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Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León

Facultad de Ciencias Químicas

PIA
“Production of Heptenes From Propylene and Butenes”
Transferencia de calor
Ingeniería Química
Maestra: Dra. MARGARITA
LOREDO CANCINO
Grupo:01

Students Matrícula
José María Camargo Quezada 1792524
Israel Castañeda Ruiz 1671403
Marcelo Montemayor 1674756
Fernández
Andres Zavala Díaz 1792492

San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, martes del 29 de mayo del 2018
Introduction
In this project our main objective is to research a chemical process to design and
determine the dimensions and types of heat exchangers. We are investigating about a
certain process; this process is the production of heptenes from propylene and butene.
The main function of the process is to convert a mixture of unsaturated hydrocarbons,
especially C3 and C4, into 1-heptene and other unsaturated products. The diagram for the
process will be listed and explained below. The market targets 1-heptene as a primary
product, for having high octane, as a blending agent for gasoline, also it would work in
the production of plasticizers. The reactions that take place in the process are the
following:

The set of reactions that form the process are considered exothermic reactions,
that’s why the reactor must have a good heat removal rate to keep the system within its
limits. During the process all the hydrocarbon components are said to be stable, this
means that no azeotrope is found in the process.
We decided to design 4 heat exchangers, using previous knowledge from our
classes and research found in books and the internet, we were able to find the
characteristics of the exchangers. The formulas that we used were the ones we learned
during this semester in heat transfer, the data and information about the process was
obtained in the book “Analysis, Synthesis and Design of Chemical Processes” Appendix
B by the author Richard Turton. With all the information gathered we looked for the best
possible heat exchanger that would benefit more efficiently the production of 1-hepente.
Besides our 4 heat exchangers we decided to add 3 centrifugal pumps to the
process, we think that with the use of this centrifugal pumps the flow rate would be better
than without them. Below we will continue to explain how each exchanger and pump was
design as well as the results for each one. Also, we design another heat exchanger and
we compared it to another exchanger to see which one of the two would be better.
Methodology
The analysis among the heat exchangers before seen, we’ve got two typical cases
in this industrial process. First, at the end of the synthesis of heptenes, the products
need to get cold with cooling water, the exchangers marked with the numbers 1207,
1210 and 1211 complete this mission. In addition, the flow mass rate in these lines are
so low that the heat transfer area is lower than 20 m2 and in these situations, we need
to use the typical double pipe heat exchangers which are so common in this kind of
industries. The methodology used is showing below.

Start

Make a data analysis with what is known, such as


temperature at the entrance and exit of the
system, but not the fluid´s temperature in the
process.

Calculate:
Qwater=mwaterCp∆T
Qwater=Qmixture
Qmixture=mmixtureCp(Tprom)∆T

𝑇1 + 𝑇2
Tprom =
2
∆T = T2 - T1
𝑄𝑎𝑔𝑢𝑎 𝑇 +𝑇
= 𝐶𝑝( 1 2)(T2 - T1)
𝑚𝑚𝑒𝑧𝑐𝑙𝑎 2
Solve for T2

Calculate the fluid´s properties evaluated at Tprom:


ρ, μ, k y Cp.
(We used the correlations from the tabulated data
from the Handbook: “Chemical Properties”)
Choose the Flow that will be inside the line and the one
that will flow through the annular section. We
compared the mass flow rates from both fluids and
chose from this comparison.

According to the commercial measurements, a diameter was chosen


according to the lines from the exchanger.

1) 𝐷ℎ = 𝐷𝑒𝑥𝑡 − 𝐷𝑖𝑛𝑡
Solve for Dh, which is the transversal area
from the interior line and the transversal 2) 𝐴 𝑇𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠 𝐴𝑛𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 = 𝐴𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝑑𝑒𝑙 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑜 𝑒𝑥𝑡 −
area from the annular line. 𝐴𝑒𝑥𝑡 𝑑𝑒𝑙 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑜 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑛𝑜

1) 𝑉̇ = 𝑚̇/𝜌
Solve for the velocity of the Flow rate and 2) 𝑉𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑑𝑎𝑑 = 𝑉̇ /𝐴𝑡
then solve the following: Re, Pr, F, Nu, y h.
𝐶𝑝∗𝜇
3)𝑃𝑟 = 𝐾
𝑉∗𝐷ℎ∗𝜌
4) 𝑅𝑒 = 𝜇

0.25
5) f = 2
1 5.74
[log( 𝐷 + 0.9 )]
3.7∗( ) 𝑅𝑒
𝜖

𝑓
( )∗(𝑅𝑒−1000)∗𝑃𝑟
8
8) Nu = 𝑓
2
1+12.7∗( )0.5 ∗(𝑃𝑟 3 −1)
8

𝑁𝑢∗𝐾
9) h= 𝐷

1
U= 1 1
Calculate the total transfer coefficient, U. + +𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑡+𝑅𝑒𝑥𝑡
ℎ𝑖 ℎ𝑜

Calculate the 𝛥𝑇1−𝛥𝑇2


ΔTlm = 𝛥𝑇1
ln( )
∆Tlm 𝛥𝑇2
𝑄
Calculate the area that´s Adiseño =
𝑈∆𝑇𝑙𝑚
required for the design

Follow with the


calculations for the A = πDL → L = A/πD
length of the lines

Length of the design is chosen

Calculate the commercial area for each design


according to the number of margins that are given
for each commercial length.
.

