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boundary conditions loaded by non-uniform

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DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2010.01.009

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Author's personal copy

ARTICLE IN PRESS

International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 52 (2010) 819–828

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijmecsci

non-uniform inplane loads

Sarat Kumar Panda, L.S. Ramachandra

Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kharagpur 721302, India

a r t i c l e in fo abstract

Article history: In the present paper, buckling loads of rectangular composite plates having nine sets of different

Received 20 December 2008 boundary conditions and subjected to non-uniform inplane loading are presented considering higher

Received in revised form order shear deformation theory (HSDT). As the applied inplane load is non-uniform, the buckling load is

20 December 2009

evaluated in two steps. In the ﬁrst step the plane elasticity problem is solved to evaluate the stress

Accepted 18 January 2010

Available online 25 January 2010

distribution within the prebuckling range. Using the above stress distribution the plate buckling

equations are derived from the principle of minimum total potential energy. Adopting Galerkin’s

Keywords: approximation, the governing partial differential equations are converted into a set of homogeneous

Buckling linear algebraic equations. The critical buckling load is obtained from the solution of the associated

Non-uniform inplane loading

linear eigenvalue problem. The present buckling loads are compared with the published results

Parabolic loading

wherever available. The buckling loads obtained from the present method for plate with various

Ritz method

Galerkin method boundary conditions and subjected to non-uniform inplane loading are found to be in excellent

agreement with those obtained from commercial software ANSYS. Buckling mode shapes of plate for

different boundary conditions with non-uniform inplane loadings are also presented.

& 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction side free and the other side simply supported, clamped or

rotationally restrained. Biggers and his co-workers have exploited

Often, plates are a part of complex structural system and hence the stiffness-tailoring concept to improve the buckling load

load coming on it may not be always uniform. For example, in the capacity of plates subjected to, compressive load [4], and shear

case of I-beam or wide ﬂanged beam subjected to bending load [5]. Whereas, Baranski and Biggers [6] have used the same

moment at the ends or lateral loads on the ﬂange, the web of the concept to study the postbuckling response of damaged compo-

beam is subjected to non-uniform inplane loads. The load exerted site plates. In a companion paper Xie and Biggers [7] have

on the aircraft wings, or on the stiffened plate in the ship extended the stiffness-tailoring concept to improve the compres-

structures or on the slabs of a multi-storey building by the sive buckling loads and ultimate loads of ﬂat pates and curved

adjoining structures usually is non-uniform. The type of distribu- panels with cutouts. Buckling of moderately thick composite

tion in an actual structure depends on the relative stiffnesses of plates subjected to partial edge compression was studied by

the adjoining elements. Behaviour of structures subjected to non- Sundaresan et al. [8] within the framework of ﬁnite element

uniform inplane compressive loading and shear loading is method. Solving the prebuckling equations, authors’ obtained

important in aircraft, civil and ship-building industries. Much stress distributions within the plate and hence evaluated the

work has been reported in the literature on the buckling of geometric stiffness matrix. Bert and Devarakonda [9] studied

rectangular plates subjected to uniform inplane loading. However, buckling analysis of simply supported rectangular Kirchhoff plate

very few papers deal with the buckling of plates subjected to non- subjected to sinusoidal distribution of inplane loading by super-

uniform inplane loads. Buckling of plates subjected to sinusoidal position method based on more realistic but approximate stress

[1] and parabolic [2] inplane compressive loading was obtained distribution. In recent years, Kang and Leissa [10,11], Leissa and

by earlier researchers based on unrealistic inplane stress Kang [12] presented exact solutions for the Kirchhoff plate having

distribution. Wang et al. [3] have adopted Galerkin procedure two opposite edges simply supported subjected to linearly

with Legendre polynomials as shape function to analyse buckling varying inplane loading. They have considered all other possible

of rectangular plates subjected to linearly varying inplane edge boundary conditions on the unloaded edges. As the loaded edge is

compressive load with two loaded edges simply supported, one simply supported, authors assumed the transverse displacement

(w) to vary as sin((mpx)/a) (where a is the size of the plate along

x-direction and b along y-direction) and reduced the governing

Corresponding author. Tel.: + 91 3222 283444; fax: + 91 3222 282254. partial differential equation to an ordinary differential equation in

E-mail address: lsr@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in (L.S. Ramachandra). y with variable coefﬁcients, for which an exact solution was

0020-7403/$ - see front matter & 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2010.01.009

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820 S. Kumar Panda, L.S. Ramachandra / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 52 (2010) 819–828

obtained in terms of power series (i.e., method of Frobenius). where f1 ¼ Fx þwo;x ; f2 ¼ Fy þ wo;y ; f(z)=z[1(4/3)(z/h)2]; h is the

Applying the boundary conditions at y= 0 and b yields the thickness of the plate. Fx is the rotation of normal to midplane

eigenvalue problem for ﬁnding the buckling load. Zhong and Gu about y-axis and Fy is the rotation of the normal to midplane about

