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Table of contents

S.NO C O N TE N T S PAGE NO

a Aim and Objective of the subject i

b Detailed Lesson Plan iii

Unit I – Retaining Wall 1

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c
Part-A

d
w.E Part-B 3

e
Part-A asy
Unit II –Water Tank 50

f Part-B En 52

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Unit III – Selected Topic 85
g

h
Part-A

Part-B
ee rin 87

Unit IV Yield Line Theory


g.n 111
i
Part-A et
j Part-B 113

Unit V – Brick Masonry 124


k
Part-A

l Part-B 126

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AIM AND OBJECTIVE

ξ To give an exposure to the design of continuous beams, slabs, staircases, walls and
brick masonry structures and to introduce yield line theory.
ξ The student shall have a comprehensive design knowledge related to various structural
systems
ξ Understanding and be familiar with the design knowledge related to structures,
systems that are likely to be encountered in professional practice

Course Objectives:

ξ This course covers the design of Reinforced Concrete Structures such as Retaining
W all, W ater Tanks, Staircases, Flat slabs and Principles of design pertaining to Box

ww culverts, Mat foundation and Bridges.


ξ At the end of the course student has a comprehensive design knowledge related to
structures, systems that are likely to be encountered in professional practice.

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ξ To give an exposure to the design of continuous beams, slabs, staircases, walls and
brick Masonry structures and to introduce yield line theory.

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ξ To provide the student with the ability to Design involved in buildings, water supply and
Retaining W all, and also to equip the student with the ability to draw the Curtailment
Details.
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ξ To get a pass percentage of 100% in the Anna university exam

Course Outcomes: gin


outcomes,
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ξ Students successfully completing this module will come out with the following

ξ Acquire knowledge about Types of Retaining W all rin


ξ Gain knowledge about Prepare Steel Quantity
ξ Understand the concepts of Design Procedure
g.n
ξ Student should also be able to Draw Reinforcement details
et
ξ The student shall have a comprehensive design knowledge related to various structural
Systems.

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CE6601 DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE & BRICK LT P C

MASONRY STRUCTURES 3003

OBJECTIVES:

�To give an exposure to the design of continuous beams, slabs, staircases, walls and brick
masonry structures and to introduce yield line theory.

UNIT I - RETAINING WALLS 9

Design of Cantilever and Counter fort Retaining walls

UNIT II - WATER TANKS 9

Design of rectangular and circular water tanks both below and above ground level - Design of

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circular slab.

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UNIT III- SELECTED TOPICS 9
Design of staircases (ordinary and doglegged) – Design of flat slabs – Principles of design of mat
foundation, box culvert and road bridges
UNIT IV - YIELD LINE THEORYasy 9

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Assumptions - Characteristics of yield line - Determination of collapse load / plastic moment -
Application of virtual work method - square, rectangular, circular and triangular slabs – Design
problems
UNIT -V -BRICK MASONRY gin 9

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Introduction, Classification of walls, Lateral supports and stability, effective height of wall and

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columns, effective length of walls, design loads, load dispersion, permissible stresses, design of
axially and eccentrically loaded brick walls
TOTAL: 45 PERIODS g.n
OUTCOMES:
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� The student shall have a comprehensive design knowledge related to various structural systems.

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TEXT BOOKS:

1. Gambhir.M.L., "Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures", Prentice Hall of India Private

Limited, 2012.

2. Dayaratnam, P., “Brick and Reinforced Brick Structures”, Oxford & IBH Publishing House,

199 7

3. Punmia B.C, Ashok Kumar Jain, Arun K.Jain, "R.C.C. Designs Reinforced Concrete

Structures", Laxmi Publications Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2006.

4. Varghese.P.C., "Advanced Reinforced Concrete Design", Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.,

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New Delhi, 2012.

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REFERENCES:

1. Mallick, D.K. and Gupta A.P., “Reinforced Concrete”, Oxford and IBH Publishing

Company,1997
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2. Syal, I.C. and Goel, A.K., “Reinforced Concrete Structures”, A.H. W heelers & Co. Pvt. Ltd.,

1 99 858 En
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3. Ram Chandra.N. and Virendra Gehlot, “Limit State Design”, Standard Book House, 2004.

