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WORKS OF SAINT BONAVENTURE

!~
Series Edited by
F. Edward Coughlin, O.F.M.
v

St. Bonaventure's

On the Reduction
of the
Arts to Theology

Translation with Introduction and Commentary

Prepared by

Zachary Hayes, O.F.M.

Franciscan Institute
St. Bonaventure University
St. Bonaventure, N.Y. 14778
1996

Copyright © 1996

The Franciscan Institute Table of Contents
of St. Bonaventure University

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number Foreword vii
96-{)86751 Introduction 1
Commentary on the Text 11
On the Reduction
of the Arts to Theology
This edition is in large part based on the copyrighted work of Sr. The Latin Text
Emma Therese Healy, S.S.J., which was published by The Institute 36
in 1940 and reprinted in 1955. Relying as it does on the Healy
edition, this edition is published with the permission of the Text in Translation 37
Congregation of the Sisters of St. Joseph, Erie, PA.

ISB~:1-57659-043-7

Printed in the United States of America
BookMasters
Ashland, Ohio

FOREWORD

The original copyright m the first volume of this series goes
back to 1940. A second edition is dated in 1955. The first version of
this volume was the work of Sr. Emma Therese Healy, a member of
the Congregation of the Sisters of St. Joseph, Erie, Pennsylvania.
That edition has been virtually normative as an English-language
translation with introduction and commentary since its original
publication.
In the intervening years, there have been many studies 00 the
thought and spirituality of St. Bonaventure. It was felt that a
reworking of the pertinent material would be in place at this time.
Also, the format of the original edition has proven somewhat
awkward for those attempting to use it. This is due, at least in
part, to the fact that the text of the De reductione is unusually
brief: a mere seven pages in the Quaracchi edition. This means that
the argument of the text is extremely tight and would be Virtually
unintelligible for a person who was not already well-read in
medieval thought patterns. To make the text more accessible, the
Healy edition placed the text itself in the context of a detailed
essay which functions partly as an introduction and partly as an
essay-style commentary. In this way it was pOSSible to publish this
as an independent volume containing much valuable information
about the intellectual world of Bonaventure. Unfortunately, the
text itself tended to get lost in this format.
With this in mind, we have attempted to provide a format
that might be easier to follow, though it would not have much of
the detail offered by the Healy edition. Using that earlier edition
as the basis, we have made numerous changes in the translation
itself. We have reduced the material in the introduction and have
made major changes in the issues discussed as introductory. Finally,
we have offered an essay-style commentary which is divided into
sections that correspond precisely to the structure of the text. At
times in this commentary we have incorporated sections of the
Healy edition when this seemed appropriate. But much of the
material has been reformulated in the light of more recent studies.

creation is led back to its point of origin in God. INTRODUCTION ground information to make it readily available and usable for those involved in studies en the history of Western Christian thought. As a metaphysical term. the journey of human cOgnition is best understood as one dimension of the way in which the human. The idea of the return is expressed in the word reduction which means literally leading back. the word has to do with the circle of creation as it emanates from God eventually to return to its point of origin. But as a human venture. Chicago. is here taken in a broader sense and is not limited Simply to the liberal arts. Title.Forewora It is our hope that this format will provide an inexpensive edition of this remarkable medieval text with sufficient back. occasion. the word refers to the way in which the human subject comes to know and understand the realities of the created order in the light of this metaphysical conviction.IL October. Bonaventure includes not only the academic disciplines but the so-called mechanical arts as well. as is clear from Bonaventure's text. As all knowledge is led back to the the deepest wisdom of the Scriptures which is elaborated in the form of theology. As a cognitive term. This project rests on the assumption that all the forms of knowledge as then known are to be related finally to divine revelation which is the highest form of wisdom and is the concern of Scripture or theology. In the present case. OFM a) Title. sources. I. Thus. The idea of reduction in Bonaventure's world of thought has both a metaphysical and a cognitive significance. In its final consummation. this should not be allowed to become Simply a neutral knowledge. 1996 The title of this small work of Bonaventure is itself the expression of the life-time project of the Master. It implies the long- standing conviction of the Seraphic Doctor that the ideal for the spiritual-intellectual life is to draw all the varied forms of human knowledge into a unity to serve the human person in the spiritual journey. Therefore it has no independent Significance.viii / '. Zachary Hayes. spiritual journey is involved in creation's return to God. The term arts. Rather. the human subject tracing this route is led to the fuller awareness of the mystery of the love from which all has taken its origin. the journey leads not .

Others are inclined distinguish Christian faith from the teachings of philosophy and to see it as quite late since it seems to bring into such elegant unity other secular sciences. but it would take a long time. 1961) p. At fact is that this text hardly seems to be an inunature work. nothing in these disciplines which does not imply a vestige of the able from the Scriptures.201). ought to be allowed to stand as an independent and self-sufficient discipline. there this is the case. one would have first becomes very clear if it is compared with works such as the studied the arts. J. The Collations on the Gifts of the Holy Spirit are appropriate key to unlock that meaning. including I philosophy. it might be helpful to recall the nature of the A possible hint concerning the time of composition may be Sentences. or lesser detail. . gathered from Holy Spirit. (V. And finally. theology is virtually insepar. Bonaventure commentaries on the Scriptures and other writings. All ought to be brought into relation to the highest form of wisdom available to human beings in this life: I 2 Cfr. Quincy. theology. development. to the Collations on the Hexaemeron which carry out the proposal in the show the organic connection between all the arts and the central most elaborate form imaginable in 1273. sacra doctrina and theologia are used interchangeably It is impossible to give a precise date for the composition of this with reve/atio or sacra Scriptura. the Sentences amounted to a collection of the found in the fourth of Bonaventure's Collations on the Gifts of the views of the Fathers. the theology was understood to be intimately tied to the Scriptures. IL). Simply put. While one might say Quaracchi edition have suggested that this text might be seen as a that for this period of intellectual history.<. 1 Brevi/'. In the prologue to the Breviloquium.. Hexaemeron. if one wished to study theology. Only then will all forms of human knowledge creative love from which all things emanate. is difficult to distinguish from Scripture. the Collations on the Gifts of the Spirit. None of the arts. Bonaventure describes the content of theology as "the suggests that this may well have been the final work of origin. for Bonaventure. This the time of Bonaventure's studies at Paris. even at this level. one Itinerarium. Bougerol example. authors. specialized theological diSciplines familiar to us. and the Collations would have studied the Scriptures. for the entire dynamiC of the Seraphic Doctor's life-project..2 Zachary J{ages. as understood here. Theology. prol. Bougerol." The editors of the removed from the actual text of the Scriptures. After this. serve effectively in realizing the true end of human existence.. largely those of Augustine. commonly dated to the year 1269 which is just a few years prior to To lead the arts back to theology means. There in discussing the gift of knowledge. All of these words are used not so work. and end of sacred Scripture. Often. Some scholars are inclined to see it as an early work in which much to distinguish particular theological disciplines as to Bonaventure sketched out his future program.. Anthony Guild Press. This can be seen even in the language used by medieval b) Occasion. He follows this with the cryptic remark: "This would be concern of the commentator on the Sentences is several steps easy to show. (Now available from Franciscan Press at Quincy University.. ". J. . 2 However we try to resolve the question of dating. At this point. . Introduction to Bonaventure (St. one would have on the Hexaemeron all of which carry out a similar project in greater studied the Sentences of Peter Lombard. even though the text which is the direct Trinity. o:PM Introduction 3 only to knowledge but finally to loving union with the mystery of namely. From this we speaks of the philosophical diSciplines and states that there is can conclude that. theology is best promise which found fulfillment in the form of the De reductione. 163. it would place its composition relatively late in the may be considerable difference of opinion as to what is the most Master's life. If understood to be the proper understanding of the Scriptures.'" We might say Bonaventure in which he summarized what he had been that at this point in Western history prior to the emergence of the attempting to do in much greater detail in the Collations on the many distinct. concern of the Scriptures or theology.

it is called clearly echoed in the text of Bonaventure. commonly referred to as light- terms of the neo-Platonic concept of emanation. . For which stand out in this context are the Expositio in Hierarchiam Bonaventure. and more proximately to his mentor at Paris. Victor. the influence of Augustine is not as massive in the present text as we I! was common for Christian scholars of the thirteenth century might have supposed. and is responsible for their If.' Light. it is for Bonventure the first form of all bodies. This raises the issue of the metaphysics of light. even before the sun and the other heavenly bodies. For much of this he is think of God's creative work as the emanation of light from its indebted especially to Robert Grosseteste and to the Oxford Franciscans. It is general sense of the world-view of Bonaventure. Light. particular themes that clearly pertain to the text under consider- therefore. of perfection in all corporal beings. Bonaventure held to the theory of the composition of the De reductione have historical roots in the a plurality of forms. all creatures are composed of matter and form. color. there is a tendency to think of God in the beauty. In as most perfect form of contemplation in a way that seems to be far as it radiates from the being which it informs. is not original to Bonaventure. but all being involved to some degree. we might conclude that key elements in principle. The works of Hugh available at the time of Bonaventure's academic career. it will be recalled. Migne (PL 175. p. 1. Hugh of SI. Our intention is not involved even in the formation of the earthly minerals. it is called lux. and (PL 176. he held that light was writings of the sixth-century Christian neo-Platonist. 294). d.4 Zacfiary 7layes. and it is to provide a very detailed discussion of the physics and the through the influence of light that all complex bodies are metaphysics of the Seraphic Doctor. 01!M Introduction 5 c) Sources. are arranged in a hierarchy in accordance with the ation. then. And in this context. 923-1154). according to the Genesis account (Gn. • I Sent. While light is not itself a body in the In order to understand the logical structure and development of strict sense. 741-838). and activity. interpreter. on the one hand. we might conclude that basic in the understanding of the argument of the De reductione. But there were various forms of hylomorphism Chronologically much closer to Bonaventure. is the principle a) Light metaphysics. it is not difficult to metaphysics. And when it is viewed in terms of the terminal point at which it becomes perCeptible it is called color. supreme. with the work of Bonaventure would be the writings of SI. matter Coe/estem S. Hugh of St. and its the De reductione. symbolism of light. he writes. who is the world. some partaking in Dionysius. can be viewed from three perspectives. But if we distinguish the general Augustinian may seem particularly obscure to the modem reader but which is background from citations of specific works. lumen. fontal source (=the Godhead) outward toward the The most obvious patristic source one might suspect in dealing darkness of nothingness thus calling finite reality into existence. was created on the first day II. Some elements in Bonaventure's world-view. q. degree of their participation in light. and are mediated through Dionysius's twelfth-century it more deeply than others. Hugh lays out the various stages of Light. a problem which Augustine. 1: 3). 3 Cfr. the first and most noble form of all finite beings. Con- knowledge involved in the soul's journey toward the fullest and sidered in itseIf as the first form of all bodies. and on the other hand to think of creation in This understanding of light. 17. Dionysii Areopagitae and the Eruditio Didascalica. A far more obvious influence in the structure to assume some form of hylomorphic theory as a way of accounting of this text and the delineation of the arts contained in it would be for the existence of Changeable beings as they are experienced in the work of the twelfth-century monk. Victor.l (1. Pseudo. it is important to read it with at least some influence extends throughout the entire material universe. Different kinds of bodies. But more specifically. 3 being the determinable principle and form being the determining Taking this into account. but simply to highlight generated out of the basic minerals.

At the metaphYSical level. creative love it gives reduction. If we do not understand this. things originate. But the ultimate an understanding of the manner in which Bonaventure uses the answer to this philosophical question does not become available to language of light to speak of truth and knowledge in the text humans until the eternal archetype becomes enfleshed in the which we are considering here. there is but one Idea. So it is that creation is said to reflect something of the Word of God's self-expression that has become incarnate in Jesus Christ. and how it radiates from issue in his metaphYSical circle. between the point of commonly speak of a plurality of divine Ideas. But in tenns of Here is the neo-Platonic circle of origin and end which played logical connotation. communicate itself externally. and consummation. light and question of exemplarity is found at the level of faith and theology. internal self-expression of God In his final work. Bonaventure makes the explicit statement: found in the eternal Word. 2 (Y. And for Bonaventure. there is but one divine Word.6 Zacliary :Jla!fes. emerges out of the depths of the divine. 332). the implication is that as finite being emerges from its copies in the world are created. it is drawn along the circle knowledge which we encounter in the world are most truly known of return to its final goal. there is but one spiritual rays and to be led back to the supreme Being. internally and in tenns of standing. to be illumined by level of God's primal Word of self-expreSSion. regardless of of the eternal Ideas. Bonaventure. It follows. trinitarian theology. the perfect originals after which all the limited framework. its consummation being found in a loving when they are known precisely as external expressions or symbols union with the divine. Elements of this theory can be traced back to how much specific information we may have about particular particular readings of Augustine. we might say that as creation b) The metaphysics of Bonaventure: Emanation. It is for this reason that we Christian theologians. even though. the divine Light. with the sun. Distinctive of Bonaventure's metaphysics is the way in which It we think of light in terms of the way in which it can be it emphasizes the importance of exemplarity. that is. Here it is Bonaventure's view that at the exemplarity. we may be well on the way to plarity is first of all a philosophical question. that creation returns to the depths of the divine love in and 6 Hex. This takes us into the realm of "This is the whole of our metaphysics: it is about emanation. 07!M Introduction 7 Alexander of Hales. how they are led back to their end. spiritual light which can be compared in a limited way mystery of the incarnation surfaces in the presentation of with God. There is in the world of creation a corporal light and a clear in the text under consideration as we note how frequently the created. we do not really understand them in tenns of their deepest and perhaps even to Plato's comparison of the Idea of the Good meaning. therefore. truth radiate outward in the direction of creation and to the finite It is a christological answer."6 logical denotation. For him. The Primal Light is God. 17 (Y. beings. the question of exem- that point outward in all directions. and 5 Hex. external expression to that primal. Thus. And that history of Jesus. 343). . that Single Word expresses the plurality of such an emphatic role in the creation-theology of medieval creatures in the cosmos external to God. And these Ideas are. and how God and all that can come to be should the divine determine t6 shines forth in them. in the origin and the point of end stands the mystery of exemplarity. And in that one Word is contained all that the divine follows this with: "Any person who is unable to consider how mystery is within itself as a mystery of self-communicative love. exemplarity. This is the central focused in a very sharp and intense point. From that divine source. The implication of this will become mind. When the Christian doctrine of creation is developed within this for Bonaventure. This means that all the objects of fontal source in the creative love of God. 3."s And he Word. that the final answer to the Light is identical with Truth. is incapable of achieving true under. to the neo-Platonism of Plotinus. 2. most fundamental sense.

