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. Nondestructive shotcrete thckness measurement in underground mines

Evaluation non destructive de I'epaisseur des parois en beton projete dans les mines Zerstorungsfreie PrOfungder SpritzbetonsUirke in untertaqlqen Bergwerken

M. MOMAYEZ, F.P.HASSAN I & P.GUEVREMONT, Department of Mining Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Que., Canada

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ABSTRACT:

This paper presents recent in situ and laboratory tests performed on shotcrete liners and test samples. The tests were

performed with a nondestructive microseismic method called Impact-Echo.

Initial investigations at INCa Ltd's Stobie Mine in Sud-

bury, Ontario, Canada, confirmed the need for the development of a quick and efficient device capable of determining the thickness of

the thin liners. The field study shows that the Pvwave velocity in shotcrete is critical for the correct assessment of the liner thickness.

Laboratory tests were performed on shotcrete samples at McGill University. The in situtests concentrate on the liner thickness meas-

urements and the laboratory tests focus on the change in P-wave velocity and acoustic

impedance over time.

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RESUME: Cet articie' presente les resultats d'essais effectues in situ sur des parois

et en laboratoire sur des echantillons en beton

projete, Les essais ont effectues avec la methode d'inspection non destructive Impact-Echo. Les essais in situ ont ete effectues a la

mine Stobie de INCO Ltd. situee a Sudbury , Ontario, Canada. Ces essais ont confirme un besoin important pour un outil de

diagnostique rap ide et efficace pour evaluer l'epaisseur des parois de beton projete. Les essais in situ demontrent qu'il est necessaire

de d'evaluer correctement la vitesse des ondes P .afin d'optimiser le systeme Impact-Echo. Des essais en laboratoire

ont permis

d'evaluer la variation de la vitesse des ondes P et l'impedance acoustique en fonction du temps.

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ZUSAMMENF ASSUNG: Diese Abhandlung stellt die kUrzlich durchgefUhrten Labor- wie in situ Tests mit Betonfutter und Testpro-

ben vor. Die einzelnen Tests wurden mit einer nicht destructiven microseismischen Methode, genannt Impact-Echo,

durchgefUhrt Er-

ste Untersuchungen

in der INCO Ltd's Stobie

Bergbau in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, bestatigten die Notwendigkeit

der Entwicklung

einer schnellen und wirksamen Vorrichtung, flIhig die Dicke des Betonfutters zu bestimmen. Die Feld Untersuchungen

zeigten, dass

die P-Wellen Geschwindigkeit kritisch ftlr die richtige

Festlegung des Betonfutters ist. Laboruntersuchungen wurden an Betonfutter

Proben an der McGill Universitat durchgefUhrt. Die in situ Messungen konzentrieren sich grundsatzlich an die Dicke des Futtersund

die Laboruntersuchungen konzentrierensich

gewisse Zeit.

.L

in der Anderung der P-Wellen Geschwindigkeit und die akustische Impedanz nber eine

INTRODUCTION

Lt

The use of shotcrete in Canadian hardrock mines has increased

substantially during the last decade. Melbye (1994) has noted

that 90% of the shotcrete utilised in the mining and construction

industries is for rock support purposes.

Although the use of

shotcrete is increasing, two of the major problems associated

bly the dynamic properties of the material. The authors propose

the

use of a microseismic device based on the capture and analy-

sis of P-waves generated by a small spherically tipped impact

hammer. The technique used for the tests described later in this

paper is called Impact-Echo.

The following section of this manuscript presents a brieftheo-

retical explanation of the principles that govern Impact-Echo

with the application of this product are quality control and en-

testing. Section 3 gives a description of the tests performed at

suring that an adequate thickness is applied to the rock mass.

INCO's Stobie Mine, which were performed to evaluate the

The traditional method used for determining the structural Integ-

needs of the workers and assess the site conditions for the devel-

'rity

of a shotcrete liner involves extracting, examining and test-

opment of a prototype device. The tests were performed with an

ing

a limited number of core samples. At best, the test results

Impact-Echo system developed at McGill University.

The pre-

represent a rough approximation of the actual thickness of the

liminary tests were carried out on fibre reinforced and non-

lining. The irregular rock mass surface is bound to induce con-

siderable thickness variations. Additionally, visual inspection of

the rock mass is not possible because of the presence of the shot-

reinforced shotcrete.

