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EFFECTS OF MUSIC ON BRAIN ACTIVITY AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

OF GRADE 9-12 STUDENTS IN PHILLIPINE SCHOOL BAHRAIN

A Research Project

Presented to the Faculty of the High School

Philippine School (Bahrain)

Kingdom of Bahrain

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

in Practical Research I

by

JOHN B. MANCIA

11 – MAPAGHINUHA

MAY 2018

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The amount of effort, dedication, and focus put into this research made up for all the
time I have spent on this research. This research would not be made possible if it were not for
the people who shared, helped, and advised throughout the research.

I would like to give our utmost thanks and gratitude to everyone who served as a
guiding hand, and supported us throughout the research. Especially to our Practical Research
teacher who shared their never ending patience and knowledge which made this research
possible.

To the most important people in our lives – my family, thank you for your selfless
sacrifices by supporting and loving me unconditionally. Your presence and hard work as well
as your love, pushes me further to keep going.

To Arkiel from 11 Mapaghinuha, thank you for letting us use your Wi-Fi during
Independent Study. To James who assisted me greatly in doing my research and also to
Amiel, JB and Kaeyan.

Finally, to our Almighty Father and His never ending guidance and protection all
throughout the research which made us push through despite the countless problems we have
encountered.

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DEDICATION

This research is dedicated to anyone who is willing to encourage not just the new
generation, but to everyone as well to start involving yourself with music. Whether it is
learning to play an instrument or listening to music to increase productivity, it will surely
enhance your performance and brain activity.

To the people researching to uncover the wonders of music, take this research as
valuable insights and data for your learning experiences. This research is to further
understand the benefits of music and its effects on the brain activity.

I also dedicate this research to teachers who never lose satisfaction in sharing
knowledge to students who may or may not want to learn more.

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CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

The chapter will delve into the background of the study with respect to its purpose on
the research. It will have the sufficient information in correspondence to the needed elements
of the paper; this includes the problems, scope and limitations, significance, and the
hypothesis of the study. It will also contain the terms needed to be defined according to its
representation on the paper. This chapter will give the researcher and readers a
comprehensive grasp on the research paper as it serves as an effective reference.

INTRODUCTION
We all have experienced listening to music. Defined by google, the definition of
music is, vocal or instrumental sounds (or both) combined in such a way as to produce beauty
of form, harmony, and expression of emotion. My research will be about the effects of music
on the brain activity and the performance of students, particularly high school students.

Music is a form of art; an expression of emotions through harmonic frequencies.


Music is also a form of entertainment that puts sounds together in a way that people like, find
interesting or dance to. Most music includes people singing with their voices or playing
musical instruments, such as the piano, guitar, drums or violin.

BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The reason in conducting research is because music has been a big guidance and
motivator in my life especially in my academic ventures. I decided on researching on how
learning how to play musical instruments and listening to music while studying affects
performances in exams.

Many people listen to music while they are carrying out a task, whether they are
studying for an exam, driving a vehicle or even reading a book. Many of these people argue
that background music helps them focus.

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If you are looking to improve your learning experience, try listening to music.
Numerous studies have been conducted to prove that listening to music can help improve
certain mental faculties, including your mental math abilities.

Science has shown that musical training can change brain structure and function for
the better. It can also improve long-term memory and lead to better brain development for
those who start at a young age.

Music has long been known to have profound effects on the brain. Listening to the
right tunes can provide mood-altering effects, and can even create a better quality of life for
those who use music to destress.

However, a growing pool of research shows music's effects on the brain go even
deeper than mood, as it has been proven to increase cognitive abilities. For those who learn to
play an instrument, music's benefits on the most important organ in the human body goes a
step further by improving memory.

A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as


belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical
form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably.

It seems clear that the type of noise, or music, is important. This may seem obvious:
someone listening to classical music while they work would not seem at all unusual, but if
they were listening to thrash metal it would be thought very strange indeed.

While the nature and style of the music can cause specific responses in the brain
(funky music compels you to dance, sad music makes you melancholy, motivational music
makes you want to keep fit), some studies suggest that it really is down to personal
preference. Music you like increases focus, while music you do not impedes it.