Delhi, 2013. ee
4. Subramanian. N., "Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures", Oxford University, New

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5. IS456:2000, Code of practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete, Bureau of Indian

Standards, New Delhi, 2007 g.n


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6. IS1905:1987, Code of Practice for Structural use of Unreinforced Masonry Bureau of

Indian Standards, New Delhi, 2002

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Unit B ook
Topic Hours Cumulative
No. No.
planned hours
1 Introduction T1.T3 1 1

2 Type of Retaining W all T1.T3 2 3


T1.T3 4
3 Design of Cantilever Retaining walls 1
4 Design of Cantilever Retaining walls T1.T3 1 5
Design of Counterfort Retaining walls T1.T3 6
5 1

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Design of Counterfort Retaining walls T1.T3
1
7

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Design of Counterfort Retaining walls T1.T3

T1.T3
2
9

11
8
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Design of rectangular Below GL

T1.T3
2

13
9
GL En
Design of circular water tanks Below
2

10 gin
Design of rectangular Above GL 1
14

11 ee
Design of rectangular Above GL
Design of circular water tanks Above T1.T3 rin 1
15

16
12
GL
T1.T3 g.n1
17
13

14
Design of circular slab.

Design of circular slab.


T1.T3 et
1

1
18

T1.T3 20
15 Design of staircases ordinary 2
T1.T3 21
16 Design of staircases doglegged 1

17 Design of flat slabs T1.T3 2 23


T1.T3 25
18 Principles of design of mat foundation 2
T1.T3 26
19 Principles of design of box culvert 1

20 Principles of design of road bridges T1.T3 1 27

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T1.T3 28
21 Assumptions - 1

22 Characteristics of yield line T1.T3 1 29


T1.T3 30
23 Determination of collapse load 1

24 plastic moment T1.T3 1 31


T1.T3 33
25 Application of virtual work method - 2
T1.T3 35
26 square, rectangular, 2
circular and triangular slabs – Design T1.T3
27 2 37
problems

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28 Introduction, Classification of walls,
T1.T3
1
38

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29
Lateral supports and stability, effective
height of wall
T1.T3 2 40

30
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columns, effective length of walls,
T1.T3

T1.T3
1

1
41

42
31
32 En
design loads, load dispersion,
permissible stresses, T1.T3 1 43

33 gin
design of axially and eccentrically
T1.T3 1 44

34
loaded brick walls
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design of axially and eccentrically
loaded brick walls
T1.T3
rin 1 45

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UNIT -1 RETAINING WALL


Part-A
1. What are the types of retaining w alls? AUC Nov/Dec-2011)

Gravity retaining wall


Cantilever retaining wall
Counterfort retaining wall
Buttress retaining wall
Basement or foundation
wall

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13)(May/Jun-2012)
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2. Name the tw o important stability aspects? (AUC Nov/Dec-2011, 12,

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Stability against
overturning
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Stability against sliding

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Stability of foundation base

3. What is gravity retaining w all?


2012) rin
(AUC Nov/Dec-

g.n
A gravity wall made of plain concrete or brick masonry. The stability of the
wall is maintained by its weight. It is generally made up to a height of 3m of wall.

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4. How the vertical stem of a counterfort retaining w all is designed? (AUC
May/Jun-2012)

The stem is designed as a continuous slab with span equal to the spacing of
counterforts. The spacing of counterforts may vary from 2.5m to 4m.maximum load
on stem is at its lowest portion due to maximum horizontal earth pressure.

Consider one meter height of vertical slab and design for maximum moments.
The maximum negative moment at the end support may be taken as wl2/10 and that
at intermediate supports as wl2/12, where l is the span and w is the earth pressure
intensity at the lowest portion of vertical slab.

The reinforcement curtailed towards the top. The section is checked for shear
and end anchorage.

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5.What is the structural action betw een cantilever and counterfort type
retaining w all? (AUC May/Jun-2013)

In cantilever retaining wall the pressure and other forces are withstand by the
stem of the retaining wall and base slab.
In counterfort retaining wall is provided the height of retaining wall is more
than 6m.the walls also provided perpendicular to stem wall. The counterfort act as
support to stem and heel slab.

6. What is the function of weep hole in retaining w all construction?


(AUC May/Jun-2013)

The weep hole is provided in the retaining wall for the purpose of water distribution
through the hole from the back fill materials.

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The weep hole is act as drainage in the hilly side retaining walls due to the rain
water.

