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Watershed Hydrology & Drainage

and Rainwater Harvesting

David Watkins
CE 5993
Components of Streamflow
• Direct runoff (over land)
• Interflow (through near surface soil layers)
• B
fl (from
(f groundwater)
d t )
• Precipitation onto channel
– Small contribution
Measuring Streamflow
• Manual approaches
– Hand-held meters
– Orange peel?
• Float gage, bubbler
– Requires rating curve developed through
another method
• Acoustic
A ti (Doppler)
(D l ) methods
th d
Handheld Velocity Meter Method
Measure velocity and depth at different points along a cross section.



Q   Vi Ai   Vi  Wi  Di 
i i
Water Budget Analysis

S f
Surface Storage
∆S = P – I – ET – Q
∆S = change
g in surface storage
g ((amount of p
ponded water))
P = precipitation
I = infiltration
ET = evapotranspiration
t i ti (which
( hi h may also
l iinclude
l d
“interception” of rainfall by plants)
Q = runoff
Water Budget Analysis

 P  0.2 S 
Q ,S   25.4
25 4
P  0.8S CN
P = precipitation (mm)
S = potential abstraction (mm)
CN is
i th
the curve number,
b which
hi h ddependsd on lland
d cover,
hydrologic condition, and soil classification
Variables in the SCS method of rainfall abstractions; Ia = initial abstraction, Pe =
rainfall excess
excess, Fa = continuing abstraction
abstraction, and P = total rainfall.
Water Resource Engineering, 2005 Edition by Larry W. Mays
Copyright © 2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Solution of the SCS runoff equations (from U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil
ti S Service
i (1972))
Water Resource Engineering, 2005 Edition by Larry W. Mays
Copyright © 2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Water Budget Analysis
ea* Ta 
PET  29.8D
Ta  273.2
273 2
where D is the day length (hrs) and ea*(Ta) is the saturation
vapor pressure (kPa) at the mean daily temperature,
temperature Ta ((°C)C).

If Pi ≥ PETi, then
ETi = PETi

If Pi < PETi, then

  PETi  Pi 
ETi = Pi  i 1 1  exp    
   fc  
Water Budget Analysis
Ri  I i  ETi  Dw , i 1  0
Ii = infiltration in period i (mm)
ETi = evapotranspiration in period i (mm)
Dw,i-1 is the soil water depletion at end of period i-1 (mm).

The soil water depletion represents the depth of water that is needed to fill the

Dw,i   fc   i  d r
soil to field
f capacity, θfc:

where θi is the soil moisture and dr is the depth of the root zone.

The water budget equation allows recharge to occur only if the soil moisture in
the root zone is above field capacity. At the end of each time step, the soil water
depletion is updated
p as:
Dw,i  Dw,i 1  I i  ETi  Ri  0
Modeled runoff and recharge for two watersheds in Bolivia (Fry et al., 2010).
Mapuruchqui IBTA
45 45
40 40
35 35
30 25% 30 25%
noff (mm)

noff (mm)
25 50% 25 50%
20 75% 20 75%

15 15
25% with ag 25% with ag
10 10
50% with ag 50% with ag
5 5
75% with ag 75% with ag
0 0
0 20 40 60 80 0 20 40 60 80

Time from present (years) Time from present (years)

250 60


25% 40 25%
Recharge (mm

Recharge (mm
50% 50%
100 75% 75%
25% with ag 25% with ag
50 50% with ag 50% with ag
75% with ag 75% with ag
0 0
0 20 40 60 80 0 20 40 60 80

Time from present (years) Time from present (years)

Runoff and recharge were estimated at 30 years and 75 years from present,
using the median, 25th and 75th quartile estimates from the regional averages
of precipitation responses from 21 multi-model data sets reported by the IPCC.
All are modeled using the median temperature response (Solomon et al. 2007).
Peak Discharge Analysis
• Consider one of the simplest models:

• Rational Method:
Q = CiA
– C = runoff coefficient (dependent on soils, land use)
– i = design rainfall intensity for a duration equal to tc
– tc = time of concentration; time for rainfall at the most remote p
portion of
the basin to travel to the outlet
– A = area of watershed