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RESEARCH PARADIGM
Figure 1.1

Input Process Output

 Conduct the research  Questionnaires  Confirm hypotheses


from the given  Interpretation of data  Conclude on
research problem  Analysis of data academic
 Create a hypothesis performance

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Listening to music for relaxation is common among students to counter the effects of
stress or anxiety while completing difficult academic tasks. Some studies supporting this
technique have shown that background music promotes cognitive performance while other
studies have shown that listening to music while engaged in complex cognitive tasks
can impair performance. This study focuses on the impact different genres of music, played at
different volume levels, have on the cognitive abilities of college students completing
academic tasks. A recent study conducted at Baycrest Health Sciences has uncovered a
crucial piece into why playing a musical instrument can help older adults retain their listening
skills and ward off age-related cognitive declines. This finding could lead to the development
of brain rehabilitation interventions through musical training.

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Many students listen to music to alleviate the emotional effects of stress and anxiety
when engaged in complex cognitive processing, such as studying for a test, completing
homework assignments, or while reading and writing. This practice is so common that it
would be beneficial for college students to understand the role that music plays on cognitive
performance. Research demonstrating the effects of music on performance is well
documented, but has shown ambiguous evidence on this matter.

A recent study conducted at Baycrest Health Sciences has uncovered a crucial piece
into why playing a musical instrument can help older adults retain their listening skills and
ward off age-related cognitive declines. This finding could lead to the development of brain
rehabilitation interventions through musical training.

The study, published in the Journal of Neuroscience on May 24, found that learning
to play a sound on a musical instrument alters the brain waves in a way that improves a
person's listening and hearing skills over a short time frame. This change in brain activity
demonstrates the brain's ability to rewire itself and compensate for injuries or diseases that
may hamper a person's capacity to perform tasks

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
The variables present in this research are the grades of the students, the instruments
they play and the genre of music they listen to while studying. The variables that are
interrelated are the genre of music to grades, knowing how to play an instrument to grades,
the type of instrument to grades and having music background (learned music theory, playing
instruments) to grades.

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Figure 1.2

Genre of
music
(when
Music
studying)
Background

Style of
Studying

Average Grade

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Research Problem
My childhood was heavily influenced by music. I used it when doing requirements or
studying to enhance my experience. So when coming up with a research problem I decided to
tackle on the idea that academic performance is being affected with your background in
music(whether being able to play a musical instrument, learned music theory, listens to music
while studying).

Research Questions
This research aims to answer the following:
1. What genres of music are better in enhancing performance?
2. How does learning music improve your academic performance?
3. How does learning instrument enhance your brain?

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SCOPE AND DELIMITATION

The research will be conducted at home and at school. The subjects will be students
from PSB at grades 9-12.

SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

To help students gain more knowledge and awareness about the effects of music on
the person’s ability to learn and his/her performance in studies. Those who are not using
music while studying may start use it to enhance their learning experience. It may also benefit
others who are doing a task as music may increase the brain activity and make them more
active. It is also to spread the awareness on the benefits of listening to music and playing an
instrument. I am hoping that everyone also knows that listening to music is fun and relaxing.

HYPOTHESIS
Research Hypothesis:
1.1 H0- Having background in music makes you perform better academically
HA- Having background in music doesn’t make you perform better academically
1.2 H0- Listening to music while studying enhances your learning.
HA- Listening to music while studying doesn’t enhance your learning.
1.3 H0-Students who learnt music theory while learning an instrument perform better
academically then of those who know how to play an instrument.

HA- Students who learnt music theory while learning an instrument don’t perform
better academically then of those who know how to play an instrument.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
Cerebrum- the largest part of the brain and is composed of right and left hemispheres. It
performs higher functions like interpreting touch, vision and hearing, as well as speech,
reasoning, emotions, learning, and fine control of movement.

Cerebellum- is located under the cerebrum. Its function is to coordinate muscle movements,
maintain posture, and balance.

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Cognitive- Concerned with the act or process of knowing, perceiving, etc.: cognitive
development; cognitive functioning.

Corpus callosum- the bridge between the left and right sides of the brain. It is vital for
physical co-ordination and processing complicated thought patterns. . The primary function
of the corpus callosum is to integrate motor, sensory, and cognitive performances between
the cerebral cortex on one side of the brain to the same region on the other side.

Neuroplasticity- The brain's ability to reorganize itself by forming new neural connections
throughout life. Capacity of neurons and neural networks in the brain to change connections
and behavior in response to new information.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

Introduction

This chapter will clarify the concepts about the research paper in depth by citing
different literatures or past studies about the matter. It shall give out comprehensive details
and information that will help the researcher and reader. This provides the association of the
paper with the current conditions of the world.