But just as dearly. Clearly fontal source. But within the world of revelation. Thus. is an important element in the spiritual cognitive disciplines on the one hand. it becomes clear destiny of humanity. And there are those who sense of a unified vision of study in the context of monastic life was wish to know so that they themselves may be built up. 23·24 (V. but charity builds up. It is dear that Bonaventure had unity of Christian wisdom. popularity. as will become clear later. Bernard and extending the text of that twelfth-century monastic master. why Bonaventure can respect the insights of all the human Learning. cognitive level. and in need of the insights of faith and theology on the other hand. of the human person and the goal of human life. I! is. As we read that text. and increasing our love for God. will the vision of a final destiny with God that transcends even what find its ultimate significance only when it is seen in terms of this the great Plato and Aristotle were able to think of as the final great movement of the whole created order. 4. therefore. Reaching back to the writings of St. being challenged by the emergence of the newly founded I! is necessary. This is foreground voices of the new library of the learning which was the heart of the reduction by which all reality is led back to its becoming a living presence in the world of the university. faith opens matter how mundane the object of knowledge might seem to be. in essence. love of God and problems. even though the attempt to maintain a high regard for the intellectual life. S. it follows that all knowledge about the created reaim. above all. Nor is it knowledge for the sake of fame and c) Learning and sanctity. he saw the from its source to its goal as well as a movement of knowledge point of intellectual training to be integrated within a wider vision which raises this movement to a conscious. for the sake of knowledge. therefore. a real movement of created reality Bonaventure was an intellectual. we can hear the ideal of the familiar monastic tradition in the background together with the 7 De don. Outside the world Since this can be known in its fullness only from the perspective of the biblical revelation the nature of that goal remains always of faith. Bonaventure would become known as the champion of the love of one's fellow human beings.8 Zachary Jiagts. specifically in the fourth Collation on the gift of mystery that is God. knowledge thirteenth century would see a variety of approaches to these integrated into the spiritual journey toward love. The deepest meaning of all intel- telling discussion appears in his Collations on the Gifts of the Holy lectual effort is to be found in the deepening of our sense of the Spirit. though not necessarily for all. the important issue is. Perhaps the most should never be lost sight of. Nor is it knowledge for the sake of the market place.. The For Bonaventure. Bonaventure There are those who wish to know so that they might build lived at a time when the centuries-long monastic tradition with its up others. to join charity with knowledge sO universities situated in the growing urban centers of medieval that a person might have both knowledge and charity at Europe. this primary reason issue of scholarly work in a very direct manneI. For whatever secondary A number of times during his career. Bonaventure treated the reasons a person may be engaged in studies. finally has: loving union with God. But even for those whose way to God indudes the discipline of the This position plays a major role not only in the title but also in the intellectual life. and that is prudence. . O!I'M Introduction 9 through its increasing conformity to the incarnate Word. Sp. For knowledge. the goal of intellectual culture is not knowledge entire structure of the De reductione. 478). no an open question. This change of locale coincided with the problems raised the same time? by Aristotle's philosophical thought and the inroads of Islamic and Jewish scholarship into the world of the universities. and yet see them as limited journey. Knowledge puffs up. at least for certain people. but he never envisioned such a position would be much more complex than it had been in the knowledge independently of the only goal that the human person world of monastic spirituality and theology. and this is charity. Of fundamental importance for understanding the argument of Bonaventure writes: the De reductione is the role of learning and the relation between learning and sanctity in the thought of Bonaventure.

the world . the argument of the De reductione looks like a broader version of the argument Bonaventure carried out especially in his later years against the radical philosophical movement. and at some levels even the image and the similitude of God. Bonaventure thus presents a thought-provoking charter for any serious form of Christian spirituality and educa- tion. A philosophy which 6 II Sent.d 4 (II. In a mere seven pages of the Quaracchi edition. It is a world that bears at least the vestiges (=foot-prints) of God. incomplete. the answer to this lies in the mystery of our fallen nature which has distorted our vision and deformed our intellectual capacities. 22. He argues. General argument of the text. we will again be able to'read the glorious book of creation in which we come to know God precisely as creator. o!l!M Bonvaventure. theological framework and inte- grates them into the journey of the human spirit into God. in effect. It must eventually open into the experience of love for the divine reality in whose love all of creation is grounded. By that tinle. that spirituality and theology do not have to by-pass or bracket the so-called secular disciplines in order to find God elsewhere. knowledge is never its own end. This theme we will see running throughout the whole of the De reductione. 23. All must be situated in the context of the going-forth from and the return of creation to God. "8 "Of what use is it to know many things and to savor nothing?"9 This program of Bonaventure is pre-eminently a wisdom-tradition which sees the intellectual life to be situated I. 545). or to theology.2.3. 21 (y. it had become specifically an argument against any clainls to the self-sufficiency of philosophy. for the entire world is drenched with the presence of the divine mystery. Therefore. q. Bonaventure argues concerning the relation of all forms of secular knowledge to the study of Scripture.10 Zacfwry 7fages. "Love reaches further than Commentary on the Text vision. Once these have been reformed through the grace and light of Christ. he incorporates all the familiar and new forms of knowledge in the arts and sciences into an all-embracing. In doing so. It may also be seriously distorted. . •. divine presence. d. which is the prinlary concern of the book of the biblical revelation. In essence. It is the task of the human person situated in such a world to learn how to detect the symptoms of that mysterious. and to see the relation of creation to salvation. Why do human beings find it so difficult to do this? For BOnaventure. within a larger context of values that ought to shape human life.440). ignores the world of faith and theology will most likely be 9 Hex.

" Important as the intellectual life appears to be for frequent use of the term reductio. lnfinitely happy independently of the created world. (3) and the goal of human life as a transforming love-union 1 efr. this reason that everything that comes from God deserves the name There are. The text of the Epistle of James. The general flow of the argument throughout the De S. revelation. The citation of the text of James with its emphasis on the gifts ding that of philosophy. the same Bonaventure appeals to a biblical text which plays a signifi- concern can be detected in the De reductione. 33.4. It is interesting to note Hugh's dis- own sake. II. Migne. lib. Yet. this is the logic of the reduction. All knowledge of God is especially appropriate to set the stage for Bonaventure's should eventually lead to and find its fulfillment in the knowledge theology of creation. as Omnis illuminatio ab uno lumine. and the incarnation of that same of God. inclu. the whole of creation. For Bonaventure.12 Zadiarg :Hayes.. 6 Word in Jesus of Nazareth. but none of them indi. These are: (1) the eternal generation of the humanity in particular possesses. possible correction in the light of revelation.. col.). God is seen here as the source of every good vidually nor all of them together can be seen as adequate. Hugh of St. he frowns on knowledge for its borrowed his fourfold light.' and his curiosity.3. 295) and the Vilis Mysfica (Vrn. et unum and all knowledge gained through the use of that faculty is truly a lumen 2 indicate the source from which Bonaventure may have gift from God. PL 175. and as the fontal source of all light and be seen. are gifts Word in the life of the triune God. 5 Liberality. d. " 4 (11. . o1M Commentary on the Text 13 of philosophy must always be open to further insight and to II.' Bonaventure.458). This text together with expressions such Bonaventure sees the human intellect as an outstanding gift of God. Setting the stage for the reduction (#1-7). It is for monastic tradition but places it in a significantly new context. 5 I Senl. In this sense. 764. therefore. finally. 5. for object of God's never-failing prodigality. Dionysii Areopagitae.. But even that is not sufficient. in relation to the basic insights of the biblical illumination. reductione will be to highlight the analogical relations between 2 Expositio in Hierarchiam Coelestem S. 4 Ibid. whatever they may be. three foundational elements in of gift. of the De reductione. 937. the insights of the arts and these three concerns of the biblical 3 Ibid.). et multi sunt radii. therefore. the whole universe is the of the Scriptures and theology. In essence. But it is particularly on knowledge itself is not the end of the soul's journey. D. Only when that is the case does the soul truly in itself." cannot seek from without a happiness which is already given We can see this text. the ltinerarium (V. 1. col. col. the Collations on the Gifts of the Holy Spirit and finds its strongest expression in the Collations on the Hexaemeron. Concerning this biblical text. 18. All of them may be seen to be framework of light and illumination which undergirds the whole important sources of insight and truth. God "come home. Neither does God act out of self- the vision of a unified Christian wisdom which echoes the ancient interest. but here in reference to cant role elsewhere in his writings. as we have seen. same text at some length. All must and perfect gift. as a pre-eminent statement of within in an infinite measure. VI (IV. 6 IV Senl.. While the strong focus on the issue of philosophy is obvious in #1. (I. so argues Bonaventure. tradition. 189) as well as De donis with God. inspires all of God's acts. q. 941. it is clear that no form of secular knowledge. dub. God does Bonaventure's conviction that knowledge should move to love and this without diminishing the infinite resources of the divine nature to union with God. 935. will be sufficient in itself. and all the goods that the biblical revelation.' It is an ideal text to set up the the entire range of human diSciplines. It is humanity that God sends an unceasing shower of benefits. And he urges his scholarly colleagues to avoid "idle tinction between natural and supernatural knowledge. Victor discusses the This is not to be taken as a form of anti-intellectualism. 327. (2) the fundamental pattern for human life.

As light flows out from God. the detection of the divine signature. God has signed it as a human artist signs a work of art. but bases his classifi- their knowledge about the world into a variety of sciences. the the arts enable human beings to put things together for one of two background of light-metaphysics will help in understanding his reasons: utility or pleasure. Higher on the hierarchy. by those which are produced by as this takes place. the the material world (the exterior and inferior lights) to the world difficulty of it causes us perplexity and art has to be called of interiority (the interior light) and to the world of the sacred to our aid. and reaches in all directions. Dramatic art is the only one in the second division. mechanical arts. ways in which human beings bring the external world to some sort Thinking of the way in which physical light radiates from a point of use for humanity. 1931. If. human beings produce objects external to themselves. metal-working. Nature In an introductory way. and shelter.14 Zacfwrg j[agl!S. And when the image is filled with the reality of arts: weaving. or for human following Hugh. The words of the found in the Itinerarium. the others supply people with the necessities of life. Oxford. The signature of the divine Artist is navigation. they cation simply on the purpose served by the arts: either utility or are gathering fragments of that light which appears in its fullest pleasure. Also. to the world of things above the soul. 760). needs such as nourishment. This has to do with the return of the soul to God in as far the cause. All creatures reflect God at This is reflected in his Eruditio Didascalica. they offer a description of the basic structures of medieval Under the exterior light. o!f'Jv{ Commentary on the Text 15 The same biblical text employs the metaphor of light. 21 (PL 176. essence. and dramatic art. secondly. in so many ways. then the Crusades were giving impetus to the development of commerce. through knowledge. Hugh of St. On this subject. by phenomena which occur move along the path of human wisdom to the true Wisdom. we world of interiority. therefore. Bonaventure. I. II. agriculture. some creatures reflect and quadrivium of the liberal arts. can refer to God as the fount of light from whom enjoyment. forces of nature which seem. Victor manifests a significant interest in such matters. hunting. in creating the Living at a time when the medieval guilds were forming and world. at least in part. whether that be to serve fundamental human of concentration. They are the 8 Lib. Bonventure enumerates the seven 7 efr. c. At this point. it eventually flows into the The mechanical arts enable human beings to moderate the human intellect which is thus enabled to come to a deeper under. As human beings organize Bonaventure follows Hugh's enumeration. for she lights around which he will layout the arts and their relation to always follows the same course without deviation. present at every level of the hierarchy. At this point. medicene. Thus. The kind of art which helps us in such (the superior light). . theology. One senses here a movement similar to that perplexities we call Mechanical Skill. Aristotle in his Mechanica says: mind and the supernatural light of grace. we have to do something contrary to nature. architecture. all form in theology.O. these arts are simply named and described. Beyond the trivium least as vestiges. grace. When. such as music and theater. it becomes a similitude. 0'ercome by Art. the human person can Our wonder is excited. His thought moves from the most practical knowledge of whereas human expediency is always changing. Exterior light. thought. at some point. In #2. to be a threat to standing of reality. These include the basic arts and crafts by which Cfr. art despite nature for the benefit of humankind. As Bonaventure indicates. Hugh lists seven mechanical God as images. 847a. Works of Aristotle translated under editorship of W. firstly. Ross. and. Bonaventure now presents the four often operates contrary to human expediency. Ch. from the world of exteriority. the many beams of light flow out to creation.· In the De reductione. which first in accordance with nature but of which we do not know is Christ. the study of the world by humanity should involve."7 the medieval hierarchical schema for relating the different sorts of beings encountered in the world appears here. with the natural light of the human human survival. clothing. to the poet Antiphon are quite true: "Mastered by Nature.

