Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 7

SPORT AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION HLPE2531

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT ONE - ESSAY


MARLEY FAIRCLOUGH – STUDENT ID: 2151189
Word Count: 2500
‘Does Teaching for Transfer within Physical Education and Sport assists adolescents to learn
skills which can be used in social, personal, interpersonal, educational and physical contexts?’
INTRODUCTION
Teaching for Transfer within Physical Education and Sport has the ability to assist adolescents to learn
various skills, which can be used in a range of contexts. Skill development can be made evident both in and
outside of the sporting spectrum with improvements in social, personal, interpersonal, educational and
physical contexts (Baldock, 2016). It becomes evident when considering aspects of the Constructivist
Theory that opportunities for social and cognitive skill development can be enhanced across a range of
settings when constructing knowledge and meaning from personal experiences. Participation in Physical
Education and Sport draws from features of the Constructivist Theory, with skill acquisition and game
sense built from being actively involved and engaged in activities (Baldock, 2016). Teaching games for
transfer and understanding using a Game Centered approach focus on guided discovery that empowers
players to problem solve and become directly involved in the game. By placing emphasis on creating a fun
learning environment through games and activities this allows a player to discover game sense through
personal experience and putting skills learned into practice (Baldock, 2016). Game Centered approaches
will further assist players to become technical, tactical and skillful players that will have the ability to
transfer skills across different playing fields. Integrating concepts of Constructivist Theory and Game Sense
into the Educational curriculum is an excellent means of projecting a positive attitude towards Physical
Education and will successfully maximize and encourage learning within education and sporting spectrums
(Baldock, 2016). It is vital that curriculum moves away from seeing Physical Education, as an unnecessary
subject and focus on creating a pedagogical framework that will successfully provide students with the
ability to apply relevant knowledge, skills, understanding, dispositions and learning strategies to new
learning situations and contexts. The Department for Education and Child Development, Teaching and
Planning for New Contexts Report (2016) suggests that ‘Learning in new contexts requires the transfer of
learning across different learning areas.’ When reflecting on this it becomes an increasingly apparent factor
within both Education and Sport that teachers and coaches construct methods of developing an engaging
and challenging curriculum and pedagogy, which allows students to develop as powerful learners.
Effectively accomplishing this concept requires teachers to demonstrate learning in a range of contexts that
are transferable across all context of the schooling and sporting curriculum. In Through and About
Learning can be highlighted through this approach, as it recognises that sport is structured in a particular
way in order bring out certain things within an individual (Baldock, 2016). It establishes that Education
within Sport focuses not only on the tactical and technical aspects of skill acquisition, but also recognises
that through engagement in sport social, cognitive moral and emotional learning is evident (Baldock,
2016). Therefore, it is vital for teaching and learning to focus on creating meaning considerations into
Physical Education and Sports perspectives to enable learning across all spectrums of the curriculum
(Baldock, 2016). Therefore, this report will analysis evidence from reliable Educational Sources to draw
conclusions on the importance of Physical Education in the transfer of learning across all areas of the
Educational curriculum and beyond.
LITERATURE REVIEW
Evidence used throughout this investigation was collected from online databases including Google Scholar,
Proquest, Flinders University Library, as well as Government Educational Websites. Evidence and
materials through this investigation have been sourced using online databases, peer-reviewed journal
articles, and systematic reviews. Articles delivered relevant insights into aspects of how teaching for
transfer within Physical Education and Sports assist’s adolescents to learn skills, which can be used in
social, personal, interpersonal, educational and physical contexts, helping to make vital considerations into
the investigation. Significant connections were identified between each of the sources analyzed, with
substantial information into the importance of teaching for transfer within Physical Education and Sport
amongst all areas of learning development. Keywords and phrases emphasised throughout each reading
established specific connections to be drawn between all findings, including the transfer of learning,
tactical knowledge, principles of transfer, teaching games for understanding, curriculum development,
learning through a range of different contexts, transfer to other contexts of learning, problem-solving and
adolescent development. All evidence discovered focused strongly on all aspects of teaching for transfer
and detailed specific evidence on its positive influence on social, personal, interpersonal, educational and
physical skill development. Emerging Themes focused heavily on teaching and learning through Physical
Educations ability to assist in the development of skills, techniques, and decision-making and further
detailed the transferability of skills and techniques across physical and learning situations (Maureen,
2007). Lopez (2009) heavily supported the notion that teachers need to provide opportunities for
transferable skills in a range of contexts, within a school and outer educational settings. As well as
discussed the importance of thoughtful class content within physical education in fostering and promoting
further skills including decision-making and critical thinking. The Department of Education and Child
Development, Government of South Australia Report (2016) provides further evidence detailing the
personal and interpersonal development of adolescents that comes from transferable skills and identifies it
as being vital in social and emotional situations throughout a young personal life. Theoretical perspectives
of Constructivist Theory, Game Centered Teaching approaches and In, Through and About Learning were
discussed and recognized as significant factors in the learning processes of Physical Education (McBride,
2004; Martinek, 2013). Overall conclusions of all sources draw emphasis on in interrelated aspects of
social, personal, interpersonal, educational and physical skills that arise when actively participating in
physical activity, especially within Physical Education. The findings established throughout this paper have
proven influential to my investigation, as they have helped to determine the different skill contexts
associated with teaching for transfer and illustrated how theory and game centered learning approaches
are used to help develop particular skills. Considerations into the effectiveness of included articles provide
clear and informative information, proving broader context for analysis regarding the importance of
Physical Education within the Educational Curriculum. A greater overall understanding of the systematic
reasoning behind Physical Education within Curriculum has been established through analysis of academic
sources and therefore evidence used throughout this investigation can be regarded as reliable and presents
great usefulness and relevance to conclusions of the research.
DISCUSSION PARAGRAPHS
TRANSFER OF TEACHING WITHIN SPORT AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Curriculum design and pedagogy within Physical Education and Sport must foreground the principle of
transfer of learning. The integration of the Teaching Games for Understanding theoretical approach to
Physical Education and sport can be recognised as a key instructional model underpinning teaching for
learning
(Lopez, 2009; Bunker and Thorpe, 1982). The Teaching Games for Understanding approach
allows players to learn through practice while being able to transfer skills to other game situations (Bunker
and Thorpe, 1982; Baldock, 2016). Concepts of transfer through practice can be recognised as how learning
in particular situations influences responses in other contexts, and can be reflected upon through Hilgards
and Bowers belief that ‘the responses to new situations are based on the assimilation of new things in
connection with a situation previously learned and on providing an answer supported by the similarity or
analogy between them’ (Hilgard and Bower, 1976, p.43). The integration of the theory within the context of
Physical Education focuses on concepts including problem-solving, guided discovery and game sense as the
core foundations of transferring technical and tactical skills across different playing fields (Baldock, 2016).
Placing emphasis on skill acquisition and tactical thinking provides a pedagogical framework that centres
on learning by interacting with groups to solve problems. With the active discovery and cognitive
challenges posed amongst the group helping to greater engage players in meaningful learning (Lopez,
2009; Bunker and Thorpe, 1982).