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7. A cantilever retaining wall supports an inclined backfill. Sketch the
distribution of active earth pressure on the stem. (AUC
Nov/Dec-2011)
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8.Define Retaining Wall. ee rin
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A retaining wall is a wall, often made of concrete, built for the purpose of
retaining, or holding back, a soil mass (or other material).

9. Define Active and Passive Earth Pressure. (May 2011)


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Active Earth Pressure: It is the pressure that at all times are tending to move or
overturn the retaining wall”

Passive Earth Pressure: “It is reactionary pressures that will react in the form of
a resistance to movement of the wall.

10.Explain shear key and its condition.


It is advantageous to provide a shear key just below the stem so that the
reinforcement can be extended in to shear key. Condition: Factor of safety
against sliding by the frictional force will not be sufficient

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UNIT -II WATER TANKS

1. What are the types of reinforced concrete water tanks?


(AUC May/Jun-2012)(AUC Nov/Dec-2011)

Tanks resting on ground

underground tanks

Elevated water tanks.

2. What are the forces acting on the dome? (AUC May/Jun-


2013)

ww Self-weight of the dome.

Live load

w.E Floor finishing load

underground?
asy
3. What are the conditions to be considered for the cylindrical tank situated
(AUC May/Jun-2013)

En
When a water tank is built underground, the wall should be investigated for
both internal water pressure and external earth pressure. The external pressure may

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be due to dry earth or due to a combination of earth and ground water.

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The design principles for such tanks are same as that for tanks resting on
ground. In such case of tank built below ground with earth covering the roof will be a
trapezoidal lateral pressure on the wall.
rin
g.n
4. Sketch the variation of hoop stress betw een the crow n and base of a
hemispherical top cover dome carrying uniformly distributed load per unit
surface area.(AUC Nov/Dec-2013)

et

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5. Mention various critical load combinations that are to be considered in the


analysis of w alls of an underground rectangular w ater tank, when there is a
possibility of ground water table to rise above the base slab.
(AUC Nov/Dec-2013)

When there is a possibility of ground water table to rise above the base slab,
not only walls are to be designed for saturated soil up to the extent of water above
the base slab, but also the base slab is to be designed for the net uplift pressure of
water. in addition check has to be applied for stability of the as a whole against uplift.

6. For what conditions the underground water tanks are designed and
checked?

(AUC May/Jun-2012) (AUC Nov/Dec-2011)

ww
 The wall to be designed for both internal water pressure and external earth
pressure.

 w.E
The external pressure may be due to dry earth or due to a combination of earth
and ground water.


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The design principles for such tanks are same as that for tanks resting on
ground. In such case of tank built below ground with earth covering the roof will

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be a trapezoidal lateral pressure on the wall.

gin
7. Name the types of movement joints. (AUC Nov/Dec-2012)

Construction joints

Expansion joints ee rin


Sliding joints

8. What theory is used to design?


g.n
(AUC Nov/Dec-2012)
A. the members under direct tension
The members are designed by Dr.Reissners Method and Carpenter's
Method.
et
B. the members under bending tension
The members are designed by I.S Code method.

9. Define Meridional thrust (T).


For purpose of analysis let us consider the domes as formed by a series of
horizontal rings of decreasing diameters place one above others. Hence we
apply load on dome it get resisted by their horizontal rings. There will thus be a
thrust of one ring on the other. This thrust is called Meridional thrust
10. Define Hoop stress (f)
Let “T” be the thrust per unit run on the ring. The horizontal component of this
thrust will produce a hoop tension.

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11.What are the conditions has to be considered w hile designing the


underground w ater tank?

 Tank is full and the surrounding soil is dry


 Tank is empty and the surrounding soil is water logged
 Tank is full and surrounding soil is water logged
 Tank is dry surrounding soil is dry
12.What are the critical cases has to be considered while designing the
underground w ater tank?
 When the tank is full
 When the tank is empty
13. What are the classifications based on under three heads?

 (I) Tanks Resisting On Ground

ww  (Ii) Elevated Tanks Supported On Staging


 (Iii) Underground W ater Tanks
14. What are the classifications based on shape point of view ?

w.E 

Circular tank
Rectangular tank


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Spherical tank
Circular tank with conical bottom

En PART-B

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UNIT -3 SELECTED TOPICS


1. What are the types of staircases? (AUC May/Jun-2012) (AU Nov/Dec-2012)

Quarter turn stair


Half turn stair
Dog legged stair
Open newer stair with quarter space landing
Geometrical stairs such as circular stair, spiral stair, etc.