[13] studied buckling analysis of Reissner–Mindlin plate with x-axis due to shear deformation alone. f1 and f2 are, respectively,

various thicknesses to width ratio and subjected to linearly the total rotation of normals to midplane about y- and x-axis. The

varying inplane load. For the case of linearly varying load the von Kármán nonlinear strain–displacement relations at a generic

stress ﬁeld within the plate coincides with the applied inplane point z distance away from the midplane can be written as

load distribution. Gurdal et al. [14] worked on ﬁber orientation ex ¼ eox zwo;xx þf ðzÞf1;x

variation for ﬂat rectangular composite laminates that possess

ey ¼ eoy zwo;yy þ f ðzÞf2;y

variable stiffness properties. The variable stiffness concept

provides ﬂexibility to the designer for trade-offs between overall gxy ¼ eoxy 2zwo;xy þ f ðzÞf1;y þf ðzÞf2;x ð2Þ

panel stiffness and buckling load. Recently, Wang et al. [15]

obtained the buckling loads of thin rectangular plates under where

parabolic edge compression by differential quadrature (DQ)

method. Authors considered nine possible combinations of

gxz ¼ u;z þ w;x ¼ f 0 ðzÞf1 ; gyz ¼ v;z þ w;y ¼ f 0 ðzÞf2 ð3Þ

o o

boundary condition of the plate in their study. Jana and Bhaskar The superscript ‘o’ refers to strain in the middle plane. e e and x, y

[16] have solved the plane elasticity problem exactly by super- goxy are the reference surface strains and are deﬁned as

position of Airy’s stress function represented by Fourier series. 1 1

They have also obtained the inplane stress distribution by the eox ¼ uo;x þ ðwo;x Þ2 ;

eoy ¼ vo;y þ ðwo;y Þ2 ; goxy ¼ uo;y þ vo;x þ wo;x wo;y ð4Þ

2 2

extended Kantorovich method based on the principle of minimum

The stress strain relations for the composite plate in the

complementary energy. Using these distributions, authors have

material co-ordinate axes are given by

obtained buckling loads for simply supported plate by Galerkin

method for various inplane load distributions. fsg ¼ ½Q feg

n o

From the above literature survey it is observed that, buckling fsgT ¼ sx sy tyz txz txy ;

loads of layered composite plates subjected to parabolically n o

distributed inplane loads are not available in the literature. In fegT ¼ ex ey gyz gxz gxy ð5Þ

this study, buckling loads of isotropic and composite plates

subjected to non-uniform inplane loads are evaluated for nine where [Q]ij is the reduced stiffness matrix in material co-ordinate

different sets of boundary conditions of the plate considering system, {s}T cartesian components of stress at any point and {e}T

higher order shear deformation theory proposed by Reddy [17]. In are the corresponding strains. The governing partial differential

the ﬁrst step, the plane elasticity problem is solved to evaluate the equations of nonlinear buckling of plate are derived from the

stress distribution within the prebuckling range by Ritz proce- principle of minimum total potential energy and is stated as

dure. Using the above stress distribution and adopting multi-term ZZ

Galerkin’s approximation, the governing partial differential dð1Þ p ¼ f½ðnxx Nx Þ;x þ ðnxy Nxy Þ;y du þ ½ðnxy Nxy Þ;x

equations of plate buckling are converted into a set of homo- R

geneous linear algebraic equations. The critical buckling load is

þ ðnyy Ny Þ;y Þdv þ½Mx;xx þ 2Mxy;xy þ My;yy ðnxx Nx Þw;x

obtained from the solution of associated linear eigenvalue

þ ðnxy Nxy Þw;y ;x ðnxy Nxy Þw;x þ ðnyy Ny Þw;y g;y dw

problem. For the nine cases of boundary conditions, appropriate

þ ½Px;x þ Pxy;y Qxa df1 þ ½Pxy;x þPy;y Qya df2 gdxdy

beam functions are used as displacement ﬁeld approximation in Z b Z b

Galerkin’s method. When the two loaded edges are simply

þ ðnxx Nx Þ þN x dudy þ ðnxy Nxy Þ þ N xy dvdy

supported and applied inplane load is uniform or linearly varying, 0 0

Z b Z b Z b

the plate buckles with a particular number of half-waves in the @@w

Mx dy Px @f1 dy Pxy @f2 dy

loading direction depending on the length to width ratio of 0 @x 0 0

the plate and in combination of two or more half-waves along the Z b

@Mxy @w @w

unloaded edge. Similarly if the applied inplane loading is non- þ Qx þ þ ðnxx Nx Þ þðnxy Nxy Þ dwdy

@y @x @y

uniform the buckling mode is a combination of two or more half- Z 0a Z a

waves in both loaded direction as well as the unloaded direction þ ðnyy Ny Þ þ N y dvdx þ ðnxy Nxy Þ þ N xy dudx

0 0

independent of boundary conditions. The buckling loads obtained Z a Z a Z a

@@w

by the present method are compared with those of Leissa and Kang My dx Py @f2 dx Pxy @f1 dx

@y

[12] and Wang et al. [15] wherever possible. The present results Z 0a 0 0

@Mxy @w @w

compare well with the literature values. The present results are þ Qy þ þ ðnyy Ny Þ þ ðnxy Nxy Þ dwdx ¼ 0

0 @x @y @x

also compared with the buckling loads obtained from commercial

ð6Þ

ﬁnite element software ANSYS and found to compare well.