Related Research
The Chinese philosopher Confucius said long that “Music produces a kind of pleasure
which human nature cannot do without.” Numerous studies have been conducted to prove
that listening to music can help improve certain mental faculties, including your mental math
abilities (“Healthy Body and Mind,”2016).A study done by (Chris Riotta, 2016) points out
that music has long been known to have profound effects on the brain. Listening to the right
tunes can provide mood-altering effects, and can even create a better quality of life for those
who use music to destress.

10
The effects of music are mediated by the characteristics of the individual: their age, ability;
personality; the current emotional arousal and mood state of the individual may also be
influenced by individual characteristics and recent life events. Individual characteristics also
have a direct effect on learning outcomes and a further indirect effect through meta-cognitive
activity. The environment within which the activity is taking place may also be important.
The characteristics of the task will also play a part.

The explosion of research in recent years focusing on the effects of music training on
the nervous system, including the studies in the review, have strong implications for
education, said Nina Kraus, lead author of the Nature perspective, the Hugh Knowles
Professor of Communication Sciences and Neurobiology and director of Northwestern’s
Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory.

Neuroscience research into the neuroscience of music shows that musicians’ brains
may be primed to distinguish meaningful sensory information from noise. This ability seems
to enhance other cognitive abilities such as learning, language, memory, and neuroplasticity
of various brain areas. Scientists use the term neuroplasticity to describe the brain’s ability to
adapt and change as a result of training and experience over the course of a person’s life. The
studies covered in the Northwestern review offer a model of neuroplasticity, Kraus said. The
research strongly suggests that the neural connections made during musical training also
prime the brain for other aspects of human communication. An active engagement with
musical sounds not only enhances neuroplasticity, she said, but also enables the nervous
system to provide the stable scaffolding of meaningful patterns so important to learning.

A study done by (John Rampton, 2017) reveals that brains scans have been able to
identify the difference in brain structure between musicians and non-musicians. Most
notably, the corpus callosum, a massive bundle of nerve fibres connecting the two sides of
the brain, is larger in musicians. Also, the areas involving movement, hearing, and
visuospatial abilities appear to be larger in professional keyboard players

“The brain is unable to process all of the available sensory information from second to
second, and thus must selectively enhance what is relevant,” Kraus said. Playing an
instrument primes the brain to choose what is relevant in a complex process that may involve
reading or remembering a score, timing issues and coordination with other musicians.

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The Nature article reviews literature showing, for example, that musicians are more
successful than non-musician in learning to incorporate sound patterns for a new language
into words. Children who have a background on music show stronger neural activation to
pitch changes in speech and have a better vocabulary and reading ability than children who
did not receive music training (Pat Vaughan Tremmel, 2010).

In an article by (Christopher Sutton, 2017) reveals that that today’s scientific research
on the brain exposes many amazing and surprising benefits to learning music at any age.
Science has shown that musical training can change brain structure and function for the
better. Playing a musical instrument involves multiple components of the central (brain and
spinal cord) and peripheral (nerves outside the brain and spinal cord) nervous (What Happens
When The Brain Plays a Musical Instrument,2017). Some studies conclude that listening to
music before doing an assignment can be beneficial; aside from enhancing one’s mental math
abilities, it also improves attention and memory – two things that are essential when
studying(“Healthy Body and Mind,”2016).

(John Rampton, 2017) states that initially, these studies couldn't determine if these
differences were caused by musical training of if anatomical differences predispose some to
become musicians. Ultimately, longitudinal studies showed that children who do 14 months
of musical training displayed more powerful structural and functional brain changes.

In a study conducted by (Aaron Black, 2017) he discusses that although less studies
were conducted that did not involve memorization or language processing, those studies
provide evidence of music being an effective study aid. Most studies that demonstrated the
benefits of music seemed to consist of tasks involving math, creativity, and focus. However,
few authors mention these unpopular studies. Authors such as Alyssa Cooper “One study
performed by Dr. Lesiuk supported the theory that music does in fact help you focus and get
your tasks done more quickly. The results of the study showed that the people who listened to
music while working completed their tasks more quickly, efficiently, and had more creative
ideas. “Studies have shown that listening to music before studying or performing a task can
be beneficial as it improves attention, and even your ability to do mental math as well as
helping lessen depression and anxiety.” In all of these studies music demonstrates its ability

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to improve the listener’s ability to focus on tasks, lift their emotional state, and positively
influence their creativity. They dispel the misconception that music only distracts students,
because in all actuality music, for the most part, helps students work faster and more
efficiently.