Section 4 presents results obtained from

laboratory tests performed on shotcrete samples of various thick-

ness and of the same composition as the shotcrete tested at Sto-

crete lining. ,.

 

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bie Mine The purpose of these tests was to correctly evaluate,

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Therefore, the evaluation of the structural integrity of the

shotcrete lining-used in shafts and tunnels is important for the

maintenance and safety of such structures.

Both the soft and

hard rock mining industries require a new method of assessing

the integrity and thickness of shotcrete lining support. The high

cost and slow pace associated with drilling has prompted

the

need

for a low cost,

fast and efficient nondestructive testing de-

vice.

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This paper presents

recent in situ and laboratory test results

performed on shotcrete

liners, notably at INCO's Stobie Mine in

SUdbury, Ontario, Canada. Initial investigations have confirmed

the need for a quick and efficient device capable of scanning a

surface area and yielding the shotcrete liner thickness and possi-

under controlled conditions, the P-wave velocity in reinforced

and non-reinforced shotcrete. A study of the acoustic impedance

of shotcrete is also presented.·

2 IMPACT-ECHO TESTING

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The

Impact-Echo method is a microseismic technique, which

was developed for the detection of defects in thin concrete

structures.

Initial work

on this method was carried out

at the

National Bureau of Standards (NBS) in the United States

in the

1980's (Sansalone and Carino, 1984).' The principle of this

method is based on reflection of seismic waves.

To generate

 

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stress waves in a material, a spherically tipped impact source is used. When the impact is generated on a solid, three main types of seismic waves are generated., a) Pswaves, which are also known as primary or compression waves; b) Svwaves, which are referred to as secondary or shear waves; and c) Rswaves, known as surface or Rayleigh waves. Body wave is another term associ- ated to both P- and S-waves propagating through an elastic me- dium. Typically, they travel along hemispherical wavefronts. In the case of a vertical impact on a surface, P-waves possess a vertical velocity component. S-waves exhibit both horizontal and vertical velocity components, as do R-waves. Of interest in this paper is the propagation and reflection of P- waves. In particular, the velocity of the P-wave is critical to the success of this method. The P-wave velocity is a function of the dynamic elastic properties of the material. It depends on the dy- namic Young's Modulus (E), the dynamic Poisson's ratio (v) and the material density (P). In 1970, Timoshenko and Goodier as- sociated the dynamic material properties of a material to P-wave velocities. (C p ) in a homogeneous, linear elastic, and isotropic solid according to ~e ~ollowing ~elationship: ':

the material, the diameter of the spherical impact device and the initial impact force. By changing the impact tip diameter and applied force; pne can increase or decrease the penetration depth

of the P-wave The thickness ofa shotcrete layer is related to the

.. P-wave velocity and frequency according to the following equa-

tion (Carino and Sansalone, 1984):

~ ,C

l

T=--'-

z c],

j

I

':J J

t

-,'

_J r )-\' .•

.

(3)

where T is the thickness (m), C p is the average P-wave velocity through the medium (mls) and/p is the P-wave frequency (Hz).

  • 3 IMPACT-ECHO TESTS AT STOBIE MINE

This section of the paper presents the methodology and re- sults obtained from tests performed at INCO's Stobie Mine in

Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. These tests were part of a prelimi- nary investigation on the use of Impact-Echo technology for

evaluating the thickness of shotcrete

linings. .

The tests per-

E(l-v)

  • (I) formed are intended to serve as a benchmark for further devel- opment of a custom built Impact-Echo system developed at McGill University. The following paragraphs present the meth- odology used for the investigation of an in situ shotcrete liner.

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  • 3.1 Experimental Setup I.

C,=

,

p(1 + vXI- 2v)

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where C p is the P-wave velocity (mls), E is the dynamic Young's Modulus (GPa), v is the dynamic Poisson's ratio and p is the r, density of the tested medium (kg/nr'). Tests on concrete have confirmed that the P-wave velocity in this medium ranges from '

  • 3000 mls

to over SOOO mls. In practice it is customary to use

  • 4000 mls as a preliminary value for Impact-echo testing (this

velocity is representative of a normal weight concrete with p ~

  • 2300 kglm 3 and v. 0.2). I

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Incident waves are reflected when wavefronts strike an inter- face of two dissimilar materials. Here, materials are character- ised by the difference in their acoustic impedance. The quantity of energy reflected off 'an interface' from an incoming P-wave partially depends on the difference in the acoustic' impedance

A drift at level 3400 was chosen as the test site. This site was previously used to test various shotcrete mixes. During the tests, the conditions in the drift were dry and relatively clean. A quick visual inspection of the site identified three appropriate test lo- cations.' I It was known that there were two types of shotcrete sprayed on the stope walls: normal and fibre reinforced. The actual test locations were located near previously cored holes. • The objective was to compare the Impact-Echo results with the , actual thickness of the shotcrete liner. The access to the mine

between the two materials. The specific acoustic impedance of a f and the'allotted testing time were limited on site. Therefore, the

medium is given as:

Z=px~.