TECHNICAL AND TACTICAL TRANSFER


The (2016) South Australian Curriculum Model has made considerations and adjustments into secondary
years Physical Education standards with a new context in regards to the transfer of learning across games
and activities. Alterations centre on application and transfer of movement concepts and strategies to new
and challenging movement situations and focuses on developing, implementing and transferring
specialised movement concepts and strategies from one skill to another to solve movement challenges
(Baldock, 2016). This concept will be implemented through processes of decision-making and problem-
solving in modified game settings, assisting players in a crossover of skill development between similar
movement skills and game settings (Department of Education and Child Development, 2016; Baldock,
2016). Justifications for this alteration to the curriculum can be reflected upon through Werner and
Almonds (1990, p27) considerations into the advantages of teaching games that focus on skill and technical
development. Analysis demonstrated that making connections with teaching and learning across a range of
different sports and games as key to allowing players to transfer and extend knowledge and skill
development interchangeably between particular sports (Werner & Almond, 1990; Lopez, 2009). An
enhancement of game sense strategies can be made further evident with this transferable knowledge,
helping provide players with the skills to problem solve during unfamiliar activities (Lopez, 2009).
Heightened decision-making can be exposed through teaching games for understanding, whereby problem-
solving, collaborative learning and tactical reasoning can lead to processes of examination (McBride, 2004).
Decision-making represents an avenue that will lead to a more inclusive and informative theoretical model
with the Physical Education setting, helping to assist in the development of cooperative learning and
thoughtful classroom environment (McBride, 2004). McBride (2004) acknowledges the learning
opportunities cooperative learning offers for students to actively engage and seek solutions to tasks that
require decision-making, problem-solving and in turn enhanced critical thinking. When considering
thoughtful learning through the Teaching Games for Understanding framework model Bunker and Thorpe,
1982 identify appropriated decision making as a central component of cognitive engagement, by which
envisions students to become cognitively engaged in the process of working together to solve problems
with other in game situations (Bunker and Thorpe, 1982; McBride, 2004). Therefore, it is a teacher's role to
shift from the controller of information to the facilitator in a more student-centered learning environment
to foster thoughtful tactical and technical development among learners.