2. Define flat slab. (AUC May/Jun-2013)

A flat slab is a typical type of construction in which a reinforced slab is built


monolithically with the supporting columns and is reinforced in two or more directions,

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without any provision of beams.

3. What is the thickness of flat slab with drops and without drops?

w.E The thickness of the drop shall be 1.25 to 1.5 times the thickness of
the slab. The thickness of the flat slab without drop is less than
125mm.
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4. Distinguish between one way shear and punching shear in flat slabs.

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The one way shear is located near the column head due to the shear force on
the joint. Punching shear is located the panels for the shear is created by the
loads.
ee rin
5. What are the load cases for which a box culvert should be designed to remain
safe?

g.n
(AUC Nov/Dec-2013)
The box culvert is subjected to soil load from outside and water load from inside.

sidewalls will be subjected to earth pressure from outside. et


No water flowing in the drain. The box culvert will be dry from inside, and the

Water in box, which will be subjected to earth pressure from outside and water
pressure from inside.

6. What are the limitations of direct design method of flat slabs?


(AU May/Jun-12) (AU Nov/Dec-11)

There must be at least three continuous spans in each direction.


The panels should be rectangular and the ratio of longer span to shorter span
within a panel shall not be greater than 2.0.
The successive span length in each direction shall not differ by more than one
third of the longer span. The end spans may be shorter but not longer than the
interior spans. The design live load should not exceed three times the design
dead load.

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7. Write the different types of flat slabs? (AUC May/Jun-2013)

Slabs without drops


Slab with drops and column with column head

8. What do you mean by column strip and middle strip in flat slab?

Column strip is a design strip having a width of 0.25L2 but not greater than 0.25 L1 on
each side of the column center line where L1 is the span in the direction, moments
are being determined, measured center to center of supports and L2 is the span
traverse to L1 measured center to center of the support. Middle strip is a design strip
bounded on each of its opposite sides by the column strip.

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9. Define Concrete Wall.

w.EW hen the steel percentage is low (0.4%), the wall is assumed to carry the
whole load with out the help of steel reinforcement and it’s called as plain concrete
wall

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10.What is short& long column?

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Effective height/ Effective thickness do not exceed 12.If it exceed more than 12 (or)

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equal, its consider as long (or) slender column

11. What are cases available in R.C wall?

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Case (I) Design of short braced R.C
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wall

Case (II) Design of slender braced


g.n
R.C wall et
Case (III) Design of short Un braced

R.C wall

12. Define Box Culvert.

These are provided for conveying water to serve the following requirements
To serve as means for a cross drainage

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U NIT –IV YIELD LINE THEORY


PART-A

1. List the assumptions made in yield line analysis of slabs.


(May/Jun-2013) (Nov/Dec-2011) (May/Jun-2012)
 The reinforcing bars are fully yielded across the yield lines at failure.

 The yield lines divide the slab into various segments who in turn behave
classically.

 The entire deformation take place only in the yield lines and the individual
segments of the slab are plane segments in the collapse condition.

ww The bending and twisting moments have the maximum values and are uniformly
distributed along the yield lines.

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 The yield lines are straight at in intersection of individual inclined segments.

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2. Define yield line theory. (May/Jun-2013)

The yield line theory is largely based upon the yield lines that develop in any

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reinforced concrete slab (rectangular, circular, square or any other geometrical shape in
plan) before its final collapse. This stage reaches under loads approaching collapse load

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or ultimate load that the slab can carry.
The collapse loads, movements and shears can be calculated from the crack pattern

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developed in slab, under idealized support conditions and only uniformly distributed loads.

3. What are the characteristic features of yield lines?


2012) rin
(Nov/Dec-2011)(May/Jun-

 Yield lines end at the supporting edges of the slab


 Yield lines are straight g.n
axes of rotation of adjacent slab et
 A yield line or yield line produced passes through the intersection of the

 Axes of rotation generally lie along lines of supports and pass over any
columns.

4. What is meant by yield lines?

The failure of reinforced concrete slabs of different shapes such as square,


rectangular, circular with different types of edge conditions is preceded by a characteristic
pattern of cracks, which are generally referred to as yield lines.

5. State the principle of virtual work. (Nov/Dec-2013)

If a deformable structure in equilibrium under the action of a system of external


forces is subjected to a virtual deformation compatible with its condition of support, the

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work done by these forces on the displacements associated with the virtual deformation is
equal to the work done by the internal stresses on the strains associated with this
deformation.