~)

where z is the acoustic impedance of a medi~ (kg/rrr's). The following table gives the specific acoustic impedance of com- mon materials:

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data presented in this section is limited in quantity, however it does show the feasibility of this technique. Three horizontal lines were drawn on the shotcrete surface with fluorescent paint. On each horizontal line, a mark was placed at a spacing of 0,3048 m (or I'). Care was taken to insure that the horizontal lines intersected the previously cored holes. The thickness'of the liner was determined by measuring the inner

Table1.Specificacousticimpedanceof commonmaterials.

wall of the cored holes. Table 2 gives the measured thickness of

Medium Density P-wavevelocity SpecificAcousticImpedance , . (p - in kg/m) (C p • in mls) (2
Medium Density
P-wavevelocity SpecificAcousticImpedance
, . (p - in kg/m) (C p • in mls)
(2 in kg/m's x 10~
Concrete
2300
3000-5000
6,9·10,4
Steel
7850
' . 5940
46,6
Granite' • 2750
5500-6100.
15,1-16,8I J
Marble
2650
,13700-6900
-iL' 9,8-18,3
Quartzite
2620
,200-2000
0,28-4,3
(adaptedfrdm CarinoandSansalone,1984)
tt
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Table2. Measuredshotcretedepthsalong3 scanlines: '
ScanLine Positionof
ShotcreteLiner'
Fibre.
coredholes(m) MeasuredThickness(m)Reinforced
SL-l
1,219 ,',
0,101
Yes .
SL-l
1,585
0,140and0,160·
Yes'
. SL-l
~ 5,791 .
'u
0,107and0,114.
.
Yes -i
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1
SL-2
0,914'
,r"'
0,025
~
No'
SL-3
0,914
0,101
~'" Yes
SL·3 ., , '1,219
0,101
•Yes I
SL-3
i '2,743 :"
0,133
Yes
I.
SL-3
3,353
0,088and0,101·
Yes
,SL-3
3,658:
0,064
Yes
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1 • Multiple reflections of P-waves induce a sinusoidal move- ment at the surface of the material near the impact location. A receiving vertical displacement piezoelectric transducer captures this sinusoidal pattern. 'J The analysis of the signal in the fre- quency domain yields the peak frequency of the P-wave reflec- tions. The frequencies contained in the sinusoidal signal are ob- tained by applying a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) on the signal. The P-wave frequency is consequently used to compute the thickness of a material or the location of a defect once the veloc- ity of the P-wave is known. Ideally, the maximum reflection amplitude of the P-wave is directly beneath the impact position. The detectable size and depth of an anomaly are dependent on the frequency content of the incident P-wave. The frequency content is governed by the impact time duration on the surface of

the shotcrete liner for each cored hole. 'The position of the cored holes are situated with respect to the start position on each scan line, which starts at zero. Figure I shows the position of the cored holes relative to the position of the horizontal lines painted in the drift at level 3400. Line 2 of the Impact-Echo scan was Situated in an area of non-reinforced shotcrete. The Impact-Echo tests were performed at each of the positions shown in Table 2 and in Figure I. /"

• indicatestworeadings,eachonetakenfromthe oppositesidesof the r,· coredhole. ;., ii' .;

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...

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Stobie Mine

Sholl:rete Telt Site Level 3400

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S•••• LiDoI

SCla Liao 2

SCla Liao 3

II

I',SO

I I lSI

1

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1

I I '(00}1 I I I@I(OO)

II

II

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, I lSI

II

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t

14

0,

70

12

OroImd 1••• 1--- ...

