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AND EXERCISES

## Geometric Dimensioning and 1

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Composite Position Tolerancing

## ¾ This provides position tolerance for location

of feature patterns as well as orientation of
features.
¾ Positional symbol entered once and is
applicable to both segments .
¾ Upper one called Pattern Locating
Tolerance Zone Framework (PLTZF).
¾ Lower one called Feature relating
tolerance zone framework (FRTZF).

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Composite tolerencing

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Pattern Locating Tolerance
Zone Framework
¾ PLTZF is located from specified
datums by basic dimension.
¾ It specifies larger positional tolerance.
¾ Datums are specified in desired order.

## Geometric Dimensioning and 4

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Feature Relating Tolerance
Zone Framework
¾ It related to feature orientation
control.
¾ It govern the small positional
tolerance than upper segment.
¾ The specified datums in lower control
govern the orientation of FRTZF
related to the PLTZF.

## Geometric Dimensioning and 5

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Feature Relating Tolerance
Zone Framework
¾ one or more of the datums specified
in the upper segment of the frame
are repeated and in the same order
to govern the orientation of FRTZF

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Primary datum Repeated in Lower
segment

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Primary datum Repeated in Lower
segment

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Primary datum Repeated in
Lower segment

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Primary datum Repeated in Lower
segment

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 PLTZF:- pattern locating tolerance zone
frame work.
 Where composite controls are used
 Upper segment is referred to as the pattern
locating control.
 The PLTZF located from specified datums
by basic dimensions.
 It specifies larger positional tolerance for
the location of the pattern of feature.

## Geometric Dimensioning and 14

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FRTZF:-feature related tolerance zone
frame work.
The lower segment is referred to as
the feature relating control.
It controls the smaller positional
tolerance for each feature with in the
pattern (feature to feature relation
ship).

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TWO SINGLE SEGMENT FEATURE
CONTROL FRAME

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PLTZF

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FRTZF

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COMPOSITE POSITIONAL
TOLERANCE

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PLTZF

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FRTZF

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TWO SINGLE SEGMENT
FEATURE CONTROLE FRAME

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 In fig (5-24) shows an example of a radial hole pattern
where the plane of the PLTZF is located from a datum
face by a basic dimension .
 Where datum reference are not specified in the lower
segment of a composite feature control frame ,the
FRTZF is free to be located and oriented (shift and /or
tilt) as governed by the tolerance zones of the PLTZF.
 With datum plane A referenced in the lower segment of
the composite feature control frame.
 The tolerance zones of the FRTZF (as a group ) are
parallel to datum plane A and may be displaced as
governed by the tolerance zones of the PLTZF.

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COMPOSITE POSITIONAL TOLERANCING

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Single-segment feature control frames
 In fig (5.26) two single segment feature control frames.
 These are used where it is desired to specify a need for a
coaxiality relationship between the FRTZF and the PLTZF.
 A secondary datum reference is shown in the lower feature
control frame.
 In fig (5.26,c)shows that the tolerances zone of the FRTZF
are parallel to datum plane A and concentric about datum
axis B.
 Portions of the smaller tolerances zones located outside
the larger tolerances zones are not usable, since the actual
feature axes must reside with in the boundaries of both
zones.

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Coaxiality
Coaxiality is that condition where the
axes of two or more surfaces of
revolution are coincident. The amount
of permissible variation from coaxiality
may be expressed by a positional
tolerance or a runout tolerance.
Selection of the proper control
depends on the nature of the
functional requirements of the design.
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Holes of Different Sizes
whereholes are of
different specified sizes
and the same
requirements apply to
all holes. a single
feature control
symbol,supplemented
by a notation such as
TWO COAXIAL HOLES is
used.

## Geometric Dimensioning and 55

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Profile tolerance
A profile is the outline of an object in a given plane (two
dimensional figure). Profiles are formed by projecting a
three dimensional figure onto a plane or by taking cross
section,through the figure. The elements of a profile are
straight lines, arcs, and other curved lines. If the
drawing specifies individual tolerances for the elements
or points of a profile, these elements or points must be
individually verified. Such a procedure may be
impracticable in certain cases, particularly where
accuracy of the entire profile, rather than elements of a
profile, is a design requirement. With profile tolerancing,
the true profile may be defined by basic radii, basic
angular dimension, basic coordinate dimensions, basic
size dimensions, undimensioned drawings, or formulas.

