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Ethics - Greek word “ETHOS” means Weakens being decent of the Filipinos

“characteristics way of acting” morality:

Latin word “MOS, MOROS” means 1. Corruption in government

“moral, morality comes” 2. Commercialism
3. Over population
3 Philosophers study Ethics 4. Unequal distribution of wealth
1. Socrates - father of Moral Philosophy 5. Lack of economic opportunities
2. Aristotle - 3 treatises
3. Plato - 3 treatises Ethics - science and relies on reasons for
its conclusions.

3 Treatises Religion - system of beliefs and practices

based on faith and revelation, or truths
1. Nicomachean Ethics
revealed to man by God.
2. Eudemian Ethics
Ethical approaches (2)
3. Magna Moralia (Great Ethics)
1. Atheistic approach - a Godless theory.
- assumes that only matter
Act of Man - instinctive, in born in man. exists and man is responsible only to
the States since thee is no God who
Example: breathing, feelings
rules the universe.
2. Theistic approach - assumes that God
Human Act - action is done intentionally is the Supreme Lawgiver.
and freely.
Tenets of atheistic approach:
Example: walking, running, travelling
1. Matter is the only reality
2. Man is matter and does not have
“The art of correct living” spiritual soul.
- Ethics is an art. 3. Man is free and must exercise his
freedom to promote the welfare of
As a person - the only necessary
knowledge. 4. There is no life after death.
5. Man is accountable only to the State.
Man is an organism composed of a
material body and a spiritual soul.
Tenets of theistic approach:
1. God is the Supreme Creator and
Lawgiver. Hylomorphic - the substantial union of
body and soul.
2. Man is free and must use his freedom
to promote his personal interest along
with that of others.
Human nature - made up of man’s
3. Man has an immorral soul. biological, psychological, and rational
4. Man is accountable for his actions,
noth good and evil.
Biological powers - are nutrition,
locomotion, growth, and reproduction.
General Ethics - principles of morality.

Psychological powers - include those of

Special Ethics - includes the
the senses, such as smelling, tasting,
sub-branches of professional ethics.
seeing, hearing, perceiving, imagining
and remembering.
Ethics is the study of man as a moral
Rational powers - those of the intellect
and the will - comprehension and
Filipino Beliefs volition, respectively.

Filipinos believe that …

1. Man is a creature of God. Natural Law - all human powers or
facilities are operational tendencies
2. Man has an immortal soul. towards what is good to man as a
3. Man has an assigned destiny in life. rational animal.

4. Man must do good or else be punishes

by God. 3 Characteristics reveal man’s moral
5. Man by nature is good but is morally nature:
weak. 1. Man by natural insight is able to
distinguish between good and evil, right
and wrong, moral and immoral.
2. Man feels himself bliged to do what is Character - is often taken as synonyms
good and to avoid what is evil. with personality
3. Man feels himself accountable fo his - refers the person’s choice of
actions so that his good deeds merit values and his intelligent exercise of his
reward, while his evil deeds deserve freedom.
- is the will of the person
directing him towards a recognized
Man is born as individual, or person.
Person is human nature actualized and
manifested in the history of place and The demand of natural law according to
time. Paul Tillich: “To be a person in the
community of ther persons”

Person - Greek word “PROSOPHON”

means “mask worn by stage actors”
Latin word “PERSONARE” means
“alludes to the mask”

Person is defined as “an individual,

existing separately and independently
form others, capable of knowing and
loving in an intellectual way, and of
deciding for himself the purpose or end
of his actions”

Personality - the sum of those physical

attributes and tendencies which define a
person’s distinctive behavior.
- the sum of a person’s
physical caonstitution, talents, abilities,
and habits which define characteristic