The force and moment resultants are deﬁned as

00 1 0 1 0 11 0 1

Nx Mx Px Z h=2 sx

BB N C B M C B P CC Bs C

@@ y A; @ y A; @ y AA ¼ @ y Að1; z; f ðzÞÞdz ð7Þ

2. Formulation Nxy Mxy Pxy h=2

txy

Consider a composite rectangular plate having length a and Z h=2

breadth b and made up of n layers of equal thickness. The co- ðQx ; Qy Þ ¼ ðtxz ; tyz Þdz ð8Þ

h=2

ordinate system is such that the middle plane coincides with the

x–y plane and the z-axis is perpendicular to the middle plane. Z h=2

Using Reddy’s higher order shear deformation theory, the ðQxa ; Qya Þ ¼ ðtxz ; tyz Þf 0 ðzÞdz ð9Þ

displacement ﬁeld can be written as h=2

where f 0 (z)=(d/dz)(f(z)); Nx, Ny, Nxy, and Mx, My, Mxy are,

u ¼ u0 zw0;x þf ðzÞf1 ; v ¼ v0 zw0;y þf ðzÞf2 ; w ¼ wo ð1Þ respectively, the force and moment resultants; Px, Py, Pxy are

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S. Kumar Panda, L.S. Ramachandra / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 52 (2010) 819–828 821

curvature f1,x, f2,y, (f2,x + f1,y) due to shear deformation. Qxa ; Qya

y2 y y2

are additional transverse shear force resultants. nxx, nyy, nxy are the F0 ¼ 2N 0 2

3 b 2b

plate internal stress resultants due to applied end non-uniform

inplane loading and can be determined by the Principle of Least which gives

Work applied to membrane problem. Minimizing the total

@2 F0 @2 F0

potential energy and substituting for force and moment resultants N yy ¼ ¼ 0; N xy ¼ ¼0

@x2 @x@y

in terms of displacement components, the partial differential

equations governing the postbuckling analysis of cross-ply @2 F0 y y

composite plate in displacement variables are obtained and are N xx ¼ ¼ 4N 0 1

@y2 b b

given in Appendix A (Eqs. (A.1)–(A.5)).

The remaining functions F1, F2, F3 are chosen such that the

stresses corresponding to them vanish at the boundary.

2.1. Plate prebuckling analysis

Substituting Eqs. (11) and (14) into Eq. (10) and carrying out

integration, an expression in second degree in a1, a2 and a3 is

In the present investigation, parabolically and linearly varying

obtained. Then, the strain energy function V is minimized with

inplane compressive loads are considered. However, for linearly

respect to the constants a1, a2 and a3. Then the constants a1, a2

varying in-plane load, the stress distribution within the plate

and a3 are evaluated from the 3 algebraic equations resulting

coincides with the applied edge loading. In the case of parabolic

from the condition, (qV/qa1)= 0, (qV/qa2) =0, (qV/qa3)=0.

non-uniform inplane loading, the stress distribution within the

plate due to applied inplane loading is obtained by solving the

2.2. Plate buckling analyses

plate membrane problem. The correct stress distribution within

the plate is the one which satisﬁes the boundary condition and

minimizes the membrane strain energy of the plate. The The critical buckling load of composite rectangular plate with

membrane strain energy of a plate of thickness h of composite various boundary conditions and subjected to parabolically

plate is given by varying inplane compressive load is obtained using Galerkin’s

8 92 31 8 9 method. In the present investigation following nine sets of

ZZ > nxx >= A11 A12 A16 > n

< xx > boundary conditions are considered: SSSS, SSCS, SCSS, CSCS, SCSC,

h < =

V¼ nyy 6 7

4 A12 A22 A26 5 nyy dxdy ð10Þ SSCC, CCSC, CCCS and CCCC, where S stands for simply supported

2 > :n > ; A A A >

:n > ;

A xy 16 26 66 xy edge and C for clamped edge. The letters indicate the boundary

conditions on the edge of the plate in the anti-clockwise fashion

where starting from the left hand corner. In the Galerkin’s method, the

Z out-of-plane displacement ﬁeld w(x,y) satisfying the boundary

@2 F @2 F @2 F h=2

nyy ¼ ; nxx ¼ ; nxy ¼ ; Aij ¼ Q ij dz ð11Þ conditions of the plate is expressed as the product of beam

@x2 @y2 @x@y h=2

function as [19]

where Q ij the transformed reduced stiffness and F is the stress 1 X

X 1

function. The membrane strain energy is minimized in this study wðx; yÞ ¼ Xm ðxÞYn ðyÞ ð15Þ

using Ritz method [18]. The boundary conditions of the plate m¼1n¼1

membrane problem are given here for parabolically varying where Xm(x) and Yn(y) are the eigen functions of the beam having

uniaxial inplane load (see Fig. 1) as the following.For the same boundary conditions as that of two opposite edges of the

y y plate. This choice of functions satisﬁes all boundary conditions of the

x ¼ 0; a N xy ¼ 0 N x ¼ 4N 0 1 y ¼ 0; b N xy ¼ 0 N y ¼ 0

b b plate exactly. In present case following beam functions are adopted.

ð12Þ

The stress function is assumed in the form of a series: (a) Simply support along two opposite edges, at x =0 and x= a

ss mpx

F ¼ F0 þ a1 F1 þ a2 F2 þ a3 F3 þ a4 F4 þ ð13Þ Xm ðxÞ ¼ sin ðm ¼ 1; 2; 3; . . .Þ ð16Þ

a

where a1,a2,a3, y are constants and are determined such that the (b) Clamped support along two opposite edges, at x= 0 and x= a

boundary conditions (12) are satisﬁed. In the present case, for

cc x 1 sinðxm =2Þ x 1

parabolic loading, the stress function is assumed as Xm ðxÞ ¼ cosxm þ coshxm ðm ¼ 2; 4; 6; . . .Þ