6. What is meant by an orthotropically reinforced


slab? (Nov/Dec-2012)
If the reinforcement in the two directions is not the same, it is said to be
orthotropically
reinforced slab.

7. What is meant by an isotropically reinforced


slab? (Nov/Dec-2012)
The ultimate moment of resistance in an isotropically reinforced slab, in any

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the same.

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8. Draw the typical yield line pattern for different
slabs.
(Nov/Dec-2012) (Nov/Dec-
2013)

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9. What are the two methods of determining the ultimate load capacity of
reinforced concrete slabs?

Virtual work
method Equilibrium
method

10. What is the concept of yield line method?

In the yield line method, the computation of ultimate load is based on the pattern of
yield lines that are developed in the slabs under conditions approaching collapse.

11. What is a yield line?

ww A yield line is defined as a line in the plane of the slab across which reinforcing
bars have yielded and about which excessive deformation under constant limit moment

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continues to yield leading to failure.

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12.State the location of maximum shear force in a simple beam with any kind of
loading.

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In a simple beam with any kind of load, the maximum positive shear force occurs
at the left hand support and maximum negative shear force occurs at right hand
support.
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13. What is meant by maximum shear force diagram?

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Due to a given system of rolling loads the maximum shear force for every section of
the girder can be worked out by placing the loads in appropriate positions. When these

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are plotted for all the sections of the girder, the diagram that we obtain is the maximum
shear force diagram. This diagram yields the ‘design shear’ for each

14. What do you understand by the term reversal of stresses?

In certain long trusses the web members can develop either tension or
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compression depending upon the position of live loads. This tendency to change the
nature of stresses is called reversal of stresses.

15. Define: Trussed Beam.

A beam strengthened by providing ties and struts is known as Trussed Beams.

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U NIT –V BRICK MASONRY


PART-A
1. What is effective length of brick wall when the wall is continuous?
(AU May/Jun 2013)

The effective length of the wall is continuous=0.8L

2. What is the allowable compressive stress in brick masonry?


(AUC May/Jun 2013)

Permissible compressive stress in masonry shall be based on the value of basic

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compressive stress as given in table 8 and multiplying this value by factor known as
o Stress reduction factor
o Area reduction factor

w.E o Shape modification factor

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3. How the brick masonry walls are classified?


 En
Load bearing wall
Non load bearing wall

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4. What is mean by slenderness ratio of a masonry wall? (AUC Nov/Dec 2012)

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The slenderness ratio of a masonry wall is defined as the effective height
divided by the effective thickness or its effective length divided by the effective
thickness, whichever is less.
g.n
6. Name the various types of masonry walls used in building construction.
(AUC Nov/Dec 2012) (AUC May/Jun 2012) et
o Partition walls
o Party walls
 Separating walls

7. Obtain the stress reduction factor for an eccentrically loaded masonry member
with slenderness ratio of 12 and eccentricity to thickness ratio of 1/12.
(AUC Nov/Dec 2013) .

From table 9 (IS: 1905-1987) stress reduction factor for slenderness ratio and
eccentricity. The stress reduction factor for slenderness ratio is 12 and

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eccentricity is 1/12 is 0.81.

8. Why is it intended to limit the slenderness of the load bearing masonry wall?
(AUC Nov/Dec 2013)
Load bearing masonry walls the slenderness ratio is the important design
criteria, so to limit we limit the slenderness of the load bearing wall.

9. What is cross sectional area of Masonry unit?

Net cross sectional area of a masonry unit shall be taken as the gross cross
sectional area minus the area of cellular space. Gross cross sectional area of

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cored units shall be determined to the outside of the coring but cross sectional area
of groves shall not be deducted from the gross cross sectional area to obtain the net

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cross sectional area.

10. What is bond in brick masonry?

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Arrangements of masonry units in successive courses to tie the masonry together
both longitudinally and transversely the arrangement is usually worked out to ensure

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that no vertical joint of one course is exactly over the one in the next course above or

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below it, and there is maximum possible amount of lap.

11. How will you calculating effective length, effective height and effective
thickness?
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g.n
The height of a wall in column to be consider as slenderness ratio. The thickness
of a wall or column to be consider for calculating slenderness ratio. The length of a
wall in column to be considered as slenderness ratio

12. What meant by lateral support?


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A support which enables a masonry element to resist the lateral and
restrains or lateral deflection of a masonry element at the point of support.

