and as such it will not be deemed an attack on
the value of nasl. It will be more appropriate to consider it an attack on the value of
nafs, which will also be in conformity with the priority order of the maqasid al-
shari`ah mentioned above.
Recommendations
For bringing the existing Pakistani law into conformity with the ahkam of the
Noble Shari`ah, it is necessary that:
 An offence of sexual violence is created which does not involve sexual
intercourse as an essential element. That is the only way to delink this
offence from zina and qadhf and bring it under the doctrine of siyasah.
This offence will, thus, become a sub-category of violence, not zina.
The government using its authority under the doctrine of siyasah
shar`iyyah(administration of justice in accordance with the principles
of Islamic law) may bring sex crimes involving the threat or use of
violence under one heading and, then, further categorize it in view of
the intensity and gravity of the crime. It may also prescribe proper
punishments for various categories of the crime.
Being a siyasah crime, it will not require the standard proof prescribed by
the Noble Shari`ah for the hadd of zina or other hudud. Rather, the court
may decide the case on the basis of the available forms of evidence,
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
179

including forensic and medical reports as well as the testimony on women


and non-Muslims. Indirect and circumstantial evidence may also be
deemed admissible if it satisfies the court.
In extreme cases, the court may award death punishment which can be
commuted or pardoned only by the government, not by the victim or her
legal heirs.
The crime of sexual violence so defined may also include violence against
men and, thus, it will be gender-neutral.
Zina has to be kept separately from the crime of sexual violence and its
sub-categories because it is a hadd offence, but it must be correlated with
the offence of qadhf and the law of qadhf must be made more effective by
removing the exceptions of good faith and public good which have no
justification in the Noble Shari`ah.

End Notes
1
In Pakistan, the law of rape has been examined from various perspectives and
different scholars have come up with divergent views on the issue. See for a
good compilation of the works produced in Urdu: Khurshid Ahmad Nadim,
Islam ka Tasawwur-e-Jurm-o-Saza [Islamic Concept of Crime and
Punishment] (Islamabad: International Institute of Islamic Thought, 1997),
Vol. 2. For an analysis of the relevant case law, see: Charles Kennedy,
Islamization of Laws and Economy in Pakistan (Islamabad: Institute of Policy
Studies, 1991). For one of the most severe critiques of the Hudood Laws, see:
Rubya Mehdi, The Islamization of Laws in Pakistan (Richmond, Surrey:
Curzon, 1994). For a kind of patch-up between the traditional and the liberal
view, see: Asifa Quraishi, “Her Honor: An Islamic Critique of the Rape
Provisions in Pakistan's Ordinance on Zina”, Islamic Studies 38: 3 (1999), 403-
32. See also: Muhammad Tufayl Hashimi, Hudud Ordinance Kitab-o-Sunnat
ki Roshni men (Peshawar: National Research and Development Foundation,
2005).
2
Hadd is a specific kind of punishment enforced as the 'right of God'. Details are
given below.
3
The four Hudood Ordinances of 1979 incorporated some of the principles of
Islamic law in the Pakistani criminal justice system. The draft of the
Ordinances was prepared by the Council of Islamic Ideology which comprised
of some renowned legal experts and religious scholars of the various schools of
thought including: Justice (r) Muhammad Afzal Cheema, Justice (r)
Salahuddin Ahmad, A. K. Brohi, Mawlana Muhammad Yusuf Binnori, Khwaja
Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad
180

Qamaruddin Pir Siyal Sharif, Mufti Siyahuddin Kakakhel, Mufti Muhammad


Husayn Na`imi, Zafar Ahmad Ansari, Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani, Mufti
Ja`far Husayn Mujtahid, Mawlana Muhammad Hanif Nadvi. Dr. Zafaruddin
Ahmad, Mawlana Shams al-Haqq Afghani, `Allamah Sayiid Muhammad Razi
and Dr. Mrs. Khawar Khan Chishti. See for details: Muhammad Mushtaq
Ahmad, Hudud Qawanin: Islamic Nazriyati Council ki `Uburi Report ka
Tanqidi Ja'izah [Hudud Laws: Critical Analysis of the Interim Report of the
Council of Islamic Ideology](Mardan: Midrar al-`Ulum, 2006), 7-8.
4
Throughout this essay, the phrase “sexual violence” is preferred to “rape” primarily
because rape essentially involves sexual intercourse while sexual violence is a
generic term which includes other offences as well. It may be noted here that
the recent changes in the Indian law have brought all the various offences under
the umbrella concept of rape. This law needs separate analysis.
5
Rashida Patel v The Federation of Pakistan,PLD 1989 FSC 95.
6
Section 497 of the Indian Penal Code defined adultery as: “Whoever has sexual
intercourse with a person who is and whom he knows or has reason to believe to
be the wife of another man, without the consent or connivance of that man, such
sexual intercourse not amounting to the offence of rape, is guilty of the offence
of adultery, and shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a
term which may extend to five years, or with fine, or with both. In such case the
wife shall be punishable as an abettor.”
7
Proper transliteration is qadhf. The term denotes false accusation of zina. In this
essay, it has been generally transliterated as qadhf except where a reference has
been made to the said Ordinance.
8
See Section 3 of the Qazf Ordinance.
9
The various provisions of the Qazf Ordinance require separate detailed analysis.
10
PLD 1963 SC 51. The same was reaffirmed in Abdul Mannan v Safuran Nisa,
1970 SCMR 845, as well as Muhammad Salahuddin v Muhammad Nazir
Siddiqi, 1984 SCMR 583.
11
PLD 1982 FSC 229.
12
PLD 1981 SC 120.
13
PLD 1988 SC 186.
14
Rashida Patel v The Federation of Pakistan, PLD 1989 FSC 95.
15
Tadabbur-i-Qur'an (Lahore: Faran Foundation, 2001), 2: 505-508.
16
Ibid., 5: 361-77.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
181

17
See Sections 5 and 13 to 16 of the Act.
18
Till quite recently, the Indian Penal Code contained this exception: “Sexual
intercourse by a man with his own wife, the wife not being under fifteen years
of age, is not rape.” The law has, however, been changed in 2013.
19
Section 4 of the Zina Ordinance defines “zina” as: “A man and a woman are said to
commit 'Zina' if they willfully have sexual intercourse without being married
to each other.” Section 496B of PPC defines “fornication” in similar terms: “A
man and a woman not married to each other are said to commit fornication if
they willfully have sexual intercourse with one another.”
20
Section 4 of the Offence of Zina Ordinance.
21
Section 496B of PPC.
22
Section 3 of the Offence of Qazf Ordinance and Section 496C of PPC.
23
Ss. 375-377 of PPC.
24
Section 6 (c) of the Anti-Terrorism Act, 1997. Importantly, under the present
Pakistani Law, a man cannot be raped because Section 375 of PPC confines
rape to the act of a man against a woman: “A man is said to commit rape who
has sexual intercourse with a woman…”
25
PPC Ss. 292-294.
26
Ibid., Ss. 354-354A.
27
Ibid., Ss 332-337Z.
28
Ibid., Ss. 338-338C.
29
Ibid., Ss. 365-74.
30
Ibid., Ss. 493-496C.
31
See, for instance, Mawlana Muhammad Yusuf Ludhyanawi, Rajm ki Shar`i
Haythiyat [The Legal Status of Stoning] (Karachi: Maktabah
Ludhyanawiyyah, n.d.).
32
Javed Ahmad Ghamidi (b. 1951), the famous disciple of Islahi went into great
details while defending this theory and giving rejoinders to those who
criticized his master. See: Mizan (Lahore: Danish Sara, 1982).
33
Mahmood Ahmad Ghazi (d. 2010), a renowned scholar, was among those who
while sticking to the tradition tried to accommodate the view of Islahi by
suggesting to accept the views of those jurists who allowed awarding the hadd
punishment on the basis of circumstantial evidence. See: Ghazi, “Hudud awr
Qisas kay Muqaddimat men`Awraton ki Gawahi” [The Testimony of Women
in Cases of Hudud and Qisas], Fikr-o-Nazar, 30: 3 (1993), 3-20.
Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad
182

34
Islahi was the disciple of a famous scholar of the Qur'anic sciences Mawlana
Hamid al-Din Farahi (d. 1930) who is given the credit for expounding the
theory of Nazm-i-Qur'an (coherence in the Qur'an). Farahi did not leave much
of his work in written form apart from a few booklets on the principles of the
Qur'anic exegesis and commentary of a few small chapters of the Qur'an. It was
Islahi who in many of his books, particularly the nine-volume exegesis of the
Qur'an titled Tadabbur-i-Qur'an, elaborated the principles and theories of
Farahi. Thus, although Farahi commented briefly on the verses regarding
hirabah and mentioned that the punishment covered rajm, it was Islahi who
developed a full-fledged theory in Tadabbur-i-Qur'an. See for details about the
peculiar principles and contribution of the “Farahi School”: Sharf al-Din Islahi,
Dhikr-e-Farahi (Lahore: Dar al-Tadhkir, 2002). For details about the theory of
Nazm-i-Qur'an, see: Mustansir Mir, The Coherence in the Qur'an: A Study of
Islahi's Concept of Nazm in Tadabbur-i-Qur'an (Indianapolis: The American
Trust Publications, 1987). See for an overview of the life and work of Islahi: Dr.
Akhtar Husayn `Azmi, Mawlana Amin Ahsan Islahi: Life and Thought
(Lahore: Nashriyyat, 2009).
35
In the post-9/11 debates in Pakistan on terrorism and Islamic law, Ghamidi tried to
distinguish in the same way between ordinary crime and terrorism. (Afzal
Rehan, “Interview of Javed Ahmad Ghamidi on Distinguishing Jihad from
Terrorism”, Monthly “Ishraq” Lahore (November 2001), 59.) Thus, he
specifically declared that the term hirabah included terrorism also. (See: Javed
Ahmad Ghamidi, Mizan (Lahore: Dar al-Ishraq, 2001), 284.)
36
This means that Islahi and his disciples could not appreciate the distinction
between the operation of criminal law and that of the law of war. The jurists
deal rebellion under the law of war while deal with hirabah under criminal law.
See for details about the distinction in the legal status of rebels and ordinary
gangsters: Sadia Tabassum, “Combatants, Not Bandits: The Status of Rebels in
Islamic Law”, International Review of the Red Cross, 93: 881 (2011), 121-139.
37
Does it mean that other forms of taqtil can replace rajm? In other words, even if
rajm was the punishment for hirabah, it remains to be ascertained if it was a
hadd or ta`zir. Islahi did not elaborate this issue, while Ghamidi appears to
deem it ta`zir.
38
Muhsan is the one who fulfills the conditions of ihsan. The term ihsan is used in
two different meanings in the Hanafi criminal law: ihsan for the purposes of the
offence of qadhf and ihsan for the purposes of the rajm punishment for zina.
The former, i.e. ihsan al-qadhf entails five conditions: that the person must be
sane, major, Muslim, free and not proved to have committed zina. This
existence of this last condition is presumed for every person. Similarly, every
person is generally presumed free. Hence, generally three conditions are
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
183

deemed essential: sanity, puberty and Islam. As far as ihsan al-rajm is


concerned, it necessitates the following seven conditions: sanity, puberty,
Islam, freedom, the fact that the spouse of the person has also fulfilled these
four conditions, valid contract of marriage between the spouses and intercourse
after the fulfillment of these six conditions. See for details: `Ala' al-Din, Abu
Bakr b. Mas`ud al-Kasani, Bada'i` al-Sana'i` fi Tartib al-Shara'i`, eds. `Ali al-
Mu`awwad and `Adil `Abd al-Mawjud (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-`Ilmiyyah,
2003), 9: 217-220.
39
See for a detailed discussion on this issue: Abu Bakr Muhammad b. Abi Sahl al-
Sarakhsi, Tamhid al-Fusul fi 'l-Usul [hereinafter Usul al-Sarakhsi] (Lahore:
Maktabah Madaniyyah, 1981), 2: 53–86; AbuHamid Muhammad b.
Muhammad al-Ghazali, al-Mustasfa min `Ilm al-Usul (Beirut: Dar Ihya' al-
Turath al-`Arabi, n. d.), 1: 107–128. See also: Imran Ahsan Khan Nyazee,
Islamic Jurisprudence (Islamabad: Islamic Research Institute, 2000), 317–24.
About abrogation of the verses of the Qur'an, `Abd al-Majid Daryabadi (d.
1977), a famous Indian scholar of the twentieth century, says: “There is nothing
to be ashamed of in the doctrine of certain laws, temporary or local, being
superseded or abrogated by certain other laws, permanent and universal, and
enacted by the same lawgiver, especially during the course of the promulgation
of that law. The course of Qur'anic Revelation has been avowedly gradual. It
took about 23 years to finish and complete the Legislation. Small wonder, then,
that certain minor laws, admittedly transitory, were replaced by certain other
laws, lasting and essential… It must be, however, clearly understood that the
doctrine of abrogation applies to 'law' only… Beliefs, articles of faith,
principles of law, narratives, exhortations, moral precepts and spiritual verities
— none of these is at all subject to abrogation or repeal. See, Tafsir al-Qur'an
(Karachi: Dar al-Isha`at, 1991), 1: 71.
40
Mutawatir or continuous narration of a tradition technically means that the report
is narrated by such a large number of narrators in each generation that the
possibility of fabrication is negated. See for details: Usul al-Sarakhsi, 1: 282-
291.
41
For the jurists, as all other traditions report the rajm punishment for the offence of
zina, these general reports are also about the offence of zina.
42
Ghamidi says that these reports mention it as one of the factors, and not the sole
factor, for deciding about the punishment.
43
This because these reports refute the idea that the convict was a habitual offender
and that he was given the punishment for making him an example for others,
and not for the offence of zina per se.
Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad
184

44
Many scholars have written in support of, or against, Islahi's theory of rajm. See for
a compilation of some selected works: Khurshid Ahmad Nadim, Islam ka
Tasawwur-e-Jurm-o-Saza [Islamic Concept of Crime and Punishment]
(Islamabad: International Institute of Islamic Thought, 1997), Vol. 2.
45
Khawarij (lit. those who went out) were those rebelled against the fourth caliph
`Ali (God be pleased with him) after the latter agreed to a compromise
settlement with Mu`awiyah (God be pleased with him) to put an end to the civil
war. The Khawarij developed a system of creed and law and emerged as a
puritanical sect. They were anarchists in essence. See for details: Shihab al-Din
Ahmad Ibn Hajar al-Haytami, al-Sawa`iq al-Muhriqah `ala Ahl al-Rafd wa 'l-
Dalal wa 'l-Zandaqah (Cairo: al-Matba'ah al-Maymaniyyah, 1312 AH.), 1:
26).
46
See for a comparative description of the views of the various jurists about the
punishment of zina: Abu Bakr Ahmad b. `Ali al-Jassas al-Razi, Mukhtasar
Ikhtilaf al-`Ulama', ed. `Abdullah Nadhir Ahmad (Beirut: Dar al-Basha'ir al-
Islamiyyah, 1995), 3: 277-280.
47
Asifa Quraishi referred to the views of some of the Maliki jurists who included rape
in the wider doctrine of fasad (causing mischief and disorder) but she could not
prove that these jurists deemed rajm as the punishment for this offence.
Moreover, she did not acknowledge that the idea came from Islahi. See: “Her
Honor: An Islamic Critique of the Rape Provisions in Pakistan's Ordinance on
Zina”, Islamic Studies 38: 3 (1999), 403-32. See also: Hashimi, Hudud
Ordinance, 47ff.
48
Islahi says that the “neo- Khawarij” [the modernists] are more dangerous than the
“ancient Khawarij” because the latter only denied the punishment of rajm
while the former deny the punishment of lashes also. Tadabbur-i-Qur'an, 5:
365.
49
Hazoor Bukhsh v The State, PLD 1983 FSC 1.
50
Justice Aftab made a few important observations about hudud, which – if accepted
– could demolish the whole edifice of the criminal law as developed by the
jurists. See for a detailed criticism of his theory: Imran Ahsan Khan Nyazee,
Theories of Islamic Law: The Methodology of Ijtihad (Islamabad: Islamic
Research Institute, 1994), 109-124.
51
In 1979, when the Hudood Ordinances were promulgated, Shariat Benches were
also established in the High Courts with two-fold jurisdiction: to hear appeals
in the Hudood Cases and to examine the existing laws for compatibility with
Islamic law. However, four laws were excluded from the jurisdiction of the
Shariat Benches. “Muslim Personal Law” was one of those laws. In Farishta v
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
185

The Federation of Pakistan, the Peshawar High Court Shariat Bench asserted
jurisdiction to examine Section 4 of the Muslim Family Laws Ordinance, 1961,
and declared it null and void for repugnancy with the provisions of Islamic law.
(PLD 1980 Pesh 47). However, in appeal the Supreme Court declared that the
law was excluded from the jurisdiction of the High Court's Shariat Bench as it
was covered by the definition of “Muslim Personal Law”. (PLD 1981 SC 120).
For the Supreme Court, this phrase meant the state legislation applicable on
Muslim citizens only. This decision remained in field till the Supreme Court
revisited and overturned it in Dr. Mahmoodurrahman Faisal v Government of
Pakistan, PLD 1994 SC 607.
52
PLD 1989 FSC 95 at 134.This is the translation by the present author as the
judgment was written in Urdu.
53
PLD 1989 FSC 95 at 127.
54
In Pakistan, the superior judiciary has on different occasions asserted that it is not
bound by the opinions of the jurists of a particular school. It has even claimed
the right to give new interpretation of the Qur'an and the Sunnah in violation of
the established principles of the various schools. See, for instance:Khurshid
Bibi v Muhammad Amin, PLD 1967 SC 97. It is strange, however, that the
courts after asserting this right of absolute ijtihad did not as yet come up with a
coherent legal theory for this purpose. Most of the times, the judges pick and
choose between the views of the various schools and filling the gaps by faulty
reasoning based on the notions of natural law, equity and discretionary sense of
justice. See for a detailed criticism on this: Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad,
“Pakistan men Ra'ij Fojdari Qawanin: Islami Qanuni Fikr kay Chand Aham
Mabahith” [Pakistani Criminal Law: Some Important Issues of Islamic Legal
Thought], Fikr-o-Nazar, 50-51: 4-1 (2013), 111-154.
55
Ghazali (d. 505/1111), the illustrious jurist-cum-philosopher, who expounded the
theory of the objectives of Islamic law prescribes three conditions for accepting
a new principle in the legal system: that it does not alter the implications of a
text of the Qur'an or the Sunnah; that it does not violate the general propositions
of the law; and that it is not strange to the legal system. (Ghazali, al-Mustasfa,
1: 217.) This simply means that the new principle can be accommodated only if
it is compatible with the already existing legal system.
56
A legal concept (called bab by the jurists and Nazariyyah by the modern Arab
scholars) does not come into existence spontaneously. Rather, first issues are
framed and rules are derived for them in accordance with a specified - and
internally coherent - methodology. Then, these various rules are brought under
a broader principle. After this, various principles are combined under a broader
Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad
186

concept, such as property, contract, ownership and so on. See for a good
discussion on this issue: Imran Ahsan Khan Nyazee, Islamic Legal Maxims
(Islamabad: Federal Law House, 2013), 23-37.
57
Marketable property is the one whose use has been allowed by Islamic law, while
the use as well as sale and purchase of non-marketable property are prohibited
for Muslims. They also include things which cannot be converted into private
property.
58
Nisab is the minimum amount of property which if stolen or robbed will attract the
hadd punishment. Section 6 of the Offences against Property (Enforcement of
Hudood) Ordinance 1979 fixes this amount as 4.457 grams of gold or property
of the same value.
59
Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitab al-Hudud; Sunan al-Tirmidhi, Kitab al-Hudud.
60
See for details: Ahmad, Hudud Qawanin, 86-90.
61
PLD 1989 FSC 95 at 126.
62
Hashimi, Hudud Ordinance, 72-75.
63
It may be noted here that appeal was preferred to the Shariat Appellate Bench of the
Supreme Court against this decision and, as the Constitution has it, when
appeal is preferred against the decision of the Federal Shariat Court, the
operation of the decision is automatically suspended and it does not require a
stay order by the Supreme Court. It is unfortunate that the Shariat Appellate
Bench of the Supreme Court could not decide the fate of the appeal in 23 long
years! In the meanwhile, the law on which the Federal Shariat Court had given
this decision has been changed by the Protection of Women Act in 2006. Hence,
the Rashida Patel judgment is now redundant.
64
Al-Mabsut, 26: 126.
65
As we shall show below, the jurists cite some examples from the cases decided by
the Prophet (peace be on him) or his Companions wherein the strict criteria of
evidence mentioned above for the hudud, qisas or ta'zir, were not observed. In
all such cases, the punishment awarded is termed siyasah by the Hanafi jurists.
66
Modern scholars of Islamic law, in general, have classified rights into two
categories: rights of God and rights of individual. See `Abd al-Qadir `Awdah,
al-Tashri` al-Jina'i al-Islami Muqaranan bi 'l-Qanun al-Wad`i (Beirut: Dar al-
Katib al-`Arabi, n. d. ), 1: 79. This is, however, a misconception.
67
See Kasani, Bada'i` al-Sana'i`, 9: 248-250; Burhan al-Din Abu 'l-Hasan `Ali b. Abi
Bakr al-Marghinani, al-Hidayah fi Sharh Bidayat al-Mubtadi (Beirut: Dar
Ihya' al-Turath al-`Arabi, n.d.), 2: 339.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
187

68
Shubhah has generally been deemed synonymous to the English law concept of
“benefit of the doubt”. However, even a cursory look at what constitutes
shubhah in Islamic law tells that it has more in common with “mistake of law or
of fact” than with the “benefit of the doubt”. Imran Ahsan Khan Nyazee,
General Principles of Criminal Law (Islamabad: Advanced Legal Studies
Institute, 1998), 142-43.
69
Bada'i` al-Ṣana'i`, 9: 248.
70
Ibid. (emphasis added).
71
Ibid., 250.
72
Ibid., 274.
73
Muhammad Amin Ibn `Abidin al-Shami, Radd al-Muhtar `ala al-Durr al-
Mukhtar(Cairo: Matba`at Mustafa al-Babi, n.d.), 3: 192.
74
For instance, the government cannot change the standard of proof for zina because
it has been explicitly laid down in the texts of the Qur'an and the Sunnah and the
jurists have a consensus on it. Thus, changing this standard will amount to
destruction of the whole system.
75
For instance, both of these punishments are compoundable and can be pardoned
and shubhah can neither suspend ta`zir nor siyasah.
76
Radd al-Muhtar, 3: 162.
77
Bada'i` al-Sana'i`, 9: 253.
78
Al-Hidayah, 2: 343-44.
79
See, for instance, Hashimi, Hudud Ordinance, 72ff.
80
Sarakhsi, al-Mabsut, 9: 77.
81
Kasani, Bada'i` al-Sana'i`, 10: 109. However, if a man is coerced to have sexual
intercourse, hadd punishment will not be imposed upon him only if this was
ikrah tamm (serious form of coercion). Ibid.
82
Sarakhsi, al-Mabsut, 9: 77.
83
Ibid., 9: 91.
84
The presumption of innocence stems from one of the most fundamental principles
of Islamic law: [Certainty is not done away through
doubt.]. See for details: Shihab al-Din al-Sayyid Ahmad b. Muhammad al-
Hamwi, Ghamz `Uyun al-Basa'ir Sharh al-Ashbah wa al-Naza'ir (Beirut: Dar
al-Kutub al-`Ilmiyyah, 1985), 1: 193-245. See also: Nyazee, Islamic Legal
Maxims, 122-29.
Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad
188

85
Diyah is the specified amount of property paid by the convict or his allies to the
legal heirs of the deceased, while jurh ja'ifah is the hurt caused to a person in
his/her abdominal cavity.
86
Sarakhsi, al-Mabsut, 9: 86.
87
Ibid. 9: 87. Arsh is the specified amount of property paid to the victim by the
convict for causing hurt.
88
Ta`zir in such situations means siyasah.
89
Al-Mabsut, 9: 88.
90
Ibid.
91
Marghinani, al-Hidayah, 2: 348.
92
Sarakhsi, al-Mabsut, 9: 67.
93
Ibid., 91.
94
Ibid., 67.
95
Ibid.
96
Ibid…
97
Ibid., 24: 105-06. See also: Kasani, Bada'i` al-Sana'i`, 10: 109.
98
Sarakhsi, al-Mabsut., 24: 104-05.
99
Scholars working on the theory of the objectives of Islamic law have generally
focused on a much later Maliki jurist of Andalus Abu Ishaq Ibrahim b. Musa al-
Shatibi (d. 790/1388) and his monumental work al-Muwafaqat fi Usul al-
Shari'ah (Cairo: al-Maktabah al-Tijariyyah, 1975).See for a detailed
discussion on the work of Shatibi: Ahmad al-Raysuni, Imam al-Shatibi's
Theory of the Higher Objectives and Intents of Islamic Law, tr. Nancy Roberts
(Herndon, VA: The International Institute of Islamic Thought, 2005).
100
Al-Ghazali, Shifa' al-Ghalilfi Bayan al-Shabah wa 'l-Mukhil wa Masalik al-Ta`lil
(Baghdad: Dar al-Kutub al-`Ilmiyyah, 1971), 186–87. See also: idem, al-
Mustasfa, 1: 213-222.
101
Sarakhsi, al-Mabsut, 10: 110.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
189

References
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Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad
192

The author Mr. Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad (b. 1976) is Assistant Professor of Law and doctoral
candidate at the Department of Shariah in the International Islamic University, Islamabad. He is the
author of two books: Jihad, Muzahamat awr Baghawat (2008 and 2012) and Hudud Qawanin
(2006). He also translated from Arabic into Urdu a book for the International Committee of the Red
Cross on International Humanitarian Law and Islam (2012). His book on An Islamic Theory of
Biblical Criticism is forthcoming in 2015. Moreover, he authored more than twenty research papers
for international and national journals on various aspects of Islamic law, criminal law and
international law. He can be reached at mushtaqahmad@iiu.edu.pk
Pakistan Journal of Criminology Volume 6, No.1, Jan-Jun 2014, pp.193 - 206
193

Disaster Relief Corruption


A Case Study of Balakot Town
Amir Zada Asad, Imran Ahmad Sajid, & Basharat Hussain

Abstract
Natural disaster provides an opportunity for development as well as corruption. Corruption
in disaster relief activities has gained a global attention. Pakistan is no exception. The
vulnerability of Pakistan to a multiplicity of disasters like natural, hydrometer- logical, man-
made, etc. is well known. However, the Government's performance in Disaster situations
and its ability in organizing and providing Disaster response including distribution of relief
and the post disaster development is afar dream to come true. The main problem is the lack of
governance and the culture of corruption generated and patronized by those who are
responsible for it nipping. Corruption in humanitarian aid devoured most of the charities
meant for the affectees and the national money allocated for the purpose. This paper takes
Balakot as a case study of disaster relief corruption. In Balakot, only 14 % developmental
work in eight years was completed, i.e. less than 2% a year.
Keywords
Earth quake, Post-disaster Reconstruction, Development Opportunities, Disaster,
Development, Governance not Government, Corruption, Patronage of Corruption on State
Level.
Introduction
Asia is the biggest continent of the planet with four billion souls comprising
60% of the world population and covers over 29% of the planet land area. The
continent is subdivided into three major chunks of Southeast Asia, Southwest Asia
and Central Asia.
The region is confronted by all kinds of hazards and disaster – like as
earthquakes, landslides and volcanoes, floods, cyclones, droughts, epidemics,
insect infestations, hot and cold waves, and forest fires and the last but not the least
the armed conflicts called terrorism..
During early 1970 to the first half decade of this century, in the region, 86% of
all disaster-related deaths were caused by natural hazards, with just 14% resulting
1
from technological disasters such as transport or industrial accidents. Pakistan,
being a part and parcel of the area, is no exception to these hazards.
The devastating earth-quack of 2005 and the floods of 2010 has lead the
researchers in Pakistan to address the issue of disaster. Disasters have a critical
2
influence on modern society. Natural disasters cause far greater damage now than
ever before. Human societies always responded collectively to natural disasters.
Amir Zada Asad, Imran Ahmad Sajid, & Basharat Hussain
194