13. The organism: that is to say. 281) and c. The three intermediate senses afford a passage to through imagination. then. "is ri!lhtly. 13. a the four elements and the form of light. it retains through memory. it discerns truth smell.1.16 ZaclWrg :Jfayes. beginning with the peasants working the fields and moving to world is acquired by interaction with the physical world. This is the human of sense knowledge by which we come to know natural forms. moisture. 4. and intelligence. Having no innate knowledge of beings in the empirical world. water. IS the seat of sensation. the discussed above. which the sensible world may enter and impinge on human ation. Brevil. to sight. 220). By virtue of its sensitive consciousness. . fire (warm vapor). of course. 379. Itinerarium 2. n.aventure. nutrition.. Sense ~ody. and human knowledge of the 10 II Sent.IO Since there are five corporal substances in the world. which is the primary collating the three intermediate elements: taste.6 (PL 34. II.2. The soul. potency to act not only the sense of sight but all the other senses.. by touch. to air. and through reason. and an intellectual power. rejects evil through the irascible appetite. 12 and desires good through the concupiscible appetite. And the power of sensitive.3. The first form of matter is light. "The light which enables us to discern natural forms. II Sent. to hearing. Bonaventure will take us also into the world of the human subject and moving from there. the human person comes into contact external world is clearly recognized by the Seraphic Doctor. But the power of the mind is not limited to the divided into the cognitive and the affective powers. 5 (V. 227). (II. 11 C. 300). power. the soul comprehends sensible objects. the doors through its vegetative power. and since rejection and desire are affective. with solid and the world. is a question scholars of the newly developed universities. retained. As the above citation from the Breviloquium indicates. . immaterial principle informing the body. to the vapor reSUlting from a mixture of air. the vestibule of intellectual knowledge. it is endowed with the additional power The human subject. The sensible origin of our ideas about the Through the sense faculties. as it were. must be In this context. sensation. it combines and sorts terrestrial ones. 12 Cfr. therefore." power. 2. Now. the human subject is power of sensation. 16. with the material universe. is situated as an embodied spirit in the universe of corporal realities. the fifth essence. and growth. Brevi!. 9.32 (PL 34. o:PM Commentary on the Text 17 life. heat. the rational human soul must gather its knowledge of #3. retains what Augustine shows that the earth corresponds to touch. 466). material things through the senses. namely The soul confers not only being but life. Inferior light. The mind acquires knowledge of a particular aspect of a since the discernment of truth is cognitive. beginning with the impact that the physical realities have on the From there. therefore. the soul comes into that correspond to the five principal corporal elements of contact with luminous and colored bodies. These are. the soul is the principle of gener.. In the third book of his De Genesi ad litteram. n.. It therefore possesses a vegetative power. This ~egm~ With a mate~lal object and takes place by the aid of corporal one single principle of life possesses a plurality of faculties and light. subject." says Theologians of the Middle Ages generally agreed that the soul Bon. In the Breviloquium he describes these hght extends to the lower operations of knowledge and brings from in the following way. How the mechanical of the action of the outside world on the sense organs of the human arts are "led back" to theology will be discussed later in #11-14.2 (V. to it has apprehended. This.381). air. combines and sorts what it has taste. It apprehends through the five external senses light. called 'lower' because senSe perception is an indivisible.3 (II. 3. the term inferior light refers to the entire realm united with an appropriate sense apparatus. 328). the soul as such is particular thing.3 (V.. formation of such percepts. as it were. the body "informed" by the soul perception is. Through its intellectual power. By the sense of Sight. By virtue of endowed with five senses. the major guilds in which the craftsmen of the age were organized. to smell. Here he brmgs to the fore the theory of light which we powers which Bonaventure reduces to three: the vegetative. to liquids. and the rational. . hearing.

This information reveals the fact that there are some that God knows or does. for example. 1S physics. 144). this knowledge by means of God. 474). and action in human life. it is knowledge brought to complete outward expression in the form of human activity. 15 /tin. fixed and objects in the world which are capable of imparting pleasure and unchangeable and existing in the mind of God from all eternity. normal exercise of these faculties. 2 (V. There is. are other objects which are capable of causing pain. divided into logic. 18 Eruditio Didascalica 1. 1045). the feeling is pleasant or agreeable. I> It is Bonaventure's conviction that the truth which COmes as if all the percepts were produced by a single sense.. 17 According to Hugh of st. Interior light. mathematics. 3 (V. 2. odor. or with ontolOgical truth. and social ethics. word. Considered as the principle of creation. an accompaniment is called a ratio. (IV. ls It is the problem of the Ideas and the theory of exemplary causalilty. If the stimulus is Bonaventure refers to a controversy among the metaphysicians normal. in some way. 14 Inn. cDnel. As the principle of knowledge. 19 Beyond the text of the De reducfione given here. interior because it inquires into the principles of knowledge and there is in the mind the power to assemble the percepts resulting natural truth which are. 2. I. efr.4. Victor. taste. points. I.5 (PL 176. the Idea enjoyment of their proper objects. with things in terms of their relation to the archetypes in the mind gation. It is divided into 13 IV Sent. Bonaventure here describes philosophy as a science which and the organization of these into judgments and statements. therefore. which he calls rational philosophy. and combines the impressions that we experience. 16ltin. a light or a sound that is too intense. They are perceived by human beings only by means of of the senses are colored extension. studies the truth of concepts and words cally. It is concerned certain knowledge which may be arrived at by means of investi.1< Sense pleasure is the satisfaction or repose things it strives to see. family ethics. of the natural. natural philosophy. individual ethics. It is. These archetypal forms. of thought or logical truth. Bonaventure divides philosophical truth into three kinds #4. o1'Jv{ Commentary on the Text 19 of combining percepts and discriminating between one percept and Bonaventure calls the light of philosophical knowledge another. The first.S. In other words. . 301). sound. also De danis 5. This is divided into physics.S. And the third is concerned with the truth of human activity. Though the acts of the individual senses are distinct. Every sense conveys information about the external world to therefore. 5 (V. or with the conformity of thought. The second is concerned Elsewhere he describes its distinctive character as the kind of with the truth of things.18 Zachary :Hayes. If the stimulus is concerning the ideal reasons. the difference between the Platonic and the Aristotelian views on the accompanying reaction is unpleasant and painful. 6 (V. a ratio intelligendi. 301). 474). 17 De danis 5. 390). 4. and rhetoric. among others. and extended the inner eye of the intellect which God deems worthy of the pressure or resistance. the which the faculties of a sentient being find in the possession or Idea is called an exemplar. 13 Light in whom we see the unchangeable truth of things. and The discussion of the interior light opens up the entire range of moral philosophy. It is guides the human person in the investigation of intelligible truth. which might also be called the truth philosophical diSciplines as known in the Middle Ages. or a ratio discernendi. This is very likely a reference to the abnormal. 2. 16 The reduction of Bonaventure himself was critical of Aristotle precisely on these sense knowledge to theology is discussed in #8-10. the by an interior sense faculty which is called the common sense.. The formal objects called Ideas. SO. This is done to light in the form of human knowledge rests finally in God. a ratio in the divine mind corresponding to everything the mind. Specifi. 6 0/. grammar. and meta- of the natural light of reason extends potentially to everything. connatural to the human from these acts and to employ them for self-direction as effectively mind. 2. internal or common sense which establishes these relations and Aristotle rejected the Platonic view on both issues.

This level of tru~. De genesi ad litt. 21 Brevil. lies beyond what reason can arrive at creation are followed by the seventh day of rest. #26). As light is the most noble substance in the natural order. 1. Here Bonaventure appeals to a classical this to three basic points: (1) the eternal generation and symbol of perfection. 21. 2 (n. of its sixth (=1).. Superior light. but with the forms of knowledge will be transcended. and all nature (efr. 311). 4 (V. 21 meaning. also. tropological is seen to relate to the moral life. This is the secular sciences or artes are related to the light qf Scripture. most elevated science in the hierarchy of human knowledge. and moral philosophy is which God made light. 297). the great Sabbath which knows no evening.e matter. During this life. II Sent. has a literal sense. i. and thus. and the analogical. Scripture. final destiny of things which has been made known to us through The six days of creation help us to understand the line of the historical revelation embodied in the Scriptures. He is now ready to undertake the reduction he has express the manifest wisdom of God.. 2• which come from the God of lights. efr. is the knowledge of Scripture. the number six is complete. 12. This science of the thinking on ti.. 4. logical. which the stage. so all the This light is related to the truths of salvation. The perfect number six" As regards the manner of approaching the Scriptures. 0 J'M Commentary on the Text 21 The reduction of rational philosophy is found in #15-18. 4. As the six days of Bonaventure's understanding. the six sciences or lumina. The to the eternal day. . By walking in the light of the first day. first of all. 3811 (PL 34.e. Corresponding to the first day on natural philosophy is found in #19-22. the allegorical.476). Bonaventure reduces whence it took its origin. natural order of the artes. 13 \'1. Bonaventure insists that all knowledge must serve the is seen to hold the believer open in hope to the promise of a fmal understanding of the Scriptures and especially of the anagogical reward. the of spiritual interpretation. for through it the illumination is referred back to God As regards the content of the Scriptures. and (3) the goal of life which is loving union with God. 205). The allegorical inter~retation. realities. the tropo. the argument in the De reductione. its third (=2) and its half (=3). They light of the Scriptures or theology. The Seraphic Doctor has set be the task of the reduction to show how these three truths. 12. The biblical creation account as found in the beginning of Genesis enters here with an analogical application of the six days of creation to the six branches of human knowledge into which the 22 Six is a number which consists of the sum of its aliquot parts. It ~ill movement of history is brought to rest. so is the knowledge of Scripture the #5. As all material creation began with the light of the first day. supernatural order falls on the first day of the week and the light Beyond this. prol. the life. An aliquot part is a part which divides a number exactly without remainder. signifies the perfection of God s creation" and of human knowledge Bonaventure is abundantly clear and in line with most medieval which finds its perfection in theology._ Augustine. The circle of creation closes incarnation of the Word or Son of God. that of the circle.20 ZacfUlrg :Jlayes. in are contained in it and brought to perfection by it. it was customary to distinguish three levels or forms which it sheds is needed to walk the rest of the week.ical Hence. This knowledge will arrive at the Light of Glory where all historical level has to do not with the nature of things as such. which is the first form of all material given in #23-25. 20 De donis 5. namely. #6-7.S. we have six ways starting point for the study of theology is to be found not in the data of acquiring knowledge. all of of reason but in the world of faith. 2. (ll.. Thus. is seen we shall walk in the true light of faith and will ultimately attain to refer principally to the development of the life of faith. namely. 1. concl. so the six forms of simply by studying the realities of the created order as such. fourfold light has been divided. And th~ anagog. 23 II Sent.297). (2) the pattern of human back on its beginning. lie hidden in all knowledge promised. that is.

The exercise of sense perception. This may be senses are coordinated by the internal senses. and that the senses try to avoid that which is most emphatically expressed in Christ may lie hiclden in the great imperfect or excessive in the object. medium. and in the use of what pertains to procreation. every argument of the De way in which material objects project a likeness of themselves at a reductione reflects this line of thought. It is this virtue that enables us to prepare within ourselves a fit dwelling A) Sense perception led back to theology (#8-10). from the orderly exercise of the external senses. consubstantial. O!PM Commentary on the Text 23 III. we may hidden footprints which lead to God. This prOcess preferred the Platonic doctrine of exemplarity over the more mvolved m all sense experience reminds us of the Uncreated Light materialistic world-view of Aristotle and.22 Zacfwrg 1layes. therefore. he sees . each of the arts and sciences is made to to a new level of wisdom. secular knowledge. The divine wisdom lies hidden in every form of Word of God in the soul. an analogy to the eternal generation and incarnation of the Word Bonaventure. and co~eterna~. and the union of the soul with God. a deep self-knowledge which opens shine forth. Already in the area of sense perception. We have seen also that there is philosophical quests of those who had no knowledge of Christ. Just as the external senses avoid an Object bear on: (1) the eternal generation of the Word and his humanity. This may be a helpful way to look at the argument of which operate in such a way as to reconstruct the image of the the De reductione. As we will see in what follows. coequal. and the movement of thought takes us to the return that by means of these forms Or likenesses impressed first on the sense brings the creature back to its point of origin in a way that involves organ and leading eventually to a knowledge of the external object the fulfillment of the creature's potential. as we have seen above. which is unsuitable to them. Christ. Bonaventure always that we c~me to know the beings in the external world. so do the internal senses refrain from (2) the Christian order of life. a way in which the many sensations coming from the individual since all genuine truth somehow bears on Christ. Bonaventure finds Thus. The reduction as such (#8-25). It is exemplar. and (3) the union of the soul with evil by the exercise of temperance. If. has described his entire the pattern of human life. in essence. and the delight of sense perception. exemplarity. indeed. problem of exemplarity as the pre-eminent metaphysical question. they may be seen as mirrors in which most adequate answer is to be found only in the person of Jesus the generation of the Word eternally emanating from God the Christ who is the historical incarnation of the primal Word in and Father is reflected. that very Word who became incarnate in Jesus through which God has created all that is created. specifically by the extended even to those who in fact are aware of Christ and share common sense. the issue is that of the mation. ' metaphysics in terms of emanation. It is the role of this virtue to moderate the human drive for bodily delights in the use of food God. and consum. there is always the role of the that there is a sense organ available to receive the impression. Several implications follow from this. saw the which generates its Likeness or Splendor. There is always a point of distance and thus reveal their presence and their nature provided departure in the supreme Being. its generating theIr own likeness. the exercise. We need but to find the key to discover and The internal senses are coordinated under the power of unfold the appropriate analogies to allow that which is hidden to humility which is. As a result. place for the Word. Concerning the medium of perception. something of what is proper object. and drink. First. is well- the Christian faith 'but have never thought out the implications of ordered and manifests a similar operation of the internal senses their faith. th~n. Second. a metaphysics The exercise of sense perception alerts us to the pattern of that is ignorant of Christ runs the risk of being either incomplete or human life: We have seen above that each sense relates only to its distorted and in need of correction. all knowable objects have the power of But if the question emerges first as a philosophical question. In the consideration of the learn something of the right order of the Christian life.