a 2 sinhðxm =2Þ a 2

y2 y y2 ð17Þ

F ¼ 2N 0 2 þ ðx2 axÞ2 ðy2 ybÞ2 ða1 þ a2 x þ a3 y þ Þ

3 b 2b

where xm are obtained as roots of

ð14Þ

tanðxm =2Þ þ tanhðxm =2Þ ¼ 0 ð18Þ

and

y

cc x 1 sinðxm =2Þ x 1

Xm ðxÞ ¼ sinxm coshxm ðm ¼ 3; 5; 7; . . .Þ

y y a a 2 sinhðxm =2Þ a 2

N x = 4 N0 (1 − ) where xn are obtained roots of

b b

tanðxm =2Þtanhðxm =2Þ ¼ 0 ð19Þ

(c) Clamped support along the edge, x =0 and simply supported

b at x =a

cs x 1 sinðxm =2Þ x 1

Xm ðxÞ ¼ sinxm sinhxm ðm ¼ 2; 3; 4; . . .Þ

2a 2 sinhðxm =2Þ 2a 2

x

ð20Þ

Fig. 1. Geometry and loading of the plate. where xm are obtained as roots of Eq. (19).

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822 S. Kumar Panda, L.S. Ramachandra / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 52 (2010) 819–828

o o

The functions Yn(y) are similarly chosen by the condition at y= 0 w0;y ¼ uo ¼ vo ¼ wo ¼ f1 ¼ f2 ¼ 0 at y ¼ 0

and y= b by replacing x by y, a by b and m by n in respective ny Ny ¼ N y ; o o o

u ¼ w ¼ f1 ¼ Py ¼ My ¼ 0 at y ¼ b ð25Þ

equations, where m and n are, respectively, the number of nodal

lines along x and y directions. In all cases, only normal inplane

displacements are allowed and inplane tangential displacements Following displacement ﬁelds satisfy the above boundary condi-

and out of plane displacements are prevented.The boundary tions:

conditions for SSSS plate are X

i j

X mpx npy

u~ o ¼ Umn cos cos

a b

nxx Nx ¼ N x ; vo ¼ wo ¼ Px ¼ fo2 ¼ Mx ¼ 0 at x ¼ 0; a m¼1n¼1

X

i j

X

o

ny Ny ¼ N y ; uo ¼ wo ¼ f1 ¼ Py ¼ My ¼ 0 at y ¼ 0; b ð21Þ v~ o ¼ cs

Vmn Xm ðxÞXncs ðyÞ

m¼1n¼1

X

i j

X

Following displacement ﬁelds satisfy the above boundary condi- ~o¼

w cs

Wmn Xm ðxÞXncs ðyÞ

tions: m¼1n¼1

Xi Xj mpx npy

X

i j

X mpx npy o

f~ 1 ¼ Kmn cos cos

u~ o ¼ Umn cos sin a b

m¼1n¼1

a b m¼1n¼1

X

i j

X

j mpx npy o

X

i X f~ 2 ¼ cs

Lmn Xm ðxÞXncs ðyÞ ð26Þ

v~ o ¼ Vmn sin cos

m¼1n¼1

a b m¼1n¼1

X

i j

X

~o¼

w ss

Wmn Xm ðxÞXnss ðyÞ The displacement ﬁelds for other boundary conditions can be

m¼1n¼1

assumed by suitably combining the displacement functions

X

i j

X mpx npy

o described above.

f~ 1 ¼ Kmn cos sin

m¼1n¼1

a b

o X

i j

X mpx npy

f~ 2 ¼ Lmn sin cos ð22Þ

m¼1n¼1

a b

3. Numerical results and discussion

The boundary conditions for CCCC plate are

3.1. Prebuckling analysis

o o

w0;x ¼ uo ¼ vo ¼ wo ¼ f1 ¼ f2 ¼ 0 at x ¼ 0; a

o o

w0;y ¼ uo ¼ vo ¼ wo ¼ f1 ¼ f2 ¼ 0 at y ¼ 0; b ð23Þ In present case, non-uniform inplane loads are assumed to

vary according to parabolic and linearly varying functions.

Parabolically varying inplane load is represented by (see Fig. 1)

Following displacement ﬁelds satisfy the above boundary condi-

tions:

y y

j mpx npy N x ¼ 4N 0 1 ð27Þ

i X

X b b

u~ o ¼ Umn sin sin

m¼1 n¼1

a b

j mpx npy Linearly varying loads are deﬁned as

i X

X

v~ o ¼ Vmn sin sin

m¼1 n¼1

a b h y i

j

Nx ¼ N0 1Z ; y A ð0; bÞ ð28Þ

i X

X b

~o¼

w cc

Wmn Xm ðxÞXncc ðyÞ

m¼1 n¼1

By taking various values of Z, we obtain different inplane

Xi X j mpx npy

o

f~ 1 ¼ Kmn sin sin load distribution (uniform (Z = 0), trapezoidal (Z =0.5), triangular

m¼1 n¼1

a b (Z =1), partial tension (Z = 1.5) and pure bending (Z =2.0)). Initially

o X

i j

X mpx npy the plate membrane equations are solved to determine the

f~ 2 ¼ Lmn sin sin ð24Þ stress distribution within the plate as described in Section 2.1.