The areas struck by a natural disaster are helped by the fellow countrymen in other
parts of the society. Aiding the needy in disaster is a characteristic of the collective
consciousness of humanity. Humanitarian aid assists those who are affected by
3
disasters, whether natural, such as typhones, earth-quacks, floods, or man-made.
Humanitarian aid is aimed at preventing further sufferings of those affected by
disasters. It also aims at preventing further sufferings of people from life-
threatening situation. In the most apparent form, this relief is provided in the form of
food, water, shelter and other emergency services. In the long-run, however, this
disaster relief also includes reconstruction of the infrastructure including roads,
4
houses, schools, hospitals etc.
Disaster relief is such a problem that cannot be addressed by private market
5
solutions. To address a disaster like hunger of Sindh this year, flash-flood of 2010 or
the Balakot earth-quack of 2005, there is a need for coordinated efforts between
individual actors, charitable organizations, local and state government and
international agencies including the UN and Red Crescent.
Disasters results in the immediate flow of funds, often termed as 'disaster relief
wind-falls'.6 Corruption in such windfalls is an unwanted phenomena. Corruption in
humanitarian aid undermines the spirit of aid. Many researchers have found that
7
natural disasters have an incentive for corruption. It changes the cost and incentive
structure faced by many bureaucrats and individuals including the victims of
disaster (Yamamura, 2013).8 Corruption is usually defined as the use of public office
10
for private gains.
Statement of the Problem
This article discusses disaster relief corruption in Pakistan with reference to the
Earthquake of 2005. Corruption is part of the normative structure of Pakistan and is
10
built into the political economy of Pakistan since her genesis. “Corruption refers
to departures from correct procedures in exchange for goods, services or money.”11
According to McMullan's definition, "A public official is corrupt if he accepts
money or money's worth for doing something that he is under duty to do anyway, that
he is under duty not to do, or to exercise legitimate discretion for improper
12
reasons."
Corruption is built into the political structure of Pakistan and is part of the
normative order. It is something glamorous and does not carry significant stigma as
observed by a CIA report;
“Pakistan is at a stage in its development wherein corruption is simply the
norm. Those who have any kind of influence or access to the corridors of
political powers flout the laws of the land with impunity. Pakistanis are
not far wrong in their belief that the country's elite leaders, politicians,
industrialists, generals, bankers, landlords with few exceptions use their
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
195

positions to enrich themselves, their families, their relatives…positions


throughout the public service are valued for the wealth their holders can
amass: jobs in the country's bureaucracy are literally purchased: those
moving up or laterally to more lucrative positions buy it from those above.
And, if the highest bidder lacks the capacity to honour his bid right away,
he simply takes the money out of the salaries of those below him. This has
affected the police as much as any other part of the administration. Jobs in
the police from the Station House Officer (SHO or Thanidar) at the
bottom of the management cadre to the provincial Inspector General of
Police are now routinely sold.”13
Corruption is one of the social problems of Pakistan. As put by Wejahat (2010),
“The military, the executive, the judiciary, the civil society, and the liberal
elites, are all in the common business of corruption. That is Pakistan's
primary and perhaps existential problem. Not nukes. Not Osama. Not the
Taliban. Not human rights abuses. Not biblical floods. Just corruption.”14
Pakistan(and Russia as well) stands at 127thon the scale of 1 – 175 in the Global
Corruption Perception Index published by Transparency International
15
(Transparency International, 2014). Previously, Pakistan was ranked 139 in 2009,
143 in 2010, 134 in 2011 and 139 in 2012.This is worst than all the countries in South
Asia including India (94), Nepal (116), Sri Lanka (91), and Bhutan (31) except
Bangladesh wich stands 136th in this ranking of 2013.16
Disaster bring numerous opportunities for corruption in Pakistan. Disaster is
defined as “a serious disruption of the functioning of the society, causing wide
spread human, material or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the
affected people to cope using their own resources. And so disasters are classified
according to the speed of onset (sudden or slow) or according to their cause (natural
17
or manmade).
Many experts raise their eyebrows on this definition and say that this definition
only allude to physical events be it they natural phenomenon/ event or man-made or
technological and their categories effects, and thus presents an incorrect and
incomplete visualization.18
Besides corruption, disaster is also consider an opportunity for development.
Whereas development is defined as “Sustained efforts intended to improve or
maintain the social or economic well-being of a community. Development is a
“positive change which contains five key words, well-being, livelihood,
capabilities, equity and sustainability.”19
Corruption in disaster relief activities hampers the pace of development. It is in
this connection that the policy makers need to address the issue of corruption in
Amir Zada Asad, Imran Ahmad Sajid, & Basharat Hussain
196

humanitarian aid. This research explores the disaster relief corruption in Pakistan by
taking the Earthquake of 2005 as a case study.
Disaster –Development Ties
In the field of disaster related studies there are four paradigms/ hypotheses
explaining the relationship between disaster and development. They are ;-
 Development can enhance vulnerability
 Development can decrease vulnerability
 Disasters destroys the fruits of development
 Disasters can provide development opportunities.
Disaster offers socio-economic, politico-cultural, and environmental
development opportunities which can be extrapolated in the post disaster
rehabilitation and reconstruction period. The same can also be exploited to enhance
the socio-economic and physical conditions of the impacted communities in the
long run. However, time factor is important but limited up to Two years
20
approximately for the purpose of development and public satisfaction.
This paradigm sees disasters as a window to socio-economic and psycho-
physical development. The collapse and damage to the old, unsafe structures
ultimately leads to quality reconstruction, or shifting of sites if vulnerable .The good
example can be the relocation of old Balakot town, situated in the red zone or on a
seismic fault line, to the new site of Bakrial. The reconstruction and rehabilitation
resulted from huge disasters requires huge investment and hence which not only
extensive provides job opportunities that may not be available previously.21
Many disaster reduction practitioners believe that “during the disaster
recovery and reconstruction periods, flows of foreign currency into a disaster-
affected country from aid, debt relief, insurance, private transfers and remittances
can produce an apparent improvement in national balance-of-payments, and
provide the financial means for enacting new development priorities Damaged
buildings may highlight structural weaknesses which could be rectified, and may
serve to improve building and planning regulations. Post-disaster situations create
some kind of social and political atmosphere that important social, institutional and
physical development programs could be initiated and implemented”.22
The world over, it is now realized that disasters can afford many development
opportunities by creating a political and economic atmosphere conducive for
positive changes more rapidly than under normal circumstances. For example, in a
post-disaster situation major land reforms, housing improvement schemes, new
jobs and skill creation, expansion and modernization of the economic base of the
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
197

community that would not otherwise be possible. The collective will to take action is
an advantage that should not be wasted.23
Disaster provides development opportunities in terms of introducing
mitigation measures in context of reconstruction, relocation, new investment and
the environment protection. The mitigation measures increase the local's capacity to
cope with disasters. The State on the other hand realize the importance of standard
disaster impacts studies for all development projects with increased emphasis on
hazard and risk mapping.24 The best aspect of the idea is that the Disaster an
Development' realm create awareness among the masses and the governments to
25
disaster threats and also increase flow of additional aid .
We add to this paradigm two further hypotheses that in order to exploit the post-
disaster scenario needs two major conductor in lieu of which instead of development
disorganization and chaotic situation can result. The two conductors are (1) time
frame and (2) good governance instead of government or accountability of those
who corrupted the charities meant for the affectees and the national wealth.
Disasters bring an opportunity for development as well as corruption. The
disasters of 2005 Earthquake was a greater opportunity for development. However,
the corruption in the disaster relief efforts washed away any opportunity for
development. Corruption in the disaster relief has severe consequences for
rehabilitation, reconstruction and development efforts. This article discusses the
impacts of corruption on the disaster relief efforts in Balakot, Pakistan.
The Balakot Earthquake of 2005
th
It was 8 October, 2005, 8.00A am. everybody was busy with his/her work.
Students had just entered the classes after the assemblies, women were busy with
cleaning and washing the dishes after serving the break- fast to the children and men
had just reached to the places of their daily jobs. Suddenly, an earth quick of 7.6
magnitude hit the northern areas of Pakistan including Kashmir, and Hazara
Division, causing a wide spread destruction of human lives, roads, life line
institutions like schools and hospitals.
According to International and national reports more than 77,000 human lost
lives mostly women and children as Children were trapped in the debris of the
schools collapsed building, women trapped in the collapsed houses. The damages
include 128,304 injured, and 3.5 million affected. In addition to the human toll, it
destroyed over 6,298 educational institutions, 796 health units, 600,000 houses,
6,440 km of roads and 50-70% of the telecommunication, power and water and
sanitation services in the earthquake affected areas.
Amir Zada Asad, Imran Ahmad Sajid, & Basharat Hussain
198

th
In order to help the people and the area the government of Pakistan, on 24
October,2005, established Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation
Authority (ERRA) as an autonomous, federal institution assigned the duty of the
reconstruction and rehabilitation in the affected areas of the Azad Kashmir and
2
KPK spread over an area of 28,000-km . The ERRA task included building, the
reconstruction and rehabilitation of the houses, schools buildings, health
institutions, and social safety nets. It was claimed by the organization that by end
June,2010, 92% of the development work will be completed.
Now, after eight years of the disaster, the question is whether these
development opportunities have been used or lost. The aim of this paper is to assess
the impacts of corruption on development works performed by the concerned
authorities which were created by the disaster.
Disaster Relief Corruption in Balakot
The Balakot in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (the then NWFP, Pakistan) incident of
2005 earthquake is a living example of how corruption impeded the chances of post
disaster development. The post disaster development does not take place
automatically or in a vacuum but requires a time schedule of the early two years to
harness the opportunities and organize the activities and financial and technical
support of the 'friends'.
Good governance and a check on corruption in such situations and
transparency are important for every development particularly when the public is in
hardship, which means “induction of various Mechanisms, Rules, Regulations,
Processes and Institutions through which people's needs and expectations are
assessed and services delivered by the governments. The characteristics of Good
Governance include transparency, participation, rule of law, responsiveness,
efficiency & effectiveness, and accountability etc.”26
But we will add that due to bad governance and state insensitivity to the
missing timing frame (characteristics of Pakistani society) instead of development
we lost many things including public confidence but promoted corruption. Bad
governance in the shape of corruption is simply a norm in Pakistan. The foreign aid
meant for the disaster victims has been syphoned into off shore personal accounts.
The amount so embezzled runs in billion. When those at the helms of affairs or the
patrons of corruption realized that now their corruption stories are gone public, they,
instead of accountability of the corrupts, the ERRA, the organization responsible
for development as well as this kind of corruption, is now slashed.
It is not only a characteristics of the public institutes. The NGOs also take their
share of corruption.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
199

“It was only the UN or the government of Pakistan who delivered


something to the disaster ridden people in Balakot. The rest of the NGOs,
their role was negligible. Instead they have filled their own pockets. They
took the distribution items. Instead of distributing them, they sold it their.
You can find the disaster relief tents even here in the market.(Personal
Communication with Navid Iqbal, an NGO Worker in Mansehra, March
2014)”
A very famous figure of NGOs commented that
“I feel so sad, when i see that big bigNGOs , trust, Welfare organizations
fill their walls, their soft boards , their offices with the pictures of the poor
women, children, men, and communities.. just to reflect their miseries..
They sell their miseries and get the donations and money!! (Personal
Communication with Shahida Kazmi, An NGO Worker, April, 2014).”
Corruption in Pakistan is not some thing new. What happened after eight years
of the earthquake in Balakot, is reported by national and international media . Three
official reports are produced here to comprehend the matter.
“Quoting the Accountant General of Pakistan Revenue, the news paper
say that according to the draft audit report of 2011 to 2012, approximately
Rs14.71 billion was shown in ERRA's books but the reconciliation was
not available on record with the Accountant General of Pakistan Revenue
27
(AGPR).
“Audit unveils Rs10.88b irregularities in ERRA :The Auditor General of
Pakistan (AGP) has detected irregularities, unauthorised and unjustified
payments, unlawful investment and negligence within the Earthquake
Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority (ERRA) to the tune of Rs
10,880 million during the financial year of 2011-12.”28
“The Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority
distributed Rs94 million among hundreds of bogus earthquake victims.” 29
“…Only 14 percent of development work has been done on New Balakot
City Project, and even now it is estimated to take another few years to
complete.” but the ERAA is no more there now after 13 August,2013 as it
30
is abolished completely”.
In October 2011, in a Press Conference, the President of ERRA Contractors
Association revealed that “4,043 projects worth Rs60 billion were approved for
education, health and road communication in Abbottabad, Mansehra, Battagram,
Kohistan and Shangla. However, ERRA has so far released only Rs15 billion, due to
which 200,000 students are being forced to study under the sky, while healthcare
31
facilities have not been restored in many areas.”
Amir Zada Asad, Imran Ahmad Sajid, & Basharat Hussain
200

ERRA claims to have completed 95% of its work. However, most of the projects
credited by ERRA to itself are the NGOs projects. ERRA is accused of having
completed only 10% of its work in the earthquake ridden areas.
Conclusion
The damages caused by the 8 October,2005 earthquake include over 73,338
deaths, 128,304 injured, and 3.5 million affected. In addition to the human toll, it
destroyed over 6,298 educational institutions, 796 health units, 600,000 houses,
6,440 km of roads and 50-70% of the telecommunication, power and water and
sanitation services in the earthquake affected areas.32 Billions of Dollars poured into
Pakistan for relief and rehabilitation by the international community. The
government immediately handed over the management to the Pakistan Army and an
organization named ERRA ( Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation
Authority).
Very little work has been completed on the multi-billion dollars reconstruction
and rehabilitation. In eight years only 14% of the total work or less than 2% work
per year, and the amount spent there on do not commensurate and indicates that
massive corruption and embezzlement has happened. Only minor works like
drinking water supply, public toilets, provision of prefabricated houses to a few
hundred people, construction of schools and health facilities etc by donor and NGOs
is the total work . On macro level there seems nothing has happened except
corruption.
The obvious reason are the misgovernment or bad governance with no
accountability of the corrupt officials and the lapse and wastage of proper time
frame required for such rehabilitation works.
We conclude that disaster does provide development opportunities but good
governance and proper timing for carrying out such development are necessary
components.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
201

End Notes
1
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2
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3
Transparency International. (2006). Corruption in Humanitarian Aid. Working
Paper#03/2006. Retrieved April 24, 2014 from
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working_paper_humanitarian_aid.pdf
4
Transperancy International. (2006). Corruption in Humanitarian Aid. Working
Paper#03/2006. Retrieved April 24, 2014 from
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working_paper_humanitarian_aid.pdf
5
WILLIAM F. SHUGHART II. (2011). Disaster Relief as Bad Public Policy. In
The Independent Review, v. 15, n. 4, pp. 519–539
6
Eiji Yamamura. (2013). Impact of natural disaster on public sector corruption. In
MPRA. Paper No. 49760, posted 12. September 2013 09:27 UTC. Retrieved
April 12, 2014 from http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/49760/1/MPRA_paper
_49760.pdf
7
Eiji Yamamura. (2013). Impact of natural disaster on public sector corruption. In
MPRA. Paper No. 49760, posted 12. September 2013 09:27 UTC. Retrieved
April 12, 2014 from http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/49760/1/MPRA_
paper_49760.pdf
8
Eiji Yamamura. (2013). Impact of natural disaster on public sector corruption. In
MPRA. Paper No. 49760, posted 12. September 2013 09:27 UTC. Retrieved
April 12, 2014 from http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/49760/1/MPRA_
paper_49760.pdf
9
Boettke, P., Chamlee, E., Gordon, P., Ikeda, S., Leeson, P. T., & Sobel, R. (2007).
The political, economic, and social aspects of Katrina. Southern Economic
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10
ShinwariFida Muhammad (2010) “Logic of Corruption in Pakistan: A Journey
from NAB to NRO” in Pakistan Journal of Criminology Volume 2, No. 4,
October 2010, pp. 43 & 47.
Amir Zada Asad, Imran Ahmad Sajid, & Basharat Hussain
202

11
Manning, P.K., & Redlinger, L.J. 1978. "Invitational Edges of Corruption: Some
Consequences of Narcotics Law Enforcement." in Policing: A View From
theStreet, Cf.Shinwari .Op.Cit.p.43.
12
Shinwari.Op.Cit.
13
CIA Report on Heroin In Pakistan, “ Sowing the Winds” in Friday Times (Lahore:
26 March, 1992.) p.17.
14 th
Wajahat, S. (2010). The Gap called Corruption. 14 International Anti-Corruption
Conference (I A C C) Day #1. Retrieved April 12, 2014 from
http://14iacc.org/social/page/8/
15
Corruption Perception Index 2013.Transperancy International. Retrieved Feb 12,
2014 from http://cpi.transparency.org/cpi2013/results/
16
Corruption Perception Index 2013.Transperancy International. Retrieved Feb 12,
2014 from http://cpi.transparency.org/cpi2013/results/
17 nd
United Nations, (1992) An Over view of Disaster Management (2 .ed). (New
York: UNDP , Disaster management Training Programme),p.14.
18
Sunil Chauhan (Cdr), (2009) Disaster Management: A Social Process Perspective
:Abstracts: Thematic Session : Disaster, Development And Governance ) New
Delhi, Indian navy),p. 33.
19
Chamber, R.. (1997). Who's Reality Counts? London: Bath Press.
20
Ali Asgary, Ali Badri, Mojtaba Rafieian and Ali Hajinejad, Lost and Used Post-
Disaster Development Opportunities in Bam earthquake and the role of
stakeholders. (Canada: York University),p.1..
21
S.AliBadri, Ali Asgary, A. R Eftekhari,., and J. Levy. (2006), “Post Disaster
Resettlement, Development and Change: 12 Years after Manjil Earthquake
“.Cf. Ali Asgary, Ali Badri, Mojtaba Rafieian and Ali Hajinejad, Lost and Used
Post-Disaster Development Opportunities in Bam earthquake and the role of
stakeholders. (Canada: York University),p.3.
22
Albala-Bertrand, (1993), “The political economy of large natural disasters with
special reference to developing countries”, Oxford: Clarendon Press.P.23.
23
United Nations, (1992) An Over view of Disaster Management (2nd.ed ) Op.Cit.
p.29.
24
University of Peshawar, 2007. Disaster Preparedness and Management Training
Workshop 5-6 February ,2007.Workshop Proceedings
25 th
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC), 2008. 17 Regional Learning
Workshop on CBDRR 21 1st. July 2008- 1st. August 2008. Course Folder.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
203

26
P.K. Mohanty and M. Bhaskar Rao, ( 2009) “ Disaster, Development and Good
Governance: Institutionalization strategies and e- tools of Good Governance
for Effective Management of Disasters” Andhra Pradesh: Dr. mMCR HRD
Institute. Seminar Paper.
27
The Express Tribune with the International New York Times, January 30,2013.
28
The Nation ,Islamabad, July 08, 2013
29
The Nation learnt on Sunday (Dec 16, 2012).Daily Dawn.; see also The Daily
Pakistan Today Nov.13,2013. “Earthquake victims of Balakot miserable even
after 7 years”. See more at:
http://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2012/10/09/news/national/earthquake-
victims-of-balakot-miserable-even-after-7-years/#sthash.P7oFtizA.dpuf
30
Ikram Junaid. (August 27, 2013). Over 2,000 ERRA employees may lose their
jobs. In Daily Dawn.
31
2005 earthquake: ERRA accused of corruption, delay in rehabilitation efforts in K-
P, AJK. (October 8, 2011). In The Express Tribune.
32
ERRA. (n.d.). Executive Summary of Social Impact Assessment. Retrieved
November 13, 2013 from
http://www.erra.pk/Reports/Social%20protection/ExecutiveSummaryEnglis
hVersion-16012009.pdf
Amir Zada Asad, Imran Ahmad Sajid, & Basharat Hussain
204

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Disaster Development Opportunities in Bam earthquake and the role of
stakeholders. Canada: York University.
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC), 2008. 17th Regional Learning
Workshop on CBDRR 21 1st. July 2008- 1st. August 2008. Course Folder.
Badri , S.A., Asgary, A., Eftekhari, A.R., and Levy, J.(2006), “Post Disaster
Resettlement, Development and Change: 12 Years after Manjil Earthquake “.
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Post-Disaster Development Opportunities in Bam earthquake and the role of
stakeholders. Canada: York University.
Boettke, P., Chamlee, E., Gordon, P., Ikeda, S., Leeson, P. T., & Sobel, R. (2007).
The political, economic, and social aspects of Katrina. Southern Economic
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Chamber, R.. (1997). Who's Reality Counts? London: Bath Press.
Chauhan, S. (Cdr), (2009) Disaster Management: A Social Process Perspective
:Abstracts: Thematic Session : Disaster, Development And Governance. New
Delhi, Indian navy,p. 33.
CIA Report on Heroin In Pakistan, “ Sowing the Winds” in Friday Times (Lahore:
26 March, 1992.) p.17.
Corruption Perception Index 2013.Transperancy International. Retreived Feb 12,
2014 from http://cpi.transparency.org/cpi2013/results/
Eisensee, T., & Strömberg, D. (2007). News droughts, news floods, and U.S.
disaster relief. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 122(2), 693–728;
ERRA. (n.d.). Executive Summary of Social Impact Assessment. Retrieved
November 13, 2013 from
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hVersion-16012009.pdf
Guga-Sapir D, Hargitt, D. &Hoyois, P (2004) Thirty Years of Natural Disaster 1974-
2003: The Numbers, CRED, 2004
Junaid, I. (August 27, 2013). Over 2,000 ERRA employees may lose their jobs. In
Daily Dawn.
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Leeson, P. T., & Sobel, R. (2008). Weathering corruption. Journal of Law &
Economics 51, 667–681.
Luechinger, S., & Saschkly, P. A. (2009). Valuing flood disasters using the life
satisfaction approach. Journal of Public Economics, 93, 620–633.
Manning, P.K., & Redlinger, L.J. 1978. "Invitational Edges of Corruption: Some
Consequences of Narcotice Law Enforcement." in Policing: A View From
theStreet, Cf.Shinwari .Op.Cit.p.43.
Mohanty, P.K., and Rao, M. B. ( 2009) “ Disaster, Development and Good
Governance: Institutionalization strategies and e- tools of Good Governance
for Effective Management of Disasters” Andhra Pradesh: Dr. mMCR HRD
Institute. Seminar Paper.
Shinwari, F.M. (2010) “Logic of Corruption in Pakistan: A Journey from NAB to
NRO” in Pakistan Journal of Criminology Volume 2, No. 4, October 2010, pp.
43 &47.
Shughart , W.F. (2011). Disaster Relief as Bad Public Policy. In The Independent
Review, v. 15, n. 4, pp. 519–539
The Daily Pakistan Today Nov.13,2013. “Earthquake victims of Balakot miserable
even after 7 years”.
The Express Tribune with the International New York Times, January 30,2013.
The Nation ,Islamabad, July 08, 2013
The Nation learnt on Sunday (Dec 16, 2012). Daily Dawn.
Transparency International. (2006). Corruption in Humanitarian Aid. Working
Paper#03/2006. Retrieved April 24, 2014 from
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working_paper_humanitarian_aid.pdf
United Nations, (1992) An Over view of Disaster Management (2nd.ed). (New
York: UNDP , Disaster management Training Programme), p.14.
United Nations. (1992). An Over view of Disaster Management (2nd.ed ) UNDP.
University of Peshawar, 2007. Disaster Preparedness and Management Training
Workshop 5-6 February ,2007.Workshop Proceedings
Wajahat, S. (2010). The Gap called Corruption. 14th International Anti-Corruption
Conference (I A C C) Day #1. Retrieved April 12, 2014 from
http://14iacc.org/social/page/8/
Amir Zada Asad, Imran Ahmad Sajid, & Basharat Hussain
206

The author Mr. Amir Zada Asad is a professor of Social Work at the University of Peshawar. He
teachers Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction at post-graduate level. He can be reached at
amir_zada_asad@yahoo.co.uk
The author Mr. Basharat Hussain, PhD is an Associate Professor of Social Work at the University of
Peshawar. His area of expertise is criminology. He can be reached at basharat04@yahoo.com
The author Mr. Imran Ahmad Sajid is a PhD Research Scholar and Lecturer of Social Work at the
University of Peshawar. His area of interest is criminology. He can be reached at
imranahmad131@gmail.com
Pakistan Journal of Criminology Volume 6, No.1, Jan-Jun 2014, pp.207 - 234
207

Political Stability of Afghanistan:


A Prerequisite for Stability of Pakistan and South Asia
Manzoor Ahmed Abbasi & Muqeem ul Islam

Abstract
Political stability of Afghanistan is a prerequisite for peace in South Asia in general and
Pakistan in particular. Afghanistan's political situation directly impinges on the security of
Pakistan. The continued wars and civil wars in Afghanistan for last three and half decades
have badly damaged the political institutions of Afghanistan and caused unimaginable
losses, both in men and material, not only to the people of Afghanistan but also to the people
of Pakistan, particularly in the areas located in the proximity of Afghanistan. In the wake of
planned drawdown of NATO in 2014, an atmosphere of uncertainty looms large on the
political horizon of Afghanistan, with the apprehensions expressed that this country may
plunge once again into the abyss of lawlessness and civil war. The study in hand aims at
distillation of Afghanistan's existing political and security systems and chances of their
survivability after NATO's drawdown, besides analyzing the current frictions between
Pakistan and Afghanistan on various issues. The underlying assumption of this study is that
the political and security situation of Afghanistan has a direct linkage with security and
political stability of Pakistan. The key findings of this study are that political and security
systems of Afghanistan have too fragile structures and institutions, which are heavily
dependent on foreign assistance. Afghanistan could not develop trustworthy relations with
neighboring states, particularly Pakistan, by removing various irritants. The Government of
Afghanistan needs to recognize Durand Line and work out, in collaboration, with Pakistan,
an effective border management and surveillance mechanism, to wipe out the infrastructure
of drug- traffickers, saboteurs and terrorists from both sides of Durand Line. The
international community needs to work towards peace and prosperity of South Asia, as the
people of this region deserve much needed respite and let-up from violence and bloodshed.
Key words
Afghanistan, Politics, Pakistan, NATO, South Asia, Peace.
Introduction
Political stability of Afghanistan is a prerequisite for peace of South Asia in
general and Pakistan in particular. It is the most unfortunate tragedy of
contemporary history that the state of Afghanistan and its people have been seething
under perpetual political unrest, violence and human sufferings for the last more
than three and half decades. Afghanistan is virtually a war-ravaged and fragmented
country. Generations after generations of Afghan people have been witnessing
nothing but violence, bloodshed and chaos in their society, both when they were
fighting against former USSR and now when they are involved in GWOT. No let-
up from this violence seems to be in the sight for Afghanistan and its neighbors, at
Manzoor Ahmed Abbasi & Muqeem ul Islam
208

least in the foreseeable future. Afghanistan's political situation directly impinges


upon the security of Pakistan. Both these states share a long and porous border,
stretching over 2590.4 kilometers, without any effective surveillance system, which
becomes a major cause of cross-border movement of terrorists and criminals. Since
the NATO's planned drawdown is fast approaching, fears and apprehensions loom
large on our national horizon about likely fallouts of Afghanistan's instability and
frictions. It is assumed that the political and security situation of Afghanistan has a
direct linkage with the security and political stability of not only Pakistan but also
the entire South Asia. This paper aims at distillation of Afghanistan's existing
political and security system and chances of their survivability after NATO's
drawdown, besides analyzing the current frictions between Pakistan and
Afghanistan on various issues. The paper also proffers certain policy
recommendations for various stakeholders.
Political Stability of Afghanistan – Defining the Criteria
The subject of political stability is one of the most intractable concepts in
modern academic debate.1 Hurwitz defines political stability as “the absence of
violence, governmental longevity, the absence of structural change, legitimacy and
2
effective decision-making”. The key indicators of political stability, according to
Hurwitz, therefore, would be:
 Absence of violence
 Governmental longevity
 Absence of structural change
 Legitimacy
 Effective decision- making
A number of empirical studies were conducted subsequently to further distil the
themes related to political stability. The most common theme, related to degree of
violence and strife and their intensity, was undertaken by Russet and Bunselmayer,
in which they used a very rudimentary way of counting the number of deaths directly
as a result of inter-group violence per 1,000,000 units of population.3 This technique
was, however, considered as an insufficient indicator to assess political stability,
because there could be many political actions that may not result in the loss of life
but which can be detrimental to the stability of any country.4
Claude Ake elucidated this concept further by observing that members of any
society strengthen or undermine political system to the extent that they obey or
disobey the laws produced by that system. Obedience to the law constitutes political
behavior just as much as contesting elections does,” he opined. He further states, “if
the incidence of violations of law continues to increase, political authority
eventually atrophies; that is axiomatic.”5
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
209

