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All students of Final year Projects (TS4A, TS4B, AMM4, TMM4) are hereby
advised to follow the Chicago Style of Manual for references in the Project Report.

• List of references should cited in the BIBLOGRAPHY by the last name of the
author (both authors if any two the first author and et al when more than two)
followed by the year, in descending chronological order.
• All references in the bibliography should be listed in alphabetical order of the
authors’ last names followed by date of publication and other complete details as
given below:

AMIN.A. (2004) Cultural Economy Reader, Oxford: Black well, pp-23-31.

BOUGUE,R.G (1962) Fuller’s Earth Deposit Near Thana Bulla Khan, Technical Report,
pp 10-13, Geological Survey of Pakistan, Quetta, Pakistan.

DUMENIL.G AND LEVY, D. (2004) Neoliberal Income trends: Wealth Class and
Ownership in the USA, New Left Review, Vol. 30; pp-105-133.

FEDERAL BUREAU, GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN (2003) Census of Pakistan-2001..

.YOUSUAF M.MIAN, M.IGBAL AND M. RAFIGUE (1989) Characterization of Fuller’s
Earth from D.G. Khan Area, Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Report, Vol 45.
A. In-text Referencing
1. Use surnames, year of publication and page numbers if appropriate
2. If the author’s name has been used in the project, just add the year, coma
and page numbers in brackets e.g. According to Castro (2000, p23)…..
3. If author ’s name has not been used in the project , types the surname, coma,
year, coma, and page numbers in brackets e.g. (Castro, 2000, p.23)
4. If the author’s name is not mentioned in the source material, write the title
instead of the author’s name, followed by the year and page numbers in
brackets, e.g. (How two into one can equal contentment, 1990, p.5)
5. For No. 4 above, shortened version of the title is also possible if is long. If
that is done, use inverted commas around the abbreviated title, e.g. ( How two
into one,” 1990, p.5)
6. For e mail. Interview and other “unrecoverable data” use personal
communication, for example: (Syed Muhammad Qutab, personal communication,
October, 20, 2007). Do not enter these in the reference list.

B. End-text Referencing

• Books with one author

CASTRO, E.(2000).HTML 4.0 FOR THE WORLD WIDE WEB: Visual quick start guide (
4th ed). Berkeley, CA: Peachpit Press.

• Books with more than one author

DECKER, R., HIRSHFIELD, S. (1998). The analytical engine; An introduction to
computer science using the internet, Bostan; P.W.S.Publishing Company.

• Edited books with one editor

DUKE, C. (ED). (1986) TEXT PRODUCTION: Toward a science of composition.
Norwood, NJ; Ablex Pub. Crop.

• Edited books with more than one editor ( a volume in

series )
OWEN, P.,& PUMFREY, P. (EDS.). (1995), Children learning to read: International
concern, 2. London: The Falmer Press.
Please note that the initial after name must be followed by a full stop, comma and

• Articles/chapter inedited books (a volume in series)

FOLEY, C. (1995). Expanding the dismensions of world literacy. In P.Owen & Pumfery.
(Eds.), Children learning to read: International concerns: Vol.2 (pp. 9-30). London: The
Falmer Press.
NB for books, the abbreviation vol used before the volume number. This is
different journals.

• Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

BARNES, T.ET AT. (EDS.) (1999). The new encyclopedia of business (5th ed;
Vol.6).Sydney: Weathersone Press.
NB Encyclopedia and dictionaries-edition and volume are put together in the
same brackets.

• Journal articles
MARAH, H.W. & CRAVEN, R.G. 91998). The big fish little pond effect, optical illusions,
and misinterpretations: A response to Gross. (1997). Australian Journal of Gifted Edition,
7 (1), 12-19.
NB for journals, the volume number must be given.
• Newspaper article author not known
Australian, p.25.

• News paper article-author known

KNUCKEY, D. (1990, MARCH 10-11). Information helps make more productive workers.
Weekend Australian, p.2.

• Government documents/ corporate authors

HEALTH DEPARTMENT OF W.A. (1994). Community nursing policy manual:
Guidelines for pratice. Perth, W.A: The state printin Division of the Government printing
NB If there is an author, type a colon after the publisher, followed by the author’s

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