𝛥𝑃𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑜𝑠 𝑓𝑑∗𝑉 2 ∗𝐿
Calculate the pressure drop, ∆P, produced 1) =
𝜌 2∗𝑔𝑐∗𝐷
inside the lines, in the annular section and 𝛥𝑃𝑎𝑛𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑓𝑑∗𝑉 2 ∗𝐿
2) =
in the margins. 𝜌 2∗𝑔𝑐∗𝐷ℎ
𝛥𝑃ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑙𝑎𝑠 4∗𝑛∗𝑉 2
3) =
𝜌 2∗𝑔𝑐

Compare the pressure drops, the area and the length with the
values reported from the literature, in order to determine if they
are in conditions for the design of our exchangers.

End

Diagram 1. Methodology
Formulas
Equations that were used for the design of the following exchanger were the following:
❖ Flow Area.
𝑚̇ 𝜋𝐷 2
𝐴𝑓 = = 𝑛𝑇
𝜌𝑉 4

❖ Diameter for a quadratically arrangement of the lines.

4(𝑃𝑇2 −(𝜋𝐷𝑜2 )⁄4)


𝐷𝑒 = 𝜋𝐷𝑜

❖ Diameter for a triangular line.

4(1⁄2𝑃𝑇 ×0.86𝑃𝑇 −(1⁄2𝜋𝐷𝑜2 )/4)


𝐷𝑒 = 1⁄ 𝜋𝐷
2 𝑜

❖ Area of flow from the shell.

𝐷𝑠 𝐶𝐵
𝑎𝑠 = 𝑃𝑇

❖ Mass velocity of the shell.

𝑚̇
𝐺𝑠 =
𝑎𝑠

Reynolds.

𝐷𝑒 𝐺𝑠
𝑅𝑒 = 𝜇

❖ Number of dividers.

𝐿
𝑛=𝐵

❖ Pressure drop in the shells

𝛥𝑃 𝐺𝑠 2 𝐷𝑠 (𝑛+1)
= 𝑓𝑠
𝜌 2𝑔𝐷𝑒 𝜌2

❖ Friction in the shell

𝑓 = 1.728𝑅𝑒𝑠 −0.188
❖ Global heat transfer coefficient

𝐷
1 1 1 1 𝑅𝑓,𝑖 ln( 𝑜⁄𝐷𝑖) 𝑅𝑓,𝑜 1
𝑈
=𝑈𝐴 =𝑈 =𝑅=ℎ𝐴 + + + +ℎ
𝑖 𝑖 𝑜 𝐴𝑜 𝑖 𝑖 𝐴𝑖 2𝜋𝑘𝐿 𝐴𝑜 𝑜 𝐴𝑜

❖ Heat flow

𝑄 = 𝑚̇𝐶𝑝 𝛥𝑇

❖ Heat flow

𝑄 = 𝑈𝐴𝑠 𝛥𝑇𝑙𝑚

❖ 𝛥𝑇lim

𝛥𝑇1 −𝛥𝑇2
𝛥𝑇𝑙𝑚 = 𝛥𝑇1
𝑙𝑛( )
𝛥𝑇2

❖ Nusselt

ℎ𝐷
𝑁𝑢 = 𝑘

❖ Prandtl

𝜇𝐶𝑝
𝑃𝑟 = 𝑘

❖ Nusselt in the lines

𝑁𝑢 = 0.023𝑅𝑒 0.8 𝑃𝑟 𝑛

n=0.4 when the fluid is heated n=0.3 when the fluid is cooled

𝑓
( )𝑅𝑒𝑃𝑟
8
𝑁𝑢 = 𝑓 0.5
1+12.7( ) (𝑃𝑟 2/3 −1)
8

❖ Friction

0.25
𝑓= 5.74 2
[𝑙𝑜𝑔(3.7(𝜀/𝐷)+ )]
𝑅𝑒0.9

❖ Nusselt in the shell

ℎ𝑜 𝐷𝑜 𝐷𝑒 𝐺𝑠 0.55 0.333 𝜇 0.14


= 0.36 ( ) 𝑃𝑟 ( )
𝑘 𝜇 𝜇𝑠
Start

Enter the data specified in the


literature:
-Mass flow
-Molar compositions
-Temperatures of entrance and exit

Find missing temperatures, if


applicable, with an energy balance
with variable calorific capacities.

Calculate the necessary properties


of the mixture, such as viscosity,
density, conductivity and heat
capacity. Through the necessary
correlations.