EDUCATIONAL TRANSFER THROUGH PHYSICAL EDUCATION


Physical Education has the capacity to assist in developing broader educational outcomes for students
(McBride, 2004). Appropriate application of learning for transfer within physical education content has the
ability to support skill development of further education curricula areas including Mathematics, Science,
English, and History. As well as the capacity to inflict positive behavioral changes to student's educational
goals and attitudes (Lee & Martinek, 2013). Longitudinal studies suggest that when adolescents actively
participant in regular Physical Education lessons, they have a greater likelihood of behaving and
contributing positively within a classroom environment (Lee & Martinek, 2013). Reasoning behind this
idea exposes that an individual's active engagement in meaningful activities including Physical Activity;
provides students with an outlet to foster enhanced learning and cognitive capabilities (McBride, 2004).
Educational settings place a strong focus on developing transferable learning strategies within all areas of
the curriculum that can be transferred interchangeable across all subject areas. Increased emphasis is
placed on learning transfer that will provide students with the ability to apply relevant knowledge, skills,
understanding, dispositions and learning strategies to new learning situations and contexts (Department of
Education and Child Development, 2016).

The transfer of skills and knowledge, in particular, the skills of teamwork, leadership and collaborative
behavior to achieve set goals are sought after skills in all curriculum areas and in particular, are skills that
support lifelong learning opportunities. Through fostering these skills you are likely to have students that
display a higher sense of resilience and willingness to take risks and communicate their thoughts about
these processes, as is encouraged within the Physical Education curriculum (Department of Education and
Child Development). Similarly through the skills and abilities developed within Physical Education allow
for increased cognitive function and this transfers into other curriculum and life skill areas for the
students. The capacity to apply and demonstrate knowledge, skills, and understanding in new contexts is
considered a vital expectation within curricula, as this is how the progress of students educational abilities
are assessed in reference with the Australian National Curriculum (Department of Education and Child
Development, 2016). To knowingly have the ability to gain new knowledge, skills and understandings
provide a positive base for students to engage with other curriculum areas and to build confidence to assist
in those areas of study that they may find more difficult. The social and emotional wellbeing of a student is
also highly relevant to the skills taught and learnt within the Physical Education curriculum and provides a
multitude of opportunities to address social skills, such as turn taking, effective communication, and
positive peer relationships. Therefore, it is vital for Physical Education to remain at the foreground of
education and underpin the curriculum approaches used in classrooms throughout Australia.
SOCIAL, PERSONAL AND INTERPERSONAL SKILL DEVELOPMENT
The Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility through Physical Education Alliance (2016) believes that
Physical Education can be used as a vehicle for teaching students particular life skills that can be
implemented through physical activity and then transferred to other settings, including school, community
and family life. The Alliance's practical models aim to help students build social, personal and interpersonal
skills, which in turn fosters heightened resilience, awareness and responsibility for the way they conduct
themselves and treat other people (TPSR Alliance, 2016). Primary goals centre on creating levels of
responsibility among individuals helping to increase maturity and life skills, including respecting the rights
and feelings of others, self-motivation, self-direction and caring, which can be transferred beyond the
spectrum of Sport and Physical Education (Lee and Martinek, 2013). The theoretical framework of
Teaching Games for Understanding can be facilitated through this process of transferable learning, with
sport offering a unique contribution to creating greater self-perception, motivation, character
development, social relationships, moral development, and observational learning when placing significant
emphasis on learning through all contexts of skill development (Maureen, 2007; Baldock, 2016).
Structuring Physical Education programs around value-based learning in game situations provides
empowering opportunities for students to make choices, take responsibility and practice leadership skills,
which thereby enhances commitment, enjoyment and learning outcomes (Maureen, 2007). Lee and