m¼1 n¼1

a b

In the present case, the stress function is represented as a

truncated series with four terms (14). After evaluating

The boundary conditions for plate (CSCS) with clamped support at the constants ai (i =1,2,3), the stress distribution within the

x= 0, y= 0 and simple support at x= a, y=b are plate are obtained. The explicit expressions for constants ai for the

o o case of isotropic plate are given below. Similar expressions

w0;x ¼ uo ¼ vo ¼ wo ¼ f1 ¼ f2 ¼ 0 at x ¼ 0

in the case of composite plate are given in Appendix A

nxx Nx ¼ N x ; o

v ¼ w ¼ Px ¼o

fo2 ¼ Mx ¼ 0 at x ¼ a (Eqs. (A.7)–(A.9))

a1 ¼ ð29Þ

ðb þ 5:1844b a2 þ 36:4435b10 a4 þ 29:0127b8 a6 þ36:4435b6 a8 þ 5:1844b4 a10 þ b2 a12 Þ

14 12

a2 ¼ ð30Þ

ðb14 þ 5:1844b12 a2 þ 36:4435b10 a4 þ 29:0127b8 a6 þ36:4435b6 a8 þ 5:1844b4 a10 þ b2 a12 Þ

a3 ¼ ð31Þ

ðb14 þ 5:1844b12 a2 þ 36:4435b10 a4 þ 29:0127b8 a6 þ36:4435b6 a8 þ 5:1844b4 a10 þ b2 a12 Þ

Table 1

Comparision of dimensionless buckling load coefﬁcient ki for SCSC rectangular plate (a/h = 100) subjected to linearly varying inplane load.

a/b

m= 1 m =1 m= 1 m =1 m= 1 m= 1 m =2

Leissa and Kang [12] 93.247 75.910 69.632 69.095 72.084 77.545 75.910

Energy method [12] 93.2 75.9 69.6 69.1 71.9 77.3 75.9

Present methodn 93.305 75.943 69.652 69.108 72.093 77.545 75.943

Present method 93.231 75.879 69.588 69.036 72.007 77.443 75.774

a/b

g=1 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4

m=1 m =1 m= 1 m= 1 m= 1 m=1 m= 1 m= 2 m= 2 m=2

Leissa and Kang [12] 174.4 145.2 134.8 133.7 134.6 141.0 152.0 145.2 134.8 134.6

Energy method [12] 175.0 145.0 135.0 133.8 134.7 141.0 152.1 145.0 135.0 135.0

Present methodn 174.5 145.3 134.8 133.7 134.6 141.0 152.0 145.3 134.8 134.6

Present method 174.3 145.1 134.6 133.6 134.4 140.8 151.8 144.9 134.4 134.1

a/b

ARTICLE IN PRESS

g =2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.5 2.0

Author's personal copy

m= 1 m=1 m =1 m= 1 m= 2 m= 2 m= 2 m= 3 m= 3 m=4

Leissa and Kang [12] 464.5 400.4 391.5 411.8 422.5 400.4 391.5 400.4 391.5 391.5

Energy method [12] 467.0 402.0 392.2 412.2 424.0 402.0 392.0 402.0 392.0 392.0

Present method* 467.2 401.5 392.1 412.1 424.1 401.5 392.1 401.5 392.1 392.1

Present method 466.9 401.3 391.8 411.7 422.4 400.3 391.0 399.6 389.7 387.9

n

Without Shear Deformation and inplane displacements.

S. Kumar Panda, L.S. Ramachandra / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 52 (2010) 819–828

823

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824 S. Kumar Panda, L.S. Ramachandra / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 52 (2010) 819–828

stress distribution is unnecessary since the internal stress

450

distribution coincides with the applied inplane load distribution. η=2

400

m=1 m=2 m=3 m=4 m=5 m=6

350

Buckling Coefficient

3.2. Buckling analysis

300

The following mechanical properties are assumed, E11 = E22,

G23 =G13 = G12 =E22/2.5, n12 = 0.25 for isotropic plate and E1 = E2 = 25, 250 η = 1.5

G12 =G13 = 0.5E2, G23 = 0.6E2, n12 = 0.25 for composite lamina in the

analysis. Dropping the nonlinear terms in the plate nonlinear 200

equations, the plate buckling equations are obtained. Using

displacement ﬁelds given in Section 2.2 and adopting Galerkin’s 150 η = 1.0

method, the governing partial differential equations of plate η = 0.5

buckling equations are converted into a set of linear homoge- 100

η=0

neous algebraic equations. For a nontrivial solution this is posed

as an eigenvalue problem, solving which critical buckling loads 50 m=1 m=2 m=3 m=4

are obtained. To validate the present formulation, the dimension-

less buckling load coefﬁcients of a SCSC plate obtained by the

0

present method (neglecting shear deformation and considering 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

only w displacement) are compared with that of Leissa and Kang a/b

[12] in Table 1 for Z = 0, 1 and 2 and for various aspect ratios. The

buckling loads obtained by the present method considering Fig. 2. Variation of buckling coefﬁcients of SCSC plate with the aspect ratio (a/b)

for different inplane load distributions.

higher order shear deformation and inplane displacements are

also given in the table. It is observed that the present results

without shear deformation compare well with the energy method

values. For uniform (Z = 0) compressive load, the present results

compare well with that of Leissa and Kang. For triangular (Z = 1)

and pure inplane (Z =2) loading, the present results obtained

without shear deformation compare well with that of Leissa and

Kang results for a/b o1.0. The dimensionless buckling load

coefﬁcients for a simply supported isotropic plate (h/a= 0.01)

obtained by the present method are given in Table 2 for uniform

and parabolic load distributions. In case of plates with aspect

ratios a/b= 1 and 3 and subjected to uniformly distributed inplane

loads the converged value of buckling load is obtained by

considering one term in the displacement ﬁeld approximations.