Propose commercial designs for


the exchanger as they are:
-Diameter and configuration 1
-Longitudes
-Flow velocity

Calculate the parameters necessary for the design:


Nt, Ds, Gs, C, B, Np, n, As, L, De, Re, f, ΔP.
-Verify baffle spacing Appendix 1. (In case your ΔP is higher than 0.7kg/𝑐𝑚2 )
-Verify the diameters and commercial lengths. Appendix 2
-Verify which fluid enters the shell and the tubes Appendix 3

Calculate the Nusselt Number

Calculate the heat transfer coefficients (ho and hi)

Calculate the global heat transfer coefficient with following values.


Calculate the heat transfer through the
equation Q=UAsΔT and compare with the
heat needed by the process. (You can
compare the design area versus the
commercial area)

Check if the ΔP and Q is allowed.

Yes
If ΔP>0.7 and 1
Qdesigned<<Qneeded

END

Diagram 2. Methodology
Heat Exchangers models
In this section we present the design proposals to the different heat exchangers that were
selected to be studied, we intend to improve the heat exchange by proposing several
types of configurations. Tables are presented with the results, with which the best option
can be evaluated quantitatively
Heat exchanger – 1202
For this heat exchanger, the area that we
approached, if it was a double pipe heat exchanger,
was almost 80 m2 (look the table 1) which means
that it’s impossible to create this kind of exchanger
because the area was far big. So, in this case, we
need to design a shell and tube heat exchanger
because of the superficial area.

Figure 1 Heat exchanger E-1202

Pipe outside (Process) Pipe inside (water)


Volumetric flow (m3/s) 0.089775 Volumetric flow (m3/s) 0.195427894
Velocity (m/s) 116.800582 Velocity (m/s) 202.5214672
Pr 3.711083361 Pr 1.085
Re 5045535.122 Re 37890795.36
F 0.02917153 F 0.020899452
Nu 32956.16329 Nu 103638.0616
H out 292651.8012 Hin 2010552.377
10) U global 2516.075168
Q (J/seg) 7412447.136
DT1 (°C) 15
DT2 (°C) 63
11) DTlm (°C) 33.44750721
A design (m2) 88.07937852
L design (m) 664.94
Table 1 Double pipe designed for heat exchanger E-1207
So, in this case, we need to focus in our next option, the properties for the stream fluid is
showing below (Table 2) and which fluid is in the shell side or the tube side.

Mix (Shell side) Water (Tube side)


Cp mix 2583.28437 Cpw 4180
Μm 0.00013188 Μw 0.00017
Km 0.0918 Kw 0.68
Ρm 551.068107 Ρw 907.4
Tin (°C) 45 Tin (°C) 40
Tout (°C) 103 Tout (°C) 30
Mass flow (Kg/seg) 49.47222 Mass flow (Kg/seg) 177.3312712
Table 2 Properties in E-1202 reported by literature and calculated

We put the water in the tube side because of its viscosity, higher temperature and fouling
number, so in this way the cleaning maintaining is easier than the other way. You can
look the heuristics for this kind of the decision in appendix 3.
There are so many heuristics that we need to consult before we start to design our own
shell and tube heat exchanger, you need to consult the several appendixes that we have
at the end of this document.
There are so many values that we need to suppose in this case which are listed in the
next chart. The length and diameters were selected because of economical strategy.
Values supposed
Configuration Quadrangular Triangular
Tube side
Length (m) 7.3152 (24 ft) 7.3152 (24 ft)
External diameter (m) 0.01905 0.01905
BWG 12 12
Inner diameter* (m) 0.0021082 0.0021082
Possible velocity (m/seg) 1.25 0.94
Number of passes * 553 745
Fouling 0.00021803
Shell side
Diameter (m) 0.7336 0.7874
Clearance* 0.00365 0.00365
Baffle spacing* (m) 0.3683 0.3937
Baffle cut *(%) 25 25
Fouling 0.0001755
Number of passes 1
Table 3 Values supposed in the exchanger E-1202

You can find the values marked with * in the appendix 1 and 2.
The results that we have in this design is showing in the following chart.
Results
Coefficients Quadrangular Triangular

h out (W/m2-°C) 1681.936835 1333.454996

h inner (W/m2-°C) 12447.33149 12447.33149

U without fouling factors (W/m2-°C) 1481.720416 1204.427366


U with fouling factor (W/m2-°C) 935.960503 817.1269311
Designed Area (m2) 242.1007799 326.1574701
Q allowed (J/seg) 7579097.02 8914163.801
Q needed (J/seg) 7412447.136 7412447.136
A designed (m2) 242.1007799 326.1574701
A needed (m2) 236.7774456 236.7774456
Over designed area (%) 2.248243811 37.74853823
ΔKgf/cm2 0.5667 0.6364
Table 4 Results in the exchanger E-1202