13. What is the slenderness ratio for walls?

For a wall, Slenderness ration shall be effective height divided by effective


thickness or effective length divided by the effective thickness is less.

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Question Paper Code: 91253

B.E.lB.Tech..DEGREE EXAMINATION, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2014.

Seventh Semester

Civil Engineering

CE 2401lCE 711CE 1351110111CE 701 - DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE


AND BRICK MASONRY STRUCTURES

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(Common to PTCE 2401110111CE 701- Design of Reinforced Concrete and Brick

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Masonry Structures for B.E. (Part-Time) Fifth Semester Civil Engineering-
Regulation 2009/2010)
~

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Time: Three hours Maximum: 100 marks

(IS 456-2000, IS 1905 - 1987 and SP 16 Design Charts tables are permitted)

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Use of relevant BIS standards and hand book is permitted.

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(Assume any other data if necessary and indicate them clearly)

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Answer ALL questions.
PART A- (10 x 2 = 20 marks)

l./nifferentiate Active and Passive earth pressure.


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2. ~at

3.
is the function of Counterforts in a retaining wall?
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What are the essential requirements for an impervious water tank?

4. Give the advantages and disadvantages of approximate method of analysis in


water tank design.
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5V How will you calculate the load effects on a stairs waist slab spanning in the
longitudinal direction? ' ' ,

6V What are the limitations in direct design method for flat slab?

7.VState the assumptions of yield line theory.

8-. State upper and lower bound theorems.

9. What are reinforced masonry walls?

~at are the fac~ors affecting the design of masonry wall buildings?

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PART B - (5 x 16 = 80 marks) .

.11. (a) Design a Cantilever retaining wall to retain earth embankment with a
horizontal top 4 m above ground level. Density of earth =18 kN/m3.Angle
of internal friction rjJ =30°. SBC of soil is 200 k Nzm". Take coefficient of
friction between soil and concrete as 0.55. Adopt Msograde concrete and
Fe415HYSD bars.

Or
(b) Jl6'sign the stem of a counterfort retaining wall if the height of wall above
~round level= 6 m. SBC of soil is 170 kN/m3. Angle of internal friction
rjJ = 32° Density of soil=18 k Nzm". Spacing of counterfort 3 m c/c. Take
coefficient of friction between soil and concrete as 0.5. Adopt M20grade
concrete and Fe500HYSD bars.

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12. (a) }?esign the Top dome, Ring beam and Cylindrical tank wall of
~.C circular tank resting on ground with flexible base and spherical
dome for a capacity of 5 Lakhs litres. The depth of storage is. to be

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4 m allow free board of 200 mm use M20concrete and Fe415steel.

Or

(b)
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A rectangular RCC water tank with an open top is required to store
1 Lakhs litters of water. The inside dimensions of the tank may be taken

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as6 m x 4 m:"The tank rests on wall ~n all the four sides. Design the side

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walls of the tank using M20grade concrete and Fe500HYSD bars.

13. (~.)
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esign a dog legged stair for a building in which the vertical distance
between the floors is 3.5 m. The stair hall measures 3.5 m x 5.5. The live
load may be taken as 3 kN/m2• Use M20 grade concrete and
.

Fe415steel.
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(b)
Or
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Design a reinforced concrete slab culvert for class AA loading for the
following data. Clear span = 6 m. Clear width of road ways = 6.8 m.
Thickness of wearing coat = 80mm. Width of kerbs = 600 mm. Grade of
concrete M20.Grade of steel Fe50o.
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14. (a) Explain the guidelines to draw the possible yield patterns and locate the
axes of rotations.

Or

esign a rectangular slab of size 4 m x 6m which is simply supported


along the edges and has to carry a service live load of 4 kN/m2. Assume
coefficient of orthotropy = 0.75. Use M25Grade concrete and Fe415HYSD
bars. The design may be restricted to bending only.

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15. (a) What are the factors to be considered while designing the brick masonry
with respect to stability and lateral supports on the structure?
Explain in detail.

Or

(b) Design a brick column of height 3.5 m to carry an axial load of 120 kN
. ridth of brick colunm is limited to 460 mm "f(jr architectural reason.
V·~doPt cement lime mortar of proportion 1:1:6 and first class brick with
10 Nzmm" strength the column may be taken as tensed restrain.

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