According to an article “What Happens When The Brain Plays a Musical Instrument”
(2016) practicing a musical instrument can lead to numerous structural changes in the brain
after only 15 months of training in early childhood. These changes correlate with
improvements in certain motor and auditory skills. One area where these structural and
functional changes occur is in the hippocampus (shown above), an area of the brain involved
in learning and memory. A process that is critical for learning and memory in the
hippocampus is neurogenesis – the formation of new neurons. Musical practice may therefore
enhance neurogenesis linked to improved learning and memory activity.

Learning an instrument can significantly improve both verbal memory and childhood
literacy. In other words, when children learn instruments, they remember more and read more
effectively. A study in 2011 at the Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory at Northwestern
University concluded that music and reading are related via common neural and cognitive
mechanisms and suggests a mechanism for the improvements in literacy seen with musical
training (Christopher Sutton, 2017).
Adults who learn to play instruments or sing, and stick with it, can see improvements
in their hand-eye co-ordination, memory for sounds, and fine hearing skills, such as the
ability to track different voices in a noisy room. Playing an instrument can also change how
the brain’s body map is organised, as people learn to use different parts of their body in a new
way (Angelica Bell, 2018).

In an article by (Dean Burnett, 2016) he stated that it’s not just a matter of providing
any old background noise to keep distractions at bay. A lot of companies have tried using
pink noise (pdf) – a less invasive version of white noise – broadcasting it around the
workplace to reduce distractions and boost productivity. However, views on the effectiveness
of this approach are mixed at best.
It seems clear that the type of noise, or music, is important. This may seem obvious:
someone listening to classical music while they work would not seem at all unusual, but if
they were listening to thrash metal it would be thought very strange indeed.
13
Some people argue that one of the best music genres for concentration is the video
game soundtrack. This makes sense, when you consider the purpose of the video game music:
to help create an immersive environment and to facilitate but not distract from a task that
requires constant attention and focus.

While the nature and style of the music can cause specific responses in the brain
(funky music compels you to dance, sad music makes you melancholy, motivational music
makes you want to keep fit), some studies suggest that it really is down to personal
preference.

Although listening to music can be quite advantageous, it does not mean that you can
listen to just about any music and you will surely ace your exams, the type of music that you
are listening to will also impact your studies. If you are trying to write an essay or read your
notes, you should not listen to music with lyrics. This type of music will also affect the
language centers in your brain which is vital for reading and writing. In the end, it might
interfere with your studies. Stick with instrumental music instead. Some studies say that
music positively affects people’s mood, motivating them to be more productive, this is does
not apply to everyone. While listening to music can improve one student’s concentration,
another might find it distracting. This means that you should test how music affects your
productivity; if it motivates you to study more then you should continue listening to music.
However, if you notice that it is nothing but a disturbance, then you should stop listening.

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODS

This chapter includes the materials, tools, and methods needed in the research. It also
discusses the needed procedures in gathering the data.

METHODS
In the process of doing the research, the researcher followed the following steps:

Research design/Framework

For the purpose of describing the data gathered in this research more efficiently, the

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researcher made a conceptual research design which focuses on identifying and analyzing the
input, process, and the output of the questionnaires and research.

Data Gathering Instruments

The data gathering instruments that will be used in collecting the data will be a laptop
to be used a database.

Data Gathering Procedures

In doing this study the researcher will follow this steps:

After making the questionnaires which are to identify the correlation of students
having a music background and their grades, I distribute the lot to grades 9-12.

RESEARCH ENVIRONMENT

The research will be conducted in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Specifically the


Philippine School Bahrain for the distribution of the questionnaires. The rest of the research
will be done at home or during school hours in Philippine School Bahrain.

SAMPLING AND SAMPLING PROCEDURES

The researcher used Stratified Sampling. Stratified sampling is a probability sampling


technique wherein the researcher divides the entire population into different subgroups or
strata, then randomly selects the final subjects proportionally from the different strata.

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DATA GATHERING INSTRUMENTS

Section 1. Do you know how to properly play a musical


I instrument?

Yes
No

1a. If yes, what instruments can you play properly?