Figure 1. Position of Impact-Echo tests on each scan line with respect to

the location of the drilled core holes,

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  • 3.2 Results and Discussion

The piezoelectric transducer was placed on flat portions of the surface and oriented in a direction normal to the shotcrete plane. The aperture of the transducer (I,S mm) allowed the user to se- lect a small flat surface area. Initially,' the spring-loaded device used to generate the hemispherical stress waves crushed the shotcrete surface upon impact: Without any surface preparation, the surface is granular and very uneven. The crushing of the sur- face increases the contact time of the impact sphere. This causes longer wavelengths to be introduced into the.shotcrete, If the pe- riod of the P-wave is longer than the thickness 'of the shotcrete liner, the observed response captured by the transducer will not include the periodicity of the multiple P-wave reflections from the shotcrete / rock mass interface. Hence, it is essential to re- duce to a minimum the contact time of the impact. -To do so, the impact location on the surface was crushed before the test impact Was initiated. The result was a significantly reduced contact time. The total energy of the impact is therefore distributed over a broader frequency range that includes the frequency of the P- wave reflection between the surface and the interface. The acoustic impedance of the shotcrete material and the rock mass were not known at the time of testing. It should be noted that a large difference between these two values would enhance the wave reflection. It is assumed however that there is a notice- able difference as per Table 1.' The results show that the fre- quency peaks in the spectrums are sometimes difficult to select. For scan lines 1 and 3, the digitizer board was set to a sam- pling rate of 100 kHz (10 IJ.s)and captured 4096 points for each generated signal. The resolution in the frequency spectrum was hence 24,4 Hz. For scan line 2, thesampling rate was set at SO kHz (20 IJ.S)and 8192 samples were captured for each of the sig- nals. At the time of testing, it was not possible to determine ex- perimentally the P-wave velocity in shotcrete. A P-wave veloc- ity of 4000 mls was assumed for computing the thickness of the shotcrete layer according to equation (3). This velocity is repre- sentative of a P-wave travelling through Ii normal weight and good quality concrete (Carino and Sansalone, 1984). Table 3 presents the results obtained from scan line I, 2 and 3. In this table, the results arc shown for two tests at one loca- tion. For each test, measurements were taken on both sides of the cored hole. The Impact-Echo system is known for its repeat- ability. At one test location, one may capture many 'signals, When analysing the' signals in the frequency domain, the domi- nant peak of the P-wave reflection should consistently be at the 'same 'frequency. -The frequency is dependent on the wave propagation distance between the surface of the shotcrete and the shotcrete/rock mass interface, which is always constant at a test location. 'il

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The results of the first scan line indicate that there is ap-

prOXimately a

3% error compared to the measured thickness

shown in Table 1. It is to be noted that the P-wave peaks in the

frequency spectrums were' hard to distinguish from adjoining noise.: Another possible cause to the discrepancy is the assumed P-wave velocity of 4000 mls. With this in mind, the results ob- tained at the test sites on line 1 seem to agree well with the measured results shown in Table 2.

The results from the second scan line are inconclusive. The

main reason is that the shotcrete thickness at this location is

smaller than the contact time generated by any of our impact sources. The measured P-wave frequency here is consistently larger than P-wave frequencies obtained on scan lines 1 and 3. However, the measured contact time was less than S em which is twice as the thickness of the shotcrete liner. ,

The results from the third line show that in some cases the re-

sults were invalid. This was mainly due to the lack of a distin- guishable P-wave frequency peak in the spectrums. For the other tests, the P-wave frequencies were clearly visible in their respective spectrums. On average, the thickness calculated from this series of tests yielded an error of 18% compared to the

measured thickness from

boreholes.

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In general, where the contact times are smaller than the shot- crete thickness, in situ results agree well with the measured thickness of the cored holes along two of the three scan lines. Here, the major reason for discrepancies is the assumed P-wave velocity. Although, the impact sources produced adequate con- tact times in the majority of cases, lower contact times would enhance the quality of collected signals.

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Table 3. Impact-echo results obtained from tests on lines 1,2 and 3.

Position

 

P-wave filename . P·wave

(m)

J

Frequency (Hz)

SL-l

.

.

1,219

suoor

17285

1,219

' stlO02

21801

1,585

" stl003

12936 : OJ

1,585

stlOO4

13208

5,791

stlO05

19653

5,791

stl006

20043

SL-2

J,

0,914

st2oo1

20776

0,914

st2002

21423

0,914

st2003

20874

0,914

st2004

15429

SL-3

0,914

st3001

14526

0,914

st3002

14526

1,219

st3003

1,219

st3004

14501

2,743

st3005

2,743

st3006

14526

3,353

st3007

3,353

st3oo8 '

15136

3,658

st3009

28588

3,658 ,

 

st3010

28466

Depth

(m)

0,116

0,096

0,154

0,151

0,102

0,100

..