For parabolically distributed loads, 6 terms are required to obtain

the converged buckling load in the case of square plate. However

for the plate with aspect ratio a/b= 3, 15 terms are required to

obtain the converged buckling load. The number of terms

required to obtain the converged buckling load also varies

depending upon the boundary conditions. In all further

calculations 36 terms are considered.The variation of

dimensionless buckling load coefﬁcients ki( = Ncrb2/p2D) of a

SCSC isotropic plate (a/h =100) with two opposite simply

supported edges subjected to linearly varying inplane load Fig. 3. Buckling modes for SCSC rectangular isotropic plate under uniform inplane

against aspect ratio of the plate is shown in Fig. 2, for various load distributions (Z = 0).

Table 2

Dimensionless buckling load of SSSS rectangular isotropic plate with uniform and parabolic in-plane loadings.

a/b= 1 a/b = 3

(m n)/term coefﬁcient (ki) (m n)/terms coefﬁcient (ki) (m n)/term coefﬁcient (ki) (m n)/terms Coefﬁcient (ki)

[1 1]/ (1) 3.997 [1 1] /(1) 5.252 [1 1]/ (1) 3.997 [1 1] /(1) 5.633

(1,1) [2 2] /(4) 5.251 (3,1) [3 3] /(9) 5.632

[2 3] /(6) 5.250 [4 3]/(12) 5.622

[3 2] /(6) 5.241 [5 3]/(15) 5.547

[3 3] /(9) 5.241 [6 3]/(18) 5.547

[4 3]/(12) 5.241 [6 4]/(24) 5.547

[3 4]/(12) 5.241 [6 5]/(30) 5.547

[6 6]/(36) 5.547

Ki( =Ncrb2/p2D).

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S. Kumar Panda, L.S. Ramachandra / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 52 (2010) 819–828 825

(a/b43) plates, the buckling loads remains the same. For uniform,

trapezoidal and triangular loading (i.e., Z = 0, 0.5 and 1) the

buckling mode in the loading direction is four half-waves (m) for

the plate aspect ratio a/b= 2.8, where as for partial tension and

pure bending the buckling mode is ﬁve and six half-waves (m)

respectively (see Fig. 2). The three dimensional buckling modes

with contour plots (lines of constant displacements) for all the

above cases is shown in Figs. 3–6.Nine different plate boundary

conditions are considered with parabolic inplane load

N x ¼ 4N 0 ðy=bÞð1ðy=bÞÞ distributions. For all the boundary

conditions, the aspect ratio a/b is varied up to 3. Effect of shear

deformation is shown in Figs. 7–9 for plate with SSSS, SCSS and

SCSC boundary conditions respectively for length to thickness

ratios a/h= 100, 50, 20 and 10. The buckling loads are calculated

for all these boundary conditions by considering 6 terms along

x-axis and 6 terms along y-axis in the multi-term Galerkin

method from convergence considerations. However, for SSSS plate

less number of terms is required to obtain converged buckling

loads as shown in Table 2. In Figs. 7–9, m= 1, m =2,y, indicate the

Fig. 6. Buckling modes for SCSC rectangular isotropic plate under pure inplane

bending load distributions (Z = 2.0).

16

14

y

12

a/h = 100

Buckling Coefficient

a/h = 50

10 b a/h = 25

a a/h = 10

x

8

m=1 m=2 m=3

6

Fig. 4. Buckling modes for SCSC rectangular isotropic plate under triangular

2

inplane load distributions (Z = 1.0).

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

a/b

Fig. 7. Variation of buckling coefﬁcients of SSSS plate with parabolic inplane

loading for different aspect ratios (a/b) and length to thickness (a/h) ratio.

length to thickness ratio, the non-dimensional buckling load

decreases and the curve bends away as shown in the ﬁgure. From

Figs. 7–9, it is clear that the effect of shear deformation increases

with the increase in aspect ratio and end restraint. Thus the effect

of shear deformation is the maximum for SCSC boundary

condition as observed from Fig. 9. It is observed that the plate

buckles into more number of half-waves for the same aspect ratio

as the edge restraint increases from SSSS to SCSC.

The plates with SSSS, SCSS and SCSC boundary conditions, the

plates buckle into two half-waves for a/b ratio beyond 1.325,

1.075 and 0.9, respectively. Buckling into four half-waves is

possible only for SCSS and SCSC plates within a/b= 3. The plate

buckles into three half-waves at a/b ratio 2.475 for SSSS boundary

condition, 1.950 for SCSS and 1.625 for SCSC boundary condition

Fig. 5. Buckling modes for SCSC rectangular isotropic plate under partial inplane (see Figs. 7–9). The buckling modes for SSSS, SCSS and SCSC plate

tension load distributions (Z = 1.5). for parabolic inplane loading are shown in Figs. 10–12 for aspect

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826 S. Kumar Panda, L.S. Ramachandra / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 52 (2010) 819–828

16

y

14

a/h = 100

12 a/h = 50

Buckling Coefficient

b a/h = 20

x a/h = 10

10

8

a/b Fig. 10. Buckling modes for SSSS rectangular isotropic plate under parabolic

inplane load distributions.

Fig. 8. Variation of buckling coefﬁcients of SCSS plate with parabolic inplane

loading for different aspect ratios (a/b) and length to thickness (a/h) ratio.