and proportion. all delight is at some level related to proportion. is the external projection of sensible things. we see how the Wisdom of God are looking at a hierarchically structured cosmos in which the lies hidden in sense experience. and m It is against this background that we are invited to think of the terms of the delight in which sense experience culminates. depending on the degree to which that is agreeable to the human spirit. we will see something of the union of the soul with and of the end of both . and all that it can bring into the Son is equal with the Father. following the lead of Augustine. external to God in the created world. the image of God may become delight which the human spirit will find in God. the Son is the Ars being outside itself. 300). If we think of the Creator God in an played a significant role in Augustine's De musica. Something of the classical. in its own proper activity. therefore. sweetness. color. etc. And at yet another level. as envisioned by Bonventure. And as the external object is produced. a masterpiece of art exists in the mind of the to the Pythagorean understanding of number. then we would say that all creatures exist in the together with the Platonic conviction that an object is beautiful to mind of God before they exist in their own right as realities the degree that it approximates its original archetype. and at times the other beauty. Before actually producing whole tells us of the generation and incarnation of the eternal a work of art. of the well-ordered spiritual life. harmony. We can hear in this an echo of that joy arts or the world of human workmanship or creativity.24 Zacful1Y :Hage5. The way in which a human artisan operates. proportion. From here it becomes clear why it is that the likeness of The created cosmos. finds the satisfaction of attaining its proper end. to the one who is thought of as the Supreme Artisan. in terms of the likeness begotten by place of each being in the cosmos is determined.the delight of the soul in union with God. . Thus. then. We back over the way we have come. he conceived a likeness of the divine itself thus giving expression to concludes that the supreme beauty is to be found in the Son because all that the divine is within itself. is the external Bonaventure's thought. etc. There it is found analogous way. the beautiful. For in that first Image the the created copy approximates the divine original. at times the Image. 24 all finite· things. orderly character of both the external and internal senses. 2. In trinitarian terms. the Creator of Now. the second person of the trinity is the basis for all the Word. and fragrance alerts the soul to the gives expression to something of the mystery of the divine. Hence. coming to the soul and delighting it with a certain what is at first internal to God. 5 (V. This Greek tradition artist before it is produced. This first Image of God as the Fountain of all beauty and of everythmg takes place at different levels. sense objects. mediated to him by the work of Augustine: projection of a model or exemplar which exists in the mind of the Beauty is related to proportion. by the object which makes sense experience possible. in most perfect harmony. God. in terms of ~e the degree to which it reflects the mystery of the divine. gives this a trinitarian would be led to say that from all eternity. In this sense. Art of God. Bona. every creature is at least a vestige of God. at times the Son. and is called the image well-ordered sense experience to an awareness of the true and final of God. beauty. The entire realm of creation. Greek canon of the aesthetic appears in Every work of art. smell. This divine self-expression is called at times Patris. Each sense. in tum. the internal senses take delight in the contemplation of The exterior light opens the entire world of the mechanical the good. with the Father. And if we look more intensely divinized by grace and is known as a similitude. In terms of the trinity. B) Mechanical arts led back to theology (#11-14). O!PM Commentary on the Text 25 If we consider the delight involved in the orderly experience of Word as likeness of the Father. the enjoyment of sound. and beauty is shared co-equally Bonaventure's view. the mind of God and christo logical interpretation. the artisan generates an interior image of what is to be produced outside. is related artist. Simply put. This form of which the soul will finally find in the fullness of its union with human activity fairly begs for an analogical explication in relation God for which it is created. one venture. the 24 Wn. at least in part. So we move with Bonaventure from the delight of Another level is more "like" the original. Similarly.

38. 27 II Sent. every artisan seeks praise. and humanity became hidden in the knowledge of the mechanical arts. 883). that if it were possible to make an external deleelabile. 3 (II. The pre-eminent instance of the external such qualities. and be at rest. the delivery of speech. 0 J'M Commentary on the Text 27 interior image remains within the mind of the artisan. 9. eonferens. The trinitarian background for Bonaventure's discussion is Bonaventure now looks at the work of art itself. II Ethic. . The primary metaphor is that of the inner word and the should be beautiful.26 Zackry :Hages. human will finds its complete satisfaction is Uncreated Love. Thus. "We must understand.2• The sole end in which the externally. is a . not of the beatific vision of God but of a form of knowledge between loving union with God through which the human being is that which we have of God in this world and that which we will transformed into the highest God-likeness. 25 efr. became visible in the form of Jesus of rational philosophy. 1. three aims which correspond to the bonum honestum. Charity. which he says clear. 4 (y. while remaining In a similar way. then. To such an extent. and unceasingly toil. And if something should happen that would human heart an innate longing for happiness. and enduring. image. we can see the rationale C) Rational philosophy led back to theology (#15-18). Like a work of art. Similarly. begotten from. creation. 305). and enduring. realized by virtue of the interior image which the artisan has of serve God. beautiful. Such knowledge of the artisan could only be honeslum. He thus shows the similarity between the fruit of universe. divine image remains within God when the external the actual work of art. or delight - as much like the interior image as possible. find delight in God."25 26 /tin. made itself visible and ultimate end. that With this in mind. he says. useful. Here Bonaventure is concerned with language Nazareth to lead us back to God. Bonaventure recalls how humanity was is God. 2. Here he appeals to Aristotle's three requisites for expression of the inner divine Word is found in the incarnation virtue and shows that they can make our spiritual workmanship where the divine Word assumes the reality of human flesh. he is concerned trinity. divine Wisdom can be found in the light of internal to the divine mind. el argues Bonaventure. Our first parents saw God in the light of From all of the foregoing. while This satisfaction is attained only by the possession of the highest remaining within the mind of the artisan. therefore. Aristotle. physical and spiritual workmanship. And that external object is the whole of the qualities. fund. Bonaventure refers to three appetitive object is produced. c. have in heaven. is to enjoy God. In speaking of the fruit of the artisan's efforts beyond that of the inner. the soul was that humanity might recognize in the Creator a bonum artisan would do so. hearer of speech. c. But the existence of make it impossible for the external image to know the internal such a desire would be absurd if its satisfaction were not pOSSible. of the incarnation of the eternal Word who. eonferens el deleetabile and thereby come to praise Cod. The outer word is. And so it is that in the production in terms of the speaker. God's purpose in endowing humanity with a rational image that was capable of knowing and lOVing the artisan. and the goal or the of every work of art there is contained an analogy to the Son of God. capable God. humanity. For this reason the eternal and invisible Word took on flesh in order to lead us back to God. and more specifi- with shOWing how the virtues of the Christian ordo vivendi reflect cally. will. and in the state of Paradise. In the production of a work of Now the human artisan attempts to produce an external work art. Thus. human external word. This was lost with sin. this could be overcome if the internal image. it is by charity that we love created as an image of God. useful.all eternity and incarnate in the fulness of time. blinded. 3. the Supreme Good. then. Our end. constitutes our endP Our end. first of all. we see how the divine Wisdom lies contemplation. 4 and X Ethic. There is within the the external object. advantage. The inner Word in God is the second person of the life should have three similar qualities.

Thus. in the human mind. Looking at both of these. dr. intelligent beings. they prepare same Word remained internal to God as God's immanent self. The analogy with The many material beings of nature are the result of the the trinity and the incarnation is clear. for Bonaventure. 1. And wherever dwell among us so as to become known to human beings. 21ff. the divine mind expresses by a with Christ. nature attains its perfect form. says Bonaventure. as it were. . measure. These formal causes exist at three From another perspective. externally in the form of language and speech. These may be called also the seminal forms. De Magistro. 567): for translation and commentary. are its full development. 31 De trinitate VI. Z. but the ordered human life which is the concern of revelation. 107}. Not only is there generation and productivity in matter. the higher form in matter tion. op.32 with the formal causes of things. In this way it becomes capable of receiving the Turning to the actual delivery of speech. matter to receive other forms. 10. o!PM Commentary on the Text 29 The inner word in human beings is the word of consciousness. Thus. 29 Augustine. 11. the intellect generates the divine mind. related to modesty. beauty. 30 I Sent. What Manner of Man? Sermons on Christ by St. and uprightness of inten. These inner words find expression intellectual or abstract forms. " Hex.. levels: in material beings themselves. truth. union with God. Hayes. Bonaventure singles forin of an organic compound. He here appeals to the forms and the intellectual forms. only the infinite being of God but also all the possible ways in which God can and will communicate being outside the divinity It is the same form of reasoning that leads natural philosophy itself. Christus unus omnium magister. Senna IV. 31 Now this divine self-image would not be a complete image unless it represented not D) Natural philosophy led back to theology (#19-22). the purpose of speech wholly internal act the Word of divine self-expression which is implies a goal which has a certain analogy with the final goal of the perfect reproduction of the divinity itself. 32. we of organization which would permit its further development. 1 \'/. purity of affection. As the inner word of the development of seminal principles with which God endowed mind takes the form of the voice that it may be known to other matter from the beginning. Hayes. can see an analogy between the delivery of speech and the well. 181). the "inner teacher. an idea which can be traced back to St. and style. and in From out of the well of consciousness. to teach. the thoughts or internal words. efr. by a series of progressive changes. is concerned or Exemplar of all created things as well. Thus. order.28 of the elements. is to express a of intellectual generation. Then. and. with greater reason threefold purpose of speech cannot be accomplished unless the should we expect to find it in the Creator" in Whom exist the ideal human speaker be united with the divine source of truth. 11 (PL 42. so did the Eternal Word assume flesh and matter or principles of growth and development. It is for this reason human life. 9. These seminal principles are. 931). 38 (PL. Bonaventure concludes that "if Augustinian tradition of the "inner teacher" to argue that this such productivity characterizes the creature. 1216).28 Zacliarg :Hayes. in tum. an organic substance through the mediation of light there arises These parallel three qualities that should characterize our moral the form of an organic body in which the seminal principle attains life: namely.30 Thus. out of the intermediate forms of out three qualities of human speech: fittingness. namely. the seminal thought. 331). principles of all things. intellectual forms flow out of the inner word of the mind by means The purpose of speech. It is in the harmonious blending of these three characteristics developing when the lower form has brought matter to the degree that Bonaventure finds the pattern of a Christian life. matter first receives the form expression. and the ideal forms. Senna II (IX. 1. Bonaventure argues that the perfection of the universe cannot be attained as long as the appetite 28 In Nativitate Domini. 1. And yet the these forms are present and operative in reality. 1974) 57ff. cit. active forces in person conceiving it. For translation and commentary. and still does not depart from the mind of the Augustine."2' Thus. called the ars omnipotentis Dei by Augustine. Bonaventure. These. and to persuade. 13 CO. Bonaventure (Chicago. So the Word is both the representation of God and the model to theology: Natural philosophy. (I.

we principles. the soul. The sun is the the proper description of a straight line. the universe is realized. By its life-giving heat. as the moon rules the night by reflected of the desire of matter for its ultimate form. insight of a cosmic christology. also can be seen in relation to theology. 4.. each has an active desire for union with the other. The Latin given by the editors is: Rectum vero illud. To 'understand his with a certain ethical or moral weight. Bonaventure sees upright. which deals principally with rectitude or and the world in Christ is the fulfillment of the deepest potential justice. cuius medium 33 Brevil. the heavenly bodies aid in the production of End. must receive from Christ the light of other.30 Zacfiary :Hayes. This can be a geometric description. and the human body. . As a plant can But even here the highest perfection of the universe would be germinate and grow only if air. in tum. It is part of the way in which he processes provides a useful metaphor for the relation of Christ. so the soul can inteilectual principles are united in one person with that nature be united with God only when similar life-giving elements are which contains the ideal principles that the fullest perfection of present at the level of the spiritual life. seeds. It can also be used something of the pattern of Christian life. and imitate the When they come together in the form of a human being. Christ is systematic trinitarianism. or a middle person in the life of the trinity. Victor into his own Mary. prooem. The Latin word rectus means simply straight or In discussing the question of causality. and the other saints to the life of the human soul. lacking. the highest of the heavenly bodies. From its place in the heavens it straight if its mid-point is in perfect alignment with its two gives light to the moon and the stars. The Quaracchi editors refer to Plato in Parmenides. Generation by seminal causes takes place Plato. This becomes clear in argument one must recall the physics.. and /tin. II Sent. extremis utrisque e regione est. 2. As the sun. A line is said to be highest of the heavenly bodies. movement. infused grace. It is only when a nature and as the body receives life from the soul only by means of the containing the seminal principles and a nature containing the moisture. 300). For the first definition. warmth. do not stand in neutral juxtaposition next to each live and operate in grace. if it is to Bonaventure. rules material body with a rational soul. adjective rectus. and union of elements caused by fitting that there be a mid-point in the line between Beginning and their power and heat. It depends on through the beneficent light of the heavenly bodies. If in God there is Beginning and End. The entire discussion of the created cosmos so that a cosmos without Christ would not involves a certain play on the Latin noun rectitudo and the related have reached its fullness. this form of virtues of the saints. and trees live and blossom. Bonaventure offers what may well be seen as a very succinct statement of the central E) Moral philosophy led back to theology (#23-25). animals. so too. This would be the fulfillment the day with splendor. This then becomes a metaphor for the divine makes the plants. o!PM Commentary on the Text 31 for form which lies within matter does not result in the union of a their fruits. "By trinitarian life. The idea of a minerals. But the person who stands at the center the light of the soul who by his grace awakens the seminal principles of the virtues dormant in it and enables them to bear 34 Cfr. the role of Bonaventure's discussion of three definitions which can be given to light in his understanding of the physical cosmos which we the word right. then it is reason of the pressure. 1 (V. heat. Rather. 2 (V. for still more is possible. shall see there the union of the soul with God. and as the stars adorn the heavens. argues light. and vital energy or breath of life. note 11 (11. live under the protection of Mary. 34 The primary meaning here is geometrical. appropriated the vision of Richard of St.4). 241). What has happened between God Moral philosophy. Body and soul. Its power straightness or rectitude which. and rain penetrate the soil. and specifically. it extreme points."" middle person had been part of Bonaventure's trinitarian theOlogy This relation of the heavenly bodies to all the material from early in his career. he refers to a text Of discussed briefly above. will be a metaphor for the extends even beneath the earth where it produces the metals. being contains both the seminal principles and the intellectual And if we consider the medium of the union in formal causes. Thus in paragraph #20. vegetables.