Comparing both designs, we know right away which one is better than other, the
quadrangular doesn’t have a higher drop pressure than the triangular one, furthermore,
the over designed area is much lower. This one of our options among the different
combinations of design that you could obtain in this tubular heat exchanger.
Discussions
There are several ways to obtain the exchanger that you need, but you need to know that
it’s difficult to pick up a choice, in this case, the strong recommendation that we need to
clarify it’s to restrain the drop pressure at minimum, because this means that there will be
some economical losses. On the other hand, this heat exchanger that we calculated it’s
over designed because of the fouling factors that we included, so basically the exchanger
will bring more heat that it’s intended to satisfy, thus the engineering must be aware of
this situation, so it’s possible that the amount of your fluid service is going to be less at
the beginning, consequently there could be some savings because of this.
We’ll compare the total heat transfer coefficient that it’s reported at the literature, you can
take look at the different values of the coefficients in specific cases in appendix 4.
U reported (W/m2-°C) U obtained (W/m2-°C)
300 - 1000 935.82
Table 5 exchanger E-1202
Heat exchanger – 1207
In this case, the heat exchanger area
is lower than 20 m2, so we could
expect a double pipe design. This
exchanger is important to cool the
products at the end of the process and
then store them.
Figure 2 Heat Exchanger 1207
The data we obtained in this
exchanger is showing in the next chart.

Table 5 Data of the Heat Exchanger 1207

There are so many data reported including, molar fraction, components, pressure and
other things that we decided to cover it to save space. Then, we need to calculate de
different properties of the mix that we don’t have, using different correlations that learned
in the past semesters. We obtained this:

Table 6 Properties of the process stream

The pipe characteristics in this exchanger were selected according several books of
process heat transfer, the diameters are predeterminate in IPS (Iron Pipe Size) and you
could use the number of the hair pins as you need, but it’s important to control de drop
pressure. The diameters that we used is 1 ¼ in that it’s so common.
Table 7 Pipe characteristics

The results in the exchanger E-1207 are showing below, we obtain the total heat transfer
coefficient through the properties and the correlations.

Figure 4 E-1207

After that, we obtain a commercial length that we’re going to use to calculate de different
models, for example, to use a 12-ft length pipe we need to use three hair pins with a
commercial length and then we approximate the drop pressure and compare which one
is the best option.

Figure 5 E-1207

Discussion
The three options above, the best one is the 20-length pipe because the drop pressure is
the lowest and beside the over area designed is the lowest, so practically we don’t waste
money because of the commercial standards.
Figure 6 E-1207

Heat exchanger I–1210

The heat exchanger that was redesign was the one with the I-1210 label in the DTI of the
process. In the next table we have data that corresponds to the fluid that passes by the exchanger,
in which you can observe the conditions for pressure, temperature and composition, which were
of help, so we could obtain the properties of the mixture of hydrocarbons.

Table 9.

Because we had no value for a temperature at the exit, we proceeded in calculating it using an
energy balance, the heat gained by the water would be the same as the heat loss of the mixture.
With this we found the value of the heat and the temperature at the exit was our only variable, so
we proceeded in finding the temperature at the conditions given.

Now that we had the temperature at the exit, we proceed into calculating the upcoming variables
which will be shown in the table below, all these calculations were necessary to obtain the design,
including its length, of the exchanger I-1210.

Table 10.

Once we obtained our length that we needed, it was necessary the knowledge about “Commercial
design” that fitted our necessities and determined which of them was better using the diameters
we needed. In the next table you can observe which were the commercial designs that were
adjusted to our exchanger.
Table 11.

The next step was to analyze the pressure drops, what we were looking was to find a total
pressure less than 0.7, if the condition was accomplished then we could say that the design was
correct.
Table 12.

HEAT EXCHANGER E-511


The heat exchanger that was redesigned was the one with the label E-511 in the DTI. This
exchanger has the function of cooling down the flow of the line 14 using water. In the next table
we exposed the flows of the mixture and water, and their conditions.

Steam Number 14 Coiling water


Temp (°C) 78 Tint (°C) 30 Cpw 4178
Pressure (bar) 1 Tout 40 μw 0.00072
Vapor fraction 0 Mass flow (Ton/h) 7.89 Kw 0.61941468
Mass flow (ton/h) 1.26 Tprom 308.15 ρw 1018.270557
Mole flow (Kmol/h) 10.46 Qtubes int (J/s) 91567.83333
Table 13
During this point in the process, the flow behaves as long chains of hydrocarbons.

Component Molar Fraction Molar mass (Kg/Kmol)


1-Hepteno (C7H14) 0.075525813 98.18
1-Octeno (C8H16) 0.700764818 112.24
1-Undeceno (C11H22) 0.223709369 154.297
Table 14
As mentioned, the current´s fluid is a mixture of hydrocarbons, so its properties required the use
of experimental correlations. Unfortunately, in the literature there was no reported temperature at
the exit, which is necessary to obtain the properties of this fluid, but thanks to the conservative
energy principle and using an iterative method we found out its value.

MIXTURE PROPERTIES
Tin (°C) 154
Tout (°C) 38.02260082
Tprom (K) 369.1613004
ΔT 115.9773992
Cpm (J/Kg K) 2255.80561
μm (Pa-s) 0.00027188
Km (W/m K) 0.1109
3
ρm (Kg/m ) 656.6264742

Table 15

Once we had all the properties, we started with the design of the heat exchanger. The first design
that was proposed was a concentric line design. Because the service flow current is greater we
decided for it to flow through the interior of the line, with this established, the hydrocarbon fluid
will flow trough the outside. Afterwards, with the commercial measurements, we proposed
diameters to obtain the transversal area.