16 y

14 a/h = 100

a/h = 50

b a/h = 20

Buckling Coefficient

12 a a/h = 10

x

10

4

Fig. 11. Buckling modes for SCSS rectangular isotropic plate under parabolic

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

inplane load distributions.

a/b

loading for different aspect ratios (a/b) and length to thickness (a/h) ratio.

boundary condition buckles in three half-waves for aspect ratio

a/b= 2.8. Figs. 11 and 12 show the four half-waves buckling for

SCSS and SCSC plates. It is observed that for the same aspect ratio,

the SCSS and SCSC boundary condition plate buckles into more

number of half-waves due to the increase in boundary restraint.

Recently, Wang et al. [15] obtained the accurate non-dimen-

sional buckling load coefﬁcients of thin rectangular isotropic

plates under parabolic edge compression by differential quad-

rature (DQ) method for above nine boundary conditions. How-

ever, they have not considered shear deformation in their

analysis. The buckling loads of plates with all the above boundary

conditions are also obtained by commercially available ﬁnite

element software ANSYS. In ANSYS, 8 noded SHELL93 element has

been used to discretize the plate geometry. The element has

6 degrees of freedom at each node; translations along x, y and

z directions and rotations about the nodal x, y and z axes. Fig. 12. Buckling modes with for SCSC rectangular isotropic plate under parabolic

The present results for isotropic plate with nine boundary inplane load distributions.

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S. Kumar Panda, L.S. Ramachandra / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 52 (2010) 819–828 827

Table 3

Comparison of dimensionless buckling load coefﬁcient ki of isotropic rectangular plate (a/h = 100) with different boundary conditions subjected to parabolic in-plane

loading.

SSSS Present 9.654 7.271 6.078 5.211 5.242 5.704 5.478 5.547

Wang et al.[15] 9.663 7.274 6.080 5.211 5.262 5.734 5.628 5.630

ANSYS 9.661 7.273 6.079 5.212 5.250 5.739 5.531 5.621

SSCS Present 17.02 12.03 9.401 7.035 6.254 6.023 5.768 5.671

Wang et al.[15] 17.02 12.03 9.399 7.045 6.277 6.058 5.825 5.756

ANSYS 17.02 12.03 9.399 7.041 6.285 6.065 5.825 5.744

SCSS Present 10.06 7.877 6.938 6.692 7.551 7.104 7.412 7.373

Wang et al.[15] 10.06 7.888 6.940 6.698 7.573 7.135 7.482 7.456

ANSYS 10.06 7.880 6.939 6.699 7.582 7.135 7.465 7.403

CSCS Present 30.65 21.01 15.82 10.95 9.032 8.127 7.063 6.495

Wang et al.[15] 30.69 21.02 15.83 10.96 9.054 8.153 7.123 6.571

ANSYS 30.70 21.01 15.82 10.95 9.062 8.163 7.121 6.557

SCSC Present 10.52 8.652 8.087 8.877 9.172 9.114 9.053 9.117

Wang et al.[15] 10.54 8.663 8.092 8.887 9.194 9.141 9.120 9.345

ANSYS 10.53 8.661 8.088 8.882 9.194 9.130 9.080 9.226

SSCC ‘Present 17.28 12.49 10.07 8.231 7.957 7.645 7.390 7.451

Wang et al.[15] 17.29 12.50 10.09 8.233 7.971 7.679 7.598 7.544

ANSYS 17.29 12.49 10.08 8.232 7.973 7.678 7.420 7.492

CCSC Present 17.58 13.04 10.94 9.814 9.847 9.340 8.309 9.205

Wang et al.[15] 17.59 13.06 10.95 9.821 9.868 9.393 9.367 9.352

ANSYS 17.58 13.05 10.94 9.817 9.867 9.378 9.323 9.235

CCCS Present 30.54 21.35 16.42 12.12 10.88 9.735 9.185 8.571

Wang et al.[15] 30.58 21.38 16.44 12.12 10.91 9.767 9.246 8.693

ANSYS 30.54 21.36 16.43 12.12 10.91 9.761 9.230 8.634

CCCC Present 31.01 21.74 17.15 13.66 13.55 11.58 11.17 10.77

Wang et al.[15] 31.03 21.80 17.17 13.71 13.58 11.63 11.26 10.92

ANSYS 31.01 21.76 17.16 13.68 13.57 11.61 11.21 10.79

Dimensionless buckling coefﬁcients kc of rectangular cross-ply laminated (0/90/0) parabolic compression is given in Table 4 along with the ANSYS

plate (a/h = 100) with different boundary conditions subjected to parabolic in-

results. Material properties used in the analysis are E1 = E2 =25,

plane loading.

G12 = G13 = 0.5E2, G23 =0.6E2, n12 =0.25. In ANSYS, linear SHELL99

Support Source a/b shell element has been used to discretize the plate geometry. The

element has 6 degrees of freedom at each node; translations along

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 x, y and z directions and rotations about the nodal x, y and z axes.

SSSS Present 35.69 41.50 54.42 87.38 154.26 227.32

The present results compare well with that of Wang et al. [15] and

ANSYS 35.71 41.55 55.61 88.87 156.81 229.55 ANSYS results.