and power can the human person be said to be fully of the Son and the incarnation of the Son m tune. perfect rectitude requires confo~ty . that the d. (II. If one takes into account his convictions mean" standing upright" with feet on the ground and the head at concerning these premises and their relation to exemplaristic meta- the highest point. The symbolized by the head at the summit of the upright human being. the distortions it has brought with it. loving union with the mystery Borrowing another metaphor from Scripture.is m~asured. 3fl). All is taken up into the journey of the human spirit to it is not humankind as we find ourselves empirically in history. Only when all the to God. left behind. Commentary on the Text 33 32 zacliary :JIayes. This is the issue of sin and cultivation of the intellectual life is not a goal in itself. upright. Nothing is description of humanity as Bonaventure sees things. But beyond this..vme will be made known. Thus. the question of rectitude which is the pnmary conc~rn human. And it is upright when the intellect is in harmony with the divine truth. the central logic of this work becomes clear. be heard echoing through the present text. Thus. Conclusion (#26). IV."35 Here Bonaventure takes this to christological sort. God gave a threefold sign of the divine will in the commandments. Here Bonaventure engages in yet another spirituality and education. the word right describes somethmg that awarness of the final end of humanity which is the concern of is in conformity with the norm by which it. The pursuit of knowledge and the life bent over and incapable of seeing.th the will of God. "something is called even a word in this text that appears superfluous. the human being will not only be right. power is in harmony with the loving creative power of God. creation back it and draws the human spirit above itself. . For human theology.th the impressed by his exceptional power of synthesis. present text is an outstanding example. in another sense. when moral philos~phy is One cannot read Bonaventure for long without being deeply viewed from this perspective. or the Word -is also the inte~ediary by the high-point of the human person (=apex mentis). and the dominating are the marks of the skillful systematic theologian. It is in this sense This background from the earlier writings of Bonaventure can that theology is described as a practical science. it stands in analogy w. In this case. Bonaventure says of God whose goodness. spiritual powers are in alignment with the divine truth. the prohibitions. And the whole is 1I right when its summit is raised upward. Unfortunately. prooem. When Bonventure brings his work to a resounding conclusion with an this is the case. So it is that the third definition of rectitude elicits an But. seen as a dimension of the human journey into God. worked out here with remarkble consistency and coherence. There is hardly a line or In the case of the third definition of right. 3S II Sent. Here it would b: useful to shaped by theological convictions which have been hammered out refer to Bonaventure's understanding of the text of EccleSIastes 7:30: over many years. but will epilogue that might well be seen as a charter for Christian also be ruler and king. and beauty have been so richly that instead of standing upright as just described. deeper wisdom and into ever richer. The case of the revealed pattern of life which is the concern of theology. beings. the upright In the first of his Collations on the Hexaemeron. truth. therefore. It was necessary. These are primarily of a trinitarian and a "God made humankind upright. and counsels. o!I'M Since God transcends any human possibility. here means of whom God reaches out as Creator of the uruv~rse. it is necessary that of the trinity -the Son.:. This may be seen as the ideal of God's creation is drawn into this remarkable vision. we go through poured out on the created world. These the will is in harmony with the divine good. of moral philosophy opens us to the visiO~ o~ the eternal generation goodness. . Bonaventure posture of the human person with head at the top stands as a shows in considerable detail how Christ is the center of all symbol of the final destiny of humanity: loving union with God. same eternal middle person is the one who would become ~carnate be brought into union with the mystery of the God that transcends in time so as to serve as the mediator needed to lead. but is best . Everything that pertains to the world play on words: rectus/rector/rex. a human being is genuinely physics.

.34 zacfwry 9lages. a union which takes place through charity . the De reductione is the most compact statement of Bonaventure's vision to be found in the entire body of his writings. and resurrechon the created world has been restored to a wholeness lost by the Fall of Adam. 37 Hex. 17 (V. The incarnate Word is the Mediator through whom human beings are united to God in grace. mystical union with the mystery of divine love.36 The one who is from all eternity the central person of the trinity assumes flesh and becomes the center of the create~ world and its history. in every human sense experience. God may be honored. death. It is pre-eminently a Wisdom-theology. 10/. a charity The Latin Text without which all knowledge is vain. namely. By thus aligning all the human sciences in relation to the final goal of human life as revealed in the Scriptures. By this we mean that it unfolds a way not only of knowing but above all a way of living out the fullness of the human. Viewed from this.329-335). perspective. Bonaventure has prOVided a firm basis for describing the goal of all knowledge and intellectual culture in the following words: "that faith may be strengthened." "De reductione artium ad theologiam" The Text in Translation On the Reduction Of the Arts to Theology 36 Hex. spiritual journey into God. 0 JIM things. and consolation may be derived from union of the Spouse with the beloved. for in Christ are contained all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge. The eternal Word is the principle through whom God creates all things. a transforming. Whoever desires to return to God must return by and through the mystery of Christ. The inspired Word is the principle by which we arrive at Christian wisdom. We can read the De reductione as the answer to the third question of Bonaventure's metaphysics: How do things return to God?37 All along the journey. Through his life. and in every form of human know- ledge. All knowledge and speculation is put into the service of the final goal of human life. the Seraphic Doctor has discovered signals of that divine wisdom that lies hidden in all of nature. character may be formed.. 1. 332) .

but at the same time. truth. therefore. or the light of grace and of Sacred Scripture. Since this is. or the light of philosophical knowl- men superius. If its purpose is to afford consolation and delight. armatura. or omnem modurn ludendi continens. agriculture. medicine. In hoc verbo tangitur origo omnis illuminationis. Et illud septuplicatur secundum septem artes mechanicas. writes James in the first chapter of his epistle. the art of producing plays. Jacobus in Epistolae suae primo capitulo. aut ad eommodum.is called the light of me- servilis est et degenerat a cognitione philosophiae. is to banish either sorrow or need. aut deleetat. quae. dicitur lumen artis mechanicae. This embraces every form of entertainment. sive sit in cantibus. poetry. it is dramatic art. from the God of Lights. If. quod illuminat ad figuras artificiales. in a certain sense. corresponding to the seven mechanical agricultura. of sense perception. sive in organis. ut dicamus. quartum et ultimum ond. it is either useful or enjoyable. sive aut est ad excludendam tristitiam. tertium respectu veritatis intelleetualis. hunting. Omne datum optimum et omne donum petfeetum desursum est. quas ture than philosophical knowledge. which sheds its light on the forms of arti- quae quasi exterius sunt et propter supplendam corporis indigentiam facts . ing. scilicet lumen cognitionis exterior light. 1. or pantomime. aut That the above-mentioned arts are sufficient is shown in the following indigentiam. or the light sensitivae. it suggests that there are many lights which flow generously from that Licet autem omnis illuminatio cognitionis intema sit. and the dramatic art. with respect to intellectual respectu veritatis salutaris. scilicet internal. still we can reasonably distinguish what may be called an lumen artis mechanicae. Even though every illumination of knowledge is rationabiliter distinguere. according to the words of Horace: Etiterum: Poets desire either to be useful or to please. It is divided into seven. possumus tamen fontal source of light. servile and of a lower na- exterius. Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above. as it were. Primum igitur lumen. scilicet lumen cognitionis philosophicae. this light can rightly be called ex- assignat Hugo in Didascalico. et simul cum hoc This text speaks of the source of all illumination. our comfort. So the first light. lu.things which are. secundum respectu formae The first light illumines with respect to the forms of artifacts. quae est ars ludorum.36 37 De Reductione Artium ad Theologiam On the Reduction of the Arts to Theology 1. how- . sive in gesticulationibus corporis. instrumental music. or the light of mechanical art. the third. And again: One who combines the useful with the delightful wins uni- versal applause. an interior light. . external to the human person and repertae. secundum illud Horatii: way.Quarum arts listed by Hugh in his Didasealieon.Si vero ordinatur including song. 2. namely. quod est lumen exterius. sic est theatriea. coming down deseendens a Patre luminum. and a superior light. with respect to saving truth. the sec- naturalis. quae sunt scilicet lanificium. scilicet lumen gratiae et sacrae Scripturae. the fourth and last. Omne tulit punctum qui miscuit utile dulci. sive in figmentis. with respect to natural forms. venatio. Si est ad solatium et delectationem. terior. lumen interius. Quoniam omnis ars mechanica aut est ad sola. armour-mak- sufficientia sic accipitur. lumen inferius. sive aut prodest. tium. theatrica. edge. its purpose. navigatio. recte potest dici chanical art. Primum lu. . men illuminat respectu figurae artifieialis. 2. an inferior light. weaving. insinuatur multiplicis luminis ab illa fontali luce libera1is emanatio. aut delectare poetae. q~ia quodam modo intended to supply the needs of the body . Every mechanical art is intended either for our consolation or for Aut prodesse volunt. navigation. medicina.

If it is a matter of shelter. It is Si autem est in utriusque adminiculum. sic est lanificium. . or with the amputation of members. quod multiplication of crops. sive decisione membrorum. hoc potest esse dupliciter: or of stone or wood. et sic est medicina. Thus the suffi- ciency (of the mechanical arts) is evident. sive pertinentium ad operimentum. If the light or bright- tis eminentia et quadam puritate. sive ligno. et sic est naviga/io. or for food. sic est venatio. aut with animals. coquos et caupones. sive ex quocumque metallo. is the only one of its kind. or it can aid in pertinet ad pistores.Si quantum ad uperimentum. Vel aliter: si in two ways. et sic est anna/ura sive ars fabrilis.Theatrica autem est unica. Or again. two ways. an art which includes every conceivable way of preparing foods. in which case it is navigation. sive art which includes all forms of commerce in articles intended for shelter curatione vulnerum. This is rightly called the inferius. Oenominatur autem ab unius the various ways of preparing food. If a mechanical art is helpful with respect to food. quod recte dicitur of natural forms. et sic est sensus visus. Secundum lumen. if it is concerned ad ciborum genituram et multiplicationem. This is the task of bakers. et sic est its own perfection and in a certain purity. can accomplish its purpose by providing either shelter or food. Either it serves to fill a need. aut quantum ad alimentum. the production of every instrument made of iron or of any other metal. an art which includes lapide.in . elementorum in tertio super Genesi hoc modo: quia lumen sive lux Saint Augustine bases the adequacy of the senses on the nature of the faciens ad distinctionem rerum corporearum aut est in suae pruprieta. or with something of a strong and hard material. potions. It has five divisions Corre- rum sufJicientiam sumit Augustinus secundum naturam luminis sponding to the five senses. and that because of its nobil- defectum supplendo. this pertains to the sense of . it is farming. whether it is concerned with the preparation of drugs. In the third book of his work On Genesis. 3. in which case it is agriculture. which case it is medicine. for we take our nourishment from vegetables and from iuvat quantum ad cibum. et sic est venatio. this can be sic est agricultura. light present in the elements in the following way. sive unguentorum. Viewed in this way. and takes place by the aid of corporal light. hoc potest esse dupliciter: aut iuvat quantum animals. it is hunting. it will be aut illud est de materia molli et leni. aut sensibilibus. sive ad alimentum. hoc est duplidter: aut named from only one of these activities. and innkeepers. et sic est auditus. in which dura et forti. et tunc est agricultura. quia cognitio sensitiva ab inferiori incipit et fit beneficio lucis inferior light because sense perception begins with an inferior Object corporalis. or it serves by removing impediments and ills of the body. drinks. it is hunting. sive which case it is armour-making or metal-working. sub qua continetur omnis mercatio ity and courtly character.38 De Reductione Artium ad Theologiam On the Reduction of the Arts to Theology 39 ad commodum sive profectum secundum exteriorem hominem. with the healing of wounds. a mechanical art can be useful in quantum ad dbi multiplicem praeparationem. it potest esse aut quantum ad uperimentum. aut removendo If it is an aid in acquiring either shelter or food. quae continet omnem case it is weaving. hoc ever. helping in the acquisition of either. or by aut quantum ad utriusque adminiculum.Quo. Si vero iuvat quantum ad cibum. parte solum propter quandam excellentiam et curialitatem. in armaturam fabricatam sive ex ferro. ·sive consistat. quia dbamur vegetabilibus. sive potionum. sicut est chirurgia. is the light of sense knowledge. Et hoc quintuplicatur secundum quinque sensus. Si quantum ad vegetabilia. or ointments. Either it can aid in the production and continet omne genus praeparandi cibos et potus et sapores. est lumen cognitionis sensifivae. aut de materia concerned either with something of a soft and light material. Et sic patet sufficientia. quae two ways with respect to food. and delicacies. this may be in impedimentum et nocumentum. an confectione electuariorum. it is intended for the comfort or betterment of the outer person. Ora- maticart. If it is concerned with vegetables. on the other hand. cooks. aut commiscetur ness which is responsible for the distinction of corporal things exists in aen. in . si quantum ad sensibilia. which provides light for the apprehension apprehendendas. quod illuminat nos ad fonnas naturales 3. In this latter case it is called surgery. The second light. aut vapori et sic est odoratus aut humori. .