PIPE DIMENSIONS AND PROPERTIES


Commercial Steel Ced. 40
Roughness (m) 0.000045
Internal diameter (inside) (m) 0.03505
Internal Diameter (external) (m) 0.05250
Hydraulic diameter (m) 0.01034
Transversal Area (internal) (m2) 0.000965
Transversal annular area (m2) 0.000769
k (W/m K) 45.3
Table 16

With the establishment of these dimensions, it was possible for us to obtain the total heat
coefficient
OUTER PIPE INNER PIPE
Volumetric (m3/s) 0.000533 Volumetric (m3/s) 0.002152342
Velocity (m/s) 0.693487 Velocity (m/s) 2.230467136
Pr 5.530283402 Pr 4.856455774
Re 17314.41379 Re 110570.5123
ꬵ 0.034627849 ꬵ 0.023095815
Nu 140.6082071 Nu 675.4042635
hout 1508.39155 hin 11935.27661
Fout 0.0001755 Fin 0.00021803
U 876.9829095
Table 17.

Using the methodology established at the beginning, and once we knew the total heat coefficient,
we could obtain the superficial area for the heat transfer and with that value we proceeded in
getting the length of the heat exchanger E-511

DESIGN DIMENSIONS
Q (J/seg) 91567.86371
∆T1 (°C) 114
∆T2 (°C) 8.022600818
∆Tlm (°C) 39.93216402
Superficial Area (m2) 2.614743583
Design length (m) 19.74
Table 18.

In the previous table we can observe that the superficial area is less than 10 square meters, so
for this heat exchanger we can use a better model, that model will be concentric lines that will
flow in the opposite direction. This exchanger has big advantages such as its size, simplicity and
its prices, this makes it useful and it can be done in any workplace. Unfortunately, the exchangers
for concentric lines are design with standard measurements, because of this its design must be
adjusted into these parameters. The exchangers with double lines are generally ensembled in
lengths of 12, 15 or 20 ft. To make this type of adjustment we used margins, which enable the
connection between two lines without allowing surface of heat transfer. In the table below, we
show you the different possible configurations for this exchanger
Commercial Number of Length (m) Commercial Area of over
Length(ft) margins Area design (%)
12 2 3.6576 - -
3 14.6304 - -
4 18.288 - -
5 21.9456 2.906960539 11.17574045
15 1 4.572 -
2 13.716 -
3 18.288 2.422467116 7.353549623
4 22.86 3.028083895 15.80806297
20 1 6.096 - -
2 18.288 2.422467116 7.353549623
3 24.384 3.229956155 23.5286005
4 30.48 - -
Table 19

We can see that there is 5 possible ways of arranging this exchanger, but one of them counts
with a bigger area over design, with this established this one will be the first to be taken out of
consideration. Once the exchangers that were the better fit according to the area and length of
the design are analyzed, we can proceed to calculate the pressure drops. The following table
shows the pressure drops we obtained:

PRESSURE DROP ANALYSIS


Length Number of margins Número de pasos Length Total Pressure
12 5 10 21.9456 0.556052791
15 3 6 18.288 0.448355136
15 4 8 22.86 0.563662961
20 2 4 18.288 0.435478974
Table 20

We can observe that out of the four possible arrangements for the design of this exchanger, the
one that has less pressure drop is the model with the length of 20 ft and 2 margins. Also, in the
table we can observe that this model has the least area of overdesign and because of these
characteristics it was the arrangement we chose for the exchanger E-511
Fluid Mechanics

During the process of the production of heptenes, six centrifugal pumps were used for the flow
rate of the mixture, but there was data missing from the suction line of three pumps, because of
this reason we only analyzed the three pumps with data on them. The results of the centrifugal
pumps are mere representative, the reason was that we proposed the dimensions for the lines to
make the analysis of the pumps.

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP P-504A/B

This machine oversees the flow displacement of current number eleven, which come out from the
second separation tower as products and they are impulse by the pump into the third separation
tower.

For the analysis of this unit, we took the following considerations based in the process´
considerations.

• The line is made of commercial steel, which has a roughness of 0.000046m.


• The valve that is found in the discharge line is a gate type valve, which has a constant
value of 0.16

Besides, proposals of the dimensions for the suction and discharge lines were made, as well as
the heights for the previous and following operations after the pump:

Proposed Data
Height Tower II 2 M
Height Tower II 3 M
Suction line length 3 M
Discharge line length 6 M
Suction line diameter 0.0508 M
Discharge line Diameter 0.1016 M
Table 21 P-504A/B

For this system, a pump NIZA 10.3M from the company Bombas Hasa, S.A. de C.V, was
proposed. The data for the pump´s efficiency, η, and it´s pressure drop, ∆P, were taken from the
reported values of the literature we investigated. The results that were obtained are the following:
Q (m3/h) H (m) P (kW) Η ∆P (Pa)
6.3563 24.655 0.637 0.4 150000
Table 22 P-504A/B

We can observe that the power that the pump requires for the flow rate conditions is not that
much, but this value we obtained looks alike as the one from the literature for this equipment.