String (Violin, Cello, Bass, Guitar)


Keyboards (Piano, Organ, Harp) 1b. Have you studied
Music Theory?
Percussion (Drums, Tambourine)
Yes
Woodwind (Flute, Clarinet, Saxophone)
No
Brass (Trumpet, Horn, Trombone)
2. Please write down your general
average for the 3rd quarter ( Put a
range if you forgot, ex: 85-87)

P.T.O

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CHAPTER IV
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter lays the data gathered from the required procedures of the research. The
data collected will answer the statement of the problem and will serve as a guide for the next
chapter of results, recommendations, and conclusion.

Musical Instruments
100

95
Average Grade

90
yes
no
85

80

75
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Figure 4.1

This graph shows the comparison of averages of students who play instruments to
those who do not. Averages of those who play musical instruments are significantly higher.
The lower half percentage seems to perform better for those who play instruments. The same
is shown on the top half percentage of the students. The students who also said no have no
background info on music and do not listen to music while studying exams.

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Listens to music

calm music
91.0
(instruments,classical,lofi,indie)

Average Grade

loud music (edm,pop,hiphop,rock) 90.4

90.0 90.2 90.4 90.6 90.8 91.0 91.2

Figure 4.2

Number of students
Loud music calming music

31%

69%

Figure 4.3

Figure 4.2 compares the averages of students who listening to loud/energetic music to
those who listen to soothing/relaxing music. The difference is not significant to show that
students who listen to soothing music while studying get higher grades. A key thing to note is
that there were greater numbers of people who listen to loud music compared to those who
listen to soothing music. In Figure 4.3 the pie chart compares the percentage of students
listening to loud/energetic music vs soothing/relaxing music.

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Listens To Music While Studying
91.8
91.6
91.4
91.2
91
Average grade
90.8
90.6
90.4
90.2
doesn't listen listens

Figure 4.4
This was pretty shocking to see. People who do not listen to music and have no
background in music still have higher averages compared to those who listen to music. This
concludes that listening to music is just a preference to most students.

Not Listening to Music


98
96
94
Average Grade

92
90
No music background
88
Has music background
86
84
82
80
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Figure 4.5

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This graph compares the averages of the people who are not listening to music while
studying and have no music background to those who have. The bottom half shows the
disparity of averages between of those of who have no music background (music
theory/instruments). I conclude from this that people who have learned music perform better
academically.

96.0 94.5
94.0
92.0
92.0 91.0 90.4 90.9 90.7 91.0
90.3 89.9
90.0 89.0 89.0
88.0
86.0
84.0
82.0
80.0

Average Grade

Figure 4.6

Lo-fi, 2 Indie, 6 opm, 1 ballad,


Classical, 4 1
Jazz, 1 EDM, 11

Instrumental,
19 Pop, 39

Hip
Rock/Metal/ Hop/Rap/R&B,
Punk, 17 20

Figure 4.7

Figure 4.6 compares the averages of students who listen to music of different genres.
One thing to note is that genres on the right most such as jazz, classical, lo-fi, indie, OPM,
and ballad have low amount of respondents. One thing I can conclude from here is that Rock

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has a low average with a high number of respondents. I can conclude that rock being a loud
genre and contains vocals may distract others leading to lower grades.

Listens to Music
92
91.4
91.5
Average Grade

91

90.5
Average Grade
89.9
90

89.5

89
Music with vocals Music with no vocals

Figure 4.7
This figure compares the average grades of students who listen to music with vocals
and those with no vocals. The difference is significant enough to conclude that music with no
vocals is better at enhancing your learning experience because it has no catchy lyrics to get
you off guard which music with vocals has.

CHAPTER V
RESULTS, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION

The chapter aims to present the results, and conclusion from the data gathered and
recommendation to improve the research. From the information collected, it will be assessed
if the hypothesis will be proven and if the statements of the problem were answered
throughout the process of the research.

RESULTS

From the results I can conclude that having a background in music or learning music
does improve your academic performance. This is because of the enhancement of brain

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activity while listening to music or the benefits to the brain while learning an instrument such
as cognitive abilities, memory retention and concentration.
One point that can be debunked is that listening to music will enhance your learning
ability. From my results I can conclude that listening to music is a preference and that some
students perform well without the use of it.
Another thing I discovered is that listening to music that is calming or softer that does
not contain vocals tends to help better in learning. Being prolific in learning instruments also
helps. Lastly learning music theory while learning instruments help you understand how the
notes work and to help understand more easily the instrument making it easier to learn.
Listed in order are the answers to the statements of the problem presented in the first
chapter:

1. What genres of music are better in enhancing performance?


It seems clear that the type of noise, or music, is important. This may seem obvious:
someone listening to classical music while they work would not seem at all unusual, but if
they were listening to metal/heavy rock it would be thought very strange indeed.