ad veritatem scientiae et ad way. There is the truth of speech. As a result. and the truth of morals. et moralem. but Augustine approves this method. and final cau- cognoscendas causas essendi. it thrives in the nerves. and this enlightenment may be threefold: if it directs the motive power. in which case it is naturalis. in motivam. it naturam luminis habet. moralis veritatern. That this is sufficient can be under- morum. whose nature it is to be clear simplicia. aut terrae grossitiei. pro eo quod sensus and the fifth essence. sed hunc approbat Augustinus. which are connatural Et hoc triplicatur in rationalem. est lumen cognitionis philosophicae. it pertains to taste. Itaque cum quinque sint corpora mundi nature of light. et sic est moralis sive practica. et hoc per principia It is called interior because it inquires into inner and hidden causes disciplinarum et veritatis naturalis. aut rationes intelligendi. Tertium lumen. it is natural philosophy. Tertio and the order of human life. veritas reTUm et veritas nal. Rationalis veritatem sermonum considerat. intellectivam. it is discursive philosophy. the human person has five senses that correspond est natura determinata. et rationabilis videtur. the medium. it pertains to touch. ut homo orones and penetrable. Spiritus enim sensibilis sight. or to know the principles of understanding. hoc autem potest esse tripliciter: aut in quantum regit in which case it is physics. hu- . the four elements similitudinem et convenientiam organi et obiecti. Est enim veritas sennonum. 4. quorum natura est clara pertains to smell. The light of philosophical knowledge illumines the intellect itself veritatem doctrinae. Rational philosophy considers the truth considerare rationem causae efficientis. ut moral or practical philosophy. We may look at this in a different way. naturalem. or to learn the order of living. natural philosophy. and it seems reasonable. and the object. since there are five correspondentes. quoniam illuminat aut ad find in the most high God efficient. medii et obiecti. and this light is received in these five senses according formas corporeas posset percipere. Now since the sensitive spirit partakes of the et minorem depurationem. finalis. quinque sensus habet illis to the greater or lesser degree of its purity. if with vapor. through principles of learning and natural truth. quia interiores causas et latentes inquirit. and moral philosophy.40 De Reductione Artium ad Theologiam On the Reduction of the Arts to Theology 41 gustus. quia nulla fit apprehensio nisi per aliquam simple corporal substances in the world. quia "est causa subsistendi. et sic est tactus. This issue may be viewed in yet a third sic illuminetur homo ad veritatem vitae." so we may find these in the illumination modo sic: quia lumen cognitionis philosophicae illuminat ipsam of philosophy. sality. formal or exemplary. naturalis veritatem stood in the following way. if with the solidity of et pervia. the truth of rerum. aut in quantum regit se ipsam. aut in quantum regit interpretativam. the principle of intelligibility. et sic est moralis. since "God is the cause of being. if it directs itself. between the sense-organ and the object. et sic est physica. et sic est which case it is logic. no apprehen- ad hanc sufficientiam simul concurrunt correspondentia ex parte sion would be possible without a certain similarity and correspondence organi. dicitur." the truth of conduct. quia since. et in istis quinque sensibus multiplicatur secundum maiorem earth. quae homini naturaliter sunt inserta. if it is mixed with the air. scilicet quatuor elementa et quinta essentia. the truth of things. it pertains to hearing. Est et alius modus sumendi sufficientiam to these so that the person might be able to perceive all bodily forms. if with fluid. et sic est logica. which enlightens the human person in the perscrutandas. ratio intelligendi et ardo vivendi. unde in nervis viget. if it directs the interpretive power. The third light. . and moral philosophy. quod ideo interius investigation of intelligible truths. aut ordinem vivendi. formalis sive exemplaris. There is another way of deter- mining the adequacy of the senses. Just as we sic in ipsa illuminatione philosophiae.Vel aliter: sicut in summo Deo est things. natural. because of the simultaneous corre- spondence of the elements on the part of the organ. quod illuminat ad veritates intelligibiles 4. morum. is the light of philosophical knowledge. . because of the well-defined nature of each sense. And so. et of speech. namely. sensuum. There is a threefold division of this light into ratio- potest accipi sic. it is moral philosophy. which enlightens the mind to discern the causes of being. et sic est sermocinalis.Et sufficientia to the human mind.

to reveal one's thought. tertia ad movendum. in as far as God is the Beginning. quae cording to natural powers and seminal principles. et sic dicuntur rationes formales. and rhetoric. metaphysics is nes ideales. Quod licet unum sit secundum intellectum litteralem. mathematica est circa vided into physics in the proper sense. to God. . scilicet in monasticam. in comparatione ad materiam. judges through true speech. This light is called ad superiora ducit manifestando quae sunt supra rationem. quod ideo dicitur superius. movet expressing. another to greater faith. metaphysica. in tum. mathematics consid- reducit ad unum primum principium. proceeded. in rela- in physicam proprie dictam. Since reason apprehends through appropriate speech. quod illuminat ad veritatem 5. but comes down from the "God of Lights" by inspiration. est search. et sic intellectuales. they are called intellectual. respectu familiae et respectu multitudinis the metaphysicians concerning these ideal causes. it Rursus. 5. passiones circa' sermonem considerat. vel odium: Since there ~ ~ reasons why one might express)tht~u~ ideo sermocinalis sive rationalis philosophia triplicatur.42 De Reductione Artium ad Theologiam On the Reduction o/the Arts to. licet concerned with the knowledge of all beings according to their ideal inter metaphysicos de huiusmodi rationibus idealibus nonnulla fuerit causes. circa cognitionem omnium entium. et hae tripliciter possunt considerari: vel in speech. and metaphysics. While . and the state. logicam et rhetoricam. quarum prima est ad exprimendum. can be viewed from divinam sapientiam. Now the fourth light. et exemplar. and also because it is not acquired by human re- descendit. the End~ Postremo. the third with persuading. ideo moralis philosophia triplicatur. quia regimen virtutis motivae tripliciter habet attendi. in mathematicam et in metaphysicam.:". The per sermonem omatum: hinc est. Quartum autem lumen. personal. and the truth of doctrine. the second with teaching. However.owl- bet apud se.Sibns: ut apprehensivam. there has been some controversy among scilicet respectu vitae propriae. quoniam intellectus noster dirigi habet in iudicando is appropriate that these three sciences consider these three qualities secundum rationes fonnales." J amplius moveat ad credendum.tI))J:l\o:v. scilicet in speech what one has m mmd: namely. since our intellect must be guided by formal principles comparatione ad animam.e grammaticam. and the Exemplar. and persuades through eloquent speech. Therefore natural philosophy is subdi- cundum virtutes naturales et rationes seminales. ut scilicet notuffi faciat mentis suae conceptum. secunda. Since the direction of the motive power is to be considered in oeconomicam et politicam. modum praedictum. et etiam superior because it leads to higher things by revealing truths which quia non per inventionem. quae distinguuntur secundum triplicem a threefold way. the second. of. vel ut edge. is the light of sacred Scripture. iudicat per verum. vel in Again. Prima respicit rationem lows that discursive or rational philosophy has three sub-divl. subiectae. b). the third.Theolagy Et quoniam tripliciter potest a1iquis per sennonem exprimere quod ha. a quo exierunt secundum ratio. and political. or to arouse love or hatred in anothel')'ft:fOi- secunda ad docendum. the family. ita quod tion to the mind. et sic ideales: ideo naturalis philosophia triplicatur three perspectives: in relation to matter. quod haec triplex scientia has tres first considers reason as apprehending. So considerationem forrnarum abstrahibilium secundum rationes it is that physiCS treats of the generation and corruption of things ac- intelligibiles. est lumen sacrae Scripturae. ers abstract forms in terms of their intelligible causes. logic. they are called ideal. namely. mathematics. as persuading. that is. these principles. vel in comparatione ad in making a judgment. wisdom. tracing them back to the one first Principle from which they controversia. sicut apparet ex ipsis nominibus. which provides illumination with re- salutarem. the meaning of which is clear from the very names used to deSignate them. vel ut moveat ad amorem. and in relation to divine physica consideratio est circa rerum generationem et corruptionem se. manity is enlightened as regards the truth of life. as judging. they are called formal. Et quia grammar. sive ad Deum in quantum principium finis. sed per inspirationem a Patre luminum transcend reason. Of these sciences the first is concerned with ratio apprehendit per sermonem congruum. tertia. ut iudicativam. domestic. as regards the life of the individual. quia spect to saving truth. ut motivam. the truth. so there is a threefold division of moral philosophy corre- sponding to this: namely.

Ri- chard. scilicet allegoricus. And as all those ad cognitionem sacrae Scripturae ordinantur. present life there are six illuminations. But Hugh excels in all three. by Dionysius. and the anagogical. tertium finem utriusque. lu. Et ideo sex illuminationes sunt light of the mechanical arts. Richardus in contemplatione. the third. the second.Et sicut to the creation of the first day. they are ordinantur. these six illuminations may very fittingly be traced senarium formationum sive illuminationum. the light of rational philosophy. The effort of the doctors should be aimed at the secundum maxime docet Gregorius. quem exterius threefold. secun. sunt tamen sex eius differ. For Anselm excels in reasoning. and the union of the soul with God. the allegorical. for all knowledge will be destroyed. it is enim sacrae Scripturae libris praeter litteralem sensum. at the study of the second. and they have their evening. in its spiritual and mystical sense. meanmg: namely. a day which knows no evening. ut cognitio sacrae SCripturae primae formationi. the light of sacred Scripture. Richard follows omnia haec. concipitur triplex sensus spiritualis. the light of in vita ista et habent vesperam. so too all these branches of illa perficiuntur. by which we are taught how docet. Primum respicit fidem. Bernard. sic omnes istae cOgnitiones on with the rest. by Gregory. that Anselmus sequitur Augustinum. Unde omnis nostra cognitio in cognitione sacrae Scripturae contained in it. Unde valde apte possunt reduci sex istae illuminationes ad 7. one after the other in proper order. that of the preachers. for m all the books of sacred Scripture. quae vesperam non habet. Primum maxime docetAugustinus. The first studium doctorum. they are perfected by it. Circa primum insudare debet the pattern of human life. 6. 7. scilicet Christi aeternam generationem et incarnationem. scil. Therefore. And therefore they will be followed by a seventh day of rest. lumen philosophiae ~amely. in preaching. quod licet ex primaria divisione 6. moralis. by which we qualiter est Deo adhaerendum. In omnibus in its literal ~ense it is one. in contemplation. et anagogicus. in quibus factus est back to the six days of formation or illumination in which the world mundus. quia omnis scientia destruetur. Hugo vero follows Augustine. lumen philosophiae rationalis. Unde tota sacra Scriptura haec tria are t~ught how to live. to cling to God. there is a threefold spiritual quo docemur. . et ideo natural philosophy. and the third with the tium studium contemplativorum. the naturalis et lumen philosophiae moralis. so that the knowledge of sacred Scripture would correspond formationi lucis. lumen cognitionis sensitivae. nonetheless there are six differentiations of this light: men artis mechanicae. quid sit credendum de Divinitate et humanitate. Anselm Bernardus in praedicatione. et mediante illa ad aeternam illuminationem knowledge are ordered to the knowledge of sacred Scripture. Dionysius. et sic deinceps per ordinem.44 De Reductione Artium ad Theologiam On the Reduction o/the Arts to Theology 45 tamen triplex secundum sensum mysticum et spiritualem. in ea clauduntur et in lights had their origin in a single light. Therefore. The first is taught chiefly Richardus sequitur Dionysium. still. circa ter. the illumination ofglory. icet illuminatio gloriae. in the succedit eis septima dies requietionis. beyond the literal mean- verba sonant. of the cont~platives. circa secundum studium praedicatorum. From what has been said up to now it can be concluded quadruplex sit lumen desursum descendens. that. et maxime quantum ad intellectum anagogiae. by Augustine. according to our primary division. Therefore all our knowledge should . Therefore. is concerned with faith. above is fourfold. scilicet was made. the second with morals. Bernard follows Gregory. respondeat. the light coming down from entiae: scilicet lumen sacrae Scripturae. the light of sense perception. quo docemur lieve concerning the divinity and humanity. by which we are taught what to be- quo docemur. and so omnes illae ab una luce habebant originem. dum mores. quia Anselmus in ratiocinatione. ultimate goal Of both. Bernardus sequitur Gregorium. namely. three truths: namely. per eternal illumination by means of it. that is. and the light of moral philosophy. the whole of sacred Scripture teaches these endi ordinem et Dei et animae unionem. to the formation of light. the moral. and they are ordered to the debet habere statum. ing w~ich the words express outwardly. viv. the eternal generation and incarnation of Christ. quomodo vivendum sit. Ex praedictis colligitur. at the study of the third. tertius vero docet Dionysius study of the first.

can be known by the inner senses of our mind. . completus est senarit:S. Indeed. intuebimur ibi Verbum aeternaliter generatum et ex tem. quod nunquam fuerat always begets a similitude since this pertains to the fullness of its na- prius. In a similar way. is necessary for per iIlam perceptionem fit reductio ad obiectum mediante similitudine each of the senses. quod a summa mente. quae cognoscibilis est results a new perception.ana?oglcal understanding of Scripture through which any illumi- nation IS traced back to God from whom it took its origin. unitus not always present to the senses. cognoscendi sively with the knowledge of sensible objects.Per hunc gan and the sense faculty. of knowledge." He was united as never before to a mind and to flesh and assumed a human form. which is concerned exclu- sensibilium. the medium of knowledge. vel exemplariter eS. et per ilium orones mentes nostrae reducuntur ad Deum. quae tota versatur circa cognitionem consider the illumination of sense knowledge. still it is the nature of the object that it est menti et cami et hominis formam accepit. quae ture. and an Offspring. If we consider the medium pore incamatum. we receive the Simili- tude of the Father into our hearts. dum se ipsum exercet ad ld. and does not claim what modum tunc sensus cordis ordinate vivit. . et hoc generaliter. Let us see. is foreign to it. whether in reality or in terms of exemplarity. shrinks from what may harm it. cognoscendi oblectamentum.-"Ie is completed. thus concupiscentiam: et dum non usurpat sibi alienum. 8.Si consideremus medium ments to be considered: namely. et cum unitur. .t necesse inomni tive faculty except by means of a similitude which proceeds from the sensu.Per h~c proper object. qualiter aliae iIluminationes cognitionum 8. Through this perception the mind is led back interioribus sensibus mentis nostrae. the c".46 De Reductione Artium ad Theologiam On the Reduction of the Arts to Theology 47 quem iIluminatio refertur in Deum. Through Him all Our minds are led back to God when. et iIle postmodum. contra negligentiam. quantum of sense perception unless it is brought into contact with the sense or- est de se. In the same way. no sense object can stimulate the cogni- parente. for each sense acts in relation to its obiectum. Et licet non semper obiectum sentiatur. Videamus igitur. quae egreditur ab obiecto. avoiding negligence. contra superb!am. aetemaliter emanavit similitudo. how the other illuminations of knowl- reduci habent ad lumen sacrae Scripturae. intuebimur ibi 9. unde habuit ortum. gignit similitudinem. we shall ordinem vivendi. realiter. the . of knowledge. does not complete the act iIla. semper tamen. co~tra when it acts in reference to that which is proper to its nature. dum refugit sibi nocivum. to the object by means of that similitude. ubi tria est considerare: cognoscendi medium. when it refrains from what is harmful. thus avoid- . when "the fulness of time came. an Image. If we now consider the exercise of sense knowledge. et eration. however. and particularly in completus est circulus. which iIlam similitudinem Patris per fidem in corde suscipiunt. Si vero consideremus sensum exercitium. the inner sense lives in an orderly way ad quod est. through faith. cum est in sua completione. the exercise cognoscendi. from all eternity there has emanated a Similitude. 9. And this procession by gen- nisi Wliatur cum organo et virtute. we shall see there the Word begotten fro~ all eternity nisi mediante similitudine. let us illuminatione cognitionis sensitivae. First. Illa autem similitudo non tacit completionem m actu sentiend" object as a child proceeds from its parent. Unusquisque enim sensus se exercet circa proprium see in it the pattern of human life. cum venit plenitudo temporis. Et ideo ibi come to re~t in the knowledge of sacred Scripture. and once that contact is established. This similitude. sicut proles a and incarnate in time. Nullum enim sensibile movet potentiam cognitivam. And there. and consequently there IS rest. et propterea status. and the delight of knowledge. there etiam ~odum intellige. and afterwards. the pattern of six is complete. nova fit perceptio. Here there are three ele- exercitium. And even though the object is imago et proles. understand that from the supreme Mind. therefore. Et primo videamus in edge are to be traced back to the light of sacred Scripture. refugit sibi nocivum et non usurpat alienum.