Power calculated (kW) Power from literature %e


(kW)
0.637 0.660 3.68
Table 23 P-504A/B

So, we formulated a graph to determine the point of operation and analyze the system´s behavior,
which is shown in the figure below:

25.1

25

24.9
H [m]

24.8

24.7

24.6

24.5
0 2 4 6 8 10
Q [=] m3/h

Curva del sistema Polinómica (Curva de la bomba)

Figure 7 P-504A/B

Because the pressure is too high, an increase in the flow rate will barely have any significant
effect in which pump head will be required by the pump to discharge the fluid.
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP P-505A/B

This unit oversees the flow displacement of currents number nine and ten, which come from the
reflux cylinder V-503 and are headed towards the second separation tower and the heat
exchanger E-507.

For this unit´s analysis the following were considered based on the process´ conditions:

• The line is made from commercial steel, with a roughness of 0.000046m.


• The valve that is fund in the discharge lines is a gate type valve, which has two constants
of 0.16 and 0.35, the value depends in the diameter of the line.

In the same way, we proposed the dimensions for the line:

POPOSED DATA
Height Tower II 3 m
Height Tank 1 m
Height Exchanger 0 m
Suction line length 3 m
Length division pump 1 m
Length division-tower II 6 m
Length division-exchanger 6 m
Diameter at the entrance of the pump 0.0508 in
Diameter at the exit of the pump 0.1016 in
Exchanger line diameter 0.052502 in
Table 24 P-505A/B

For this system we proposed a pump MO40-200A from the company Bombas Hasa, S.A. de C.V.
The data for the pump´s efficiency, η, and it´s pressure drop, ∆P, were taken from the reported
values of the literature we investigated. The results that were obtained are the following:

Q (m3/h) H (m) P (kW) Η ∆P(Pa)


12.365 42.764508 2.23 0.4 247000
Table 25 P-505A/B

When we compared our results to the literature we observed a small percentage of the pump´s
power.
Power calculated (kW) Power from the literature %e
(kW)
2.23 2.15 3.53
Table 26 P-505A/B

Again, we formulated a graph to determine the point of operation and analyze the system´s
behavior.

48.5

47.5

46.5
H[m]

45.5

44.5

43.5

42.5
0 5 10 15
Q[=]m3/hr

Curva del sistema Polinómica (Curva de la bomba)

Figure 8 P-505A/B

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP P-506A/B

This equipment oversees the flow displacement of currents number twelve and thirteen, the ones
which come from the reflux cylinder V-505 into the third separation tower and the exchanger E-
510

For this unit´s analysis the following were considered based on the process´ conditions:

• The line is made from commercial steel, with a roughness of 0.000046m.


• The valve that is fund in the discharge lines is a gate type valve, which has two constants
of 0.16 and 0.35, the value depends in the diameter of the line.

In the same way, we proposed the dimensions for the line:


PROPOSED DATA
Height Tower 3 M
Height of the tank 1 M
Height of the Exchanger 0 M
Suction line length 5 M
Division length 1 M
Division-tower length 4 M
Division-exchanger length 1 M
Diameter at the entrance of the pump 0.0508 M
Diameter at the exit of the pump 0.1016 M
Diameter of the exchanger 0.052502 M
Table 27 P-506A/B

For this system we proposed a pump MO40-200B from the company Bombas Hasa, S.A. de C.V.
The data for the pump´s efficiency, η, and it´s pressure drop, ∆P, were taken from the reported
values of the literature we investigated. The results that were obtained are the following:

Q (m3/h) H (m) η ∆P(Pa) P (kW)


11.0707 43.457433 0.4 250000 2.022
Table 28 P-506A/B

Comparing our results web served that the results we obtained look really alike as the real
reported value.

Power Calculated (kW) Power from the literature %e


(kW)
2.02 1.93 4.55
Table 29P-506A/B

The behavior of the system can be observed in the following graph:


50
48
46

H[m]
44
42
40
0 5 10 15
Q[=]m3/hr

Curva del sistema


Polinómica (Curva de la bomba)

Figure 9 P-506A/B

As the past graphs, we can observe that the system doesn’t react a lot by increasing the flow
rate. This phenomenon occurs during the entire process and its main reason is that the pressure
drop from the centrifugal pumps throughout the system is big enough to make the effects of
friction, changes in kinetic energy and the potential flow to not be considered. A general
recommendation for this type of systems is to change all centrifugal pumps for positive
displacement pumps, the main reasons are that an enormous pressure gradient for a small flow.
In this way a save in energy will be made and you can save money.

Environmental Advantage
Throughout the years, climate in our planet has changed and in the most recent years it has
taken a path into affecting our ways of living. The problem is that humans are the one causing the
mayor environmental problems, and they are affecting the ozone layer. One of the primary
problems with the climate change is the green house effect. The green house effect involves what
is called the greenhouse gases and carbon dioxide is one of this greenhouse gases. Global
Warming Potential (GWP). GWP is an index simplified based on the properties of a gas that´s a
relative to the carbon dioxide and it is expressed, as mentioned before in kg of CO2.