Another study was conducted by Ivo K. Feierabend and Rosalind Feierabend,


who introduced a scale of 0 (extremely stable) to 6 (extremely unstable) ratings of
6
eighty four nations over a time span of seven years (1955-1961). They defined the
concepts of stability and instability as:
“The degree or the amount of aggression directed by individuals or groups
within the political system against other groups or against the complex of
officeholders and individuals and groups associated with them. Or,
conversely, it is the amount of aggression directed by these officeholders
against other individuals, groups or other officeholders within the
policy.”7
These both the writers opine that aggressive behavior of individuals is caused
by 'system frustration', which in turn, causes instability. System frustration stems
from a system's inability to satisfy social demands as against 'social wants'. The
system, in our case the political system, should have the ability to meet the demands
and the needs of the society, apart from its ability to adapt to the changing
8
circumstances. An important inference drawn by Feirabends is that aggressive
behaviors might be inhibited by coercive mechanisms, such as punishments;
however, a polity where coercive methods are the primary means of resolving the
crises is not a stable polity. A stable society would be capable of relieving system
despondency (frustration) through constructive methods. A number of political,
administrative, entrepreneurial and other instruments would be available in a stable
society to induce non-aggressive and non-violent behaviors.9
If the situation of political stability in Afghanistan is analyzed in the light of
first indicator, suggested by Hurwitz, there can hardly be any denial that
Afghanistan is one of the most unstable countries in the world. Afghanistan's
internal politics have been characterized by coercive and violent means of problem
solving in most part of contemporary history.10 The impact of this violence on the
people of Afghanistan and, thereby, on Pakistan is an important subject of this paper.
The second element of political stability, as per definition of Hurwitz, is the
longevity of the governments. There is a great deal of academic debate about this
11
criterion to judge the stability of any political system. The dictatorial regimes, for
instance in Middle East, have very long periods of rule, whereas, the democratic
governments frequently change. Therefore, Hurwitz suggests that distinction
should be made between legal and illegal successions of the heads of the
government or states i.e. chief executives. Application of this criterion to assess
political stability in Afghanistan may sound too simplistic, as only 17 heads of the
states changed in Afghanistan since 1919. But how these governments were
changed is a more relevant question with reference to the study of political stability
of Afghanistan than the question 'how often'. Edmund Burke, thus, justifiably argues
that 'a state without the means of some change is without the means of
12
conservation.”
Manzoor Ahmed Abbasi & Muqeem ul Islam
210

As regards the legitimacy of a political system, as a criterion of its stability,


some writers believed that it was an important an element for sustainability of any
political structure. The stability of a system is related not only to its legitimacy but
13
also to its effectiveness, as opined by many writers. Ernest Duff and John
McCamant state, “in a stable political system, the members of the system consider it
to be both legitimate and effective.”14 In the words of another writer, Martin Lipset,
“Legitimacy involves the capacity of the system to engender and maintain belief
15
that existing political institutions are the most appropriate one for the society.” But
linking legitimacy with political stability has been criticized by a number of writers
as well.16 The application of legitimacy criterion to Afghanistan reveals that there
was hardly any period in history of Afghanistan when all powerful leaders and
common citizens could have accepted the legitimacy of the political system.
Afghanistan remained in most part of history the hub of foreign interventions and
internal strifes. In recent times, the Governments were frequently changed on gun
point and the rulers were assassinated. Each successive ruler challenged the
legitimacy of the previous one.
Yet another criterion to the study the concept of political stability is the 'basic
structural arrangements in a society and their durability'. Hurwitz accepts the
relevance of this criterion, but also highlights imprecision in its application. He also
questions as to what is meant by basic structures and to what extent the changes
17
should occur, which might determine that the structures had been changed. The
concept of structural arrangements crystallizes through the study of Dessauer's
analysis of 'foundations of a society': “stability has to depend on the actual changes
18
being few, slow and not fundamental”. It can be inferred from this discussion that
the frequent changes in the fundamental structures or the foundations of the society
indicate its instability and few, slow and infrequent changes indicate the inverse
trends. Once tested on the anvil of this criterion, Afghanistan emerges
conspicuously as a country, which has witnessed frequent changes in its political
structures. Prior to 1919, Afghanistan was under the British suzerainty, followed by
Amanullah's Government, which was reformist in nature. Thereafter, a succession
of bloody changes, including PDPA's communist regime, Islamic State of
Afghanistan after Soviet withdrawal, Taliban's extremist government and now the
Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, all indicate towards frequent fundamental changes
in the structures of Afghan politics.
Finally, there is a need to make a mention of another approach to study the
stability of any political system and that is the relationship between the political
structures (rulers) and the members of the society (ruled). Eckstein finds a number
of overlapping factors, which contribute, towards stability of any system. “They
include: continuity of the political system including its ability to adapt to changing
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
211

circumstances, legitimacy of the system, effective decision-making, which


demonstrates the political system's ability not only to make consensus-based
policies but also implement them competently, and finally the genuineness rather
than superficiality of the participatory institutions and processes of the political
system.”19
There are different other sets of criteria suggested by a number of writers, but
for the purpose of this paper, the criteria set by Hurwitz are being used primarily to
undertake study on the political stability of Afghanistan and its impact on Pakistan.
The Existing Political System of Afghanistan and its Fragility
Political stability in Afghanistan has been the dream of Afghans as well as their
neighbors in most part of modern history. “The country's history is replete with long
but intermittent periods of instability that alternated and diluted the achievement of
each period of relative calms in which the inhabitants of this region tried hard to
20
rebuild their lives.” The people of Afghanistan have been living under the shadows
of wars and violence, particularly for last three and half decades. From 1979 to 1991,
Afghanistan was manifestly under Soviet occupation, followed by factional feuds
and civil war and a relative interlude of peace during Taliban's regime. The present
political set-up, introduced under US and NATO tutelage, seems to be as weak and
fragile as a spider's web. Stability in Afghanistan has eluded not only the Afghans
but also concerned foreigners and neighbors like Pakistan, since the establishment
of modern Afghan state in the first quarter of nineteenth century.21 Applying the
criteria enunciated above, an extremely dismal picture of the state of Afghanistan
emerges, as discussed in the succeeding paragraphs.
The Constitutional Framework of the State of Afghanistan
The present political system of Afghanistan got its legitimacy through
Emergency Loya Jirga and Bonn Conference. The Constitution of Islamic Republic
of Afghanistan was framed by a Special Constitutional Body formed for the purpose
i.e. Constitutional Loya Jirga on 14 December 2003, which managed to present the
22
Constitution in January 2004 and, consequently, it was signed on 28 January 2004.
The Constitution consists of twelve chapters, spreading over one hundred sixty one
articles. The broader contours of the Constitution are as under:-
 Afghanistan is an Islamic Republic, independent, unitary and indivisible
23
state.
 The President is the head of the State and Chief Executive of the country,
who is elected for five years, through direct vote. He has two Vice
Presidents, who are nominated by the President.24
Manzoor Ahmed Abbasi & Muqeem ul Islam
212

 The National Assemble of Afghanistan consists of two houses: Wolesi


Jirga (the House of People) and Meshrano Jirga (the House of Elders).
 Wolesi Jirga is elected for a term of five years. The total number of seats of
Wolesi Jirga will vary from 220-250, distributed among various regions as
per the proportion of the population. At least two female candidates shall
25
be elected from each province.
The Members of Meshrano Jirga are elected as under:-
 Each Province Council elects one person to serve as the member of
Meshrano Jirga for the period of four years.
 Each District Council elects one person for a period of three years to
serve as the member of the Meshrano Jirga.
 Remaining 1/3 members of the Meshrano Jirga are appointed by the
President from amongst experts, experienced persons, including two
disabled persons and two representative of Kochis for a period of five
years.26
 Loya Jirga is the highest manifestation of the people's will in Afghanistan.
It consists of Members of the National Assembly, Chairpersons of the
Provincial and District Councils. The Ministers, the Chief Ministers and
Members of the Supreme Court can participate in its sessions but cannot
vote. This constitutional body is to be convened in the following
27
situations:-
 To take decision related to independence, national sovereignty,
territorial integrity and the supreme interest of the country.
 To amend the provisions of the constitution.
 To impeach the President.
 Provincial Councils are elected for a period of four years through direct
and secret ballot.
 District Councils are elected for a period of three years.
 All Federal Ministers are the nominees of the President.
Structures of Afghan Government – The Weak Areas
The Constitution of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan was, by all means, an
interim arrangement. It is far from being the final document. There are a number of
areas which need definite improvement. Some of the structural shortcomings of
Afghan political system are being highlighted in this paper. All Governors of the
Provinces are again nominated by the President.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
213

1 Ethnic Divide
The diversity of cultural make-up of nations, on the bases of ethnicity, language
and religious, is considered as a normal phenomenon in most parts of the world,
provided other factors such as common culture and politico-economic interests
homogenize the populace. At the dawn of modern times, the territory of what is
now Afghanistan was inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups, which apart from
28
Muslim faith, had little in common. Ethnic factor is so strong in the affairs of
Afghanistan that it plays central role in the making of political parties,
elections, formations of Governments and recruitment and commissioning of
public servants. The ethnic groups in Afghanistan are solid, cultural units
which have been divided by boundaries and have been engaged in conflict for
29
years. Historically, however, ethnicity had never been played up, as it is done
today. Most of the top level leadership positions, including kings were held by
Pashtuns, who had always been in majority as compared to other groups. The
war in Afghanistan has vastly changed the traditional balance and power
equation. Non-Pashtun minorities are more dominating today, particularly in
30
post-Taliban Afghanistan, than they were two decades ago. Dr. Rasul Bakhsh
Rais says, “the United States, in its war against Taliban after the 9/11 tragedy,
tried the time-tested strategy of courting the enemies of the enemy. Northern
Front came forward, as the natural ally of the super power, by offering every
possible help, as the interests of both the US and Northern Alliance were
common in crushing the Taliban, which increased the apprehensions among
31
Pashtuns about their representation in the post-Taliban power arrangements”.
The Constitution of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan recognizes more than
fourteen ethnic groups in Afghanistan.32 In the absence of an accurate
population census, the demographic composition of Afghanistan always
remained controversial and unreliable. However, most of the analysts cite the
following figures:-
Table I: Ethnic Configuration of the State of Afghanistan33
Ethnic Group Percentage
Pashtuns 42 – 48 %
Tajiks 19 – 25 %
Hazaras 9%
Uzbeks 9%
Aimak 3–4%
Turkmen 3–4%
Balochi Tribes 2%
Others 4%
Manzoor Ahmed Abbasi & Muqeem ul Islam
214

Despite being majority, the Pashtuns feel marginalized in the existing political
dispensation. In the light of Bonn Agreement, the Central Executive was formed as
per following representation of ethnic groups:-
34
Table II: Ethnic Composition of the Government of Afghanistan

Ethnic Group Representation Percentage

Pashtuns 11 Ministers 36%

Tajiks 8 Ministers 26%

Hazaras 5 Ministers 16%

Uzbeks 3 Ministers 10%

Others 3 Ministers 10%

Total 30

Though a Pashtun origin President, Hamid Karzai, took over as the President,
but to date the Northern Alliance's domination of Afghan government is
conspicuous, as it holds 64% of the overall Cabinet slots. Apart from above the
representation of Panjshir group in the A S N F and civil services is
disproportionately high, particularly in the officers' cadre; as indicated in the
following graph:

Figure 1: Ethnic Composition of the ANSF35

60

Officers
50

40
I NCO
Enlisted

I
High population
Percentage

estimate
Low population
30
estimate

20

10
I I I
0
Pashtun Tajik Hazara Uzbek Other
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
215

It is rightly argued, therefore, that neither Bonn Agreement nor the government
it chose was very representative of the demographic and traditional power centers of
36
Afghanistan. The subsequent developments in the central governmental structure
could not correct this imbalance, due to strong influence of Northern Alliance and
their ties with NATO and ISAF commanders. Ethnicity is more than ever a
prominent factor in Afghan politics.37
2 Highly Centralized System of Government
Extensive powers seem to be concentrated in the office of President. The
concentration of power is stunning, in fact. There is no oversight of the
President's actions, which are unconstrained by any check and balances.38 One
can understand the rationale of powerful executive during the times of crises,
but for a country like Afghanistan which has dispersed centers of power, based
on regional, linguistic, sectarian and ethnic tendencies, the devolution of
authority at local levels could be prudent approach. Similarly, a set of
supporting institutions like Executive Office of U.S. President would be
required to assist such a strong Presidential Office, which Afghan economy can
hardly afford.
3. Electoral Process
Afghanistan's electoral process is highly controversial. Both the presidential
elections of 2005 and 2009 as well as the parliamentary elections were
criticized for lack of transparency, massive irregularities and manipulations. A
major issue of elections was the participation of over three and half million
refugees, residing in Pakistan and Iran. Afghanistan's democratic structure
39
lacks institutionalization. Some of the structural shortcomings are:
 Weak Election Commission, consisting of hand-picked loyalists or
protégés of powerful elite.
 Political factions and interest groups, dominated by warlords and drug
barons, functioning as political parties. Political parties serve as nurseries
for training and education of citizens in political skills, but such parties
with strong democratic credentials do not exist in Afghanistan.
 Lack of democratic culture, political skills and empowerment of the
citizens to actively participate and monitor the political process.
 Ethnic, sectarian and linguistic influences.
 Cumbersome procedure of elections which puts huge financial burden on
Government exchanger, which a fragile economy of Afghanistan is in no
position to sustain.
Manzoor Ahmed Abbasi & Muqeem ul Islam
216

Steward Smith, an expert on Afghanistan, has aptly drawn these conclusions


about the election system of Afghanistan: “Looking back at the significant
transformations in Afghanistan over the past eight years-transformations that
have yielded both positive and negative changes – one is stuck by two
conclusions: the utter lack of progress made in building democratic institutions
despite hundreds of millions of dollars spent on democratic processes, and
holding of now four elections (including the second parliamentary elections in
2010), and fact that the enduring disconnect between the citizens of
Afghanistan and their Government – precisely what democratic
democratization efforts were supposed to mend – is one of the biggest factors
behind the growth of insurgency. Many discrete tasks have been done well, and
the key electoral events have been held, but they did not seem to add up to
40
democratization.”
Another report compiled by the experts at BOOKINGS Foreign Policy desk
contains the following conclusions by Afghan think tanks themselves: “In the
eyes of most Afghans, elections are being used to legitimize or rubber stamp the
41
control of powerful and elections are compounding the distrust of institution.”
4. Judicial System of Afghanistan
Chapter-7 of the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan deals with the
Judiciary. There are three tiers of Afghan Judiciary: The Supreme Court (in the
centre), Courts of Appeal (in the provinces) and Primary Courts at District
levels. These courts in most parts of the country are still in formative stage, for
lack of qualified judges and supporting staff. Then, there is a considerable
controversy about applications of various sets of laws. Islamic Sharia Laws,
Anglo-Saxon Criminal and Statutory laws are applied in the courts. The
qualified judges in Islamic Sharia, who can give balanced interpretations of
Islamic laws, are hard to come by. The Afghan Judicial system could not
develop confidence in the people. Consequently, the disputes are still referred
to and adjudicated by local Jirgas and tribal heads. This arrangement allows
tribal chieftains to maintain their clout and weld their strong power bases.
5. Donors -Dependent Economic Structure
One of the major concerns expressed by the experts about post 2014
Afghanistan is the sustainability of its economic structure, which is totally
dependent on donations. How this huge political, security and administrative
structure would be maintained, once the international donors pull out, is a big
question mark. The widespread corruption from top to bottom further
compounds the problem. Although a number of donor countries pledged to
continue their financial aids, at least through the years 2015 and 2017, yet there
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
217

is no likelihood that Afghan economy would stand on its own feet in the
foreseeable future. It does not auger well for a sovereign nation. It is, perhaps,
the reason that the successive governments in Kabul are ready to become
willing stooges even to the states like India, which have hardly anything
common with the people of Afghanistan, except the vested interests of power
elites. “Afghanistan's transition from armed conflict to a stable, secure and
developing society depends on its capacity to overcome a fundamental
conundrum: economic development cannot take place in the absence of a
secure environment, at the same time, a secure environment cannot long be
sustained without progress in economic development.”42
6. Administrative Arrangements
State of Afghanistan has 34 provinces (Walayat, plural Walayaat)) and over
four hundred Districts (Ulaswali). The elections to District Councils could not
be held so far, due to serious controversies about district-boundaries. It entails,
in turn, the non-completion of Mashrano Jirga (Upper House) of the National
Assembly, where district Councils are required to send their representatives.
Similarly, the Chairpersons are ex-office members of Loya Jirga, which also
remains incomplete in the absence of elections of the district councils. There is
also a disconnect between elected provincial councils and the nominated
Governors. Provinces and districts are primary units, which need to take care of
public welfare, maintenance of law and order and as well as developmental
work. But existing Government structure of Afghanistan seems to converge on
the precincts of Kabul. Whereas, there is hardly any influence of the central
Government on far flung areas, which still remain under the influence of tribal
warlords and clergy.
Afghanistan's Existing Security Apparatus and the Issue of its
Survivability
Afghanistan has unfortunately been functioning as a security state for last four
decades. The level of violence that Afghan society has gone through cannot be
conceived about any other part of the world. When a house is on fire in a
neighborhood, the other neighbor cannot be expected to remain unaffected. Hence,
the people of Pakistan are equal sufferers of Afghan tragedy. It is time that now all
regional and global players must look at Afghanistan and Pakistan situation as a
human tragedy. The chess board of power politics must not be laid on the corpses of
innocent people, who are slaughtered day in and day out in proxies. Since
Afghanistan has yet to find political and security stability, being a war torn country,
there is hardly any credible data available about Afghanistan and adjoining areas of
Pakistan, in terms of losses to men and material. Even the data presented about post
Manzoor Ahmed Abbasi & Muqeem ul Islam
218

9/11 period is highly unreliable, as it has been compiled by various organizations


and institutions, with specific objectives. It will take time, when truth will unfold
itself and we will come across ghastly stories. But whatever data is available, it is
enough to tell us that security situation is far from being satisfactory. Our concern in
this paper is to analyze the existing security structure of the state of Afghanistan, the
level of violence in Afghanistan and the strength and capacity of Afghan National
Security Forces (ANSF) to withstand the challenges of national security after
NATO's draw down in 2014.
Table III: Major Security Related Indicators43

Force Current Level

About 95,000
Total Foreign Forces in Afghanistan US: 63000
Other Allies: 32000

109,564
Total Number of U.S. Security Employed by U.S. companies, but not necessarily
Contractors Americans. These figures only count those employed by
the U.S. Department of Defense.44

About 190,000, close to the target of 195,000 planned by


Afghan National Army (ANA) ISAF/NATO and about 5,300 Commands trained by US
Special Forces

About 150, 000 close to the target of 157, 000. 21, 000 are
Afghan National Police (ANP) Border Police, 3,800 Counter-Narcotics Police and 14400
Civil Order Police (ANCOP)

ANFS Salaries About $ 1.6 billion per year, paid by donor countries.

Number of Al-Qaeda Fighters “Less than 100” or so, according to General Petraeus in
April 2011.

Number of Taliban Fighter Upto 25,000

Reintegration About 7, 000 re-integrated since 2010

It can be inferred from the existing state of security structure in Afghanistan


that it would be extremely difficult for ANSF to face the daunting task of peace and
stability in Afghanistan, once such a huge strength of foreign forces pulls out of this
country in 2014.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
219

45
Table IV: US and NATO Causalities (7 October 2007 to 15 July 2013)

All Fatalities Hostile Non - Hostile

U.S. 2,244 1,795 449

Others 1,095 919 176

Total 3,339 2,714 624

Level of Violence in Afghanistan:


Death Toll for Last Five Years (2007-2012)46
It needs to be re-emphasized that reliability of all figures pertaining to war
casualties in Afghanistan is highly questionable, as UN started reporting casualties
as late as in 2007. The period from 2001 to 2007, when heavy death toll took place
due to massive onslaught of NATO/ISAF on Taliban militants, is conspicuously
missing from most of the statistics compiled by US and the Western institutions as
well as researchers about casualties in GWOT. But whatever figures are available
from2007 onwards are enough to indicate the level of violence in Afghan society, as
depicted in the following table:-

Table V: Afghan Casualties47

Number of Casualties
Group Period
Killed Injured
Civilians Upto 2007 to the end of 2011 11,864 -
2007 1,523 -
2008 2,118 -
2009 2,412 3566
2010 2,777 4,343
2011 3,021 4,507
2012 1,145 1,954
Afghan National Army 2007 278 750
2008 259 875
2009 292 859
2010 821 775
2011 511 256
2012 173 327
Afghan National Police 2007 688 1,036
2008 724 1,209
2009 639 1,145
2010 1,292 743
2011 569 552
2012 349 418
Manzoor Ahmed Abbasi & Muqeem ul Islam
220

Surge in Civilian Casualties in Afghanistan in 2013


An alarming rise in the civilian casualties has been reported in Afghanistan in
the first half of year 2013. The UN report depicts a bleak picture: "Despite Afghan
forces leading almost all military operations countrywide, a permanent structure
does not exist in relevant ANSF [Afghan National Security Forces] bodies to
systematically investigate allegations of civilian casualties, initiate remedial
48
measures and take follow-up action."

Table VI: Afghan Civilian Casualties in 2013

Year Killed Injured

1,319 2,533
2013 Women Children Women Children

106 231 241 529

Majority of analysts, researchers and scholars do not find much hope in the
existing security system of Afghanistan. The composition and make-up of Afghan
National Security Forces (ANSF) is based more on ethnic influences than on
professional selection or competence. The literacy rate of ANSF is very low;
therefore, their capacity to achieve the level of modern fighting machine is limited.
There are also apprehensions that ANSF may dissipate and fall back to regional
militias and warlords. General Shaukat expresses his apprehensions about post
NATO drawdown in these words: “Afghan Institutions are still too fragile; security
structures are still ineffective and too unwieldy. Loosely controlled community
police looks disasters….. It is perceived by most of the power players and
stakeholders that Afghanistan is likely to once again experience civil war of nineties
49
after departure of US forces in 2014.
The Major Irritants in Afghanistan and Pakistan Relations and
their Impact on Regional and Global Security
Once Afghanistan is recognized as one of the sources of insecurity, not only for
the peace of South Asia but also the entire world, it may not be a prudent policy for
the US and NATO to abandon this volatile region once again, without showing any
seriousness or commitment for durable peace in the long run. It needs to be
appreciated and understood by all regional and global players that stability and
peace in South Asia would remain a far cry, if real irritants among South Asian
nations, particularly Pakistan and Afghanistan and Pakistan and India, are not
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
221

removed. This paper will particularly focus on major irritants between Pakistan and
Afghanistan. The following are the major issues between Pakistan and Afghanistan
which cannot be settled without active role of US, NATO and UN:-
 Unrealistic Approach of Successive Afghan Governments about Durand
Line Agreement.
 Cross Border Movement of Drug-traffickers, Terrorists, Saboteurs and
Criminals.
 Indian Factor in Afghan.
 Narcotics.
 Refugees.