and non satiatur oculus visu. neither is the ear filled with hearing. from concupiscence. In this illumination we can see the same three truths. incessanter repetere. sive dulce. incarnationem.48 De Reductione Artium ad Theologiam On the Reduction of the Arts to Theology 49 Omnis enim inordinatio aut venit ex negligentia. ut ad would be by means of the similitude according to which it came from . et si effectus sible resemblance to the interior exemplar. Furthermore. hoc esset mediante similitudine. or from pride. seeks it again and again. And this is true if we consider the qualitatem effecti artificii et utilitatem fructus eliciti. If we consider the production. More- interiori eatenus. qui ipsurn amaret et cognosceret. vel sic: artem operandi. si namely. we shall see that the work of artificialis exit ab artifice. Si autem consideremus oblectamentum. the cognitione sensitiva continetur occulte divina sapientia. 11. The artisan studies this pattern or model carefully before disposuit. se. et si talem effectum posset over the artisan produces an external work bearing the closest pos- producere. And if that effect could know its maker. the pattern of human consideremus egressum. the harmonious. or if we consider the skill of the artist. For every disorder springs from neg- temperanter et obtemperanter. or that which is delightful to the touch. intuebimur Dei et 10. necesse esset ad hoc. if we consider the delight of sense knowledge. sive with seeing. produce an effect which could know and love the artisan. antequam pro ducat.Per hunc etiam never wearied. and obedient life leads a well-ordered life. lives a prudent. temperate. the fragrant. and the fruit of a work. mination of the mechanical arts. conformitatem ad sensus corporales. sive mulcehre debet desideranter quaerere. the artisan cundum quam ab artifice processit. ut non posset supra se elevari. quia seeks its proper sense object with longing. ligence. contemplation of the five spiritual senses in the light of their confor- mity to the bodily senses. concupiscence with respect to objects of desire. invenit cum gaudio. et quam mira sweet. efiectum et fructum. because "the eye is not filled modum sensus cordis nostri sive pulcrum. et inde producit. Per hunc modum est reperire in iIluminatione artis 11. Indeed every sense quaerit cum desiderio. Si consideremus egressum. thus avoiding pride. the quality of the effect produced. find with joy. our spiritual senses must seek with longing. sicut the mind. the sole purpose of which is the produc- In qua ista tria possumus intueri. 12.. aut ex concupiscentia. superbiam in excellentibus. mediante similitudine existente in mente. Omnis enim sensus suum sensibile conveniens we shall see here the urtion of the soul with God. life. Behold how the divine est contemplatio quinque sensu urn spirituatium secundum wisdom lies hidden in sense knowledge and how wonderful is the . 10. quomodo in and again experience the beautiful. utique faceret. ut refugiat negligentiam in operabilibus. and when it refrains from claiming what does not aut ex superbia. qui vivit prudenter. and time gaudenter invenire. In the same way divine wisdom may be found in the illu- mechanicae. Ille enim ordinate vivit. and the usefulness of the prod- uct that results. animae unionem . this cognitionis. ing concupiscence. belong to it. quod effectus 12. cuius tota intentio versatur circa artificialium productionem. nec auris auditu impletur. videbimus. Surely then. a person who concupiscentiam in appetibilibus. vivendi ordinem et Dei et animae foederationem. odoriferum. and pride with respect to matters of excellence. And if it were possible to ille cognosceret suum opificem. qua potest metius. Producit autem artifex exterius opus assimilatum exemplari producing the artifact and then produces the object as planned. finds it with delight. the generation and incarnation of the Word. .Ecce. art proceeds from the artisan according to a similitude that exists in per quam artifex excogitat. the effect. Et hoc." In the same way. sive consonurn. for in this way such a person avoids negligence with respect to things that ought to be done. et si haberet obtenebratos oculos would certainly do this. and the union of the soul with God. production.. repetit sine fastidio. scilicet Verbi generationem et tion of artifacts.

lithe Word was made flesh.nature of a vestige but also that of an image so that through knowledge carnem. Indeed. a noble hones tum. intuebimur ibi Verbum fourteenth chapter of Saint John: "No one comes to the Father but generatum et incarnatum. quod a a knowledge of its maker. Iuxta haec tria necesse est reperiri tria in ordine vivendi. 14. conferens et delectabile. voluntas reddit utile. secundum tria. The first resides in the rational. and to work reddit opus pulcrum. and those to whom the Son chooses to reveal him. constantly with perseverance. ut ipsa eum laudaret. under- habentes rationem vestigii. the Primum est in rationali." rationalis creatura oculum contemplationis obnubilatum habuit. per quam the hands of the artisan. and only when it possesses these three qualities is conditiones. Si vero consideremus effectum. If we consider the effect. quae darkened that it could not be elevated above itself in order to come to ab eo posset capi et cognosci. ut eidem assimilari stand that no creature has proceeded from the most high Creator ex- possint per cognitionem et amorem. 13. In like manner.50 De Reductione Artium ad Theologiam On the Reduction of the Arts to Theology 51 cognitionem sui opifids duceretur. condescenderet usque ad i1larn naturam. it is said. ut nos ad Patrem reduceret. ut aeternum et invisibile fieret visibile et assumeret . cum habet istas tres ful. will makes it useful. considering the illumination of the mechanical arts as regards the pro- duction of the work. ut ipsa in eo sons that God made the soul rational. a useful good. to will. and an agreeable good. aut facit. scilicet bonum corresponds to the three formal objects of the appetites: namely. ut per ilIud soul with God. et Matthaei undecimo: nal creature had dimmed the eye of contemplation. Et hoc est quod dicitur Ioannis and love creatures might become like God." Scientia parallel elements in the pattern of life: "to know. aut ut in ilIo derive praise. 14. 13. tertium in irascibili. it would be necessary for the similitude ac- summa Opifice nulla creatura processit nisi per Verbum aetemum. et tunc est carum et acceptabile opus. that is. that of its own accord. or delight from it . ut ipsa illi serviret. inveniemus Dei et animae unionem. Et quoniam per peccatum cept through the eternal Word. It is necessary to find three scilicet "scire. benefit." in cording to which the effect was produced to lower itself to that sort of quo omnia disposuit"." Knowledge makes a work beautiful. id est Divinitatem et humanitatem et totius through me. quod similitudo. secundum in concupiscibili. knows the Son except the Father. Si consideremus fructum. the work highly valued and acceptable. for every artisan who fashions a work does so in order to laudetur. we shall see there the pattern of Omnis enim artifex intendit producere opus pulcrum et utile et sta. If we consider the fruit. It was for these three rea- rationalem. we shall find there the union Of the Omnis enim artifex. Considerantes igitur illuminationem artis in order to lead us back to God. the divinity and the humanity and the integrity of all faith. it was most fitting Patrem nemo novit nisi Filius. aut ut per ilIud sibi aliquid operetur vellucretur. sed etiam imaginis. and perseverance makes it lasting. Et ideo dicitur that the eternal and invisible should become visible and assume flesh Verbum caro factum. it . qui aliquod opus facit." Therefore. use- bile. namely. velie et impermutabiliter sive perseveranter operari. Propter haec tria fecit Deus animam good. et cui voluerit Filius revelare. And since by sin the ratio- decimo quarto: Nemo venit ad Patrem nisi per me. the second in the concupiscible. et per quod produxit non solum creaturas nature which the effect could grasp and know. and enduring." and in the eleventh chapter of Saint Matthew: "No one fidei integritatem. human life· Every artisan aims to produce a work that is beautiful. this is what is related in the mechanicae quantum ad operis egressus. and the third in the irascible appetite." For that reason. perseverantia reddit stabile.Per hunc modum intellige. intuebimur vivendi ordinem. and by which Word God has produced creatures bearing not only the decentissimum fuit. we shall see there the Word begotten and incar- nate. then. . "in whom God has disposed all things. nOr does anyone know the Father except the Son. And if the eyes of its understanding were so productus esset effectus.a threefold purpose which delectetur. quae sunt in appetibilibus.

Ecce. speciem et ordinem. quod omnls sermo significat mentis conceptum. et omatus. deliciae meae esse cum filiis hominum. find delight in God. nal Word. and for this reason sacred Scripture quite rightly makes frequent use of such similitudes. Si vero consideremus sermonem ratione sui. Tunc enim reason of modesty in external works. et Verbum caro factum est et habitavit in nobis. fittingness. veritas.Et iuxta haec gether for the perfection of speech: namely. tria omnis actio nostra debet habere modum. secundum quod dicitur in and God in them. quod fiat nota audienti induit formam But in order that this concept may become known to the hearer. ordinata et ornata per rectitudinem in intentione. as Sed ad hoc. ipsi concipienti. for in the illuminatio artis mechanicae via est ad illuminationem sacrae Book of Proverbs it is written. et hoc est per caritatem. all speech signifies a mental concept. "The depths camis. and this Deo manet. and I was already conceived. and be at rest. God conceived the Word by an eternal act of generation. and "the Word was made flesh and dwelt among us. mination of rational philosophy whose principal concern is speech. et iIle con. quod Pater aeternaIiter ipsum concepit generando. In a similar way divine wisdom is to be found in the illu- rationalis philosophiae. ut sit Corresponding to these three qualities. secundum the person uttering it. the person speaking. and the hearer or the goal. 15. "Those who abide in charity. the Word assumed the form of flesh. speciosa per munditiam in acterized by measure. and order so that they may be measured by affectione. and by means of this clothing. 16. serve God.Iuxta hunc modum videmus in Verbo ceived into the ear of listener and yet does not depart from the mind of aeterno. sic 16. et verbum intelligibile mediante iIlo indumento fit sensibile et sumes the form of the voice." Behold how the illumination of the mechanical arts is a path ideo sacra Scriptura frequenter taIibus similitudinibus utitur satis recte. "My delight was to be with the children Scripturae. It is something like this that we see in the Eter- iIlud Proverbiorum octavo: Nondum erant abyssi. beauty. quod non praedicet veram sapientiam. cum est intentio recta. Here In quo est tria considerare secundum triplicem ipsius sermonis three elements are to be considered which correspond to three aspects considerationem. for three essential qualities work to- tria concurrunt. Ad complementum enim sermonis necessario ista there the pattern of human life. quomodo drous union and from that union comes a wondrous delight." in such a way that there is found a kind of wOn- Proverbiis." 17. Considering speech in the light of its delivery. induit formam it is written in the eighth chapter of the Book of Proverbs. That inner concept is the word of ceptus interior est verbum mentis et eius proles. abide in God. the delivery of the speech. et nihil est in ea. the auditur exterius et suscipitur in aure cordis audientis. it as- vocis." while remaining "in the bosom of God. quoniam. et tamen remansit were not as yet. scilicet congruitas. unione mirabilis delectatio. all acts of ours should be char- modificata per modestiam in exteriori opere. affectio munda et affection. cuius principalis intentio versatur circa sennonem. It is re- recedit a mente proferentis. we shall see in eo ordinem vivendi. scilicet respectu proferentis. Considering speech in relation to the speaker. quod homini sensuaIi fieret cognoscibile. For . to the illumination of sacred Scripture. et ego jam concepta eram. be known by human beings who are endowed with senses." But that the Word might in sinu Patris. ita quod est ibi quaedam mirabilis unio et ex takes place through charity. and ordered and adorned by uprightness of intention. respectu audientis sive ratione finis. sic intuebimur 17. et of men. in qua qui manet in might praise God. truth. quae nota est etiam the mind and its offspring which is known to the person conceiving it. rendered beautiful by purity of recte et ordinate vivitur.52 De Reductione Artium ad Theologiam On the Reduction of the Arts to Theology 53 delectaretur et quiesceret. There is nothing there which does not manifest true wisdom. . Sed ad hoc. Si sermonem consideremus in respectu ad loquentem. and style. et tamen non intelligibile word becomes sensible and is heard externally. Iuxta hunc etiam modum est reperire in illuminatione 15. ratione prolationis et of speech itself: namely. . et Deus in eo. we see that videmus.