• Assumes uniform rainfall over the watershed


• Time-Area methods developed to address non-uniform rainfall

(larger areas).
Example Problem
A 10-acre parking lot in
Houston, TX is
i ffound
d to
have a time of concentration
(tc) of 5 minutes. With a
runoff coefficient (C) of 0.98,
and the rainfall IDF curves
given, use the Rational
Method to compute the
peak k outflow
tfl corresponding
to the 25-year rainfall event.
Example Problem
Q = CiA
i = 9.0 in/hr
A = 10 acres
Q = (0.98)(9.0)(10) = 88.2 ft3/s
Note: 1 acre-ft/hr = 1.008 ft3/s
Rainwater Harvesting
• Relieves demand and reduces reliance on surface and
underground sources.
• Not subject to many pollutants discharged into surface
• Cost effective: reduces water bills and O&M costs are
• Simple yet flexible technology. People can easily be
trained to build
build, operate and maintain the system
• Scalable.
• Rainwater systems are decentralized and independent of
topography and geology
• Water is delivered directly to the household, relieving
women and children from the burden of carrying it,
saving time and energy
• Can be used for agricultural purposes.
Project Planning
• Successful rainwater harvesting projects are generally
i t d with
ith communities
iti ththatt consider
id watert supply
a priority (Gould, 1999).
• It may not be a perceived as an immediate need, or
there may be
b other
th priorities
i iti depending
d di on ththe season.
• Cultural perceptions and religious views regarding the
use of water, as well as traditional preferences for its
taste smell or color should also be taken into
300 mm rainy season
120 liters
per day
for 200 days

80 m2 roof

24 000 liter

(Assumes water captured in a distinct rainy season for use in a distinct dry season.)
Rainwater Harvesting Analysis
• R
ff Calculation:
C l l i
– C = runoff coefficient ((dependent
p on roof material))
– P = rainfall depth
– A = collection area

• Storage Calculation:
St = St-1 + Qt – Dt
– St = storage at end of period t (St < K = storage capacity)
– Qt = runoff collected in period t
– Dt = water use (demand) in period t
Collection Efficiency
• The recommended values of 0.8 - 0.85 are often used
for the runoff coefficient; however, it may be as high as
0.9 or as low as 0.24 depending on the surface material,
and other factors which mayy occasionally y reduce the
efficiency (Gould, 1999).
• A smooth, clean, impervious surface yields better water
quality and greater quantity (TWDB
(TWDB, 2005)
• The coefficient value is also a measure of the
performance of the gutters and downspouts, as this is
where most of the system losses tend to occur (Gould
Roof Material
Organic: Straw, Grass, Palm Leaves,  Attracts rodents and insects
Bamboo, Mud, Clay, Slate,  Yields contamination
Th t h
Thatch  Adds color to water
Wood : Shingles  Not for potable uses if chemically treated
Concrete/ Cement, Concrete, Tiles  colored tiles will oxidize and color to the water
Masonry:  may require non-toxic coating/liner

Other: Asphalt, Asbestos  Asphalt contributes grit

 Asphalt requires pre-filtering of water
 Asbestos fibers are dangerous to health,
Fiberglass Shingles
especially when inhaled during
Plastic Liner / Sheet
 Not a known risk in drinking water
 Not recommended for use
 Plastic liner may degrade in high temperatures
Paints and Lead based Paint
Lead-based  Lead is toxic to health
Coatings: (or paints with lead or zinc)  Triggered by acidity
Acrylic Paint  Will leach dissolved chemicals including
Bitumen-based materials (tar) detergents in first few run-offs.
 May add unpleasant taste to water
 Not for potable uses
Metals: Iron, Tin, Lead –Based metals  Galvanized roofing is a source of zinc
Galvanized Steel  Iron may rust and leach into tank, but is not
considered a significant health hazard.
Roof System with no Gutters
Use of a Glide as a Gutter
Roof Washing (First Flush)
• This second pipe
should have a volume
that corresponds to
the 10 gallons per
1000 square feet
• Or clean out manually
(can use first flush for
i i ti )
Tank Components