1. Durand Line Controversy


The Durand Line Agreement was reached between the Government of
Afghanistan and Great Britain in 1893 and was signed by the then Amir of
Afghanistan Abdul Rehman Khan and the British representative Sir Henry
Mortimer Durand. Pakistan inherited this Agreement on its independence in
1947, which stands recognized by UN and all regional and global countries,
including US, UK, NATO and ISAF countries as well as successive Afghan
governments, barring a few. It was, in fact, a part of series of agreements
reached between the Great Britain and the Tsars of Russia, which resulted in the
creation of modern state of Afghanistan. Today's Afghanistan owes its identity
to those agreements.41 The attitude of Afghan rulers has been described well by
Ahmad Shayeq Qassem: “The processes which determined the Afghan borders
are all open to controversy, yet the Afghan Government has only challenged its
border with South Asia. The selective way in which the Afghan government
treats borders is related more to considerations of domestic politics and transit
trade with an impact on the country's political stability rather than the validity
42
of its case”. Durand Line treaty was ratified by successive Afghan
Governments in 1905, 1919 and 1930. US, ISAF and NATO Forces recognize
this border as an international one, but could not convince the Government of
43
Afghanistan to give it a 'de jure border' status.
The Government of Afghanistan needs to realize that it is better to play on
'positives' rather than on 'negatives' to negotiate the issues of transit-trade and
make a serious effort to help itself and Pakistan secure their borders. It also
needs to understand that 'securing border' does not imply 'closing of borders'.
“The modern world requires secure borders, but does not require closed
st
borders. In the 21 century, international investment, and the cross border
movement of ideas, people, goods and services are necessary components of
Manzoor Ahmed Abbasi & Muqeem ul Islam
222

both economic and political development in any country. In landlocked


Afghanistan, relations with neighboring countries define in many aspects the
interactions with the outside world as a whole”44. The cost of this unnecessary
controversy is not being paid only by Pakistan and Afghanistan but the whole
world. The so called 'safe havens' for terrorists are located in the areas, which
fall on either side of Durand Line. Afghanistan needs to share the responsibility
of these safe havens, if it is not ready to make Pakistan-Afghanistan border
secure, by fencing and developing effective joint surveillance system, clearly
demarcating the mutually agreed exit and entry points. The earlier it is done the
better it would be for the peace of the world in general and South Asia in
particular.
2. Cross-Border Movement of Terrorists, Saboteurs and Criminals
A natural corollary to the border controversy is the cross – border movement of
terrorists, saboteurs and criminals. Hundreds of kilometers of border between
Pakistan and Afghanistan, passing through extremely rugged terrain /
mountains, are free for all. Making this border secure is really a herculean task,
but nevertheless, it has to be done, if these both the countries and the world at
large want an enduring peace. The hideouts and terrorist network of all known
Al-Qaeda and TTP elements have been reported to be located on either side of
Durand Line. It is beyond comprehension, why the international community
did not impress upon Afghanistan to help Pakistan secure this border and,
thereby, secure the borders of both the countries. How much Pakistan has
suffered due to this cross border terrorism, once gauge from the following
tables.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
223

45
Table VII: Casualties in Pakistan in Terrorist Activities (2003 - 2013)

Security Forces
Year Civilians Terrorists / Insurgents Total
Personnel

2003 140 24 25 189

2004 435 184 244 863

2005 430 81 137 648

2006 608 325 538 1471

2007 1522 597 1479 3598

2008 2155 654 3906 6715

2009 2324 991 8389 11704

2010 1796 469 5170 7435

2011 2738 765 2800 6303

2012 3007 732 2472 6211

2013 1985 427 1263 3675

Total 17140 5249 26423 48812

46
Table VIII: Suicide Attacks in Pakistan from 2002-2013

Year Attack Fatalities

2002 2 27

2003 2 65

2004 8 82

2005 4 83

2006 9 161

2007 57 842

2008 61 940

2009 90 1090

2010 58 1153

2011 44 625

2012 32 243

2013 9 511

Total 376 5,822


Manzoor Ahmed Abbasi & Muqeem ul Islam
224

3. Indian Factor in Afghanistan


The presence of a widespread network of Indian intelligence agencies, in the
garb of trainers and contractors / builders, is a matter of serious concerns for
Pakistan. No country can understand the Indian hegemonic designs better than
Pakistan. Indian policy-makers could not and would not rise above their
jingoism, to evolve the policies which may be directed to integrate this entire
South Asian regime into a peaceful and prosperous place in the world to live in,
as the Europeans leaders did. Instead, India is still playing up with the militarist
and coercive politics, which the European leaders of 1890s were passing
through. Indians just want to surround and strangulate Pakistan. Their presence
in Afghanistan bespeaks of nothing but this fact and the Government of
Afghanistan needs to understand it.
4. Narcotics
Afghanistan is the world largest producer of opium, which is around 80% of the
total global production. The criminal gangs, drug-traffickers and terrorists
thrive on black-marketing and sale of opium. It has been reported that 1, 54,000
Hectares of land were filled by opium- poppy crops by the farmers in the year
2012, more than 131,000 hectors in 2011. It is amazing that the Taliban regime
had been remarkably successful in eradicating the drugs from the society,
whereas, the NATO and ISAF Forces kept a blind eye to this menace, for
obvious short term military gains. Their belated actions now are yielding no
positive results. 177 attacks have been reported so far on the Afghan Security
Forces, who tried to destroy poppy crops, killing 102 soldiers. Narcotics are
easily being infiltrated to various parts of the world. Pakistan is the worst
victim of this menace, as a large number of Pakistani youth are fast turning into
addicts. The effective border management and monitoring are a few of the
means to eradicate or at least control this menace, which is extremely
dangerous for the humanity as a whole.
5. Refugees
One of the irritants between Pakistan and Afghanistan, but not the least
important one, is the presence of around three million Afghan refugees in
Pakistan. These refugees, who entered Pakistan after Soviet invasion of 1979,
did not return back to Afghanistan despite the lapse of more than three and half
decades. Majority of them still lives in refugees' camps. They are a big source
of cross- border movement of criminals, narcotics, arms and ammunition.
Their continued presence has badly impacted the societal set-up of KPK and
FATA in Pakistan. It is time that the government of Afghanistan should make
effective arrangements for their repatriation.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
225

Recommendations
The author of this paper, after dispassionately studying various aspects of
political stability in Afghanistan, proffers the following policy
recommendations for all stakeholders:-
1. The Constitution of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan needs re-visiting, in order
to devolve powers to the provinces and lower levels. Seeing the demographic
and geographical configuration, it would be appropriate to work out more
consensus-based central model of governance than an all powerful presidential
model.
2. The governors in the provinces should also be elected, instead of being
presidential nominees. It would add to their influence and effectiveness in the
governance.
3. The factional politics in Afghanistan need to be gradually replaced by genuine
representative political parties, based on clear policy-agendas and ideological
foundations. Ethnic-based politics can only be changed into developmental
and issues based politics through strong political parties.
4. Electoral system of Afghanistan needs complete re-vamping and
institutionalization, in order to ensure transparent and credible election in
future.
5. Judicial system of Afghanistan has also to cover a lot of ground, to provide
justice to the people even in the remote areas. Pakistan may extend assistance to
the Government of Afghanistan for the training of judicial officers.
6. Afghanistan and Pakistan both should work out together joint programmes for
economic development of the most affected regions. The issue of Afghan
transit-trade may also be settled amicably, so that an atmosphere of trust and
confidence is promoted in both the countries.
7. The Government of Afghanistan should take bold steps to recognize Durand
Line, so that the borders of both the countries can be secured, both from the
movements of terrorists, saboteurs/ criminals as well as the flow of narcotics to
Pakistan and the rest of the world.
8. The Government of Afghanistan should take immediate steps for repatriation
and rehabilitation of more than three million refugees, residing inside Pakistan.
It is now over more than three and half decade that Pakistan is shouldering this
burden.
Manzoor Ahmed Abbasi & Muqeem ul Islam
226

9. The Government of Afghanistan should take concrete steps to provide exact


information about Indian activities inside Afghanistan and address the
concerns of Pakistan in this regard seriously, particularly at this point in time,
once the Indians are again escalating activities on LOC and working boundary.
10. Pakistan-Afghanistan should work together to find out regional solutions to all
the problems, with an extensive consultation with other neighboring countries
i.e. Iran, China, CARS and Russia. Turkey, being the mutual friend of all these
countries, can play a lead role.
11. Since the political stability of Afghanistan directly affects the neighboring state
of Pakistan, it would be unrealistic to work out any models of Afghan security
in post- 2014, without effective and meaningful consultation and involvement
of Pakistan.
12. The US, NATO, ISAF and UN should renew their focus on the peace and
stability of South Asia and help resolve all issues, which endanger the peace
and stability of this region. The political stability of Afghanistan cannot be
ensured without making all its neighbors at peace. The people of Afghanistan
and Pakistan deserve much needed respite from violence, bloodshed and
lawlessness. All regional and global players need to work in this direction.
Conclusion
Afghanistan and Pakistan are inseparable neighbors, which cannot be dissected
by any machinations. The political stability of each of these neighbors is contingent
upon each other. No other country in the world has suffered, in terms of losses to men
and material, more than Pakistan, due to continued spade of violence in Afghanistan
for last three and half decades. The proliferation of narcotics, arms and ammunition
to each nook and cranny of Pakistan is the gift of successive Afghan wars and civil
wars since 1979. Now, when the final drawdown of NATO and ISAF is fast
approaching, Pakistan's worries about the political stability of Afghanistan are but
natural. The central argument of this study is that peace in South Asia in general and
Pakistan in particular hinges on political stability of Afghanistan. Similarly, the
peace and political stability of Afghanistan cannot be realized without effective
collaboration of its neighbors. It is, therefore, logical that Afghanistan and all its
neighbors should sit together, to honestly address the irritants and work out
pragmatic recovery, re-construction, economic development and security plans, in
which all of them find 'a win-win situation', and in turn, the people of this region live
in much needed peace and tranquility. Afghanistan cannot be stabilized by quick
fixes. A long term commitment of UN, NATO and particularly neighboring
countries would be required for an enduring political stability of Afghanistan.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
227

End Notes
1
Ahmad Shayeq Qassem, 'Afghanistan's Political Stability: A Dream Unrealized'.
MG Books Group, UK, 2009, p.4.
2
Leon Hurwitz, 'Contemporary Approaches to Political Stability'. Comparative
Politics, Vol-5, April 1973, p.463.
3
Bruce M.Russet and Robert Bunselmayer, 'World Handbook of Political and Social
Indicators'. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1964. pp.97-100.
4
Ahmad Shayeq Qassem, 'Afghanistan's Political Stability: A Dream
Unrealized'.op.cit. p.4.
5
Claude Ake, 'A Definition of Political Stability.' Comparative Politics, Vol-7
(January 1975).pp271-283. Retrieved from http://www.jstor/discover,on 4
August 2013.
6
Ivo K. Feirabend and Rosalind L. Feieabend, 'Aggressive Behaviors within
Polities'. Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol-10, September 1966 .pp.249-271.
Quoted by Ahmed Ahmad Shayeq Qassem in his book 'Afghanistan's Political
Stability: A Dream Unrealized'.op.cit.p.5.
7
Ibid, p.5.
8
Ernest A. Duff and John F. McCamant, 'Measuring Social and Political
Requirements for System Stability in Latin America'.The American Political
Science Review, Vol- 62, December 1968. p.1125.
9
Ivo K. Feirabend and Rosalind L. Feieabend, 'Aggressive Behaviors within
Polities'. Journal of Conflict Resolution op.cit., p.5.
10
Ahmad Shayeq Qassem, 'Afghanistan's Political Stability: A Dream
Unrealized'.op.cit.p.6.
11
See for example the arguments of Bruce M. Russet and Robert Bunselmayer in
their book, 'World Handbook of Political and Social Indicators', (New Haven'
Yale University Press 1964), pp. 104-105.
12.Edmund Burke, 'Reflections on Revolution in France' (London, 1790) p. 29.
Quoted by Ahmed Ahmad Shayeq Qassem in his book 'Afghanistan's Political
Stability: A Dream Unrealized'.op.cit.p.7.
13. Leon Hurwitz, 'Contemporary Approaches to Political Stability',
Comparative Politics, Vol-5, April 1973, p.453.
12
Ernest A. Duff and John F. McCamant, 'Measuring Social and Political
Requirements for System Stability in Latin America, The American Political
Science Review, Vol- 62, December 1968, p.1125.
Manzoor Ahmed Abbasi & Muqeem ul Islam
228

13
Seymour Martin Lipset, 'Political Man: The Social Bases of Politics (London,
1960), p.77.
14
For study of differing views, one may go through introductory chapter of
Afghanistan's Political Stability, written by Ahmad Shayeq Qassem in his book
'Afghanistan's Political Stability: A Dream Unrealized'.op.cit.p.7.
15
Leon Hurwitz, 'Contemporary Approaches to Political Stability', op.cit. p. 457.
16
Frederick Dessauer, 'Stability' (New York, Macmillan 1949), pp., 125-126.
17
Harry Eckstein, 'Division and Cohesion in Democracy: A study of Norway',
(Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1966) pp. 11-32. Quoted by Ahmad
Shayeq Qassem in his book 'Afghanistan's Political Stability: A Dream
Unrealized'.op.cit.p.12
18
Ahmad Shayeq Qassem, 'Afghanistan's Political Stability: A Dream Unrealized'.
op.cit.p.1.
19
21 Ibid, p.1.
20
Kennath Katzman, 'Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security and US Policy,
Congressional Research Service, 11 January 2007. pp.1-5.
21
Article-1, Chapter-1 of Official Afghanistan Constitution, p.2.
22
Ibid, Articles 60-63, p.16.
23
Ibid, Article-83, p.24.
24
26 Ibid, Article-84, p.25.
25
Ibid, Articles 110-115, p.33.
26
Amin Saikal, 'Modern Afghanistan: A History of Struggle and Survival'. Fifth
Avenue, New York.pp.17-18. Quoted by Muhammad Saleem Mazhar et al in
their paper 'Ethnic Factor in Afghanistan'. Journal of Political Studies, Vol-19,
Issue-2, 2012. P.99.
27
Nazif M. Shahrani, 'State Building and Social Fragmentation in Afghanistan: A
Historical Perspective (1986)'. Quoted by Muhammad Saleem Mazhar et al in
their paper 'Ethnic Factor in Afghanistan'. Journal of Political Studies, Vol-19,
Issue-2, 2012.p.99.
28
Ibid, p.9.
29
Dr. Rasul Bakhsh Rais, 'Recovering the Frontier State: War, Ethnicity and State in
Afghanistan'. Oxford University Press, Karachi, 2008.pp.17, 32-35.
30
Article-4, Chapter-1 of Official Constitution of Afghanistan.p.3.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
229

31
Berry et al (2007). 'A brief History of Afghanistan'. New York. p.14. (Ministry of
Foreign Affairs, Government of Pakistan, estimated the proportion of Pashtun
population between 50-55 %).
32
BROOKINGS' Afghanistan Index, 20 September 2012.p.8.
33
Ibid.p.8.
34
Muhammad Saleem Mazhar et al. op. cit.p.2.
35
Sven Gunner Simonsen, 'Ethnicising Afghanistan?:inclusion and exclusion in the
post-Bonn institution Building'. Third World Quarterly, Vol-25, No.4.p.729.
36
Gretchen et al, 'Toward a Political Strategy for Afghanistan'. BROOKINGS
Policy Paper No. 27, 27 May 2011. p.2.
37
Scott Seward Smith, 'Afghanistan's Troubled Transition'.Viva Books, Delhi, 2012.
pp. 263-276.
38
Ibid, p-276.
39
Gretchen Birkle et al, 'Towards a Political Strategy for Afghanistan.'
BROOKINGS Policy Paper number 27, May 27 2011.p.1.
40
Gregory Gleason and Timothy A. Krambs, 'Afghanistan's Neighbours and Post
Conflict Stabilization'. Security Insight, George C. Marshall Europeans Centre
for Security No.5 March 2012.p.1.
41
Kenneth Katzman, Congressional Research Service, 25 June 2013.
42
BROOKINGS' Afghanistan Index, 15 July 2013.p.8.
43
Ibid.p.911.
44
Susan S. Chesser, 'Afghanistan Casualties: Military Forces and Civilians'.
Congressional Research Service December, 6, 2013. Retrieved from
www.fas.org/spg/crs/natsec/R41084,pdf.
45
Ibid.
46
Emma Graham-Harrison.theguardian.com, Wednesday 31 July, 2013. Retrieved
from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jul/31/afghan-civilian-
casualties-rise-quarter-2013, on 24 August 2013.
47
Major General Shaukat Iqbal, 'Security of South Asia, Impact of Conflicting
Interests of Power Players and Way Forward for Pakistan. Manuscript'.p. 101.
48
Kenneth Katzman, 'Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security and U.S.
Policy'. Congressional Research Service, Report for Congress, 25 June 2013.
p.47.
Manzoor Ahmed Abbasi & Muqeem ul Islam
230

49
B.D. Hopkins, 'The Making of Modern Afghanistan.' Cambridge Imperial and
Post-Colonial Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. pp.11-33.
50
Ahmad Shayeq Qassem, 'Afghanistan's Political Stability: A Dream Unrealized',
(UK, MG Books Group, 2009). p.44.
51
Raza Muhammad Khan, Lt Gen ®,'Peace and War: Their Precepts and Principles'.
Ferozesons Publishers, Rawalpindi, 2013.p.204.
52
Gregory Gleason and Timothy A. Krams, 'Security Insights'. George C. Marshal
European Centre for Security Studies, Serial – 5, March 2012. p.1.
53
South-Asian Terrorism Portal, Datasheet, “Fatalities in Terrorist Violence in
Pakistan”, Weekly Assessments and
Briefings.http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/pakistan/database/casualti
es.htm, Accessed on 22 August, 2013.
54
South-Asian Terrorism Portal, Datasheet, “Fatalities in Terrorist Violence in
Pakistan”, Weekly Assessments and Briefings.
http://www.satp.orgsatporgtp/countries/pakistan/database/casualties.htm,
Accessed on 22 August, 2013.
55
Major General Shaukat Iqbal, 'Security Politics of South Asia, Impact of
Conflicting Interests of Power Players and the Way Forward for Pakistan'.
Manuscript.p.102.
56
William Maley, 'Stabilizing Pakistan: Threats and Challenges.' Foreign Policy
Brief for the Next President, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
(2008). p.1.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
231

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Leon Hurwitz, 'Contemporary Approaches to Political Stability'. Comparative
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Manzoor Ahmed Abbasi & Muqeem ul Islam
232

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Ahmad Shayeq Qassem in his book 'Afghanistan's Political Stability: A Dream
Unrealized'.op.cit.p.7.
Leon Hurwitz, 'Contemporary Approaches to Political Stability', op.cit. p. 457.
Frederick Dessauer, 'Stability' (New York, Macmillan 1949), pp., 125-126.
Harry Eckstein, 'Division and Cohesion in Democracy: A study of Norway',
(Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1966) pp. 11-32. Quoted by Ahmad
Shayeq Qassem in his book 'Afghanistan's Political Stability: A Dream
Unrealized'.op.cit.p.12
Ahmad Shayeq Qassem, 'Afghanistan's Political Stability: A Dream Unrealized'.
op.cit.p.1.
Kennath Katzman, 'Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security and US Policy,
Congressional Research Service, 11 January 2007. pp.1-5.
Amin Saikal, 'Modern Afghanistan: A History of Struggle and Survival'. Fifth
Avenue, New York.pp.17-18.
Muhammad Saleem Mazhar et al in their paper 'Ethnic Factor in Afghanistan'.
Journal of Political Studies, Vol-19, Issue-2, 2012. P.99.
Nazif M. Shahrani, 'State Building and Social Fragmentation in Afghanistan: A
Historical Perspective (1986)'. Quoted by Muhammad Saleem Mazhar et al in
their paper 'Ethnic Factor in Afghanistan'. Journal of Political Studies, Vol-19,
Issue-2, 2012.p.99.
Dr Rasul Bakhsh Rais, 'Recovering the Frontier State: War, Ethnicity and State in
Afghanistan'. Oxford University Press, Karachi, 2008.pp.17, 32-35.
Official Constitution of Afghanistan.p.3.
Berry et al (2007). 'A brief History of Afghanistan'. New York. p.14. (Ministry of
Foreign Affairs, Government of Pakistan, estimated the proportion of Pashtun
population between 50-55 %).
BROOKINGS' Afghanistan Index, 20 September 2012.p.8.
Muhammad Saleem Mazhar et al. op. cit.p.2.
Sven Gunner Simonsen, 'Ethnicising Afghanistan?:inclusion and exclusion in the
post-Bonn institution Building'. Third World Quarterly, Vol-25, No.4.p.729.
Gretchen et al, 'Toward a Political Strategy for Afghanistan'. BROOKINGS Policy
Paper No. 27, 27 May 2011. p.2.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
233

Scott Seward Smith, 'Afghanistan's Troubled Transition'.Viva Books, Delhi, 2012.


pp. 263-276.
Gretchen Birkle et al, 'Towards a Political Strategy for Afghanistan.' BROOKINGS
Policy Paper number 27, May 27 2011.p.1.
Gregory Gleason and Timothy A. Krambs, 'Afghanistan's Neighbours and Post
Conflict Stabilization'. Security Insight, George C. Marshall Europeans Centre
for Security No.5 March 2012.p.1.
Kenneth Katzman, Congressional Research Service, 25 June 2013.
BROOKINGS' Afghanistan Index, 15 July 2013.p.8.
Susan S. Chesser, 'Afghanistan Casualties: Military Forces and Civilians'.
Congressional Research Service December, 6, 2013.
Major General Shaukat Iqbal, 'Security of South Asia, Impact of Conflicting
Interests of Power Players and Way Forward for Pakistan. Manuscript'.p. 101.
Kenneth Katzman, 'Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security and U.S.
Policy'. Congressional Research Service, Report for Congress, 25 June 2013.
p.47.
B.D. Hopkins, 'The Making of Modern Afghanistan.' Cambridge Imperial and Post-
Colonial Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. pp.11-33.
Ahmad Shayeq Qassem, 'Afghanistan's Political Stability: A Dream Unrealized',
(UK, MG Books Group, 2009). p.44.
Raza Muhammad Khan, Lt Gen ®,'Peace and War: Their Precepts and Principles'.
Ferozesons Publishers, Rawalpindi, 2013.p.204.
Gregory Gleason and Timothy A. Krams, 'Security Insights'. George C. Marshal
European Centre for Security Studies, Serial – 5, March 2012. p.1.
South-Asian Terrorism Portal, Datasheet, “Fatalities in Terrorist Violence in
Pakistan”, Weekly Assessments and Briefings., 2013.
Major General Shaukat Iqbal, 'Security Politics of South Asia, Impact of Conflicting
Interests of Power Players and the Way Forward for Pakistan'.
Manuscript.p.102.
William Maley, 'Stabilizing Pakistan: Threats and Challenges.' Foreign Policy Brief
for the Next President, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (2008).
p.1.
Manzoor Ahmed Abbasi & Muqeem ul Islam
234

The author Mr. Manzoor Ahmed Abbasi is Deputy Director, Officer-.in-Charge, National and
Military History Cell, and Editor NDU Journal and ISSRA Papers at NDU, Islamabad.

The author Mr. Muqeem ul Islam is Additional Director at NIM, National School of Public Policy,
Islamabad
Pakistan Journal of Criminology Volume 6, No.1, Jan-Jun 2014, pp.235 - 244
235

Causes of Violence Against Women


in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa
Humaira Nosheen & Prof. Dr. Sarah Safdar
Abstract
Violence against women is a worldwide phenomenon as it affects their lives in socio-
economic and other spheres of life. This violence is observable on the part of both close and
distant people, causing physical, psychological, social and emotional discomforts to them.
Sometimes, it cuts across cultural and religious barriers leading to reduce women's access to
their due rights.
In general, violence includes rape, gang rape, kidnapping, torture, honour killing, handing
over of females to settle down disputes in the form of swara/vanni marriage, no free choice of
marriage, dowry death, stove burning, burying alive, public humiliation by stripping the
women naked in public, parading through the streets to take revenge from the family,
snatching of children, custodial violence, denial of property, sexual harassment, trafficking
for forced labour and sex, forced and child marriage, acid throwing, domestic violence,
teasing in streets, obscene phone calls and other different kinds of sexual abuse in conflict
situation. The present study reveals the existence of psychological worries, socio-economic
exploitation and physical torture in the target area.
It is pertinent to mention that women in Pakhtun society are becoming violent in view of
changes to their economic, employment, educational, and political status.
Keywords
Violence, Swara/Vanni, Marriage, Dowry Death and Changing Women's Behavior.

Introduction
The United Nations (2001) define violence against women as 'any act of
gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in physical, sexual or
mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or
arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.
According to Radhika Coomaraswamy (2005) that violence against women
pass through their life cycle. Before birth woman suffers from selective sex
abortion, at infancy from female infanticide, as young girl from incest and son
preference, at puberty from sexual abuse or trafficking, as young woman from rape,
harassment and acid attacks, as wife from domestic violence and honour killing and
as widow from self-sacrifice and deprivation from property and dignity.
Battering is an unreported crime, being a family violence and hence a private
affair between husband and wife.
Humaira Nosheen & Prof. Dr. Sarah Safdar
236

Tongr (1984) reported four types of women battering.


Physical battering: includes aggressive behavior such as punching, kicking,
strangling and burning. Sexual battering: includes forced sexual intercourse with
brutality or the threat of violence. Psychological battering: refers to threat to self-
esteem of woman. Destruction of property and personal items of the victim. Abuser
serves this as a warning to the victim that she may be the next target of violence.
Lenore, E Walker (1984) battered women suffer from a state known as “battered
women syndrome”.
The Marxist (1970) framework of bourgeois and proletariat also fits well with
the subject of “violence in family”. To Marxists, the bourgeois and proletariat
situations may be exchangeable with man and woman in the family. Engles (1970)
clearly stated that the husband is the bourgeois in the family and the wife the
proletariat. Relationship between the husband and wife is both hostile and friendly.
Violence is regularly found in the family.
Gelles (1974) research focused on the violence in the family, concentrated on
abusive relationships within the family, including violence between brothers and
sisters, parental violence towards younger children and teenagers, the physical
abuse and neglect of the elderly, courtship violence and violence between husband
and wife. Many factors are responsible for violence in the family. Suzanne, K
Steinmetz. (1977-78) research theme known as “Family violence perspective”
accounted various factors such as employment, poverty, cultural norms which
promote violence in the family.
Usha Sharma (2003) many forms of violence are deeply rooted in the
patriarchal, feudal, and tribal systems. Walby (1990) defines “patriarchy a system of
social structures and practices in which men dominate, oppress and exploit women”.
Manish Bahl (2007) also supports this view by saying that patriarchy is associated
with subordination and oppression of women. Fazli Hamid (2010) adds his view by
saying that drug addiction, impotency (husband-wife), insanity, (husband-wife),
premarital and extra marital sexual relations, more children, no children, no son and
more daughters, infertility of wife, social differentiation (class/caste) are the major
causes of family violence. George Alfaro (1978) held personality trait responsible
for violence in the family.
Family violence is deeply associated with social stratification (class system).
Wolfgang and Ferracuti (1958) maintain that women belonging to lower class are at
high risk of physical violence, which is attributed to “their way of life”. Use of
physical violence in the lower class has been attributed to what Lewis calls “the
culture of poverty''.
Majority of the researchers have focused on male's aggression in the family.
Neil Websdale (1998) has recognized a change in the family violence since long that
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
237

women have become more aggressive. R, Gelles (1974) analysis, shows that the
focus is now on family violence rather than on male violence, within family the
wives commit a significant amount of violence towards husbands.
The Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences survey in 2002 revealed that* over
90% of married women were kicked, slapped, beaten or sexually abused when their
husbands were not satisfied by their cooking, cleaning, and failure to bear a child, or
had given birth to a daughter instead of a son. Wife battering, child abuse, child
neglect, sexual abuse, are the main forms of family violence.
Methodology
This study was carried out in five districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa including
Peshawar, Charsadda, Mardan, Swabi and Nowshera. Primary data was collected
from 500 male and female respondents in the sampled areas with equal number
through interview schedule whereas secondary data include libraries, survey reports
and organizational reports. Data was analyzed through Statistical Package for
Social Sciences (SPSS). The researcher herself approached the respondents of both
gender in the sampled areas. Somewhere prior approval of the respondents was
sought.
The study parameters included violence against women in rural and urban
areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and reasons of violence such as unawareness of
rights, uneducated male members, strict attitude of male members, and financial
issues etc.
Results and Discussion
The data, collected from respondents of both gender, is analyzed as per the
following details:
Table.I: Violence Against Women at Family Level

VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN


Area
Occurred Did not Occurred

125 54 71
Rural
(50%) (21.6%) (28.4%)

125 57 68
Urban
(50%) (22.8%) (27.2%)

250 111 139


Total
(100%) (44.4%) (55.6%)

Source: Field Survey


*Media briefing: Violence against women in Pakistan, Amnesty International's Report.
17 April 2002.p2.
Humaira Nosheen & Prof. Dr. Sarah Safdar
238

The data shows that majority of the female respondents i.e 55.6% reported no
violence prevailed in their family while 44.4% respondents confirmed violence in
their families, in the form of physical abuse (torture), wife beating, slapping, hitting,
strangling, defaming young girls, cruelties on married women, harassment and
disgracing the modesty of women.

Table II: Types of Violence in Family.