Some people argue that one of the best music genres for concentration is one that
helps create an immersive environment and to facilitate but not distract from a task that
requires constant attention and focus.

While the nature and style of the music can cause specific responses in the brain
(funky music compels you to dance, sad music makes you melancholy, motivational music
makes you want to keep fit), some studies suggest that it really is down to personal
preference.

I discovered is that listening to music that is calming and that does not contain vocals
tends to help better in learning.

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2. How does learning music improve your academic performance?
In a study it discusses that although less studies were conducted that did not involve
memorization or language processing, those studies provide evidence of music being an
effective study aid. Most studies that demonstrated the benefits of music seemed to consist of
tasks involving math, creativity, and focus.

Numerous studies have been conducted to prove that listening to music can help
improve certain mental faculties, including your mental math abilities A study done points
out that music has long been known to have profound effects on the brain. Listening to the
right tunes can provide mood-altering effects, and can even create a better quality of life for
those who use music to destress.

Learning an instrument can significantly improve both verbal memory and childhood
literacy. In other words, when children learn instruments, they remember more and read more
effectively. A study in 2011 at the Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory at Northwestern
University concluded that music and reading are related via common neural and cognitive
mechanisms and suggests a mechanism for the improvements in literacy seen with musical
training.

Adults who learn to play instruments or sing, and stick with it, can see improvements in their
hand-eye co-ordination, memory for sounds, and fine hearing skills, such as the ability to
track different voices in a noisy room. Playing an instrument can also change how the brain’s
body map is organised, as people learn to use different parts of their body in a new way.

3. How does learning an instrument enhance your brain?


Playing a musical instrument involves multiple components of the central (brain and
spinal cord) and peripheral (nerves outside the brain and spinal cord) nervous systems.

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As a musician plays an instrument, motor systems in the brain control both gross and
fine movements needed to produce sound. The sound is processed by auditory circuitry,
which in turn can adjust signaling by the motor control centers. In addition, sensory
information from the fingers, hands, and arms is sent to the brain for processing. If the
musician is reading music, visual information is sent to the brain for processing and
interpreting commands for the motor centers. And of course, the brain processes emotional
responses to the music as well!

CONCLUSION
The hypothesis in this research was proven to be true, that having background in
music (learning an instrument/learning music theory) makes you perform better
academically. The second null hypothesis turned out to be false instead the alternate
hypothesis, listening to music while studying does not enhance your learning.

Lastly the null hypothesis that students who learnt music theory while learning an
instrument perform better academically then of those who know how to play an instrument
was proven.

RECOMMENDATION

The researcher has experienced minor setbacks. One is that the researcher could
conduct experiments such as using music while doing exams on students to gather concrete
evidence.
1. To make the data gathering process faster, use online surveys to have organized
graphs and charts.
2. More diverse respondents, for example students of others schools who have difference
cultures and lifestyles which influences the type of music they listen to.
3. To get more concrete evidence use experiments to get data that will be helpful for the
search

DOCUMENTATION

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Aaron Black (2017). How Music Affects Learning. Retrieved from


https://spark.adobe.com/page/EI6b8/

Angelica Bell (2018). How can playing an instrument improve my life? Retrieved from
http://www.bbc.co.uk/guides/z3y3hv4

Chris Riotta (2016). Can Music Help You Learn? The Brain Can Do Some Incredible Things While
Listening to Music. Retrieved from https://mic.com/articles/134356/can-music-help-you-
learn-the-brain-can-do-some-incredible-things-while-listening-to-music#.XI7VmpAAN

Christopher Sutton (2017). 9 Ways Learning An Instrument Strengthens Your Brain. Retrieved from
https://www.musical-u.com/learn/9-ways-learning-an-instrument-strengthens-your-brain/

Dean Burnett (2016). Does music really help you concentrate?


https://www.theguardian.com/education/2016/aug/20/does-music-really-help-you-concentrate

John Rampton (2017). The benefits of playing music to your brain. Retrieved from
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