0,096

0,093

0,096

0,130

0,138

0,138

0,138 '

"

0,138

0,132

0,070

0,070

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  • 4 LABORATORY INVESTIGATION

Following the preceding in situ tests, which served as a feasibil- ity study, it was deemed necessary to conduct laboratory tests on shotcrete samples. The main objectives of these tests were to determine the P-wave velocity of shotcrete material consisting of the same matrix mix as used in Stobie Mine. Additionally, the acoustic impedance of the shotcrete was evaluated over time.

  • 4.1 Research Program

Given that the P-wave velocity is critical for the correct as- sessment 'of the shotcrete liner thickness, it is necessary to de- termine this parameter accurately for different types of shotcrete used at Stobie Mine. To do so, eight (8) samples were built and sprayed with shot- crete. The thickness of the samples vary and are equally divided between fibre reinforced and non reinforced samples. The den-

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sity of the shotcrete is known which allows for the evaluation of

the

acoustic impedance of the material.

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discussion will focus on one impact device, which represents the analysis of close to one thousand signal files.

4.2 Instrumentation

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The Impact-Echo unit built by the Subsurface Sensing Labo- ratory at McGill University (Hassani et a!. 1997) was used to

carry out the experiments The unit includes a broadband verti-

.. cal displacement transducer with a matching amplifier, many spring loaded spherical tipped impact devices and an analogue to digital data acquisition system;

. " The MSR Data Analysis Package V2.0 serves as the signal analysis program. The software package was developed by the Subsurface Sensing Laboratory and operates under-the GAUSS mathematical and statistical system. 'The Time Series Analysis package by Digital Acoustics of Montreal, Canada provides ad- ditional signal processing capabilities.' ) - - . 1

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  • 4.3 Experimental Setup

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The test samples consist of eight (8) shotcrete moulds. One series of 4 moulds consists of non-reinforced shotcrete, while the second 'series of moulds embodies fibre reinforced shotcrete. Four different slab thickness were investigated: 50,8 mm (2"),

101,6 mm (4"), 152,4 mm (6") and

203,2 em (8"). The surface

area for each mould was 0,372 m 2 (2" x 2"), which provided am- ple spac~ for one half of the surface of a mould to be smoothed and the other half to be left rough to simulate in situ conditions. The dimensions of the slabs were chosen as such to eliminate edge effects as much as possible. The tests were concentrated at

the centre of the slabs.

. Personnel at Stobie Mine provided specifications for the shot-

crete mix to be used for the tests. The mix proportions described in Table 4 were provided by the contractors who performed the shotcrete injection. The mix matches the required specifications. It should be noted that the application followed standard wet shotcrete placement procedures and accredited personnel per- formed the work. The minimum compressive strength require-

ment for the shotcrete was 35 MPa at 28 days. . I, Table4. ShotcreteMixProportionsAccordingto Specifications Material
ment for the shotcrete was 35 MPa at 28 days.
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Table4. ShotcreteMixProportionsAccordingto Specifications
Material
Type
Quantity Supplier
Region
(per m)
Aggregates
2,5-10 mm
490
kg
LesSablesLG St-Hypolite
Cement
10FS
. 450 kg
LafargeInc.
.
St-Gabriel
Sand
5-80
1100kg FranconInc,
St-Constant
Superplastesizer
MBAE90
380
ml
MasterBuilder
Water
180 kg
Laval
Fibre
Novocon
45 kg GroupeLefebvre-

Reinforcement

Note: The fibre reinforcement was only used in four (4) moulds.

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The density of the mix is approximately 220Qkg/m', with an .air content of 5% determined on site during application of the shotcrete and according to ASTM C231-97. The regions shown in Table 4 are all located in the province of Quebec, Canada. The slabs were tested at 7-day intervals from the time they

were cast up to the 28 th day. On all slabs, the tests were per- formed on both the smooth and rough surfaces. The sampling rate of the system was set at 200 kHz (5 JlS). For each signal,

4096 digitised points were

recorded. .