TYPES OF VIOLENCE
Area
Physical Mental Verbal All These no violence

125 10 5 22 17 71
Rural
(50%) (4.0%) (2.0%) (8.8%) (6.8%) (28.4%)

125 9 17 24 7 68
Urban
(50%) (3.6%) (6.8%) (9.6%) (2.8%) (27.2%)

250 19 22 46 24 139
Total
(100%) (7.6%) (8.8%) (18.4%) (9.6%) (55.6%)

Source: Field Survey

Table II indicates that 8.8% females reported mental abuse in their families in
the form son's preference over daughter, withholding love, sympathy,
misunderstanding with wives and children, exclusion of women in decision making
process, dowry abuse, refusal to grant women their share in parental property, non-
recognition of women as natural guardians of children, children marriages forcing
girls to accept arranged marriages, refusal to enter into employment, peghor (taunt),
toor (shame), tarborwali (cousin's rivalry). 18.4% respondents asserted that
violence prevailed in their families in the form of verbal abuse, emotional and
psychological abuse between the family members, particularly husband and wife.
These may also include denial of sex and food, access to money, restraints of normal
activities and threats, mostly in slums and amongst working class. Reasons for
physical and psychological violence against women are not automatically activated
but there are internal and external forces. A single factor or a combination of
manifold factors may explain the domestic violence or wife abuse for which the term
''battering'' is also used. Battering refers to physical assault through actions such as
hitting, punching, slapping, kicking, pushing, chocking, shaking, hair pulling and
arm twisting between a man and woman.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
239

Table III: Reasons of Violence Against Women

TYPES OF VIOLENCE

Area
Unawareness Uneducated Violent Household Family Financial Not
of Rights Male Attitude ssues Interference Issues Applicable
Members of Male

125 16 14 13 5 3 3 71
Rural
(50%) (6.4%) (5.6%) (5.2%) (2.0%) (1.2%) (3.2%) (28.4%)

125 8 5 29 7 6 2 68
Urban
(50%) (3.2%) (2.0%) (11.6%) (2.8%) (2.4%) (8.0%) (27.2%)

250 24 19 42 12 9 5 139
Total
(100%) (9.6%) (7.6%) (16.8%) (4.8%) (3.6%) (2.0%) (55.6%)

Source: Field Survey


The data shows that16.8%female respondent's blamed their husbands for their
violent attitude, and hatred against them. Their husbands threatened them of terrible
consequences, if they did not act according to their wishes. The wives became
fearful and depressed mentally. Another significant factor of domestic violence was
''unawareness of women'' about their legal rights.
Another major social factor activating violence was illiteracy of
husbands.(uneducated males). 7.6% women indicated that lesser education (or
illiteracy), a husband has and more likely be itself to approve or support violence.
Illiteracy or low level of education does not cause violence but it worsens the
frustration. Education on the other hand provides option for resolving family
tension. There is a progressive decrease in the percentage of the victims in the
educated families.
3.6% women indicated ''family interference'' as the major factors for violence
in their family. Family members such as mother/sister-in law and family friends are
supporting the husbands against the victims. The private affair between the husband
and wife becomes public affairs. Their interference aggravates the situation as the
woman feels more humiliated for letting her down by the husband in the presence of
others. The woman develops feelings of powerlessness and helplessness because
she does not get any support from anyone, but continue to suffer humiliation in
silence. Victims are likely to react sharply even to the mildest form of abuse in the
presence of children and in laws (outsiders). In case of children, the victims feel that
their authority over children has been eroded (damaged). 2% women asserted that
violence is the product of low income, in a situation, where wife is completely
dependent on the husband who physically abuses her.
Humaira Nosheen & Prof. Dr. Sarah Safdar
240

Table IV Violence Against Women Reduced in Families.

VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN REDUCED IN FAMILIES


Area
Violence Reduced Violence Did Not Reduced

125 110 15
Rural
(50%) (44.0%) (6.0%)

125 105 20
Urban
(50%) (42.0%) (8.0%)

250 215 35
Total
(100%) (86.0%) (14.0%)

Source: Field Survey

Table IV shows that husband is completely economically dependent upon his


wife, the husband resorts to violence as the last recourse as he cannot afford to force
his wife to leave the house or terminate marriage. 86.0% females reported a decline
in the prevalence of domestic violence, due to increase in opportunities for
education, employment, enhancement of constitutional and legal status of women,
awareness of violence against women, media, and enactments of statutory laws for
protection against harassment of women and disintegration of joint families.
Cases of domestic violence are not reported to the police due to the socio-
cultural constraints. Domestic violence is treated as private affair. Family problem
between husband and wife is rarely considered a crime unless it takes an extreme
form of violence. The code of honour of the society also condemns a battered wife,
as she has failed to fulfill her conjugal and household responsibilities.
The data shows that the incidents of domestic violence have reduced due to
certain factors. 86% respondents reported a decline in the cases of violence, whereas
14% denied. Women experiencing violence also reported higher level of depression,
anxiety and somatic disorders. Such women might commit suicide, due to shame.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
241

Table V: Reasons for Reduction of Violence Against Women.

Reasons for Reduction of Violence Against Women


Area
a b c d e f g h NA

125 46 11 31 8 7 2 2 3 15
Rural
(50%) (18.4%) (4.4%) (12.4%) (3.2%) (2.8%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (1.2%) (6.0%)

125 45 8 26 12 7 2 1 4 20
Urban
(50%) (18.0%) (3.2%) (10.4%) (4.8%) (2.8%) (0.8%) (0.4%) (1.6%) (8.0%)

250 91 19 57 20 14 4 3 7 35
Total
(100%) (36.4%) (7.6%) (22.8%) (8.0%) (5.6%) (1.6%) (1.2%) (2.8%) (14.0%)

Source: Field Survey


a = due to financial position
b = due to dowry
c = due to family support
d = employment
e = awareness of people
f = education of people
g = knowledge and wisdom of the people
h = all Reasons
Na = not applicable

Table V explains various factors which minimize the incidence of violence.


Financial condition of the females is highlighted by 36.4% of the respondents,
family support by 22.8%, employment of both male and females by 8.0%, dowry by
7.6%.
The study further shows that education is also the best possible means of
achieving greater equality in society and raising the status of women. Education
system is a power of authority of social privilege as a promoter of knowledge.
Education and employment are closely related. Education has created awareness
about the equality of men and women. It has made people more conscious about
women's rights, their identity and their place in society. Highly educated girls
demand for equal rights and therefore expect equal degree of respect from their
husbands. 5.6% of the respondents accepted that they have been made aware about
their rights by the NGO and media (particularly electronic media). The
government's efforts to create awareness were less effective. The work under taken
by NGOs and such strategies in collaboration with civil society can go a long way in
making women aware of their legal rights.
Humaira Nosheen & Prof. Dr. Sarah Safdar
242

Conclusion
Violence still persists mostly physical resulting from violent behaviour of
husband but however there is a decline in the incidence of violence due to
enhancement of educational, employment, and economic power of the females.
Violence against women is a common practice which is always present at
different level in the form of physical, mental, and verbal, while some female denied
violence in their families due to which they face no mental stress.
Some female reported various reasons due to which violence against women
occur as violent behaviour of husband, illiteracy of husband, family member's
interference, and financial issues.

Recommendations
 The Federal and Provincial government should increase the violence victim
support centres.
 To change the men's negative attitude about women, their contribution to
health, education, political, economic, religious and social spheres must be
appreciated.
 The practice of women's mock marriage to the Holy Quran should be
eliminated from the society.
 To declare acid throwing, a criminal act and propose death penalty for the
culprit.
 The number of victims shelter crisis centers should be increased as the present
number can not accommodates the large number of violence victims.
 There should be regular programmes on radio and television, regarding women
issues and problems.
 The government should introduce literature, concerning civic etiquettes and
dignity of women in the schools, especially at secondary level which will create
awareness in the new generation.
 Gender sensitization training should be provided to law enforcement agencies
and judicial personnel to enable them, to address complaints of all cases
including violence in the name of honour.
 Awareness programmes should be conducted for both women and men. It
should be done by governmental and non-governmental organizations
(NGOs).
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
243

 There should be religious definitions of the basic rights of women like


autonomy and freedom in Pakistan on federal level and the government
needs to evaluate all of the basic rights of women.
 To arouse social consciousness by the NGOs and political parties
regarding evils of child marriage, forced marriage, dowry and bride price
which are responsible for the miseries of women respectively for the
whole life. Neither give nor take (dowry) pride price should be the policy.
 To expand the violence victim support service by the state, the provincial
government, NGOs, civil society, and women activities should be linked
References
Al Quran . (1990). Surh Nisa, Verse No.4:34. The Meaning of The Glorious Quran.
Mohammed Marmaduke Pickthall. New York: The New American Library
p.83.
Asia Regional Ministerial Conference, Celebrating Beijing Plus Ten Jointly
Organised by Government of Pakistan And UNIFEM South Asia Regional
Office, p.4.
Engles, F. (1970).The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State, in K.
Marx & F. Engels, Selected Work, Moscow :Progress Publishers, pp.42,148.
Fazli, Hamid. (2010). Pakistan's Changing Villages.Op. Cit.
George, Alfaro. (1978). cited by K. Kumar (edited) (2002). in Socital Structure and
Social Problems. New Delhi: Anmol Publications Pvt Ltd, p.78.
Lenore, E. Walker. (1984). The Battered Women Syndrome. New York: Springer
–Verlag, pp.160,162.
Marx, K. & Engles, F. (1970).Manifesto of the Communist Party. In K. Marx & F.
Engels, Selected Work. Moscow: Progress Publisher, pp. 38-63.
Manish, Bahl. (2007). Violence on Women by Men. Op. Cit, p.204.
Media briefing: Violence against women in Pakistan, Amnesty International's
Report. 17 April 2002.p2.
M, Wolfgang. (1958). An Analysis of Homicide-Suicide. Journal of Clinical of
Experimental Psychopathology Quarterly Review Psychiatry and Neurology,
No19, pp.208,218,221.to the legal aid, vocational training and provisions for
children.
Neil, Websdale . (1998). Rural Women Battering and the Justice system An
Ethnography. London: Sage Publications, p.70.
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244

R, Gelles. (1974). The Violent Home: A Study of Physical Aggression Between


Husbands and Wives. Sage, Beverly Hills, CA, p.151.
Radhika ,Coomaraswamy . (2005). The Varied Contours of Violence Against
Women in South Asia, fifth South.
Suzanne, K. Steinmetz. (1977-78). The Battered Husband Syndrome. Victimology:
An International Journal 2, Nos. 3/4, pp.499.509.
Tong, R. (1984).Women, Sex, and the Law. USA,TotowaNJ:Rowman and
Allenheld. pp.73,74.
Usha, Sharma. (2003). Women in South Asia Employment, Empowerment and
Human Development. Op. Cit, p.107.
Walby, S. (1990).Theorizing Patriarchy. Oxford UK: Basil Blackwell, p. 20.
WHO, Violence Against Women.
http//.www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheet/fs239/en/ retrieved on 1 july 2001,
p.1.

The author, Ms. Humaira Nosheen, is a PhD Scholar of Social Work at the Department of Social
Work, University of Peshawar. Her PhD research was on violence against women in Pakhtun
society. She can be reached at nosheenkangra@msn.com.
The author Prof. Dr. Sarah Safdar, was the ex-Dean Faculty of Social Science at the University of
Peshawar. She supervised the PhD research of Ms. Humaira Nosheen. Currently, she is working
as the Member Public Service Commission, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. She can be reached at email :
sarah1_safdar@yahoo.co.uk
Pakistan Journal of Criminology Volume 6, No.1, Jan-Jun 2014, pp.245 - 259
245

Policing Money Laundering:


A Case Study of Afghanistan
Basharat Hussain & Mohammad Omar Safi

Abstract
Money laundering and its prevention is a significant issue in many countries. Various
attempts for policing money laundering have been taken at different levels; however, the
problem of money laundering is steadily increasing. Based on secondary data, this research
paper examines the trends and issues in the anti-money laundering efforts in Afghanistan. It
recognizes that money laundering has acquired the status of a global problem and
Afghanistan is not an exception. It looks for the Afghan government initiatives designed to
control money laundering and terrorist financing. Whilst the focus of study is Afghanistan,
this study also takes into account the impact of international regulations (such as UN and
FATF) on the way money laundering is tackled in Afghanistan. It is argued that the lack of
political will of the government is a major obstacle in the policing of money laundering in
Afghanistan. The Afghan parliament has yet to pass the proposed legislations on money
laundering and financing terrorism. In addition, there is serious shortage of human resources
in all government departments. The information sharing mechanism among different
government departments is extremely poor. There is lack of trust between Da Afghanistan
Bank and the Afghan National Police with respect to sharing information related to money
laundering cases. The Afghan National Police are often accused of being corrupt and have
links with criminal gangs. The proper mechanism for training police officers with respect to
money laundering investigations is missing. There was no system for keeping official
statistics on money laundering cases in Afghanistan. This study argues that the policing of
money laundering in Afghanistan requires an effective and a well integrated multi-agency
approach where information pertaining to money laundering cases must flow with proper
accountability system.
Keywords
Money Laundering, Financing Terrorism, Globalization, International Standards,
Hawala Remittance System.
Defining and Meaning of Money Laundering
Money laundering is a financial crime and is an old phenomenon (Buchanan,
2004). However, as a specific crime, it did not enter into legal context until 1986
(Daley, 2000). The term 'money laundering' was first coined by the American law
enforcement officials. The background of the concept of money laundering can be
traced back to the scam by Al Capone in Chicago during 1920s where he setup a
Chinese laundry to disguise the true identity of the profits earned through criminal
activities (Lea, 2005). The term 'money laundering' was used to refer to the financial
Basharat Hussain & Mohammad Omar Safi
246

activities by mafia groups and blending criminal proceeds with legal business
profits. Money laundering entered into popular usage during the Watergate scandal
during mid- 1970s in the United States of America (Bauer and Ullmann, 2000).
Money laundering has been defined in a variety of ways by academicians and
various organizations, both at national and international levels. According to
Buchanan (2004:115), money laundering is 'a financial crime that often involves a
series of transactions and numerous financial institutions across many
[international] financial jurisdictions'. For Sherman (1993:13), money laundering is
'the process of converting or cleansing property knowing that such property is
derived from serious crime, for the purpose of disguising its origin'. According to
Savona (1997:3), money laundering is 'an activity aimed at concealing the unlawful
source of sums of money'. Finally, Daley (2000:175) defined money laundering as
'the process by which one conceals the existence, illegal source, or illegal
application of income, and disguises that income to make it appear legitimate'.
The globalization of world economy has had great impacts on organized crime
in general and on money laundering in particular. Different factors have played and
are playing important role in the expansion of money laundering at national and
international levels. The developments in information technology coupled with the
globalization of financial markets, privatization, and expansions in foreign banks
establishments have altered the nature, extent and techniques of money laundering.
For example, the International Monetary Fund in its report in 1998 stated that the
unlawful money generated from organized crime was between 2 to 5 percent of the
world's GDP – between $ 800 billion to $ 2 trillion (Fabre, 2009). The nature and
character of money laundering have changed considerably since the 9/11 terrorist
attack on twin towers in the US. Money laundering is no more perceived as the
laundering of criminal proceeds by organized criminals gangs, but a mean by which
terrorist organizations generate, hide, transfer, and finance their terrorist activities
around the world (Johnson, 2002).
The problem of money laundering has also been addressed by various
international organizations. They have defined the phenomenon of money
laundering in their own way. At international level, the problem of money
th
laundering was first taken up by the United Nations on 19 December 1988 in a
Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psycho tropic Substances –
commonly known as the Vienna Convention – and defined money laundering as has
been stated below;
 The conversion or transfer of property, knowing that such property [is derived
from a drug offence] for the purpose of concealing or disguising the illicit
origin of the property or of assisting any person who is involved in the
commission of such an offence or offences to evade the legal consequences of
his actions;
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
247

 The concealment or disguise of the true nature, source, location, disposition,


movements, rights with respect to, or ownership of property, knowing that such
property is derived from an offence or offences established in accordance with
subparagraph (a) of this paragraph or from an act of participation in such
offence or offences (United Nations, 1988, Article 3.b).
Critics argue that this definition was too narrow in its scope because it
associated the process of money laundering and its related activities to merely
illegal funds generated from drug trafficking. It completely ignored numerous
organized crimes which generate criminal proceeds and the money generated as a
result. However, it is important to mention that this definition of money laundering
came up at a time when there was considerable global attention towards funds
generated through unlawful drug business and the international community was
concerned about the need to combat the drug cartels (Rider, 2003).
Two years later, in March 1990, the Strasbourg Convention on Laundering,
Search, Seizure, and Confiscation of the Proceeds from Crime adopted its definition
of money laundering which was wider in its scope and included any illegal funds
generated from all criminal activities including drug trafficking. The Convention
adopted the following definition of money laundering;
 The conversion or transfer of property, knowing that such property is proceeds
[derived from a serious crime], for the purpose of concealing or disguising the
illicit origin of the property or of assisting any person who is involved in the
commission of the predicate offence to evade the legal consequences of his
actions; and,
 The concealment or disguise of the true nature, source, location, disposition,
movement, rights with respect to, or ownership of property, knowing that such
property is proceeds [derived from organized crime] (Council of Europe, 1990,
Article 6)
Furthermore, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) has also produced its
own definition of money laundering in 1990. It is an international body created in
1989 by the G7 countries with the main purpose of fighting the problem of money
laundering at international level. It defined the concept of money laundering in the
following way;
Conversion or transfer of property, known to be of criminal origin, for the
purpose of concealing or disguising that origin, or of helping criminals to escape the
legal consequences of their actions; the concealment or disguise of the true nature,
location, movement, or ownership of property known to have been gained through
crime; and the acquisition, possession, or use of property, in full knowledge of its
derivation from criminal activity (cited in Alexander, 2001:233).
Basharat Hussain & Mohammad Omar Safi
248

Owing to the changing nature of organized crime and illegal funds generated as
a result, the United Nations also expanded the scope of its definition of money
laundering. In 2000, the United Nations Convention against Transnational
Organized Crime adopted much wider definition of money laundering which
included funds generated from all serious crimes such as corruption and
involvement in organized criminal gangs etc (see UN, 2004).
To reiterate, the international community has taken considerable steps in its
fight against the criminal proceeds generated from organized crime during last few
decades. The various UN conventions, the forty recommendations by the FATF and
the creation of the Interpol – the international police force – are some of the
significant initiatives undertaken by the international community to tackle
transnational organized crime, including money laundering. These initiatives at
global level further facilitated the development of domestic legislations pertaining
to the control of money laundering in many countries. The tragic incident of 9/11
further accelerated the need for effective enforcement of anti-money laundering
measures especially on the non-complying states (for further details, see Juma
2010).
Afghanistan is signatory to all major initiatives for money laundering control at
global level. For example, Afghanistan has signed the Vienna Convention treaty on
December 20, 1988 and ratified it on February 14, 1992. It has signed the 2000 UN
Convention on December 14, 2000 and ratified it on September 24, 2003.
Afghanistan is also a member of the Asia/Pacific Group on Money Laundering
(APG). It is one of the FATF styled regional anti-money laundering bodies
mandated with the purpose of fighting money laundering in their respective regions.
The definitions of money laundering and efforts for its control as has been
stated and discussed so far clearly shows the contentious and ever changing nature
of money laundering problem at global level. Money laundering has been accepted
as a serious problem both at national and international levels. The precise meaning
of money laundering may vary from country to country and from region to region,
however, the purpose of money laundering remains the same, to process and clean
the funds generated from criminal activities.
Money Laundering and the Hawala Cash Remittance System
The Hawala cash remittance system is one of the most common and frequently
used methods of money transfer in many parts of the world including Afghanistan. It
is commonly known as the 'informal financial networks' (De Goede, 2003:513) and
is recognized as the 'underground banking systems' (Gilligan, 2004:24). Some of the
other known alternative remittance systems includes the 'chit or chop system' of
China, the 'Hundi system' of Pakistan and the 'Hawala system' of India (Rider,
2004:81).
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
249

The term Hawala means 'to change' or 'to transfer' (De Goede, 2003: 513). The
exact origin of the Hawala system is not known. However, it was practiced many
hundred years ago, even before the origin of the conventional banking system. The
known history about Hawala system traces it back to the South Asian region
especially to Pakistan and India where traders used it as safe money transfer method
while travelling across the Silk Route several centuries prior to the division of Indian
Sub-continent (De Goede, 2003).
Despite the introduction of multi-national banking systems for money
exchange, the Hawala system is widely in practice for money transfer at national and
international levels. The Hawala system has a number of advantages over the
conventional banking system due to which it is preferred by the low paid workers
from the South Asian region. It is cost effective, quick, efficient, reliable, lack
bureaucratic procedure and paper trial (see Lilley, 2006). The Hawala system is often
criticized for being used by criminal gangs in order to launder the black money. An
estimated figure shows that around $ 20 billion of criminal proceeds is transferred
across the world using Hawala cash remittance system (Vassiliev, 2003).
After the tragic incident of 9/11, the usage and legality of Hawala system came
to forefront in the world news and political debate especially in the West and in
America. The Hawala system was strongly criticized for allegedly used by the
terrorist organizations such as the Al-Qaeda and Taliban to launder their criminal
proceeds earned through drug trafficking and arms smuggling (Ganguly, 2001). It
was strongly believed that the Taliban financed their regime through drugs money. It
was reported by the US and Pakistan officials that the Taliban and Al-Qaeda have
laundered equivalent of $10 million from Afghanistan. The money was first
transferred to Pakistan from Afghanistan and then to Dubai using Hawala system
(see Lilley, 2006).
The extent to which Hawala remittance system is being used by terrorist
organizations is not known. However, it was criminalized during war on terror and
was considered a mean through which terrorist organizations transfer their money.
De Goede (2003:515) stated that '…in the press and political discourse, Hawala
became stereotyped as taking place in shabby, smoky, dark, and illegal places'. The
criminalization of Hawala system and enormous pressure from the US and the West
led many countries to formulate regulations for its monitoring and control. Strict
conditions were imposed on Hawala remittance networks to keep proper records of
all outgoing and incoming financial transactions of their customers.
Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism
Money laundering and terrorisms are very complex concepts which involve
multifarious activities. In previous section, money laundering has already been
discussed as the process by which illegal funds earned through criminal activities
Basharat Hussain & Mohammad Omar Safi
250

are disguised in order to hide its illicit origin. On the other hand, the concept of
terrorism is difficult to define because of its national, religious and political
implications for different countries (Whittaker, 2007). The word terrorism lacks a
unified acceptable definition and is the subject of continuing debate in the
international arena. For instance, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), defines
terrorism as '…unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to
intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof
in furtherance of political or social objectives' (see Poole, 2007:131).
Terrorism has become a globalized phenomenon. There is certainly closed link
between money laundering and financing of terrorism. Terrorist organizations are
increasingly using the same techniques of generating money which the organized
criminals and money laundering are using (Lilley, 2006; Schott, 2006). Terrorist
organizations are increasingly looking for safe havens which are suitable for their
survival and expansion. Berry (2003) argued that terrorist organizations are
searching for countries with weak law enforcement, official corruption, open
national borders, weak legislations, lack of transparency in financial institutions etc.
The globalization of world economy has benefited not only organized criminals but
terrorists as well. It is important to mention that terrorist financing may occur
through different means including generating funds from organized crimes. Other
means of generating funds include donations and contributions from different
segment of society (Rider, 2004). Lilley (2006) argued that terrorist organizations
raise their funds through different means. He further stated that;
Donations, the use of charities and non-profit organizations, front
companies, state sponsorship, fraud, smuggling, the narcotics trade,
blackmail and protection rackets, corruption, counterfeiting, and other
criminal activities (Lilley, 2006:137-8)
The terrorist attack in America on Twin Towers on September 11, 2001 can
provide best insight into the way terrorist organizations generate and transfer their
criminal proceeds. The 9/11 Commission in its report outlined the ways and means
used by terrorists to finance the terrorist plot in America. It stated that
The 9/11 plot cost Al-Qaeda approximately $400,000–500,000, of which
approximately $300,000 was deposited into U.S. bank accounts of the 19
hijackers (Roth et al., 2004: 13)
The 9/11 Commission report has presented a detailed and fascinating
descriptions on techniques used by terrorist in order to enter money into the US to
finance the terrorist plot and at the same time the hijackers managed to escape the
money laundering radar of the authorities in the US. The 9/11 Commission in its
report outlined different ways used by Al-Qaeda to finance their terrorist plot in the
US. It includes;
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
251

 Wire transfers from overseas to the United States;


 The physical transport of cash or traveler's cheques into the United States,
and;
 The accessing of funds held in foreign financial institutions by debit or
credit cards (Roth et al., 2004:13)
After entering the money into the US, Al-Qaeda used the US banking system to
keep their money and facilitate their further transactions. Because terrorist funds
include money from both legitimate and illegitimate means, therefore, it is
extremely difficult to identify terrorist funds compared to the general money
laundering process.
The Nature and Extent of Money Laundering in Afghanistan
Afghanistan lies at the crossroad of Central Asia, the Middle East and the
Indian sub-continent. It has its own geo-strategic and economic importance in the
area. Afghanistan is among the poorest countries of the world with per-capita
income of less than US$ 300 and among the lowest human development indicators
(Rubin, 2005).
The invasion of Afghanistan by the Soviet Union in 1979 had grave
repercussions for not only the Afghanistan but for its neighbors as well (Asad and
Harris, 2003). The afghan war has led to the increase major organized crimes such as
the drugs trade, sale of arms, smuggling, corruption, human trafficking etc. (Hilali,
2002). It is a known fact that the United States supplied huge amount of weapons to
equip the resistance groups in Afghanistan – the Mujahideen – to fight against Soviet
invasion. The war provided massive opportunities for the sale of illicit arms
business and the organized criminals took full advantage of the situation. A
'Kalashnikov culture' was developed whereby having a Kalashinkov – AK – 47 –
became a part of acceptable cultural practices. The continued unsettled situation in
Afghanistan had opened ways for other kind of more sophisticated military weapons
such as the 'anti-aircraft weapons, hand grenades, rocket launchers and anti-tank
ammunition' which were readily available across Afghanistan and its neighboring
countries (Hilali, 2002:303).
With respect to the drugs trade, Iran was one of the main producers of heroin in
the region prior to the Iranian Islamic Revolution in 1979. As a result, the drugs
traders moved to the neighbouring countries of Afghanistan and Pakistan (Asad and
Harris, 2003). The United States played an important role in fighting against Soviet
Union inside Afghanistan by providing economic and military aid to the afghan
resistance fighter - the Mujahideen - through Pakistan. In order to support the cost of
the war, the CIA encouraged the Mujahideen groups to cultivate more poppy crop
(opium production) to obtain money in order to fight the war with Soviet Union. The
Basharat Hussain & Mohammad Omar Safi
252

drug money significantly increased the financial and military capability of the
Mujahideen groups in Afghanistan. This drug trade created powerful arms and drugs
mafias inside Afghanistan and in neighbouring Pakistan (Hilali, 2002).
In countries like Afghanistan where the law enforcement agencies are weak
and people are poor due to which poppy cultivation is more which further increases
the chances of international drugs business (Asad and Harris, 2003). Afghanistan is
one of the world's main producers of opium and has the most complicated drug
trafficking networks. Numerous efforts to combat drug trafficking has been taken;
however, the problem is increasing steadily. The Afghanistan Border Security Force
has been established with the responsibilities to control drug trafficking across its
borders especially with Iran which is considered as the main route being used for
drug trafficking (Thompson, 2006).
It is a known fact that Afghanistan is still statistically unknown with respect to
the true cost of illegal proceeds generated from organized crimes such as the drugs
business and sale of arms. The available information are very inadequate, and often
vague which are hindering for policy formulation (Thompson, 2006).
An estimated $ 4.5 billion was taken out of Afghanistan to different places such
as Dubai where most of the Afghan elite have their bank accounts and due to
significant bank secrecy laws, it is difficult to trace the true identity of such money
(Schewllenbach, 2012). The knowledge about the true sense of the volume of funds
produced by the production and export of drug trafficking is important for any
sensible analysis with respect to Afghanistan, which is lacking. The UNODC
(2005) in its report presented some analysis on estimations and stated;
“First, domestic profits should not be confused with those amassed
internationally, while the aggregate estimated value of the international
trade in Afghan opiates is in the neighbourhood of US$ 40 million, the
total export value of opium to neighbouring countries is estimated to be
US$ 2.7 billion in 2005. Gross revenues occurring to Afghan farmers are
calculated to be on the order of US$ 560 million, while Afghan traffickers
are estimated to receive roughly US$ 2.14 billion” (UNODC, 2005 cited
in Thompson, 2006:159)
One of the reasons for the continued existence of organized crime and money
laundering in Afghanistan is the fact that there is no proper checks on the amount of
money being taken out by the 'very important persons' via Kabul International
Airport (Schewllenbach, 2012). The Special Inspector General for Afghanistan
Reconstruction (SIGAR) in its report stated that much of the money which is taken
out of Afghanistan has been provided by the US and its allies. Consequently, it has
raised the US concern because such money is supposed to be used for post-war
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reconstruction of Afghanistan such as improving the security system, judicial


system and other infrastructure but instead it is being used to 'finance terrorist,
narcotics, and other illicit operations' (Schewllenbach, 2012). Though, it is not a
surprise because Afghanistan is one of the most corrupt countries according to
Transparency International report of 2012 (Schewllenbach, 2012).
Hawala remains one of the important mean of transferring money in
Afghanistan. In a cash-based economy where only 5% people use bank and more
than 90% rely on traditional method such as the Hawala (Schewllenbach, 2012).
Since 9/11, the western media and law enforcement agencies strongly criticized the
Hawala system and regarded it as one of the strong tools being used by the organized
criminals and terrorist organizations for the illicit and terrorist activities. It would be
wrong to conclude that the Hawala system deals with the illegal proceeds only in a
country where 80 – 90% economic activities are in the informal sector (World Bank,
2005).
Afghanistan has signed numerous trade agreements with its regional countries
such as Iran, India, China, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan.
However, the Afghan Transit Trade Agreement (ATT) which was signed between
Afghanistan and Pakistan in 1965 governs most of the trade in the country. The trade
agreement grant freedom of transit free from all kind of custom and tax duties via
two land routes in Pakistan i.e., Peshawar – Torkham and Chaman – Spin Boldak
(Thompson, 2006). The smugglers are taking full advantages of the facilities
provided by the ATT in order to avoid tax duties in Pakistan. The items are transited
via ATT agreement to Afghanistan and take a U – turn and are smuggled back to
Pakistan to avoid taxes and are sold in the local markets such as the famous
Karkhano market (Thompson, 2006).
The fall of Kabul to Taliban in 1996 and especially the tragic incident of 9/11 in
2001 in the US brought Afghanistan to the frontline global politics. Afghanistan was
considered and is still regarded as the safe haven for organized criminals and
terrorist organizations that operate globally. This war torn country is the hub of
numerous organized crimes such as the drugs trafficking, arms smuggling, human
trafficking, corruption, etc. In addition, Afghanistan is also regarded as the safe
place for terrorist organizations that operate worldwide.
Anti-Money Laundering Mechanism in Afghanistan
The legal and institutional framework of anti-money laundering and financing
terrorism mechanism in Afghanistan is still in its infancy. In 2004, the President of
Afghanistan issued two legislative decrees, namely the 'Anti-Money Laundering
and Proceeds of Crime Law' (Law No. 840) and the 'Law on Combating the
Financing of Terrorism' (Law No. 839). It is important to mention that both decrees
have not been endorsed by the legislative parliament of Afghanistan.
Basharat Hussain & Mohammad Omar Safi
254

The Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Center of Afghanistan


(FinTRACA) was established as a Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU) under the Anti
Money Laundering and Proceeds of Crime Law passed by decree late in 2004. The
main purpose of this law is to protect the integrity of the Afghan financial system and
to gain compliance with international treaties and conventions. The FinTRACA is a
semi-independent body that is administratively housed within the Central Bank of
Afghanistan (Da Afghanistan Bank).The main objective of FinTRACA is to deny
the use of the Afghan financial system to those who obtained funds as the result of
illegal activity, and to those who would use it to support terrorist activities.
There is no independent police organization that deals with money laundering
related cases in Afghanistan. The Counter Narcotics Police (CNP) – a section of
Afghan National Police – have been given the responsibility of dealing with money
laundering cases. In addition, the National Department of Security (NDS) is also
involved in dealing with money laundering cases. The customs authority based on
the country's international borders also have a significant role in the policing of
money laundering in Afghanistan.
One of the big problems that the afghan government is facing is widespread
corruption, capacity constraints, huge illicit narcotics sector, weak business
environment etc. The International Monetary Fund (2011) in its report stated that;
Illicit narcotic trade and corruption alone generate considerable amounts
of illegal funds. Afghanistan is the world's largest opium producer and
exporter and ranks amongst the most corrupt countries in the world.
Smuggling and fraud are other major sources of illegal funds. In addition,
terrorism and its financing remain a major concern both in terms of the
security of Afghanistan and of the funding of terrorist individuals or
organizations, and terrorist acts in the country and abroad. Despite the
authorities' efforts, investigations into money laundering and terrorist
financing have been few and none of them resulted in charges being
brought before the courts (IMF, 2011:7).
To summarize, some of the major problems with Anti-money laundering
Measures in Afghanistan are listed below;
 Lack of political will for combating organized crime in general and money
laundering in particular in the country
 Weak implementations of existing laws
 Loopholes in the anti-money laundering law
 Widespread corruption of the government officials
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
255

 Lack of human and technical resources in FinTRACA and in CNP


 No independent police department specialized in dealing with anti-money
laundering and countering financing terrorism cases
 No proper reporting of suspicious transactions by STRs (Suspicious
Transaction Reports)
 No dissemination of financial information; FinTRACA has not yet
published their periodic reports on its activities.
 Organized crime is a matter of everyday life routine; therefore, no strong
action has so far been taken against narcotics and arms mafia
 The current anti-money laundering and countering financing terrorism
regime is still in its infancy
 Lack of adequate resources, expertise and coordination among the law
enforcement agencies
 Weak enforcement of basic customer due diligence (CDD) and recording
keeping measures by the financial institutions especially the banks
 Suspicious Transaction Reports are not properly enforced
 Non availability of accurate statistics with respect to the illicit funds
generated in Afghanistan and also the number of cases of money
laundering to be investigated by the police.
Conclusion
Afghanistan has been greatly affected by the war for the last more than three
decades. Political instability and insecurity are the main problems confronting the
country. Afghanistan is the host of many organized crimes such as the drugs
trafficking, human trafficking, sale of weapons, smuggling etc. The corruption is
widespread especially among government officials holding higher positions. The
internal fragile situation of the country provides a favorable environment for
breeding organized crime. Thus in the presence of many organized crimes, money
laundering is thriving and is increasing rapidly.
The government of Afghanistan has so far taken few steps to control and
prevent money laundering; however, these initiatives are very minimal if compared
with the intensity of the problem that the country is confronting with. On the other
hand, there is lack of political will in the Afghan government for taking concrete
actions to combat money laundering. One of the reasons for this situation is that the
warlords have more influence on the government affairs who themselves are
directly involved in organized crime especially drugs trafficking and arms
smuggling in the country. One of the manifestations of this situation is the fact that
Basharat Hussain & Mohammad Omar Safi
256

the country still lacks a comprehensive and an effective anti-money laundering law.
The proposed anti-money laundering law is in the parliament awaiting thorough
discussion and approval. Due to the fact that most of the powerful Afghan warlords
possess parliament chairs, therefore; they are least bothered to discuss and amend
the proposed anti-money laundering law due to their personal involvement in
criminal activities.
To conclude, the enactment of law on its own would not be an efficient step,
unless properly supported by law enforcement agencies. The proper institutional
cooperation and partnerships between government departments such as the Afghan
National Police force, Da Afghanistan Bank, the Custom Authority, and the Border
Police Force etc. are missing due to the absence of any effective anti-money
laundering laws which could spell out their role and responsibilities. In addition, the
existing anti-money laundering mechanisms in Afghanistan are not transparent
which mostly raises the question of accountability.
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The author Mr. Basharat Hussain (PhD, Hull) is Assistant Professor at the Department of Social
Work, University of Peshawar, Pakistan. He can be reached at email : basharat04@yahoo.com.
The author Mr. Mohammad Omar Safi is CEO-TM4 Security and Risk Management and Safi
Education Network (S E N W), Kabul, Afghanistan. He can be reached at email :
omer.safi@team4rmc.com & arfso_mzr@yahoo.com
Pakistan Journal of Criminology Volume 6, No.1, Jan-Jun 2014, pp.261 - 281
261

Criminal Ideation:
The Role of Personal Growth and Criminality
Mussarat Anwar, Ayesha Anwar, Jamil Ahmad
& Shahid Ali Khattak

Abstract
Variations in the level of self maturity and criminality were examined using data from a
comprehensive sample of ninety male criminal adults(N=90) from central jail of Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa (KP).Psychological health was examined in combination with personal
growth level. Three main measures were utilized in this study, the Pearson-Marr Archetypal
Indicator (to measure the degree of self-realization), Subjective-psychological Well-being
Scale (to measure the current life situations and emotional wellness) and Depression,
Anxiety and Stress Scale (to assess the severity of the core symptoms of neurosis). Result
indicated that criminals had shown low level of personal growth (Soul) with clear signs of
emotional disturbance and less satisfaction with life. Warrior- Caregiver, Seeker-Lover, and
Destroyer-Creator energies were not well integrated that resulted in the development of
instinctive-aggressive impulses.
Keywords
Crime, Ideation, Personal Growth, Criminal Mentality.
Introduction
The purpose of the study was to explore the relationship of personal growth
level towards criminality among adult offenders. From the overall view of the
literature on self transcendence and its relation to well-being, it appears that in the
opinion of some transpersonal psychologists, personal and the transpersonal
experiences for growth and development play important role in mental health.
Various clinical studies and investigations of delinquents, and mentally ill patients
suggest that lack self maturity may be of considerable etiological importance to both
social and psychological abnormality (Johnson et al., 2000; Johnson et al., 2001;
Greenberg, 2000; DeSchryver, 2000).
Early and Smith (1998) in one of their empirical studies argued convincingly
for the effect of spiritual poverty (lack of moral growth) and violence in youth.
Lending support to this argument, Freeman (1997, 2006) reported the existence of
spiritual void (an absence of morality) among violent-alcoholics. He explained that
such individuals run to alcohol and violence in a misguided attempt to feel more
complete. Nevertheless, the need to examine the therapeutic utility of personal
growth as a mean of enhancing psychological well-being is significant.
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According to a country profile report by WHO in 2010, 10–16% of general


population in Pakistan suffers from mild to moderate psychiatric illnesses. In
addition to this, 1% is suffering from severe mental infirmity. Preliminary evidence
suggests that psychological ailments are growing and seem to affect almost all areas
of human life. As a result, the study of psychic factors on the well-being would seem
fundamental (Serfontein, 2003; Robin, 2003; Van-Daalen&Odendaal, 2001;
Diener, et al, 2000; Csikszentmihalyi& Hunter, 2003). Keeping this in view,
researchers have recommended a serious call for programs to promote well-being in
both psychologically healthy and unhealthy individuals (Sinnott, 2010; Ginn &
Henry, 2003; Jenkin, 2001; Saeed, Gater, & Hussain et al., 2000; DeFalco, 2001;
Gadit & Khalid, 2002; Fava, 1999).
There is sufficient consensus among counselors and health care providers that
maturity in self is significant to health. In the present research, it is argued with merit
that maturity in 'Self' tend provide a substantial advantage for people that immature
personalities do not have. Maturity in self is important, and it seems likely that
absence of it may contribute to a variety of psycho-social maladies. Various
researchers (e.g. Westenberg & Block, 1993; Loevinger, 1997; Frankl, 1962) argued
for much stronger conclusion-that development in self is essential to realize the
other moral aspects of human nature. In this context, Washburn's (1995) and
Pearson's (1991) notion of archetypal journey to wholeness can be useful to
understand psychological and spiritual health.
It has been eighty years since a transpersonal theorist, Jung (1933), introduced
archetypes as spiritual drives (Steinbrecher 2006), and key to personality
development. Archetypes are universal primordial structures of human psyche.
Steven (1982) viewed archetypes of collective unconscious as “psychological”
aspects of the innate perceptual-behavioral structures of the human species. It works
the way that instincts work in Freud's theory.
Many other authors reported the ways archetypes operate in an individual's
psyche (Daniels, 1992; Jacobi, 1959), they advocated the view that archetypes
reveal much about difficulties related to one's personal and social life. A
considerable body of theory has described a broad continuum of pathological
aspects of archetypal identification and thus correlated negatively with
psychological well-being (Neuman, 1954; Michael, 1974). Early in his career, Jung
(1934) coined the term "complex." A complex is an emotionally charged group of
ideas or images operate relatively autonomously. When emotion in complex
becomes overwhelming, it leads to criminal acts. It only means that something is
discordant or unassimilated and need psychic integration. Pearson (1991) added that
repetition of a particular archetype causes polarity in the psyche, becomes
dominant, and behave like independent being.
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Dennis (2004) has also pointed out the negative effects of complex. To him,
they are the dark spots in a person's psyche, areas loaded with affect, and indicative
of mal-adaptation. He held that at the core of every complex is an archetype and in
order to understand psyche it would be better to understand the complex first.
Furthermore, Dennis (2004) held that possession is dangerous when a person is
unaware of its existence. A possessed person may suppose that he is in conscious
control of some archaic powers, which is a serious misinterpretation known as “ego
inflation.”
Certainly, a quality of experience is required to bring maturity in various
aspects of psyche. Different rituals, prayers and meditation strategies cultivate the
development of different aspects of our typology to bring maturity. These practices
nurture the less developed or inferior typological aspects of our personality to
facilitate the realization of full human potential and activation of consciousness.
Rationale
Personality has always been a fundamental variable in psychological study of
crime and delinquency, yet practically the role of archetypes as motivational psychic
factors has not been given a prominent explanatory role. The basic thesis of the
present research is to focus on how deviance and deviant population are
psychologically constructed. It is argued that one must become aware of the inner
drives by which deviance is subjectively constructed and is objectively handled and
is reflected in the overt behavior which gets official attention.
Methodology
Theoretical Framework
The research emphasized the theory of archetypes and their mediating role in
psychological well-being. A short account of the archetypes and of the
conjectural precursors to archetype theory was given. Pearson's ideas and
writings were explored in depth, concerning archetypes and their behavioral
implications. The work of other Jungian followers and critiques were scanned
to clarify Jung's view of archetypes.
This study needed to take account of the theory of archetypal psychology in
relation to criminal activity, insofar as the inadequate personal growth is
closely related to criminal propensities. Studies documenting potential
benefits of psychological maturity in moral development for health and well-
being were also reviewed. Specific theories were covered in their appropriate
places in order to build the arguments.
Mussarat Anwar, Ayesha Anwar, Jamil Ahmad & Shahid Ali Khattak
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Sample
The sample consisted of randomly selected sample of 90male criminals, from
Central Jail of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The age of the criminals ranged from 15
to 50 years with Mage = 27.9111 and SD=7.01306.The sample consisted of
individuals from various ethnic concentrations.
Sampling Procedure
The data for the present study were extracted from offenders in a Central Jail of
KP. Initially, prior permission from the concerned authorities was obtained in
order to investigate the criminal population for the present study. In order to
minimize the bias random selection method was employed. Consent of the
criminals to participate in the study was taken. Half-hour interviews were
conducted by the researcher to obtain the necessary information from each
criminal member under study. Reports of the past offenses and demographic
information were recorded from the official records pertaining the subjects
under study. The entire data was gathered in two months time period.
Associations between the independent variables of personal growth and
criminality were examined under a variety of control conditions.
Mode of Data Collection
The study was based on the primary data that were collected through
standardized scales measuring the level of personal growth, life satisfaction,
and emotional wellness. The Pearson-Marr Archetypal Indicator (PMAI)
gauged the personal growth in criminals (Pearson and Marr, 2002). The PAMI
is a 72-item scale designed to measure twelve archetypes active in one's life and
has an average test-retest reliability of the twelve subscales of PMAI is .72
with coefficient averaging .68 (Pearson and Marr, 2002).
To measure life satisfaction, and emotional wellness, Subjective-
Psychological Well-Being Scale by Diener, and Biswas-Diener (2008) was
used. Generally, the scale measures affective and cognitive components
(Diener et al, 2003). Using Structural Model of reliability analysis, Diener et al
(2003) found the scale highly reliable, r=.90.
DASS was supplemented to assess the severity of the core symptoms of
depression, anxiety and stress. DASS has shown high internal consistency and
yielded meaningful discriminations in a variety of settings (Lovibond, 1995).
The reliability of the DASS meets reasonable standards, with Cronbach's alpha
of .91, .84 and .90 for the scaled scores on depression, anxiety and stress
respectively (Crawford &Henery, 2003).
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Hypothesis
 Criminals tend to be preoccupied with archetypes at Soul level of
development.
 Criminals with archetypal polarity at Soul level tend to resist self-
awareness that can increase scores on depression.
 Criminal ideations tend to be associated with the intuitive nature of
Seeker-Creator (McPeek, 2008) and feelings associated to Lover-
Destroyer in criminals.
 The more criminals identify with archetypes at the Soul development
level, the more stress they would take to cope with the demands of
respective archetype.
Results
Demographic Variables

Table I: Mean age of the Crime Attempters

Minimum Maximum Mean SD

Age 15.00 50.00 27.9111 7.01306

Age is one of the highly correlated demographic variables with deviant


ideations (Borges, 2008). The age of criminal attempters ranged from 15-50 years.
According to Table I, mean age for crime attempts were 27.91 with SD=7.01. The
data reveals that the criminal attempts were most common in early adulthood
especially during transition from adolescence to adulthood than at any other stage of
life.
Table II: Marital Status of the Crime Attempters

Frequency Percent

Married 43 47.8

Unmarried 47 52.2
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More unmarried than married men attempted crimes, 52.2% and 47.8%
respectively. Similarly, suicide attempts were most common among married than
unmarried individuals.
Table III: Level of Education among Crime Attempters

Frequency Percent
Nill 10 11.1
Primary 12 13.3
Secondary 24 26.7
Intermediate 13 14.4
Graduation 11 12.2
Post Graduation 20 22.2
Mphil/PhD - -

Majority of the attempters had finished ten years of education (26.7%). Only
11.1 % of the attempters were uneducated. Cumulative frequency reveals surprising
fact that 75.6% of the attempters had already passed matriculation examination
before attempting a crime.
Table IV Occupation of the Crime Attempters

Frequency Percent
Jobless 34 37.8
Shopkeeper 3 3.3
Student 2 2.2
Labor/worker 21 23.4
Farmer 4 4.4
Currency dealer 2 2.2
Driver 1 1.1
Mechanic 4 4.4
Pak Army 6 6.7
Property dealer 2 2.2
Tailor 4 4.4
Guard 2 2.2
Director sport 1 1.1
Librarian 1 1.1
Teacher 3 3.3
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Table IV shows that a wide range of professional backgrounds were found in


criminals. The leading group of criminals consisted of jobless individuals with
percentage of 37.8.The history of joblessness reflects the existence of despair that
nd
unduly depressed this group. Nevertheless, laborers stood 2 with an average of
23.4%. The third leading group was of Pak Army with an average of 6.7%.
268
Table V: Range of Criminal Activity by Profession

Surety of Someone Stealing Fight Drug Selling Murder Fraud Negligence Doubt Total

Job less 1 (2.9%) 4 (11.76) 10 (29.4%) 6 (17.64%) 8 (23.53%) - - 5 (14.71%) 34

Shopkeeper - - 2 (66.67%) 1 (33.33%) - - - 3

Labor - 2 (9.52%) 1 (4.76%) 14 (66.67%) 4 (19.05%) - - - 21

Farmer - - - - 4 (100%) - - - 4

Mussarat Anwar, Ayesha Anwar, Jamil Ahmad & Shahid Ali Khattak
Currency exchange 1 (50%) - - - - 1 (50%) - - 2

Mechanic 1 (25%) 3 (75%) - - - - - - 4

Pak army - - 2 (33.33%) - 1 (16.67%) - 3 (50%) - 6

Property dealer 2 (100%) - - - - - - - 2

Guard - - - - 2 (100%) - - - 2

Director sport - 1 (100%) - - - - - 1

Teacher 1 (33.33%) - 1 (33.33%) - 1 (33.33%) - - - 3

Student - - 2 (100%) - - - - - 2

Driver 1 (100%) - - - - - - - 1

Tailor 1 (25%) 1 (25%) 1 (25%) 1 (25%) - - - - 4

Librarian - - - - - 1 (100%) - - 1

Total 8 11 17 23 21 2 3 5 90

Percent 8.9% 12.2% 18.9% 25.6% 23.3% 2.2% 3.3% 5.6%


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According to the results displayed in Table 5 the most committed crime was
drug selling (25.6%) followed by murder (23.3%), fight (18.9%), stealing (12.2%),
surety of someone (8.9%), doubt (5.6%), negligence (3.3%), and fraud (2.2%). This
interactive table reveals that jobless individuals were more involved in serious
crimes i.e., fight, murder, and drug selling, 29.4%, 23.53%, and 17.64%
respectively. Drug selling was found most common in labor, 66.67%.
Table VI Subjective-Pressing Motive Reported by Offenders for their Criminal
Act(N=90)

Frequency Percent

Psychological Causes 28 31.1

Poverty 20 22.2

Joblessness 16 17.8

Fight 7 7.8

Clashes 6 6.7

Land related issues 6 6.7

Bad company 4 4.4

Lack of experience 2 2.2

Rule Violation 1 1.1

Based on the interview, Thirty one percent (31.1%) of the offenders reported
psychological reasons for the criminality. Nevertheless, 22.2% of the respondents
reported poverty as factor behind their criminal attempt. Joblessness as an
etiological factor was reported by 17.8% of the offenders followed by accidental
fight (7.8%), familial clashes (6.7%), land related issues (6.7%), bad company
(4.4%), lack of maturity (2.2%), and rule violation (1.1%).

Psychological Landscape of Criminals


A psychological landscape has always been fundamental variable in a psycho-
social study of crime/delinquency, and practically every theory has given the
unconscious motives a prominent explanatory role. Although several patterns of
relationship between personality and crime have been theorized, yet knowledge of
archetypes in relation to crime/delinquency demonstrates uniqueness of this
approach to study the very nature of this issue. Studies have not in fact employed
archetypal indicators to investigate individual's collective unconscious motives
behind criminality and general well-being.
Mussarat Anwar, Ayesha Anwar, Jamil Ahmad & Shahid Ali Khattak
270

Table VII Descriptive Statistics of Sub Scales of DASS and Subjective-


psychological well-being among the crime attempters

Mean SD
Depression 31.00 4.63257

DASS Anxiety 33.00 3.68158

Stress 35 3.93909

Subjective- Life Satisfaction 18.2667 5.28683


Psychological Wellbeing Pleasant Emotions 21.6444 4.62847

Unpleasant Emotions 32.00 5.07483

Hedonic Balance -10.3556 6.24913

Flourishing 26 10.14231

As depicted in Table VII, the mean score on Depression was 31.60 and
SD = 4.632. The scores in this range show that criminal suffered from
extreme depression. In case of anxiety, the mean score obtained was of 33.00
with standard deviation of 3.68. The scores on this range show that criminals
were extremely anxious in their nature. On scale measuring Stress, criminals
scored highest with mean of 35.39 and standard deviation of 3.93. The scores
in this range also show extreme level of stress.

100 Percent

-100
80

60

40 -50

20 28
26
Count

17
14
0 5 0
Severe Normal Mild Moderate Extremely Severe

DEP2
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The analysis seems to prove the relationship between crime and subjective
psychological well-being. Descriptive statistics displayed that criminalityappeared
as an important predictor of psychological well-being. Life in jail was rewarding for
respondents who committed crime. Respondents needed for more improvement in
some domains of their life they have not achieved yet. The mean score of 18.2667on
life satisfaction by respondents indicated that they were less satisfied with their
current life situation therefore manifested more negative emotions (M = 32.00).
The Hedonic mean value of -10.3556 indicates that unpleasant feelings were
exceeding pleasant feelings among respondents, which is a true matter of concern.
Criminals were experiencing more negative emotions than positive ones.