nisi mediante virtute. De Reductione Artium ad Theologiam On the Reduction of the Arts to Theology 55 54 then truly does one live an upright and well-ordered life when one's operatio modesta. nisi mediante virtute." Now as perfecte. ruSI mediante lumme cept by means of a likeness. If we consider the formal principles in terms of their rela- videbimus in eis Verbum aetemuin et Verbum incarnatum. qui potest speciem imprimere et lumen infundere et virtute~ concludes that the only true teacher is one who can impress a likeness. dare cordi audientis.Sicut ergo nihil cognoscitur per sermonem "the one who teaches within hearts has a chair in heaven. Therefore. which is concerned formales in materia. we shall see there the Word Eternal and the Word In- intellectuales et abstractae quasi mediae sunt inter seminales et ideales. ideal principles cannot exist in God enim est dignitatis. and power intrinsically united to the soul. it never teaches except by means of a con- arguente. quod ille salus est veros light. ther can intellectual principles exist in the soul without the generation quin sit productio Verbi a Patre secundum redam pr~podiono::m. cuius. midway Sed rationes seminales non possunt esse in materia. and grant power to the heart of the hearer. and it is evident that non fit nisi per speciem et lumen et virtutem intrinsecam. quod hoc vincing light. quin sit generatio verbi in mente." . multo fortius infern potest without the generation of the Word from the Father in due proportion.it it aims to express.mira est haec contemplatio. nunquam movet. se~ . Quas tripliciter contingit chiefly with the formal principles in matter. we find that exprimendum. These should be considered from three perspectives: namely. By the same line of reasoning the wisdom of God is to be naturali philosophiae. Secundum etiam hunc modum est reperire in illuminatione 19. lumine et ~pecie uni~ ~~e. portans omnia verba virtutis suae. hoc of a word in the mind. nunquam docet. sic est ad 18. Therefore. Rationes tion of proportion.deales In Deo. et constat. as it were. sic ad nothing can be known perfectly by means of speech except by reason hoc. quin sit in ea between the seminal and the ideal principles. secundu.nunq. manuducit ad divinam sapientiam." From this it be- comes clear how wonderful is this contemplation by which Augustine in his many writings leads us by the hand to divine wisdom.:" wisdom. et secundum haec tria as regards the relation of proportion. 18. in anima et in divina ~a~tia. the effect of causality. and in the divine considerare.Ex quo patet.principalis intentio versatur circa rationes found in the illumination of natural philosophy. . But seminal principles can- generatio et productio formaei similiter nee in ani. so. quod uniatur ei qui est splendor glOrlae et figura soul to be instructed in the knowledge of God by interior conversation substantiae eius. and a likeness united to the soul. for the locutionem.am expri. animae unita: et ideo concludit Augustinus.rna ra~iones not exist in matter without generation and the production of form. 20. per quam Augustinus in multis libris brightness of the divine glory and the image of the divine substance. intrinsecus these effects are accomplished only by means of an inherent likeness. Si consideremus eas secundum habitudinem proportionis. Hence it is that intus corda docet. necesse est. and the me- est repetire tria praemissa.:. too. one's affection pure.tudtnem proportwnls. a light. scilicet secundum hab. The intellectual and abstract principles are. and one's activity within its proper limit. intention is upright.:. 19. But it never expresses ex- aliquid. . effectum causalitalis et secundum medium unionis. 20. et si convenit creaturae. quod "cathedram habet in caelo qUl infuse light. quod anima erudiatur ad Dei cognitionem per lPSlU~ mternam of a power. in the soul. it never persuades except by power. nei- intellectuales. dium of union. Si vero consideremus sermonem ratione finis. ergo nec . quam with the divine there is required a union with the one who is "the . nisi mediante specie. And in these three can be found the three concerns men- tioned above. ad erudiendum et ad mlYUendum. Augustine doctor. Et hinc est. andto persuade. If we consider speech in relation to its purpose. upholding all things by the word of divine power. carnate. to instruct.

ruption. and incarnate in the fulness oftime. unless it seek the protection of the aliorum Sanctorum exempla. When all these concur. and that nature in which the ideal principles are present omega. of the Virgin Mary. the sun. By similar reasoning. ordinatur ad rationes much more so must it be true of the Creator. Therefore the right br- der of living depends on these three influences. by reason of the relation of proportion. quod Filius Dei est" ars Truly. qualiter in philosophia naturali latet sapientia Dei. in qua sunt rationes ideales. De Reductione Artium ad Theologiam On the Reduction of the Arts to Theology 57 56 de Creatore. losophy. in qua sunt rationes rational soul with the material body. nisi sit humida per gemitum may understand that God gives life to the soul and is united to it only compunctionis et pi~tatis. . 22. 5i autem consideremus istas rationes secundum unionis 22. that is. luna et ste/lis. 21. So too we Deus non praestat vitam animae et unitur. that it be made spiritual by contempt of every earthly thing.Secundum hoc etiam intelligitur. breath. nisi ciples that generation would not be perfect without the union of the natura. from lunae. and that nature in which the intellectual principles proportionis Dei Verbum natum et incarnatum. intellectuales. Nam medium of union. nisi anima rationalis Augustine said that the Son of God is the "art of the Father. and warmth: three condi- vitam suscipiat ab anima. how Palris ". Propter quod dixit Augustinus. a living and perfect work is accomplished in the soul. and if it is true of the creature. . we shall understand how the union of the soul with God natura corporalis animae non potest uniri. ut nullo modo perfecta sit generatio. _ Rursus. ut through the medium of moisture. et nisi consequatur ipsius perform no living works unless it receive from the sun.Ecce. in qua sunt rationes seminales. incamatum vero in are simultaneously brought together in the unity of one person. for the corporal nature can be united to the soul only mediante spiritu et mediante calore. takes place. ex quorum concursu congregetur in ipsa moon.Per hunc those heavenly bodies that are most remote from generation and cor- etiam modum anima non potest opera viva facere. Mother of Christ. id est Virginis Mariae. et natura. since genera- fieri in materia generabili et corruptibili secundum rationes seminales tion by means of seminal principles cannot take place in generative nisi beneficio luminis corporum supercaelestium. that is. simul concurrant we come to the conclusion that the highest and noblest perfection can- in unitatem personae. nisi sit calida per desiderium patriae caelestis et ipsius filial love. scilicet a sole. this is a mark of dignity. Si vero consideremus rationes istas secundum effectum 21. the Alpha and the Omega. namely. intelligemus. quod factum est in Filii Dei incarnatione. the moon. et nisi imitetur Christ. quae elongantur a and corruptible matter except by the beneficial action of the light of generatione et corruptione. the gift of a gratuitous light. therefore. Unde ordo vivendi pendet in tribus. tate the example of the other saints. quae tria disponunt carnem. dilecti. ut idem sit alpha et are present. So too the soul can id est a Christo. quod tions which dispose the flesh to receive life from the soul. Now if we consider these causes according to the effect of causalitatis. and the stars. This is the reason why intellectuales. qui est in materia. . if we consider these causes with respect to the medium. . . et natura. appetitus. as was done in the incarnation of the Son of God. Matris Christi patrocinium. uniatur materiae corporali. not exist in this world unless that nature in which the seminal prin- Praedicat igitur tota naturalis philosophia per habitudinem ciples are present.Per similem igitur rationem potest argui. Therefore all natural phi- fine saeculorum. nisi sit spiritualis per contemptum omnis on the condition that it be moistened with tears of compunction and terrenitatis. per quem modum fiat unio animae ad Deum. gratuiti luminis beneficium." Again. nisi mediante humore. that is. we shall be considering the pattern ofhuman life. Moreover. natum scilicet in principia et ante·tempora. perpendemus ordinem vivendi: quoniam generatio non potest causality. the natural tendency in matter is so ordered to the intellectual prin- quod swrima perfectio et nobilissima in universo esse non possi~. nisi suscipiat a sole. begotten in the beginning before all time. presupposes the Word of God as begotten and incarnate. and unless it imi- opus vivum atque perfectum.

58 De Reductione Artium ad Theologiam On the Reduction of the Arts to Theology 59 23. philosophiae principaliter versatur circa rectitudinem. necesse est in Deo ponere mediam personam to light in the consideration of rectitude. Et secundum hoc in mit is raised upward. a medium which will be doser to the productive principle. In the same way the light of sacred Scripture is to be found voluntatis. Penes modos praedictos est reperire in illuminatione and that it be warmed by desire for its heavenly home and its Beloved. 25. sic ad the divine nature. In the third sense. Therefore. For that person indeed hoc est. Alio modo dicitur reclum quod dirigenti se conformatur. This is salutiferis. the rule of life is discerned. medium vero in regressu.. et in quantum est principium. ut una sit tantum producens. versatur enirn circa iustitiam generalem. when rectitude is viewed from IlIe enim recte vivit. ings. et in quan. Cum enim posture." The term righl has three mean- rectitudo et secundum se. it was necessary that the Mediator between God and humanity be not only God but also human so that this mediator might lead humanity back to God. Et this perspective. sed medium in egressu necesse est. And then the order of life is right when nothing can be found to be out of line. In anolher sense. necesse est. quando voluntas hominis assentit praeceplis necessariis. that is called righl which is conformed to secundum hoc in consideratione rectitudinis conspicitur ordo vivendi. quae sit volunlas Dei bona the case when lhe will of a human person accepts necessary precepls. It is also necessary to posit an intermediary in the goingforlh and in the return of things: in the goingforth. quod apex ipsius mentis sursum erigatur. something is called right when its sum- erecta. in the return. cuius medium non exit ab extremis. as in the case of a human being with its upright consideratione rectitudinis manifestatur Dei el animae unio. what is the good and acceptable and perfeci will of God. plus a parte all things. Et tunc est rectus ordo vivendi. for since God is above. Since moral philosophy is con- tria praemissa lucent in consideratione rectitudinis. and accordingly the three central ideas already mentioned come tum est finis omnium. And in this sense." Rectum autemhabet tripliciternotificari. et beneplacens el perfecta. in quo nulla salutary warnings. sieut homo habet staturam rectam. manifested the union of the soul with God. secundum se. and since God is the Beginning and the End of teneat se a parte producentis. Necesse est etiam ponere medium in with its extreme points." H then God is perfect rectitude by virtue of egressu et regressu rerum. ut probet homo. it is necessary to posit within God an intermediate person of redeuntis. Et 24. a medium which will be doser to the one returning. In one sense of the word. and counsels of perfection and thus demonstrates obliquitas potest reperiri. alia tantum product. Mediatorem Dei et hominum non another who is only produced. Uno modo dicitur cerned principally with rectitude. sieut ergo res exierunt a Deo per Verbum Dei. ut dicit Anselmus. and is produced. so that there may be one person who only produces. me. qui dirigitur secundum regulas iuris divini. but an intermediary who both produces tantum Deum esse./I Si ergo in Deo est summa Anselm calls the "rectitude of the will. as creatures went forth from God by the Word of God. Accordingly. consiliis perfectis. something is said to be "righl (=straighl) if its middle is not out of line dia vero producens et producta. it treats of general justice which Saint I'rectum. quae. quod plus the divine nature itself. in the consideration of rectitude there is Deus sit sursum. lIest rectitudo 23. so for a perfect return. that by which it is ruled. philosophiae moralis lumen sacrae Scripturae: quoniam intentio moralis Behold how the wisdom of God lies hidden in natural philosophy. it Hoc autem est. monitis lives rightly who is guided by the regulations of the divine law. sed etiam hominem. uthomines reducat ad Deum. 24. et secundum hoc in the illumination of moral philosophy. Tertio modo dicitur rectum cuius sumrnitas est sursum 25. cum rationalis assentit primae veritati propter se et su- . completum reditum necesse est.

quia nun. quae sunt in unione strengthened. Et sic patet. 26. character may be formed. quam ampla sit of illustrations and terms pertaining to every branch of knowledge. It via illuminativa. quomodo omnes cognitiones famulantur and in all nature. ad quam terrninatur solation may be derived from union of the Spouse with the beloved. faith may be componantur mores. concupiscibilis adhaeret bonitati. It is clear also how all divisions of knowledge are theologiae. ut in omnibus aedificetur fides. that in all. when our irascible nature strives after the highest generosity. et per consequens omnis illuminatio union which takes place through charity: a charity in which the whole desursum descendens. God may be honored. qui est benedietus in saecula saeeularum. a tota intentio sacrae Scripturae. One who keeps close to God in this way is one spirit with God. Amen. quae quidem fit per caritatem. And this is the fruit of all sciences. Palel etiam. quae lucide 26. comes to rest . et sine qua omnis cognitio vana est. and it is for this reason that theology makes use pertinentibus ad omne genus cognitionis. and how the cognoscitur. . qui docet nos ing from above.a charity without which all knowl- omnem veritatem. and thus of every illumination descend- quam pervenitur ad Filium nisi per Spiritum sanctum. honorificetur Deus. lies hidden in all knowledge natura. or known. interius lateat ipse Deus. and when our coneupiscil>le nature clings to the good. tunc qui hoc modo Deo adhaeret unus And indeed this is what actually happens when our rational nature as- spiritus est. occultatur in omni cognitione et in omni is clearly revealed in sacred Scripture. and con- sponsi et sponsae. . et cum necessarily follows that the apex of the mind itself must be raised aloft. cum irascibilis innititur summae largitati. Amen. quomodo multiformis sapientia Dei. who is blessed forever. quae sentitul' sive quae is likewise clear how wide the illuminative way may be. Patet etiam. sents to the first truth for its own sake and above all things. purpose of sacred Scripture. et ideo ipsa assumit exempla et utitur vocabulis servants of theology. which traditur in sacra Scriptura. hauriantur consolationes. edge is vain because no one comes to the Son except through the Holy Spirit who teaches us all the truth.Et hie est fructus omnium divine reality itself lies hidden within everything which is perceived scientiarum. et quomodo in omni re.60 De Reductione Artium ad Theologiam On the Reduction of the Arts to Theology 61 pra omnia. And so it is evident how the manifold wisdom of God.

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