The tests involved the

evaluation of three (3) different impact device. In each of the

devices, the impact sphere diameter is different. Hence the fre-

quency content of the impact varies according

to..the

impact de-

vice used. On each slab six (6) test points were selected, three (3) on the rough side and three (3) on the smooth side. ,At each test position, five (5) signals were generated and captured for a total of 30 on each slab and for one given,impact device. These tests involved the analysis of close to three thousand signal files. For simplicity and due to the restricted length of this paper, the

  • 4.4 Results and Discussion

The impact device in question is spring loaded and spheri- cally tipped. The tip diameter is 1.5 mm and the impact force is

27 Nmm. The results shown in this section are

from tests per-

formed on all eight (8) slabs. As previously mentioned, half of the surface on each slab was rough which simulates actual in situ conditions and the other half was smoothed out, but not polished. The smooth surface provides a better seating for the transducer for which the contact area is larger. Figure 2 shows a typical signal captured by the system and analysed in the frequency domain for this impact device. Notice the low noise in the signal and the sinusoidal oscillation in the signal, which represent the -movements captured on the surface of the shotcrete slab. The FFT of this signal shows clearly that the P-wave frequency is detectable. Figure 2 is a signal obtained from a 0,050 m (2") thick slab. This figure is representative of most of the signals captured during these tests.

_ . The acquired data spans over a period of 28 days. The results

show a general increase in the P-wave velocity over that time span. As the compressive strength of the shotcrete increases to about 90% of its ultimate capacity, the P-wave velocity should also increase and reach a stable velocity. Figures 3 to 6 show the results obtained from the tests. It should be noted that each value shown in these figures is the average of the values com- puted from three (3) test locations on one slab. 'Five (5) signals were captured at each of those test points.

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••••1-

~"-1..-

...

•.-

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.ll •••••••

:'t-p~~1

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1.lft

1.••.•

J •• Me

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& .1.ru.: < •• _

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Figure2.A signalcapturedon the roughsurfaceof the 0,050m (2")thick non reinforcedslab.The P-wavefrequencyis 33,540KHzwhich repre-

sentsa detectedthicknessof 0,059m (2.3")forC, - 4000mls.

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Figure 3 shows the P-wave velocity as a function of time for the tests performed on the smooth surface of the four (4) fibre reinforced slabs. At 28 days, the P-wave velocity varies between 3810 mls and 4194 m/s, Two of the slabs show lower velocities at 14 days of curing. The reason for this trend is not clearly un- derstood since the upward trend continues following the 14 day •

of curing.

-

. . Figure 4 shows the P-wave velocities obtained from the Im- pact-Echo tests performed on the rough portion of the fibre rein- forced shotcrete slabs. At 28 days, the results show that the p. wave velocity varies widely from 3664 mls to 4266 mls. Only two slabs show trends of increasing P-wave velocity with time (0,101 mand 0,152 m). No clear upward trend is noticeable for the 0,050 m slab. After a sharp drop, there is a steep increase in P-wave velocity. The abrupt changes can be due to the uneven rough surfaces on the slabs. The rough surface may induce changes to the frequency content of the incident waveform due to the impact's crushing effect. The presence of large air voids often encountered near the surface of shotcrete may also change ,the form on the incident wave. It is clearly better to perform the Impact-Echo tests on a smooth surface.

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1300

PoWavl vlloclty VI TI""

Fin ••Inforeed•••olen •• lIebe

 

101_

."face •••••

3400

3200

 

o

7

14

21

28

 

-+-0,0500101(2")

-&-0,101

mOl (4")

__

0,152 mOl (e")

•••.• 0,203 mOl (8")

 

Figure 3. P-wave velocities for the four (4) fibre reinforced shotcrete

slabs. The tests were performed on the smooth surface.

Figures S and 6 illustrate the results obtained from testing the non reinforced shotcrete slabs. Figure 5 shows the results from the smooth surface tests. In this figure, the P-wave velocity tends to decrease at 28 days for each of the slabs. The cause of this trend is still unknown at the time of writing this paper. The change however is not alarming, since in general the P-wave velocity does not decrease substantially. It is believed that a re- duction in the hydration rate of the shotcrete may have resulted in a constant P-wave velocity trend over the 28 day period. Static tests will be performed on samples taken from these slabs. A low compressive strength would confirm that the internal ce- ment hydration process terminated prematurely. The P-wave velocity ranges between 3495 mls and 3592 mls at 28 days.