Martinek’s (2013) examination into the transferability of Teaching Personal and Social responsibility
within Physical Education drawing conclusions on goals, attitudes, respect, effort, and self-direction of
individuals who participated in regular physical activity based learning. Determining that individual's
regular involvement is increased by an emphasis on participation and allows greater initiative in applying
responsibility values within curriculum and outer curriculum settings (Baldock, 2016). Participation can be
further reflected upon through the creation of agendas within programs, emphasis should be placed on
providing a fun, safe and inclusive environment, along with building positive relationships with staff and
participants (Maureen, 2007). Studies demonstrate perception of capabilities that are strongly related to
decreased involvement in Physical Education, made evident when considering achievement related
cognitions, emotions and behaviors of adolescents (Maureen, 2007). Thus, It is vital that teachers
understand perceived capabilities of individuals when constructing developmentally appropriate Physical
Education and Sports programs, ensuring that each student social, personal and interpersonal skills will be
enhanced as a result of actively engaging in physical activities.
CONCLUSION
It is vitally important that Educational practices develop engaging and challenging curriculum and
pedagogy within Physical Education and Sport through the application of teaching for transfer, assisting in
the development of social, personal, interpersonal, educational and physical skills (Department of
Education and Child Development, 2016). This, in turn, will allow adolescents to develop as powerful
learning throughout all contexts and lye's at the heart of learner resilience needed for academic and future
life success. Possible implementations of this concept could consider seeking ways to incorporate lessons
learned through cooperative game based activities within physical education to other aspects of the
curriculum content and personal life, ultimately assisting in transferable life skills (McBride, 2004). Thus, it
is necessary that programs develop a set of clear key ideas and process steps of physical skills and
transferable life skills that are integrated rather than taught separately, helping to meet the challenge of
students application of life lessons obtained in physical activity to other domains (Lee & Martinek, 2013).
Future theoretical applications and directions should focus on encouraging participants to reflect on what
and how they learn and examine the anticipated challenges, in an attempt to apply skills learnt in Physical
Education and Sport to other contexts.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
o Baldock, Richard 2016, ‘Teaching Games for Understanding’, lecture notes distributed in the topic HLPE
2531 Sport and Education, Flinders University, Bedford Park, July 28th
o Baldock, Richard 2016, ‘Skill Acquisition’, lecture notes distributed in the topic HLPE 2531 Sport and
Education, Flinders University, Bedford Park, August 4th
o Baldock, Richard 2016, ‘guided discovery’, lecture notes distributed in the topic HLPE 2531 Sport and
Education, Flinders University, Bedford Park, August 16th
o Bunker, D. J., and Thorpe, R. (1982) ‘A Model for the Teaching of Games in Secondary Schools', Bulletin of
Physical Education 19(1): 5–9.
o Hilgard, E. R., and Bower, G. H. (1976) Teorías del aprendizaje. Mexico: Trillas.

o Lee, O., & Martinek, T. (2013). Understanding the transfer of values-based youth sport program goals
from a bio-ecological perspective. Quest, 65(3), 300-312.
o López, L. M. G., Jordán, O. R. C., Penney, D., & Chandler, T. (2009). The role of transfer in games teaching:
Implications for the development of the sports curriculum. European Physical Education Review, 15(1),
47-63.
o Maureen R. Weiss, (2007), ‘Field of Dreams’ Sport as a context for Youth Development: Research
Quarterly of Exercise and Sport pp.434-449
o McBride, R. E., & Xiang, P. (2004). Thoughtful Decision Making in Physical Education: A Modest Proposal.
Quest, 56(3), 337-354.
o Reporting on Australian Curriculum, Department of Education and Child Development, Government of
South Australia Report, 2016
o Parker, M., & Stiehl, J. (2010). Personal and social responsibility. In J. Lund, & D. Tannehill.
(Eds.), Standards-based physical education curriculum development (2nd ed., pp. 163–191).
Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.
o Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility through Physcial EducationAllience. (2016, September ).
Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model. Retrieved September 20, 2016, from TPSR Alliance:
www.Tpsr-alliance.org
o Werner, P. and Almond, L. (1990) ‘Models of Games Education’, Journal of Physical Education,
Recreation and Dance (April): 23–7.