In this work the impact of the electric energy generated that was used by each exchanger was
analyzed. A relative factor of 0.458 Kg CO2/kWh of electric energy was used. In the following table
are the results we obtained, taking into consideration the kWh that each equipment uses, the
mass flow rate, and the relative factor electricity-CO2 equivalency.
EXCHANGER Electricity 𝒎̇ [kg/h] CO2 equivalent
consumption [Kg CO2 eq*h/Kg of the fluid]
[kWh]
1 (I-1202) 37,062.24 1,840 9.225273882
2 (I-1207) 700.00 3,490 0.091862464
3 (I-1210) 1,275.45 8,900 0.065635517
4 (I-1211) 457.84 7,890 0.026576721
Table 30 Environmental

HEAT TRANSFER AND Kg of CO2


Our exchanger air isolated with an isolator of sheetrock with an 80 mm thickness covered
with an adhesive layer of aluminum foil with a dependent area in the external dimensions of our
exchanger. We need this because it is necessary to eliminate all heat transfer in the surroundings
by natural convection, we only need heat transfer in the fluids not in other parts of the equipment,
that´s why thickness of the lines was small, and they had high conductivities.
We are going to obtain the heat loss by heat transfer processes, being air as a laminar fluid which
produces these conditions. The superficial temperatures of the lines Will be the average
temperature of the fluid in the external layer, this condition will be either in the concentric or in the
shell. The average room temperatures will be at 25°C, without extreme wind velocities and the
phenomenon of radiation will not be taken into consideration.
The methodology for this process will be easy. We first calculated the number of Reyligh,
afterwards we proceeded into calculating the number of Nusselt for the natural external
convection. We finally obtained the heat transfer coefficient by convection and the heat loss.
𝑔𝛽(𝑇𝑖−𝑇𝑜)𝐿𝐶 3
1) 𝑅𝑎𝐷 = ∗ 𝑃𝑟
𝛾2
2
1
0.387∗𝑅𝑎𝐷 6
2) 𝑁𝑢 = {0.6 + 9 }
0.559 16 8/27
[1+( ) ]
𝑃𝑟

3) ℎ = 𝑁𝑢 ∗ 𝐾/𝐷

4) 𝑄 = ℎ ∗ ̇𝐴𝑠 ∗ ∆𝑇
Data used in exchanger E-1210

AIR PROPERTIES AT 25°C


Μ 1.96E-05
K 0.02735
Pr 0.7228
ρ 1.092
𝜷 0.020124215
V 1.80E-05
Concentric Lines E-1210
Dout (m) 0.07303
L (m) 0.0123825
T in (°C) 107
T out (°C) 41.76551626
T ∞ (°C) 25
T-Prom (°C) 74.38275813
Ra 8.49E+06
Nu 26.98790257
2
h (W/m -°C) 10.10775947
Q (J/seg) 1729.990258

Data used in exchanger E-1202

Exchanger 1202
D shell (m) 0.7366
242.1007799
As (m2)
45
T in (°C)
103
T out (°C)
25
T ∞ (°C)
T-Prom (°C) 74
8.68E+09
Ra
230.5578525
Nu
8.560626208
h (W/m2-°C)
101,553.8526
Q (J/seg)
The amount of kg/CO2 will be obtained by using the EPA calculator which gives us a CO2 quantity
that is emitted in terms of energy.

Exchanger Q (W) Kg eq CO2


E-1202 1730 4635
E-1210 101,554 272,056

To make this numbers far more visible in equivalent kilograms of carbon dioxide will be shown
with some examples below
Exchanger E-1202 without isolation:

Exchanger E-1210, which is the biggest of them all:


Economic Impact

To make an approximated analysis of the actual costs of the equipment, a cost appendix for
industrial equipment was consulted. This appendix is based in correlations obtained from various
sources in which its main goal is to approximate the original price of the equipment.

𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑙 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎
𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑙 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡 = 𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡 ∗ ( )𝑝𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡
𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎

In several references, various authors have estimated the fraction of the purchased equipment
cost that it takes to install the equipment. This generally included freight and shipping costs,
foundations, mounting, and simple electric and piping connections, such as switch gear, starters,
flange connections, and so on. Unfortunately, these numbers often vary widely, nevertheless, the
following equation lets you approximate the actual cost:

𝐼𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡 = 𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑙 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡 ∗ 𝐼𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟

A similar number that also includes all the adjacent minor equipment and connections is
sometimes listed in the literature (principally by Guthrie 1975 and Ulrich 1984) covering the cost
of purchase and installation of the major equipment as well as all the supporting equipment around
each major unit. This is called the module factor and it is used in the following equation:

𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑠 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑜𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑝𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑙 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡 ∗ 𝑀𝑜𝑑𝑒𝑙 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟


EXCHANGER E-502

Price
Size 1(ft2) Size 1 (m2) Size 2 (m2) Cost 1 (USD) Factor Cost (USD) Cost (MXN)
830 76.89528345 242.1007799 20000 0.68 43625.01671 891695.3415
Table 31