Table VIII
; Archetypal Time line based on Mean Scores of PMAI for representing Archetypal
Androgyny among Criminals

Childhood Adolescent Adult Midlife Maturity Old Age

Innocent Seeker Warrior Destroyer Ruler Sage

Orphan Lover Caregiver Creator Magician Fool

Criminal 18.08 23.33 20.38 21.45 19.03 21.61

(n=90) 18.54 17.31 13.23 17.96 21.64 18.33

Total 36.62* 40.64* 33.61* 39.41* 40.67* 39.94*

*Score did not exceed 44 which shows less-level of development in pair


Table VIII shows the mean scores on PMAI subscales which were different by
their relationship to the three aspects of the psyche: Ego, Soul, and Self. Criminals
were found possessed by Lover, Seeker and Creator archetypes of Soul level of
development. Since the energies of Seeker-Loverand Creator-Destroyer were not
properly incorporated, therefore, this points towards their limited Ego Strength to
drive soul archetypes in a healthy manner. Their weak Ego Strength failed them to
express their energies productively in the world. Criminals couldn't balance
adolescence and adult archetypes as they consistently dissociated from Lover Care
giver and Seeker archetype in their PMAI responses. The Care giver archetype was
in shadow (M=13.23) among women. The most active archetype among criminal
men were the Seeker archetype with M = 23.33 followed by Magician with the
Mean = 21.64 and Warrior with the Mean=20.38. Caregiver, Lover, and
Creator archetypes, were found in shadow with mean 13.23, 17.31, and17.96
Mussarat Anwar, Ayesha Anwar, Jamil Ahmad & Shahid Ali Khattak
272

respectively among these men. Score in this range reflect that men were less
hopeful, companionate, optimistic, and imaginative while blissfully aware of
the magnitude of surrounding danger. Their Creator archetype got somewhat
impaired due to which criminals were unable to spin useful possibilities for
themselves.
Conversely, optimal psychological maturity is not seen in criminals who
were preoccupied with the Soul level of energies. Similarly, these
respondents with less Ego exhibited substantive magnitude of psychological
immaturity, too.
Discussion
Demographics
Suicidal behavior in adolescents and adults has become a serious mental health
problem in KPK. Destructive behavior may consist of thoughts about causing
intentional injury or death to others. The increased rate of crime in KPK needs
extensive development of empirical research to identify risk factors for criminal
behavior in youth and adults. It is a matter of real shame that crime is more
prevailing in educated community than uneducated population. These statistics are
quite alarming for any state to think seriously on the issue that why our skilled
community deem it wise to prefer aggressive and death instincts?
In understanding suicide, it is important to be aware of the precipitating
variables. Prolonged Depression, anxiety and stress are few of them. The current
analysis has identified a range of factors associated with these factors among crime
attempters. These include: age, personal problems, depression, anxiety and stress.
Maris (1991) stated that criminality has a long history. Consistency in attempting
crime one reflects his life-long coping pattern. Supporting the similar notion, Jensen
(1999) held that psychiatric disorder itself does not increase the risk of harmful acts,
but the interaction of the psychiatric disorder with stressor. Pointing over to some
environmental stressors, Shana felt et al (2010) explained that people who kill
themselves and/or others experience a steady toll of threat, stress, failure, challenge,
and loss that gradually undermines their adjustment process.
Psychological Landscape of Criminals
Many researchers seem to indicate that criminality is not something accidental,
but on the contrary, it grows out of the fundamental constitution of the living
organism. This very instinctive nature of crime makes it universal. Therefore,
community as a whole experiences them.
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273

Jung call it shadow possession of emotionally charged psychic elements of


collective unconscious. These unconscious urges grow stronger when the ego
(conscious self) has not the sufficient intensity to react keenly to these destructive
instincts thus is treated with greater tolerance. That is why the people with low ego
strength fail to grip their ID and Super-ego complexes. If this sentiment of the ego
towards the ID and Super-ego grows stronger, to the point of silencing in all
consciousness such inclination would dispose people towards criminality.
From the psychoanalytic point of view, this intrinsic quality of criminal act is
not necessarily bad as it stirs up the spiritual contents of the collective unconscious
to encounter and make criminal instinct accountable at individual level by creating
tremendous libidinal energy. It is useful, because these conflicts evolve
consciousness, morality, and the need for law. At collective level it creates
collective conscience and sensitivity to react against the slightest deviations.
Super-Ego in Relation to Deviance
We need to create balance between ego and super-ego to increase ego strength
which comes with age. Primitive ego serves the criminal persona to serve a person
commit crime. Similarly, over developed super-ego creates a moral complex. It
would also lead the development of deviant category to which Becker (1991) calls
“moral entrepreneurs”. They can easily be categorized into Rule Creators and Rule
Enforcers. Rule creators are individuals who see some “evil” in society and feel that
evil can be corrected only by legislating against it. Frequently their efforts result in
the passage of a new law-that is, the creation of a new deviant category and a
corresponding enforcement or social-control apparatus, as is seen in Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa.
Many moral entrepreneurs have strong humanitarian overtones. People with
super-ego complex think that rules do not satisfy them because there is some evil
which profoundly disturbs them. They feel that nothing can be right in the world
until rules are made to correct them. They rise with the idea of absolute ethics and
any mean to get things corrected. They are more concerned with ends than with
means. Such people are devoted, righteous, and often self righteous but have single
minded devotion to their cause. Moral entrepreneurs want to help those who are
under their influence yet they do not always like the salvation they offer or propose
which is another matter of concern.
The successful redemption does not depend on the creation of new set of rules
but on the need to individuate and transform self both at individual and collective
level or else new external controls will breed new set of enforcement agencies and
officials.
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274

Primitive Ego (immaturity in self) and Deviance


Several factors may operate and transform problem population into deviants.
Among the various mechanisms such as, cultural norms, religion, and law enforcing
agencies are there to control human behavior. These external mechanisms serve
useful purpose but offer threat to problem population due to their less developed
self. As a result problem population may become “social junk” or “social dynamite”.
Social junk consist of people who are aged, mentally ill or handicapped. Yet, people
belong to this group are not much threatening to others. Social dynamite, on the
other hand, is more threatening, radical, and carries the potential to challenge the
authority. People from this group express instinctive, youthful, alienated nature.
Soul Identification in Relation Deviance
Self at soul level of development often develop its own private evaluation
(rationalization) of the importance of various kinds of rules and infractions of them.
For instance, an alcoholic or a prostitute typically does not consider alcohol or
prostitution as dangerous. Thus, self that lacks ego strength often fails to resist the
pressures of destructive, aggressive, and violent soul energies that may lead to
deviance.
Jung argues that deviance is never bad because it brings collective
conscience to maintain the social functioning. Whereas, the idea of
punishment serves to puncture one's inflated egotism or moral complex in
order to make his persona acceptable for others.
Archetypal Androgyny, Deviance, and Cultural Conditioning
Various psychic conditions may produce a strain toward deviance. The gender
of a psyche is one of them. This is a real issue in a patriarchal culture where people
fail to balance their feminine and masculine identities due cultural conditioning for
different set of conduct norms and values.
Gender has always been seen as a bipolar construct (Ivtzan & Conneely, 2009).
It is so imperative that it determines everything from behaviors, appearances, and
even occupational choices (Bem, 1981). Gender can not only be determined by
physical differences but human psyche also has its own gender to which Jung calls
“anima” and “animus”. Yet, people can move beyond restrictive identities by
integrating both feminine and masculine aspects for more fulfilling life. Block
(1973) for the first time identified the importance of balancing anima and animus for
better adjustment in life. He explained that successful resolution of feminine and
masculine dualities brings psychological maturity. For instance, men who achieve
high scores on femininity scale will reflect his mature ego. Similarly, if women
embrace masculine qualities while retaining their femininity at the same time,
would make better adjustments in life.
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A typical Pakhtun culture is a true patriarchal culture therefore, a strong


contrast is expected in the sex roles that can bring contrast in their archetypal
identification too. It is worthwhile to mention that this contrast create
polarized identifications in people. Patriarchal culture always has a system of
hierarchy and dominance therefore in such cultures the sex has no real sense
of its gender identity which is wounding for both men and women.
One can not underestimate how difficult it is for a little boy to pull away
his relationships with his mother especially when the relationships were of
nurturing and empowering for a child. He is also taught not express his more
vulnerable emotions like not to cry and be too sensitive even when he feels
powerless, vulnerable ad caring. Most of the time fathers are not around
therefore, boys tend to live up the role which they have never seen. Thus live
up the life of macho man instead of living a role of a warm, caring and loving
man. In these cultures, female tends to overemphasize the relationships and
de-emphasize her own values while male overemphasize himself and his
achievements and under emphasize the way he is dependent on others for
help and support.
A basic premise underlying this perspective is the notion that because
gender influences and experiences vary a great deal, people are frequently
confronted with conflicting situations. Furthermore, if they act in accordance
with their own gender they may be defined as deviants. These ideas are
elaborated upon by Pearson (1991), she argues that such polar identities can
be extremely destructive to any one-male or female-who has inadequate Ego
strength.
Demonstrating masculinity creates deviance by encouraging hostile and
aggressive impulses. Femininity, on the other hand, creates moral issues due
to weak and primitive Ego which is unable to grip ID complexes.
Basic to the present argument is the contention that psyche can be
characterized in terms of its structure, particularly its goals and its means. A
well integrated psyche displays a balance between personal and impersonal
life. With this psychological landscape people would strive to integrate their
personal and societal values for well being and health.
Unfortunately, people at risk or potential criminals can not maintain this
sort of balance. Soul instincts emphasize exclusively on the achievement of
goals-regardless of the methods used to attain them. Those affected the most
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276

Pearson's Model of Personal Growth: Successful Integration of Twelve Archetypes


for Psychological Health and Wellbeing

Preparation

Caregiver Warrior

Ego
Journey

Innocent Orphan Seeker Lover

Soul

Creator Destroyer

Return

Ruler Magician

Spirit

Sage Fool

The basic idea of Pearson's model is to show the relationship of six pairs of
archetypes to the development of Ego, Soul, and Self and the tree stages of the hero's
journey (Preparation, journey, return) using the six-pointed Star of David to
represent visually a double integration.
Here, a central feature emerged is a view that various levels and types of
archetypal identifications when coupled with other factors such as joblessness,
poverty often becomes important precursors of the commission of deviant acts.
Therefore, the ego control theory holds that delinquency will result when an
individual's bond to ego is weakened or broken various primitive instincts get the
expression and start to guide the life.
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Shadow Persona in Criminals


Crime is neither a current issue nor a problem of a particular society. It
remained universal phenomenon to human race. This makes crime an instinctive
and archetypal.
Criminal persona is created when people use one or few archetypes become
habitual and develop polar personalities. It is dangerous to develop a complex or
polarity because the preferred archetype would consume all the available libido
energy. Such polarization also resists the integration of other physic factors. As a
result it reduces wellbeing by retarding growth in personality.
Most drastic change seems to occur in one's life when a particular archetypal
identity is developed at the expense of others. Behind the criminal persona libido
energy constellates around “Seeker” archetypal core that includes our specie's
innate predisposition to learn seek possibilities to satisfy yearnings. The impaired
Seeker in criminals collapses the entire growth process. This impaired Seeker
further invites identity crisis especially when Creator archetype failed to spin
possibilities for self renewal. Together they impair the divergent thinking capacity
of human nature. As a result, one gets stuck in Soul and fail to come out the Soul
mysteries and make return.
In this respect the interactional processes of twelve archetypes are given central
importance. This model explores the ways in which people who violate societal
norms due to lack of hormonal relationship of archetypes are responded to by formal
agents of social control.
Psychic Responses to Deviance
A central tenant underlying the defensive stance or attitude of self justification
after commission of an offense is to preserve inner balance or harmony. The basic
principal is the idea that when a person commits a crime he instinctively comes to
grip with any immediate or potential threats to his persona/identity. Therefore, he
develops an effective system of neutralization by developing an attitude of self
justification or rationalization.
Criminal rationalization may take two forms/personas, the deniers and
admitters. The former stubbornly refuse to accept their fault and attempt to justify
their acts by accusing the victim. The later, on the other hand, consider their behavior
as wrong and unjustifiable. They readily blame self instead of victim. They too
rationalize by accusing their personal emotional problems, internalized messages of
repressed urges, or use of substance like drugs and alcohol etc. These window
dressings of their motives try to preserve their internal harmony.
Mussarat Anwar, Ayesha Anwar, Jamil Ahmad & Shahid Ali Khattak
278

Yet after that, a new kind of dissatisfaction emerges, a hunger to find out
something about one's identity at a deeper level. The Seeker emerges out of the
shadows and develops the tendency toward judging what is done what could have
been better. This is the point in life where the inner voice can be heard that they are
not good enough. Consequently, they become open to more archetypes in an effort to
develop insight.

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Pakistan Journal of Criminology
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The author Mr. Mussarat Anwar is PhD in Psychology, College of Home Economics, University of
Peshawar, Pakistan (correspondence author: neeshy1@yahoo.com).
The author Ms. Ayesha Anwar is Lecturer at College of Home Economics, University of Peshawar,
Pakistan.
The author Mr. Jamil Ahmad is PhD in Sociology, University of Peshawar. He is an Assistant
Professor at the Department of Anthropology, University of Peshawar.
The author Mr. Shahid Ali Khattak is PhD in International Relations, Department of International
Relations, University of Peshawar.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology Volume 6, No.1, Jan-Jun 2014, pp.283 - 294
283

Culture Distortion and the Rise of Militancy in Swat


Zafar Khan & Khurshaid

Abstract
Prior to merging with Pakistan, the peace in Swat valley was maintained with the help of
Pashtun cultural traits under the rule of Main Gul Abdul Wadud. In his reign, the state affairs
were governed according to the spirit of Pakhtun culture and Rewaj (customs). This
approach enabled him to maintain durable peace in Swat. However, the post merger period of
the valley faced numerous challenges such as socio-cultural distortion, which provided
spaces to radical forces. Moreover, the recent militancy in Swat valley emerged after the
socio-cultural distortion. Further, the socio-cultural distortion provides social and cognitive
infrastructure to the growing militancy in Swat valley.
Ke words
Pashtunwali, Jarga, Riwaj, Cultural Distortion, Radical, Militancy, Talibanization

Introduction
In not so distant past, the Swat Valley of Pakistan was known for its relatively
calm, peaceful and prosperous environment. However, completely inverse picture
was observed in the same valley in the first decade of this century. The foundations
of an organized state system were laid in 1917 as a result of Kabal Jirga. Maingul
Abdul Wadud was made the head of the state. Later on, the state was merged with
Pakistan in 1969. However, the post merger period of the valley faced numerous
challenges, which ultimately surfaced in the shape of Taliban militancy. Therefore,
various socio political changes have occurred after 1969 (Sultan-i-Rome, 2008).
Generally, there are certain factors responsible for the socio-cultural distortion in
Swat and particularly over throne Maingul Abdul Wadud rule. The people of Swat
have suffered on numerous socio-cultural, economic and political grounds after the
post merger era. Currently, the local inhabitants of Swat have been passing from
critical condition as a result of post merger distortion. They are fed up of the
lawlessness, war and uncertainty. However, the only solution they all agreed upon
is the re-introduction of the type of Wali system. What takes them into such
nostalgia? It will become clear if the system under Wali is analyzed.
Political Administrative System of Swat under Wali-e-Swat
Before the merger period the system of Swat valley was based on the
amalgamation of Pashtun cultural traits and some modern principles. Riwaj
(customs) used to be the foundation of Swat state system. "Miangul Abdul
Wadud and Miangul Abdul Haq Jehanzeb, the rulers of Swat, governed the
Zafar Khan & Khurshaid
284

*
State under local customs called Riwaj. In most cases, Riwaj (custom) was
more powerful than the religious injunctions (Swati, 1984). Therefore, "the judicial
system of Swat was not Islamic in its essence as is commonly believed. It was a
synthesis of the traditional codes, Islamic norms compatible with the traditional
codes, and the commands, orders and words of the ruler" (Sultan-i-Room, 2006,
December). For this purpose, the customary law book of swat (Riwaj Nama-e-Swat)
was compiled. It carried the details of various customs. In essence, rewards and
punishments were designed in the light of local customs. If it is about civil or
criminal cases the customary law used to be a guiding star. The laws of the swat state
were made in the light of Pakhtun cultural values and Pakhtunwali. The laws of the
swat state were strictly followed in the time of Main Adul Wadud. The basic reason
behind the commitment of the local were the acceptance these laws on the
indigenous level. p
Judicial System of Wali-e-Swat
The judicial system of Wali-e-Swat was famous for the speedy justice. Justice
was provided at door step to the people of swat valley and cases were decided at hand
during Wali era. The local people were not deprived from justice. As a result of
speedy justice system the local people were satisfied from the rule of wali swat.
Particularly, the era of Miangul Jehanzeb was an impetus in this regard. He
introduced drastic reforms in every field. He was rightly called founder of Swat
(Memar-e-Swat) (Khaliq, 2011, September 26). Swat was not having a viable
education system. His father introduced an education system that he led it to new
peaks later on. He developed an environment where everyone was having easy
access to all educational institution. Even the downtrodden were made able to get it
cheaply. There was no discrimination in this regard. Those, who could not afford,
were given stipends and scholarship. For meritorious educational services, he was
titled Sultanul Ulum (the master of knowledge). Regarding peace, Swat valley under
Wali system was very exemplary. Nobody could disrupt peace there and nobody
could challenge the rule of Wali. That's why "the people of Swat today are still
nostalgic about the days of peace during the Wali's time" (Aziz, 2010).
Moreover, judicial administrations met needs and aspirations of Swatis during
Wali times. The whole judicial system was based upon socio-religious and cultural
dimensions (Khan, 1973). At the same time, Jargas decided the code of conduct
(Dasturul Amal). It was unavoidable for the ruler to include people in decision

*
Riwaj means customs or tradition in English. It is basically meant a combination of
Pashtunwali and Shariah, a judicial system based on the religious scriptures or Islamic
Jurisprudence
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
285

making in early days as he needed their cooperation. Particularly, Miangul Abdul


Wadud met the challenge with a unique strategy. He never promulgated a
constitution nor relied upon issuing decrees. He empowered local Jargas to make
their own rules for their respective areas (Sultan-I-Room: 2008, P, 195). They were
set in circle to provide equal status to Jirga members. If he issued any judicial order,
the Jarga used to affirm it. Fines for various crimes were also adjusted, including the
punishment through qisas (soul for soul). Asif Khan narrated Miangul Abdul Wadud
(Badsha Sahib) in the following wordings.
“Whenever a region was conquered or merged into the State by option, I
used to call a jarga of the whole population and ask them to frame laws
themselves for various crimes such as murder, robbery, theft, extortion,
rape and adultery. After they reached a unanimous decision with regard to
the punishment for each transgression, I made them draw up a contract
bearing the signatures or thump-impression of all the participants. The
local cases were decided in accordance with the terms of this penal code.
(Khan, 1963)
Moreover, religious feelings of the local people were also considered important
during the decision making process. Historically speaking, the people of Swat
valley showed great love towards Islam. Hence, religion has been integral part of
their culture; therefore, judicial system was designed according to Islamic teaching
as well. The system was called Qazi system. It was hierarchical in nature. At the top
there was Ruler (Wali) while at bottom Tahsildar. Later on, a new department was
established, called Mehkama-e-Munsifan (Department of Justice). The judges were
called Munsifs. Their responsibility was to dispense timely and quick justice on sites
or to report the situations to Wali. The disputes were resolved according to Quran
and Sharia. The Swat was administered through an ideal type of Sharia and Islamic
system. Justice system in former state of Swat was very efficient, swift, free of cost
and effective. Cases were mostly decided at first or second hearing. Therefore,
crimes were committed rarely in the time of Wali Swat
Pukhtu (Pashto) as the Official Language of Swat
The Pakhto or Pashto the mother tongue of all Pakhtuns was given high value
and respect in the former state of Swat. The Yusafzai of Swat loves their language
and they are well versed in it. The study of their history shows that they inherited the
language from Afghanistan since their migration to Swat Valley. The dialect of
Yusafzai Pakhto is very rich and they always flourished the language. Bayezid
Ansari and his writings are having immense imprints on Swati people and Pakhtu
"He elevated his mother tongue to the level of literary language and ensured its
survival with his Khayer-ul-bayan" (Chimmel, 2004, p, 250).
Zafar Khan & Khurshaid
286

When Miangul Abdul Wadud came into power, he declared that Pakhtu will be the
official language with Urdu script (Khan, 1963, p.117). Before the adoption of
Pakhtu as official language, Persian used to be the language for official
communication. Now the records of all military, judicial and civil nature were
entered in official register in Pashtu language (Sultan-I-Room, 2008, p. 223).
Miangul Jehanzeb was well versed in Pakhtu language. All his official
correspondence was in the Pakhtu language. During his time, books from other
languages were translated into Pashto for understanding of lay man.
Criticism on Swat Wali System
Whatever its good qualities, it was a fact that the Wali system was autocratic in
its nature. For instance, the common people were having very little involvement in
national and political affairs. As well as, all powers sprang from the ruler. No one
could question his authority. All were on his disposal. He could bypass even his own
decrees. The criteria for voting in Swat sate were very strict; only few were eligible
for voting. "In the Wali's reign only few were considered human beings while the
rest were thought of as being two-footed animals" (Sultan-I-Room, 2008, p.297).
Freedom of expression and conscience and political activities were very rare.
Moreover, the democratic institutions were not initiated according to the spirit of
democracy. In this case, there were no places for the criticism over the decision of
Wali. At the same time, any kind of protest against the Wali was brutally suppressed
in swat state in the time of Wali.
Merging with Pakistan and Death of Criminal Justice System in Swat
Finally, the Wali's State merged with Pakistan on August 15, 1969. It was a
peaceful process. The special status of the area was to be retained, until the people of
the valley decide otherwise. Becoming the part of a huge system, people thought that
Swat would progress rapidly as a district of Pakistan. A hope was flourished for
common development and general progress of the area. This hope was very high for
peace and law and order in Swat. But it proved otherwise. The situations
deteriorated in Swat by making mess of the administration and judicial system.
Hope for freedom, development and human rights were tarnished. Generally
speaking, the merger caused problems for the people include; socio-cultural and
political and justice (Marwat & Toru, 2005, p.08).
Post merger, Swatis could not understand the complicated system as they had
been under a simple and acquainted system of Wali. The Wali system was operated
according to the spirit of Pakhtun culture. However, the new Pakistani system was
not a democratic one in its true sense. It was not acceptable to the local people in
Swat. In a democratic system people are happy because they find it a way to true,
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
287

sincere, patriotic and public leadership. People are happy because democracy
speaks for the, happiness, well being, equality and prosperity. Such things are very
rare in a naive democracy of Pakistan. Swat people found the system crippled and
inexplicable. For them, it has been a complicated and perplexing system. When they
went to courts for resolution of their disputes, they suffered in many ways (Fakhr-ul-
Islam, 2011). The cases, which were decided in days during Wali's reign, now took
decades to come out of Pakistani judicial system. This delayed justice created
extreme anxiety and disappointment amongst Swatis. The Taliban of Swat also
provided speedy justice to the people. This is very logical conclusion that the
comparatively crippled and inexplicable judicial system has left a lot of room for
Taliban insurgency.
Cultural Distortion in the Post-Merger Swat
Like other spheres of life, cultural distortion has suffered Swati people; as they
have lost its patronage and protection in the form of swat state. Generally, Pashtun
Tribe is considered one of the largest tribe in the world. They love their culture and
they are also guided by it. "They are defined more by their shared culture, language,
and traditions than by a modern sense of nationality" (Williums, 2011, p.18). They
have defined unwritten code of conduct, called Pakhtunwali. Pakhtuns behaviors
can be guided by this code. The overall Pakhtuns interaction includes; socio-
political and economic etc. However, Pakhtunwali includes (badal) revenge,
(Mailmastia) hospitality, and (Nanawate) asylum. It is considered the complete
code of Pakhtun life. It is the combination of the cultural traits, which they will never
ignore. Various tribes in Swat have been intimation with their culture and code of
conduct (Pakhtunwali). In recent past some of the abnormalities affected the culture
of Swati people. The analysis of culture distortion in Swat will make the things
simple to study the draw a clear picture of Taliban insurgency there.
Moreover, several socio-cultural, demographical, political, economic and
religious factors impacted various traits of Pakhtuns cultural traits in Swat after its
merger with Pakistan. The time of merger coincided with some global and regional
changes. The society is open to these changes and it is the reason that it could not
remain aloof from what is happening around. The imprints of world media reached
everywhere in the former State of Swat because of advanced infrastructure of
communication and information, with respect to other regions of Pakhtun belt, Swat
was advanced in such matter because of the Wali's benevolent autocracy (Sultan-I-
Room, 2008, p.212). This fact exposed their culture to inevitable changes. They
faced a transitional period and therefore a desire for accommodation with new
circumstances. It was further precipitated by a generation gap. Transitional period
also created some negative aspects for culture. Such was the case for the people of
Swat and their culture. Therefore, globalization has impacts on the socio-cultural
fabrics of Pakhtun society (Inam-ur-Rahim and Viaro, 2005).
Zafar Khan & Khurshaid
288

Further, globalization and technological advancement exposed the people of


the valley to cultural digenesis. A great number of people left for abroad- mostly to
Arabian states- in search of jobs (Addleton, 1992). They fetched a culture with
themselves, which presented a challenge to the local culture. "Visible traits of
foreign cultures have been added to Swat culture, especially that of Saudi Arabia.
Most of the people, specifically women are using attire which was never the part of
the local culture" (Addleton, 1992). The local culture of Swati people have distorted
after the emergence of globalization.
Moreover, family structure has also been modified in the valley especially, in
Mingora and its suburbs. Swat, like other Pashtun areas has been having a traditional
family structure. It is argued that extend family system has been a strong cultural
norm in Swat. It is a unit of Pakhtun society. Hence, need, exposure and desire for
better life pushed a major portion of Swati population towards a new type of nuclear
family system. Both types of families have their own mechanism of life style. A man
in nuclear family feels independent in various matters. It is a step towards
individualism in a society. This phenomenon in Swat led towards freedom from
collectivism and its bonds which is the basic principle of Pakhtun culture. An
individual who previously relied upon Jirga for resolution of a family disputes was
now looking towards state courts. It caused the slow but steady erosion of Jirga
system in the valley. Moreover, the court system is not functional to effectively
resolve the problem of the local people. The vacuum has aroused, which has filled
by various forces in the shape of Taliban (Sultan-I-Rome, 2009).
However, various religious sects and their doctrines influenced the culture and
lifestyle of the people of Swat. It took place on the basis of two ways. Firstly, an
organized way of propagation was adopted. And the best tool in this regard was
Madrassas network of the religious sects. Wahabi and Deobandi schools of thought
are very prominent in them. Both of them are closed to each others in terms of their
perceptions towards religion. Both are regarded very strict interpreters of Islam.
They are also having strong differences of concepts, interpretations and beliefs. It
has resulted into sectarian violence on many occasions. Deobandi school of thought
is long established in Pakistan especially, Pashtun belt including Swat valley. When
the followers of Wahabism tried to establish seminary system in Swat, the move was
strongly opposed by Deobandis. Sufi Muhammad set up a seminary in Sangota,
which was raised to the ground by those loyal to the dominant religious figures of the
time. It was the time when resistance against Russia was increasing day by day.
Jihadists were holding roots in Afghanistan. Pakistan and Saudi Arabia proved the
strongest allies in terms of promoting jihadist resistance against USSR. Thus
Deobandis and Wahabists came under the same umbrella to fight the same enemy.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
289

Sufi Muhammad established Tehreek-e-Nifaz-e-Shariat-e-Muhammadi


(TNSM) in 1989 in Dir. Later on, the organization crept into Swat with the tacit
support of the then Commissioner of Malakand Division through Loya Jirga.
TNSM and its founder Sufi Muhammad was carrying Wahabi version of Islamic
ideology (Prakash (Col), 2011, p.146). In this way, Wahabist culture flourished in
Swat. It is an open secret now that these sects were supported by state institutions to
support the holy war in Afghanistan. This deliberate social engineering in Pakhtun
culture has brought cultural vacuum in the region, which later on was further
exploited by Taliban to gain cognitive and social support for the movement of
Talibanization.
Secondly, Wahabism crept to Swat through the expatriates working in Saudi
Arabia and other Middle Eastern countries. A great number of people from Swat left
for Middle East, particularly those who were uneducated in religious and worldly
knowledge. Their inherent blind love for Islam and its birth place, Saudi Arabia led
them into a new world. They got impressed by the religious lifestyle of the people of
Saudi Arabia and other Arabian states. On return they brought the religious ideology
and socio-religious lifestyle. Along with socio-cultural changes, the migration of the
local people to Middle East also caused demographic and cultural changes in the
valley (Lindholm, 1982). In this regard, Osama-bin-Laden with Wahabist ideology
and expatriate money, they could easily be exploited by propaganda in the name of
religion. They found Mullah Fazlullah, the son-in-law of Sufi Muhammad and the
follower of Wahabi school of thought, as the real 'panacea' for all the socio-cultural
problems. That's why when he delivered sermons and advised them for banning
some cultural traits while adopting others, a major portion of Swat population
welcomed him. Emboldened by such acceptability he was becoming strict and
violent in his sermons, which finally led to armed resistance for challenging the writ
of the state in the valley of Swat to impose Sharia there.
At the same time, the socio-economic conditions and structure of Swat valley
have also undergone a drastic change, which in return has impacted the lifestyle and
culture of the people of the valley. Historically, social stratification in Swat valley
used to be done on two bases. Firstly, on the basis of land; landless (Faqir) and
landed (Dawtari), Secondly, on the basis of religiosity and ethnicity (Mian, Mullahs
and Ami). The stratification was formalized by the state of swat (Hussian, 2011).
The stratification underwent a change in recent past. It happened due to modern
developments in the world and region. People from the valley travelled to Arabian
countries in search of better and lucrative job opportunities. Foreign remittances
caused changes in socio-economic structure of the society. The remittances
increased in the coming years. Agriculture and hotelling industries also flourished in
the years. As a result of that peasants became wealthy and started buying the lands,
Zafar Khan & Khurshaid
290

which they previously cultivated on rent (hijara). Khan has 20 jaraib of cultivated
land (one jaraib is equal to approximately 1,100 square feet) while a Gujjar has 150
jaraib. The Gujjar community has earned billion of rupees in the Arab states.
Another community, the ”Shapankyan” or “Shpoon” (shepherd) are the wealthiest
community today in Swat. Most of them they have now settled permanently and
abandoned nomadic life.
Moreover, the change in socio-economic condition impacted the cultural traits.
Those who were previously decision makers of the society now became powerless.
Above all, Khans and Malaks used to the influential of the society in the Wali's state.
They used to play central role in Jirgas and their decision used to be observable.
Losing their status they also lost their leading role in society, which created a
vacuum for new forces. The leadership dynamics has changed after the cultural
distortion in Swat valley. Later on Taliban emerged a new leadership in swat valley
after cultural distortion (Ahmed, 1986, p.79).
Another factor which impacted the life matters of the residents of Swat is the
administrative and judicial developments after its merger with Pakistan. Civil law of
Pakistan was introduced over there after 1969. A common resentment arose against
the law. The people started protest in this regard which resulted into promulgation of
Provincially Administered Tribal Areas (PATA) regulations. PATA declaration was
issued on July 26, 1975. The system was having its pluses and minuses but its
demerits were more than its merits (Fakhr-ul-Islam, 2011, p.41). In 1993 a group of
lawyers from Malakand division challenged PATA regulations in Peshawar high
court. They viewed that the regulation is contrary to the provisions of Pakistani
constitution and therefore should be annulled. High Court decision came in favor of
lawyers and against PATA regulations. The government of the province challenged
the decision of high court in the Supreme Court of Pakistan. On January 14, 1994,
the Supreme Court retained the decision of High Court and regarded PATA
regulations as unconstitutional. And once again the land became without law
(Fakhr-ul-Islam, 2011, p.41).
The discussion shows that how the land of Swat valley was put to
administrative and judicial experiments after its merger. But they all failed as they
were not to meet the needs, attitudes, lifestyle and cultural values of the people. If it
is civil law or PATA regulations latter on, they all met with failure. Those laws can
never be compared with the law of Wali. The laws under Swat state were according
to the Riwaj. They were simple and efficient in its nature. Rafiq, a seventy year old
resident of Saidu Sharif, the government seat of the then Swat state, make a beautiful
comparison.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
291