Access hatch

Overflow p


Clean out pipe

Ferrocement and Plastic Tanks
Tank Materials
 Durable, long lasting  Subject to cracks and
 Above / below ground leaks
 Can decrease corrosiveness  Subject to underground
of rainwater (allows stresses (especially in
(Reinforced Concrete)
dissolution of calcium clay soils)
carbonate from walls and  Not portable / heavy
 Durable  Difficult to maintain
Concrete Block
 Not portable / heavy
 Portable  May require more
Ferro-cement  Durable maintenance
(steel mortar composite)  Flexible in design  Subject to cracks and
 Easy repairs leaks
 Durable  Difficult to maintain
 Keeps water cool  Not portable / heavy
Garbage Cans  Inexpensive  Use only new cans
(20-50 gallon)
 Alterable  Degradable
Fiberglass  Moveable / portable  Needs interior coating
 Sensitive to sunlight
 Above/below ground  Degradable
 Alterable (can have many  Not suitable for outdoor
openings) use (requires exterior
 Moveable / portable coating /enclosure /UV
 Long life expectancy inhibitor)
(25yrs)  Must be FDA approved
 More durable than fiberglass
 Smooth interior, easy to
 Large storage capacity
 Used to line concrete tanks  Needs support
Liners, other plastics  Used to repair leaks  May be sensitive to light

 Durable  Subject to corrosion and
 Lightweight rust
 Portable  May require
Steel Drums (55 gallon) /
Galvanized Steel Tanks  Alterable liner/coating
 Verify prior use for
 Fluctuating pH may
release zinc
 May contain lead
Protecting Water Quality
• Sunlight should not be permitted to enter the
tank as this will cause algae to grow, which in
turn can feed other micro organisms in the tank.
• Flood levels higher than the entry point of RWH
tank entrances can contaminate the stored
water. This is especially a concern when cisterns
are used to store the water.
Rainwater Harvesting Analysis
• R
ff Calculation:
C l l i
– C = runoff coefficient ((dependent
p on roof material))
– P = rainfall depth
– A = collection area

• Storage Calculation:
St = St-1 + Qt – Dt
– St = storage at end of period t (St < K = storage capacity)
– Qt = runoff collected in period t
– Dt = water use (demand) in period t
Example: Falelima, Samoa (Tim Martin, 2008)
Example: Falelima, Samoa
Example: Falelima, Samoa
Traditional Water Harvesting
M h d
• Storage ponds
– Either to store surface water for direct use, or to
enhance ground water recharge
• Underground tanks/cisterns
• May be accompanied by landscape modification
(e.g., berms, bunds, channels to direct runoff
into storage)
Underground/Sand Dams

(Kankam-Yeboah et al., 2003) (http://www.clean-water-for-laymen.com/kenya-sand.html)

• Gould, J., and E. Nissen-Peterson (1999). Rainwater Catchment Systems. UK:
I t
di t Technology
T h l Publications.
P bli ti
• http://www.rainwaterharvesting.org/Rural/Traditional1.htm
• Martin, T. (2009). “An Analysis of Household Rainwater Harvesting Systems in
Falelima,, Samoa.” M.S. Report,
p , Civil & Environmental Engineering,
g g, Michigan
Technological University, Houghton, MI.
• McCuen, R.H. (2004). Hydrologic Analysis and Design, 3rd edition, Prentice Hall.
• Texas Water Development Board (2005). Rainwater Harvesting Manual, 3rd edition.
http://www twdb state tx us/publications/reports/RainwaterHarvestingManual 3rdediti
on.pdf. (accessed 1 April 2012.)
• Kankam-Yeboah, K., S. Dapaah-Siakwan, M. Nishigaki, and M. Komatsu (2003).
“The Hydrogeological Setting of Ghana and the Potential for Underground Dams,”.
Okayama U
i it 8(1)
8(1), 39
52 Journal
J l off the
th Faculty
F lt off Environmental
E i t l Science
S i
and Technology