P-wave vlloclty ve TI""

Fib•••• '_d

Rough •• rfI•• to'"

•••oleN•• lIebe

P-waVI VlIocIty VI Tlml

Non•• _reed ... -. ••••••• Rough Mface ••••• 4200 4100 - 4000 LIOO f3800 J 3700
Non•• _reed ...
-.
•••••••
Rough Mface •••••
4200
4100
- 4000
LIOO
f3800
J 3700
1=
3400
3300
o
7
,,14
.
21
Dip
-+-O,GSOmm(2")
-&-0.101
mOl (4")
__
0.1520101(8")
•••.• 0,203 mOl (8")

28

Figure 6. P-wave velocities for the four (4) non reinforced shotcrete

slabs. The tests were performed on the rough surface

Figure 6 shows the results from the rough surface tests. Once again the results are more dispersed than the results shown in Figure 5. On two slabs, increases in P-wave velocities are ob- served (slabs: 0,152 m and 0,203 m). The P-wave velocity range

is from 3618 mls to 4182 mls at 28 days.

  • 4.5 Acoustic Impedance

.

The acoustic impedance of the shotcrete tested is given in Ta- ble 4. The acoustic impedance of each slab is given based on their average 28 day P-wave velocity. The results show that there is a noticeable difference between the acoustic impedance found here and those given in Table 1 for granite and quartzite. This confirms the fact that a P-wave reflection should occur at the interface between a shotcrete layer and a rock mass.

Table 4. Acoustic impedance (Z) of the shotcrete Slab P-wave Reinforced P-wave Non Reinforced Velocity Z
Table 4. Acoustic impedance (Z) of the shotcrete
Slab
P-wave Reinforced
P-wave
Non Reinforced
Velocity Z
Velocity Z
(m1s)
(kglsm z x 101
(m1s)
(kglsm z x 1If)
0,050 m
3737
8,22
3613
7,95
0,101 m
4217
9,28
3674
8,08
0,152 m
4095
9,01
3887
8,55
0,203 m
4044
8,90
3556
7,82
 

14

21

28

 

Dip

-+-0,050

mOl (2")

-&-0,101

mOl (4")

__

0,152 mOl (e")

 

••••• 0,203 mOl (8")

 

Figure 4. P-wave velocities for the four (4) fibre reinforced shotcrete

slabs. The tests were performed on the rough surface.

P-waVI vlloclty VI Tlml

Non••Inforad 11Io•••••• II••••

10100" •• rfI•• to'"

7

14

-+-0.0500101(2")

__

0.152 mOl (e")

21

28

-&-0.1010101(4")

•••.• 0,203 mOl (8")

Figure 5. P-wave velocities for the four (4) non reinforced shotcrete

slabs. The tests were performed on the smooth surface.

S CONCLUSION

The in situ and laboratory tests presented in this paper clearly show that there is a feasible method available for assessing the thickness of shotcrete liners non destructively. The following points can be concluded from these tests:

The P-wave velocity in fibre reinforced shotcrete should

be expected to be higher than

in non reinforced shot-

crete. The Impact-Echo method is a feasible method for as- se~sing ~e integrity of shotcrete liners in underground mmes given that some surface preparation is performed prior to conducting the tests. • The acoustic impedance of shotcrete differs from that of rock such as granite and quartzite. More Impact-Echo tests ~hould be performed on samples of these and other matenals to assess their acoustic impedance.

6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors sincerely thank Mr. Dennis O'Donnell from Sto- bie Mine for his help and guidance. The tests on the shotcrete

1301

samples could not have been perfonned without the help of Mr. Bertrand Lefebvre of Groupe Lefebvre Inc. and Mr. Laurent Fresch to whom we express our most sincere thanks. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the Canadian Mining Industry Research Organisation.

7 REFERENCES

ASTM C231-97 (1997). Sta~dard Test Method for Air Content of Freshlykdixed Concrete by the Pressure Method. 1997 An- nual book of ASTM Standards, Philadelphia. Carino, N.J., & Sansalone, M. (1984). Pulse-Echo Method for Flaw Detection in Concrete. Technical Note 1199, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA. 35 p. Melbye, T.A.~ (1994). Sprayed Concrete for Rock Support.

MBT International Underground Construction Group, 186 p. Hassani, F.P., Guevremont, P., Momayez, M., Sadri, A & Saleh, K., (1997). Application of Nondestructive Evaluation Tech-

niques on Concrete

Dams..

Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., Vol.

34, No. 3/4, p.582. Timoshenko, S.P. & Goodier, IN. (1970). Theory of Elasticity. McGraw-Hill, New York, 3 rd edition, 567 p.

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