“Justice and peace was very cheap in the days of Wali of Swat. Cases used
to be decided in days. If someone committed a murder, he would be
brought to justice the same day; while the present system is very different.
The justice is always delayed here. A case of minor nature lies before
courts for year and still it is undecided. This system is totally alien to us. It
is complicated and inefficient system which is absolutely different from
that of Wali's Swat”. (Personal Communication, December 2013)
All the cultural lapses led to the degeneration and downfall of the system in the
post-merger Swat. Who will fill the created vacuum? What type of system people
wished to have to fill the vacuum? What sort of forces will try to exploit people
desires in this regard? All these questions were answered by the by the latter on
situations in the Valley. Certain religious elements presented the alternative model
in shape of Islamic sharia'h. TNSM of Sufi Muhammad and Tehrik-e-Taliban Swat,
under Mullah Fazlullah are its example (Bokhari, 2008).
TNSM was created on June 28, 1989 by Maulana Sufi Muhammad for the
purpose of imposition of Sharia'h (Islamic law) in Malakand division including
Swat (Fakhr-ul-Islam, 2011, p.42). In the wake of annulment of PATA regulations
by the Supreme Court of Pakistan in 1994, TNSM started its activities for
achievement of its goals. On May 11, 1994, thousands of people under the guidance
of Sufi Muhammad blocked Malakand road for a week. On 12 May, 2011,
demonstrators lost their lives as a result of police firing in Buner. They were the first
casualties during the start of the movement. Meanwhile, negotiations started
between Sufi Muhammad and government. Finally, an agreement was signed on
November 26, 1994. Under the agreement 'Sharia'h regulation' was imposed in the
region. The regulations also failed as Sufi Muhammad raised questions over the
procedure of its implementation. Therefore the agitation continued in one way or
another. Another failed attempt of reconciliation was made in 19898-99 by the
government under Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif but could not succeed. In 2000
the then governor of the NWFP (now Khyber Pukhtunkha, KPK), Maj. Gen (r)
Muhammad Shafeeq made another attempt and signed another agreement with
TNSM chief, Sufi Muhammad. The agreement regarded Sharia'h as the supreme
law for Malakand division and Swat.
Swat Post 9/11
September 11, 2001 attacks on USA changed world politics including that of
Pakistan. War against terrorism in Afghanistan was repercussive for Pakistan and its
people. The international forces invaded on Afghanistan to eradicate the menace of
terrorism in October 2001. However, a strong resentment developed against
Zafar Khan & Khurshaid
292

Pakistan especially in tribal areas. Many people pledged to fight on Taliban side in
Afghanistan. Religious elements led the agitation against USA and its allies. Its
example is TNSM under Sufi Muhammad in Dir. He led a militia around 10,000
people to jihad against the 'infidels' in Afghanistan. Meanwhile, the Taliban were
defeated in Afghanistan, Sufi Muhammad and his followers made their way back to
Pakistan. Maulana was caught and imprisoned by security forces of Pakistan. He
remained in jail till 2008. This created a vacuum of leadership for TNSM which was
filled by his son-in-law, Mullah Fazlullah.
At the same time, Mullah Fazlullha, commonly known 'Radio Mullah' got
settled in Mamdheri, a village of bank of river near Mingora, Swat. He founded a
Madarassa there and started delivering his sermons through FM radio. His
movement was peaceful at its initial stages. At this stage he advised people to adopt
their lives according to the teachings of Islam. With the passage of time, he started
involvement in the lives of people by cursing for not following the culture of Islam.
Later on, he regarded the women education as un-Islamic. He harshly criticized
women for not following the Islamic norms of Pardah. Finally, he became violent.
He started arming his followers. When the number of his armed men reached 4,500
in October 2007, he created a parallel governmental system in the Valley (Fakhr-ul-
Islam, 2011, p.56). Thus Swat Valley went into the lap of Taliban militancy.
Conclusion
Culture has a significant influence on the collective matters of Swatis.
Historically, the people of Swat have a deep regard and respect for their culture. The
then Wali of Swat glued his society and state with the help of cultural tenets. His
regard for Pakhtu and Pashtunwali made Swat state an exemplary peaceful and
prosperous society. Culture in state and national affairs turned the political system
according to the wishes and needs of the people. But after the merger of Swat with
Pakistan in 1969, altered the Wali's system and the cultural traits of the area were
ignored. The introduction of Pakistani administrative and legal system led to the
distortion of important cultural norms and thus a 'dangerous' vacuum was created
which other forces tried to exploit in coming years.
The recent militant crises in Swat lead us to the conclusion that the
circumstances were deteriorated because culture was separated from the lifestyle of
the people in the valley of Swat. Taliban uprising in Swat is having close connection
to the socio-cultural life of its residents. The narrated events give us a clear
explanation of what happened in Swat and why and how the situations deteriorated
into militancy. Thus we can say that cultural distortion is directly proportional to the
rise of militancy in Swat valley of Pakistan.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
293

References
Addleton, Jonathan (1992). Undermining the Centre: The Gulf Migration and
Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
Ahmed, Akbar S. (1986). Pakistan Society: Islam, Ethnicity and Leadership in
South Asia. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
Aziz, Kalid (2010). Swat: The Main Causes of the Breakdown of Governance and
the Rise of Militancy. RIPORT
Bokhari, Laila (2008, April). Who are the Pakistani Taliban? The Actors, Their
Ideology and Pragmatism. OMS Conference paper, Oslo.
Fakhr-ul-Islam (2011). Mutabadil Adalati Nizam awr Swat Operation (written in
Urdu). Peshawar; Regional Studies Institute.
Hussain, Khadim (2011, Apr-June). Modes of conflict in Pakistan Swat Valley
(1989-2008). Conflict and Peace Studies, 4(2).
Inam-ur-Rahim and Vairo, Allen (2005). Swat: An Afghan Society in Pakistan-
Urbanization and Change in a Tribal Environment. published by an NGO
HUJRA, Swat in collaboration with the Graduate Institute of Development
Studies, Geneva. Urdu translation of a few chapters is available under the title:
“Swat: Social Geography: in-between the Tribal traditions and Modernization”
Khaliq, Fazal (2011, September 26). Last ruler of Swat: Jahanzeb, a visionary who
educated and loved his people. Express Tribune.
Khan, Asif (1963). The Story of Swat. Peshawar.
Khan, Ghulam Habib (1973). Riwaj Nama/Dastoor-ul-Aml Swat (The Book of
Precedence). Official document on the procedures of Swat State.
Khan, Khurshid (2009, January 19). Swat-- Towards a Wahabi State. The News
International.
Lindholm, Charles (1982). Generosity and Jealousy: The Swat Pukhtun of Northern
Pakistan. New York: Columbia University Press.
Marwat, Fazal-ur-Rahim Khan & Toru, Parvez Khan (2005). Talibanization of
Pakistan: A Case Study of TNSM. Peshawar: Area Study Center, University of
Peshawar.
Prakash, Ved (Col), (2011). Encyclopedia of Terrorism in the World. Gyan
Publishing House
Schimmel, Annemarie (2004). The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and
Culture. Reaktion Books.
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Sultan-i-Rome (2008). Swat State from Genesis to Merger (1915-1969). Oxford


University Press, Pakistan.
Sultan-i-Room, (December, 2006). Administrative system of the Princely State of
Swat. Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan. (Lahore) vol., XXXXIII,
No.2
Swati, Saranzeb (1984). Tarikh Riyasat-e-Swat (History of Swat State) (written in
Pashto). Peshawar: Azeem Publishing House
Williums, Brain Glyn (2011). Afghanistan Declassified: A Guide to America's
Longest War. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press
Sultan-I-Rome, (2009), “Swat Critical Analysis”, institute of Peace and Conflict
Studies, New
Delhi, India. p4

The author Mr. Zafar Khan is a Lecturer of Sociology at the University of Peshawar. His PhD
research is on cultural distortion in the wake of terrorism. He can be reached at
guloona315@gmail.com.
The author Mr. Khurshaid is a Lecturer of International Relations at the University of Peshawar. His
area of research is post 9/11 terrorism. He can be reached at khubrshid4ir@yahoo.com.
Pakistan Journal of Criminology Volume 6, No.1, Jan-Jun 2014, pp.295 - 306
295

Frontier Crimes Regulation (FCR) and Writ of the State:


A Study on Local People's Perception in Khyber Agency
Intikhab Alam, Niaz Muhammad & Musawir Shah

Abstract
The present study was conducted in Khyber Agency, one of the seven agencies of the
Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan, with the sole objective to ascertain
the local people's attitude towards the Frontier Crimes Regulation (FCR). FCR is a law
implemented in FATA being different from the state law but approved within the
constitutional framework of Pakistan. The study units include intellectuals, business
community, Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) and students hailing from the target
agency, and personnel from the political administration. A sample size of 380 respondents
from the categories mentioned in the foregoing line was chosen for interview. Uni- variate
and bi-variate analyses were drawn through percentage based presentations cross tabulation
respectively. Chi-Square was used to determine the level of association between FCR and
writ of the State. The study findings reveal major flaws of FCR as: FCR is a law but with no
proper protection to the legal rights of the people; FCR is an inhuman and injudicious legal
system; it promotes the exercise of unchecked and deliberate power by the political
administration; and the unchanged status of FCR after implementation created numerous
problems for which the local Maliks were held responsible to block the way of changes for
the sake of their selfish designs . The study recommends overtime amendments in FCR, so as
it could meet the challenges of the day and promote the zeal to strengthen the writ of the state.
Keywords
FATA, FCR, Writ of the State, Local People's Perception
Introduction
Frontier Crime Regulation (FCR) was first introduced as law in series at
different times in 1871 and 1876 in tribal areas and then extended to some other parts
of Pakistan in 1901, conferring judicial power on the administrative officers. These
areas included Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Larkana (Sind) Sargodha (Punjab)…After
independence of Pakistan in 1947, the FCR was restricted to the FATA which is still
in vogue there. The Governor of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, a province of Pakistan, is
empowered to legislate/amend this legal document on behalf of the president of
Pakistan; and has the authority of surveillance over the affairs of these areas
(Guantana and Nelson,2008; Ziad, 2009). It is pertinent to mention that Pakistan has
a state law but the tribal belt (FATA) is legally governed through the FCR. Under the
1973 constitution of Pakistan, it is the State responsibility to establish the writ of the
law in order to ensure the smooth functioning of the State affairs. But unluckily, the
21st century witnessed some turbulent situations in different parts of the world;
Intikhab Alam, Niaz Muhammad & Musawir Shah
296

creating challenges to the writ of the state in divergent geo-political and social
scenario. Pakistan is also included in the list of the countries suffering from chaos
and turmoil. The problem of insurgency has erected here for the last few decades
shrinking the socio-economic and political stability which has direct effects on the
development initiatives, security measures and social fabric of the country.
Insurgency has become a matter of great concern not only for Pakistan but also for
international community, mainly fueled by the USA attack on Afghanistan in 2001.
In view of no proper administrative and constitutional surveillance, FATA has
become an easily accessible habitat for insurgents belonging to different outfits and
their subversive activities have converted the tribal belt into a war land, making the
role of FCR questionable. These elements are operating on both sides of Pak-
Afghan border for bringing their lost destiny back (Rotberg, 2004; Ziad, 2009;
Towshead, 2009; Haider and Arthur,2008 and Aziz,2009).
Objectives of the Study
 To study the people perception regarding keeping FCR as a law in FATA
 To ascertain association between independent variable and dependent
variable
 To make policy recommendations on basis of study inferences
Materials and Methods
There are seven agencies of the Federally Administered Tribal areas (FATA)
situated around Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, a province of Pakistan. The present study
was conducted in Khyber Agency, one of the seven agencies and being the turbulent
one, with main focus on problems of FCR creating challenges to the writ of the
State. A sample size of 380 respondents including intellectuals, business
community, Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) and students hailing from the
target agency, and personnel from the political administration were interviewed
through an instrument developed on Likert scale. The data was presented in
percentage along with ascertaining the relationship between independent variable
(Frontier Crimes Regulation) and the writ of the State (Dependent Variable), by
indexing and cross tabulating through the application (2) -test statistics as outlined
byTai (1978: 353).

(2) = (fij – Fij)2


Fi Fj Fij
Where
(2) = Chi-square for two categorical variables
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
297

fij = the observed frequencies in the cross-classified category at ith row and jth
column
Fij = the expected frequency for the same category, assuming no association
between variables under investigation
The formula simply directs to take squared summation of the frequencies for
each cell, divided by the expected frequency. The resulting frequency is distributed
as chi-square with relevant degree of freedom. The degree of freedom is calculated
as follows;
Df = (r-1) (c-1)where
Df = Degree of freedom
r = the number of rows
c = the number of columns
The assumptions for the test were that the subjects for each group were
randomly and independently selected, the groups were independent, and each
observation will qualified for one and only one category. Furthermore, the sample
size was fairly large that no expected frequency was less than 5, for r and c >2, or <
10, if r = c = 2. These assumptions, however, were violated several time in the data
therefore, Fishar Exact Test which also is known as Exit Chi-square Test was used
instead of simple Chi-Square to overcome the violation of Chi-Square assumptions.
The relationship developed by Fisher to overcome such violation is given in
equation below (Baily, 1982).
Fisher Exit Test Probability = (a+b) ! (c+d)! (a+c)! (b+d)!
N !a !b !c !d !

Where a, b, c and d were the observed numbers in four cells of contingency table
and “N” the total number of observations.

Results and Discussion:


Frontier Crimes Regulation
Table No. 1 depicts the opinion of sampled respondents on multi aspects of
FCR. 85.5 % of them termed FCR as inhuman and injudicious, as providing no
proper lego-judicial right and privilege to the local population. Bangash (1996)
considered FCR as negating provision of judicial norms and justices; Bibi (2005)
viewed it contradictory to the rights and privileges granted to women in Islam and by
the laws of Pakistan; and Rana (2009) thought it a black law having draconian
provision which denies the fundamental rights of the tribal people. In response to a
Intikhab Alam, Niaz Muhammad & Musawir Shah
298

question regarding amendments to the FCR, 83.9% respondents looked for


overtime changes in the existing draft of the FCR as the present one is outdated and
goes beyond the needs of the tribal people. A report of CRC (2008) supports the data
and stresses upon gradual changes in the FCR to bring it at par with the requirements
of modern age. The report also apprehended the abrupt abolition of FCR as a source
of legal vacuum in the region.
Majority of the respondents (79.2%) agreed that the entire tribal belt was
punished for the wrong acts of few elements under the umbrella of FCR. They
mainly objected to the collective punishment inflicted upon the relatives or whole
family of an offender in any crime, as provided under section 21 of the FCR.
Amnesty International (2008) has also pointed to such flaw of the FCR and regarded
it as an injustice.
The unchecked power of the political administration is included in the list of
the factors weakening the bond of acceptability of the controversial legal document
by the local people. Majority of the respondents (76.6%) observed the deliberate
actions and unchecked power of the political administration in agency which has led
to unfair practices. This result is in line to the findings of Bangash (1996) who
concluded that concentrating of power in a single office usually leads to brutality,
injustice and unfair play. Abbas (2009) has associated such situation to a theory of
tragedy of commons wherein a man has been shown to be custodian of, and a hostile
around property.
The targeted population (73.80%) observed FCR encouraging crime rate in the
area. This result is consonant with the findings of (Haider, 2008) that lack of the writ
and law across the bordering areas of Afghanistan and Pakistan has proven to be the
breeding environment for terrorists.
Majority (66.1%) held the view that the local Maliks, being the beneficiaries of
this law in the shape of financial and political benefits, favored FCR. The study
findings of SPARC (2004), Hassan (2005), Khan(2005), and Rakistis (2008) have
also referred to the Provision of privileges, perks and benefits to the local Maliks as
compensation for controlling their community through FCR.
Majority of the respondents (62.1%) apprehended that abolition of FCR would
lead to usurp their freedom like non-payment of taxes, smuggling and informal
system of banking (Hawala system). Besides, 59.2% respondents perceived local
Maliks and political forces as hurdles in the way of bringing about changes in FCR.
The data further showed that 51.1% viewed tribal people to be very difficult to
be governed. The report of Amnesty international (2008) endorses this statement as
the British Empires had its realization and imposition of FCR was the resultant
phenomenon which served their two purposes i.e. controlling locals and
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
299

maintaining its status as buffer zone between United India and Afghanistan to stop
Russian escalation. A reasonable number (49.5%) negated the role of FCR as law in
protecting their legal rights sufficiently while 4.7 percent showed their ignorance in
this respect. In a nutshell, the respondents of all categories thought FCR beyond the
consent of ordinary population and a source of safeguarding the vested interests of
specific sections.
Table I: Perceptions of Respondents Regarding Frontier Crime Regulation ( F C R )
in Sampled Area.

Statement Agree Disagree Not Sure Total

FCR is the only law through which tribal people


194 (51.1) 177 (46.6) 9 (2.4) 380
can be governed

FCR as law sufficiently protects the legal rights


174 (45.8) 188 (49.5) 18 (4.7) 380
of the local people
FCR as law needs amendments over passage 319 (83.9) 45 (11.5) 16 (4.2) 380
of time

Local Maliks favor FCR 251 (66.1) 119 (31.3) 10 (2.6) 380

Political administration favors FCR 291 (76.6) 71 (18.70) 10 (2.6) 380

Political forces are hurdles in bringing about


225 (59.2) 120 (31.6) 35 (9.2) 380
changes in FCR

In case FCR is abolished, would state law snatch


the existing freedom like nonpayment of taxes, 236 (62.1) 122 (32.1) 22 (5.8) 380
smuggling etc

FCR flourishes the crime rate in area 280 (73.70) 80 (21.1) 20 (5.3) 380

Instead of wrong doer, whole tribe is punished 301 (79.2) 67 (17.6) 12 (3.20) 380
under FCR

FCR is inhuman and injudicious 325 (85.5) 44 (11.6) 11 (2.9) 380

Source: Field Survey, 2012Note: Value in parenthesis indicates percentage


Intikhab Alam, Niaz Muhammad & Musawir Shah
300

Frontier Crime Regulation Association with Challenges to the Writ of


the State in FATA
FCR is a legal documented format for FATA belt in administrative terms. To
know about the FCR and its important rules and regulations with governmental writ
in the area and challenges in its implementation the following statements were
asked in relevance regarding its vitality in governance as being sufficient enough
for provisions of rights and privileges to significant effects or not. While observing
certain flaws and then subsequently readdressed through constitutional power of the
president of Pakistan, invoked by the incumbent president in 2001. It was passed as
political parties act for extending political parties orders (2002) in FATA. This was
aimed at streamlining this neglected area in the shape of bringing administrative,
political and judicial reforms (Ziad,2009). This constitutional empowerment has
also been underlined by(Gunaratana and Neilson,2008). Where in governor of
KPK, as representative of the President of Pakistan has the administrative authority
to monitor administrative functions of FATA. The significance of the issue,
mentioned above was summarized into few attributes like FCR is the only law
through which people are governed was found significant (p<0.05) with writ of the
State. It obviously indicated towards the presence of FCR as State law which was
framed and regulated by the rulers i.e British Empire in 1901 for bringing
administrative containment to this wild belt bordering Afghanistan with the then
united India (Bangash, 1996; Amnesty international, 2008; Rakistis, 2008;
Alaiwah, 2008; and Rana, 2009).
Upon asking about FCR as law sufficiently contributing towards protection of
legal rights of the masses was found highly significant (p=0.00) with the writ of the
State. It is probably due to the enactment and implementation of the law which has
controlled the people in study area in absolute terms. However, a significant
relationship with respect to amendments to FCR was found (p< 0.00) with the writ
of the state. It could be detected from the above findings that the existing laws,
though contributing towards bringing normal any as shown from its effectiveness.
However, amendments in FCR from time to time and according to the demand of the
situation were imminent. Furthermore, while asking about Maliks role in favoring
the FCR, it was found that Malik's role was highly significant as discussed by its
association (p<0.000) with the writ of the State. Malik's favored FCR due to their
obvious role of dominance over the locals for resolving their issues and getting
direct benefits from the administration and management due to that local Malik's
and political leaders are opposing abolishing FCR for their personal gains like not
paying tax and having a strong check over local people. This was further augmented
while asking about forces which are the main hurdles in bringing changes in FCR
(p<0.00) with the writ of the State. The main causes of not abolishing FCR with the
Pakistan Journal of Criminology
301

writ of the State was highly significant (p<0.00), and came up with certain obvious
reasons like complete freedom to the local chieftain of enjoying non-payment of
taxes and patronizing smuggling. While upon further probing , it was found that
crime is escalating in the tribal areas due to FCR. Significant relationship was found
(p<0.00) with the writ of the State as the writ of the State has weakened. Some
probable assumption found were that the whole families suffered due to a single
wrongdoer, which led to the poor state of the writ of law (p<0.00) and FCR was
considered as inhuman as indication through significant relationship (p<0.00) with
the writ of the State. It could be due to the dire consequences that FCR embodies and
needs immediate legislative attention by replacing the existing law with widely
acceptable rules. This would in turn contribute towards the culmination of
smuggling; ensure timely payment of taxes and minimize the formidable crime rate
along with all manifest modes like kidnapping for ransom, car theft, providing
protection to offenders etc. Moreover, FCR flourishes the crime rate in the area,
Instead of the wrong doer, the whole tribe is punished under FCR, FCR is inhuman
and injudicious which resulted in significant (P<0.00) relationship with State writ in
FATA belt. FCR supports crimes in the area and the whole tribe becomes the victims
of these crimes. Therefore Fata crime regulation is totally against human rights. The
decisions of Jirgas “are obnoxious to all recognized modern principles governing
the dispensation of justice”. One of the worst aberrations of the FCR is the collective
punishment clause no. 21 which is imposed on anyone in the tribal area for a crime
committed by his or her relative, spouse, or even a person from the same tribe and
area. Again, among the most damaging provisions in the FCR is the
“seizure/confiscation of property and arrest and detention of an individual without
due legal process, barring a person in the tribal areas from entering the settled
districts”. All the members of a village are considered responsible for a murder if a
dead body is found in their village. Under section 22 and 23 of the FCR fines are
imposed on the entire community for the crimes of a single person. In section 56, if
fines are not paid by relatives then the property of an offender is sold to realize the
amount due.
Intikhab Alam, Niaz Muhammad & Musawir Shah
302

Table II Frontier Crimes Regulations Association with Challenges to the Writ


of the State in FATA

Statement Within dependent variable Chai square


Total
(Government writ in FATA) (P Value)
Agree 65(17.1) 117(30.8) 11(2.9) 193
FCR is the only law through
Disagree 78(20.5) 90(23.7) 9(2.4) 177 12.19(0.05)
which tribal people can be governed
Not sure 0 9(2.4) 0 10.0
FCR as law is sufficiently Agree 77(20.3) 92(24.2) 4(1.1) 173 38.19(0.00)
protects the legal rights of the Disagree 59(15.5) 116(30.5) 13(3.4) 188
local people
Not sure 7(1.8) 8(2.1) 3(0.8) 19.0
Agree 123(32.4) 186(48.9) 9(2.4) 318 3.50(0.00)
FCR as law needs amendments
over passage of time Disagree 13(3.4) 21(5.5) 11(2.9) 45
Not sure 7(1.8) 9(2.4) 0 17
Agree 99(26.1) 140(36.8) 11(2.9) 250 37.78(0.00)
Local Malik favor FCR
Disagree 40(10.5) 70(18.4) 9(2.4) 119
Political administration favors FCR
Not sure 4(1.1) 6(1.6) 0 11
Political forces are hurdles in Agree 127(33.4) 157(41.3) 7(1.8) 291
bringing about changes in FCR Disagree 12(3.2) 48(12.4) 10(2.6) 70 28.58(0.00)
Not sure 4(1.1) 11(2.9) 3(0.8) 19
Agree 112(29.5) 117(30.8) 7(1.8) 236
In case FCR is abolished, would state Disagree 31(8.2) 77(20.3) 13(3.4) 121
law snatch the existing freedom like Not sure 0 22(5.8) 0 23 41.80(0.00)
nonpayment of taxes, smuggling etc

Agree 131(34.5) 137(36.1) 11(2.9) 279


Disagree 12(3.2) 59(15.5) 9(2.4) 80
FCR flourishes the crime rate in area 46.11(0.00)
Not sure 0 20(5.3) 0 21

Instead of wrong doer, whole Agree 123(32.4) 164(43.2) 13(3.4) 300


tribe is punished under FCR Disagree 20(5.3) 43(11.3) 4(1.1) 67 17.77(0.00)
Not sure 0 9(2.4) 3(0.8) 13
Agree 134(35.5) 181(47.6) 9(2.4) 324
FCR is inhuman and injudicious Disagree 9(2.4) 25(6.6) 10(2.6) 44 40.84(0.00)
Not sure 0 216(56.8) 20(5.3) 12

Source: Field Survey, 2012


Pakistan Journal of Criminology
303

Conclusions and Recommendations


The study concludes that the local population was not satisfied with the role of
Frontier Crimes Regulation (FCR) promulgated in 1901 and then protected by the
Government of Pakistan after its independence in 1947. They termed the FCR
inhuman and injudicious in terms of usurping the right of appeal against any
decision taken by the political administration. Furthermore, the local people were
annoyed over infliction of punishment upon family members or other relatives on
the charge of an offence committed by a criminal. FCR was considered a shield to
protect the vested interests of local Maliks like non-payment of taxes and free
mobility of smuggling goods; and those of political administration in regard to
exercising their unchecked and deliberate power in the region. It also increased the
rate of crimes in the tribal belt in view of the absence of the State law; rather it
provided a safe way as well as habitat for the criminals and militants in light of its
geo-political and cultural dimensions. The local community was unhappy with the
stagnant status of the FCR as it did not undergo any change after its enactment and
then implementation. The above-mentioned shortcomings have direct effects on the
status of FCR which have promoted criminal tendencies in both tribal and settled
areas, weakening the writ of the state. It is worth-underscoring that FCR is a law
containing legal rights and privileges, but amendments to it are a requirement of the
local people as desired so as it could come at par with the demands of the modern
day. Revisiting the FCR must aim at safeguarding the basic needs and rights of the
people and curtailing the unlimited power of the local Maliks through strong check
on their disliked activities.
Intikhab Alam, Niaz Muhammad & Musawir Shah
304

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