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Postgraduate Section

Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering

Policy
Policy Process
Review

• Policy….?
– "A set of principles that guide decision-
making or the processes of problems’
resolution" [Studnicki-Gizbert, 1974].
– "The process of regulating and controlling the
provision of transport" [Tolley and Turton,
1995].
Distinction between
the Planning and Policy
• A major distinction between the planning and policy is
that the latter has a much stronger relation with
legislation.
• Policies are frequently, though not exclusively,
incorporated into laws and other legal instruments that
serve as a framework for developing planning
interventions.
• Planning does not necessarily involve legislative action,
and is more focused on the means of achieving a
particular goal.
• Policy and planning represent separate parts of an
overall process of intervention. There are circumstances
where policy may be developed without any direct
planning implications, and planning is frequently
undertaken outside any of direct policy context.
PROSES KEBIJAKAN
• Proses kebijakan baru dimulai ketika para pelaku
kebijakan mulai sadar bahwa adanya situasi
permasalahan, yaitu situasi yang dirasakan adanya
kesulitan atau kekecewaan dalam perumusan
kebutuhan, nilai dan kesempatan( Ackoff dalam
Dunn,2000:121).

• Dunn (2000-21) berpendapat bahwa metodologi analisis


kebijakan menggabungkan lima prosedur umum yang
lazim dipakai dalam pemecahan masalah manusia:
definisi, prediksi, preskripsi, deskripsi, dan evaluasi.
The Policy Process
Dr. Brian Slack

• 1. Problem Definition
• 2. Policy Objectives and Options
• 3. Policy Implementation
• 4. Policy Evaluation and Maintenance
The Policy Process
Dr. Brian Slack

1. Problem Definition
– Who has identified the problem?
– Is there agreement on the problem?
– Is it an issue that can be addressed by public policy?
– What is the timescale?
• Ada beberapa karakteristik penting yang perlu
diperhatikan dalam mengenali adanya masalah
kebijakan (Darwin, 1995:2-4), yaitu :
– (1) menyangkut kepentingan masyarakat luas,
– (2) serius dimana suatu situasi dapat diangkat sebagai masalah
kebijakan jika situasi tersebut berada di atas ambang toleransi
untuk diabaikan begitu saja,
– (3) potensial menjadi serius dalam arti bahwa suatu masalah
mungkin pada saat ini belum berkembang cukup serius, tetapi
dalam jangka panjang akan menjadi sangat serius,
– (4) ada peluang untuk memperbaiki”.

UNIVERSITAS ANDALAS 8
The Policy Process
Dr. Brian Slack

2. Policy Objectives and Options


– the objectives must:
• Identify the present conditions and situation.
• Indicate what the goals are.
• Identify the barriers to achieving the goals.
• Identify what is needed from other agencies and the
private sector.
• Determine how success will be judged and measured.
• Identify what steps are required to achieve success.