Installation Costs
Retail Price Installation Factor Cost (USD) Cost (MXN)
43625.01671 1.61 70236.2769 1435629.5
Table 32

Cost of other equipment


Retail Price Module Factor Cost (USD) Cost(MXN)
43625.01671 3.2 139600.0535 2853425.093
TOTAL (MXN) 5180749.934
Table 33

EXCHANGER E-507

Price
Size 1(ft2) Size 1 (m2) Size 2 (m2) Cost 1 (USD) Factor Cost (USD) Cost (MXN)
20 1.852898396 1.614978077 20000 0.68 18215.63072 372327.4918
Table 34

Installation Cost
Retail Price Installation Factor Cost (USD) Cost (MXN)
18215.63072 1.61 29327.16545 599447.2619
Table 35

Cost of other equipment


Retail Price Module Factor Cost (USD) Cost (MXN)
18215.63072 1.8 32788.13529 670189.4853
TOTAL (MXN) 1641964.239
Table 36
EXCHANGER E-510

Price
Size 1(ft2) Size 1 (m2) Size 2 (m2) Cost 1 (USD) Size exponent Cost (USD) Cost (MXN)
20 1.852898396 3.465879157 20000 0.68 30617.0982 625813.4871
Table 37

Installation Costs
Retail Price Installation Factor Cost (USD) Cost (MXN)
30617.0982 1.61 49293.52809 1007559.714
Table 38

Price for other equipment


Retail Price Module Factor Cost (USD) Cost(MXN)
30617.0982 1.8 55110.77675 1126464.277
TOTAL (MXN) 2759837.478
Table 39

EXCHANGER E-511

Price
Size 1(ft2) Size 1 (m2) Size 2 (m2) Cost 1 (USD) Factor Cost (USD) Cost (MXN)
20 1.852898396 2.4225 20000 0.68 23998.84154 490536.3212
Table 40

Installation Cost
Retail Price Installation Factor Cost (USD) Cost (MXN)
23998.84154 1.61 38638.1349 789763.477
Table 41

Costs for other equipment


Retail Price Module Factor Cost (USD) Cost (MXN)
23998.84154 1.8 43197.9148 882965.378
TOTAL (MXN) 2,163,265.18
Table 42
Heptene Leak In Current 6.
SITE DATA:
• Location: MONTERREY, MEXICO
• Building Air Exchanges Per Hour: 0.37
(sheltered single storied)
• Time: May 31, 2017 1547 hours DST (user
specified)
CHEMICAL DATA:
• Chemical Name: HEPTENE
• CAS Number: 71-43-2 Molecular
Weight: 98.1861 g/mol
• AEGL-1 (60 min): 52 ppm AEGL-2 (60)
Figure 10. Risk analysis
min): 800 ppm AEGL-3 (60 min): 4000
ppm
• IDLH: 500 ppm LEL: 12000 ppm UEL: 80000 ppm
• Carcinogenic risk - see CAMEO Chemicals
• Ambient Boiling Point: 78.1° C
• Vapor Pressure at room temperature: 0.15 atm
• Room Saturation Concentration: 159,581 ppm or 16.0%

ATMOSPHERIC DATA:
• Wind: 2.5 meters/second from E at 10 meters
• Ground Roughness: urban or forest Cloud Cover: 5 tenths
• Air Temperature: 29° C
• Stability Class: D (user override)
• No Inversion Height Relative Humidity: 36%

SOURCE STRENGTH:
• Direct Source: 2.15 kilograms/sec Source Height: 4 meters
• Release Duration: 60 minutes
• Release Rate: 129 kilograms/min
• Total Amount Released: 7,740 kilograms
THREAT ZONE:
• Threat Modeled: Flammable Area of Vapor Cloud
• Model Run: Heavy Gas
• Red: 41 meters --- (7200 ppm = 60% LEL = Flame Pockets)
Note: Threat zone was not drawn because effects of near-field patchiness make
dispersion predictions less reliable for short distances.
• Yellow: 114 meters --- (1200 ppm = 10% LEL)
A leakage in this line will significance a considerable loss of heptane. Heptene is a toxic
substance and inflammable, this represents a threat and a risk for human health. In this
scenario.
Conclusion
Throughout what we have elaborated form this industrial process we have elaborated a
series of concentrically heat exchangers and we have been able to design some of these
exchangers from which we have based their application for the industrial process,
production of heptenes. We also designed a shell and line exchanger. It´s of significant
importance that the technical developments of these exchangers are of considerable
importance, because they are the ones responsible that the entire process works
efficiently.
The making of this activity made us realize the importance of taking care of the energy
and all the other viable solutions that we could have in situations of energy wastes, like a
non-isolated exchanger or a leakage of the organic gases.
All the processes we have elaborated for the optimization of a heat exchanger are of
immense importance in our future, the reason is that we will use all of our previous
knowledge and the basic stuff in the industry and also in our following classes these next
years to come.
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Appendixes
Appendix 1

Appendix 2
Appendix 3

Appendix 4