SSCS Present 70.38 77.54 90.73 119.68 171.89 246.06

ANSYS 70.58 78.35 91.80 120.27 173.19 248.09

SCSS Present 35.73 44.88 73.53 146.77 224.23 301.95 3.3. Conclusions

ANSYS 35.83 44.92 73.75 147.53 227.41 304.66

CSCS Present 133.31 145.92 162.35 192.89 247.03 333.43

ANSYS 133.51 146.28 162.63 192.68 248.00 337.21 Leissa and Kang used power series (i.e., method of Frobenius)

SCSC Present 35.77 49.90 103.66 199.42 281.31 424.48 method to obtain the buckling load of the plate with linearly

ANSYS 35.79 49.90 103.73 201.91 284.20 428.98 varying inplane loads. Authors mentioned in their conclusion that

SSCC Present 70.31 80.79 105.81 162.17 249.86 336.10

ANSYS 70.45 80.85 105.97 163.37 252.18 340.27

whenever the inplane edge loading is more general than linearly

CCSC Present 70.38 83.93 127.51 218.13 315.11 437.39 varying ((i.e., Ny = f(y)) the method is not fruitful and suggested

ANSYS 70.42 84.01 127.63 219.35 318.14 443.24 ﬁrst to solve the plane elasticity problem to determine Nx, Ny and

CCCS Present 133.21 148.60 174.49 233.96 342.35 436.43 Nxy. In present study, the buckling load of a composite plate

ANSYS 133.33 148.75 175.38 234.51 344.11 438.44

subjected to parabolically distributed compressive inplane loads

CCCC Present 133.31 150.69 193.26 296.00 406.95 525.41

ANSYS 133.71 150.83 194.21 298.12 410.17 532.82 are reported for the ﬁrst time. For this case, ﬁrst plane elasticity

problem is solved to determine the stress distributions within the

plate. Using the above stress distribution and adopting Galerkin’s

approximation the critical buckling loads are evaluated. Beam

functions are used as shape functions in the Galerkin technique. It

conditions are compared with the ANSYS results and that of Wang is observed that, whenever the plate restrained condition

et al. [15] in Table 3. The small difference of values between the increases, the number of terms required is more to get the

three results is due to the reason that in the present method shear converged buckling load. When the two loaded edges are simply

deformation and inplane displacement have been considered, supported and applied inplane load is uniform or linearly varying,

where as Wang et al. [15] have not considered the same. Critical the plate buckles with a particular number of half-waves in the

buckling coefﬁcients kc(Ncra2/E22p2h3) of 3-layered cross-ply loading direction depending on the length to width ratio of the

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ARTICLE IN PRESS

828 S. Kumar Panda, L.S. Ramachandra / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 52 (2010) 819–828

the unloaded edge. Similarly if the applied inplane loading is

p1 ¼ uo;x þ0:5ðwo;x Þ2 ; q1 ¼ vo;x þ 0:5ðwo;y Þ2 ; r1 ¼ uo;x þ vo;x þwo;x wo;y ;

non-uniform the buckling mode is combination of two or more

half-waves in both loaded direction as well as the unloaded p2 ¼ wo;xx ; q2 ¼ wo;yy ; r2 ¼ 2wo;xy ;

o o o o

direction independent of boundary conditions. As the applied load p3 ¼ f1;x ; q3 ¼ f2;y ; r3 ¼ f1;y þ f2;x ðA:6Þ

is non-uniform we need to take six terms in x-direction and six

terms in y-direction to get the converged buckling load up to Explicit expression for a1, a2 and a3 for the case of cross-ply

aspect ratio of a/b= 3 for maximum restrained plate i.e., CCCC composite plate are

a1 ¼ ðA:7Þ

ð0:0303a12 b2 þ 4:2449a10 b4 þ 70:3424a8 b6 þ 222:9a6 b8 þ135:6604a4 b10 þ 15:7885a2 b12 þ 0:2174b14 Þ

a2 ¼ ðA:8Þ

ð0:0087a12 b2 þ 1:2245a10 b4 þ 20:2911a8 b6 þ 64:3181a6 b8 þ 39:1328a4 b10 þ 4:5544a2 b12 þ0:0627b14 Þ

a3 ¼ ðA:9Þ

ð0:0105a b þ 1:4728a b3 þ24:4064a8 b5 þ 77:3628a6 b7 þ47:0696a4 b9 þ 5:4781a2 b11 þ 0:0754b13 Þ

12 10

required to get the converged solution. From Figs. 7–9, it is clear

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A11 uo;xx þ A66 uo;yy þ ðA12 þ A66 Þvo;xy þ ðA11 wo;xx þ A66 wo;yy Þwo;x þ ðA12 þ A66 Þwo;y wo;xy ¼ 0

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loaded by in-plane moments. International Journal of Structural Stability and

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ðA12 þ A66 Þuo;xy þ A66 vo;xx þ A22 vo;yy þ ðA66 wo;xx þ A22 wo;yy Þwo;y þ ðA12 þ A66 Þðwo;x wo;xy Þ ¼ 0 [11] Kang JH, Leissa AW. Exact solution for the buckling of rectangular plates

having linearly varying in-plane loading on two opposite simply supported

ðA:2Þ edges. International Journal of Mechanical Science 2005;42:4220–38.

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SS–C rectangular plate loaded by linearly varying inplane stresses. Interna-

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D11 wo;xxxx 2D12 wo;xxyy D22 wo;yyyy 4D66 wo;xxyy þE11 f1;xxx tional Journal of Mechanical Science 2002;44:1925–9455.

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þ wo;xx ðA11 p1 þ A12 q1 Þ þwo;x ðA11 p1;x þ A12 q1;x Þ nxx wo;xx nxx;x wo;x [14] Gurdal Z, Tatting BF, Wu CK. Variable stiffness composite panels: effects of

þ 2wo;xy ðA66 r1 Þ þ wo;x ðA66 r1;y Þ þwo;y ðA66 r1;x Þ2nxy wo;xy nxy;y wo;x stiffness variation on the in-plane and buckling response. Composite: Part A,

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