## Geometric Dimensioning and 56

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• Where a profile
tolerance applies
all around the
profile of a part, the
symbol used to
designate "all
around" is placed
the feature control
frame.

## Geometric Dimensioning and 58

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• If some segments of
the profile are
controlled by a profile
tolerance and other
segments by
individually toleranced
dimensions, the
extent of the profile
tolerance must be
indicated.
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PROFILE OF A SURFACE
The tolerance zone produced by a
surface is three dimensional.
It is extended along the length and
width or (circumference) of the
considered feature or feature of size.

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PROFILE OF A LINE
The tolerance zone produced by a
profile of a line is a two dimensional.
It is extending along the length of the
considered feature.
The tapered wing of an aircraft is an
example for this.

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PROFILE TOLERANCE
 The tolerance value is represented by the
two equally or unequally boundaries
disposed about the true profile or entirely
disposed to the true profile.
 It may be apply normal (perpendicular) to
the true profile.
 The boundaries of the tolerance must follow
the geometric tolerance of the true profile.

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The actual surface or line element
must be within the specific tolerance
and all the variations from the true
profile must be blend.

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APPLICATIONS OF DATUMS
In every case, profile of a surface
tolerance requires reference to
datum's in order to provide proper
orientation, location or both of the
profile.
It may be used under some
circumstances but it would not be
used when the only requirement is the
profile shape taken cross section by
cross section.
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COMBINED CONTROLS
 It may be controlled with other type of
geometric tolerance.
 The fig shows a surface which has a profile
tolerance refined by a parallelism tolerance.
 The surface must only be within the profile
tolerance but each straight line element of
the surface must also be parallel to the
datum within the tolerance.

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PROFILE OF A SURFACE OF
REVOLUTION
Figure 6- I 7 illustrates a surface that
has a profile tolerance refined by a
runout tolerance.
The entire surface must be within the
profile tolerance and the circular
elements must be within the specified
run out tolerance.

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PROFILE OF A LINE AND SIZE
CONTROL
 The fig shows the profile of a line tolerance
where size is controlled by a separate
tolerance.
 The line elements of the surface along the
profile must lie within the profile tolerance
zone and within a size limiting zone.
 The profile tolerance zone may fall beyond
the boundary of the size limiting zone.

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The portion of the profile tolerance is
not usable because the line elements
of the surface must not violate the
size limiting zone.

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BOUNDARY PRINCIPLE USED WITH PROFILE
CONTROLS

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BOUNDARY PRINCIPLE USED WITH PROFILE
CONTROLS

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COMPOSITE PROFILE TOLERANCING OF A
FEATURE

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COMPOSITE PROFILE TOLERANCING OF A
FEATURE

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SPECIFYING PARALLELISM FOR AN AXIS

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SPECIFYING PARALLELISM FOR AN AXIS

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MULTIPLE PATTERNS OF FEATURES

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SINGLE PATTERN

##  Where multiple patterns of features are

located relative to common datum features
not subject to size tolerances or to common
datum feature of size specified on an RFS
basis , they are considered to be a single
pattern.
 Single setup or gage required.

## Geometric Dimensioning and 83

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MULTIPLE PATTERNS OF FEATURES,
SEPARATE REQUIREMENTS

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SEPARATE PATTERN

##  If no note is added under the feature control

frame, the patterns are to be treated as a
single pattern.
 Where it is desired to permit the patterns to
be treated as separate patterns a notation
such as SEP REQT is placed beneath each
control frame

## Geometric Dimensioning and 85

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 This allows the datum features of size to
establish a separate datum reference frame
for each pattern of features, as a group
 These datum reference frames may shift
independently of each other, resulting in an
independently relationship between the
patterns

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SPECIFYING DIFFERENT PROFILE
TOLERANCES ON
SEGMENT OF A PROFILE

## Geometric Dimensioning and 87

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• SPECIFYING PERPENDICULARITY FOR AN AXIS
SHOWING ACCEPTANCE
BOUNDARY
• FORMULAS FOR POSITIONAL TOLERANCING
a. Provision for Out-Of-Squareness when projected
tolerance zone is not used
b. Coaxial features

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Specifying Perpendicularity for an axis
showing acceptance boundary

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PROVISION FOR OUT -OF-SQUARENESS WHEN
PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS NOT USED
When the projected tolerance zone system is not used, it is
required to select a positional tolerance and clearance hole
combination that compensates for the allowable out - of -
squareness of the part that contains the fixed fastener. The
following formula is applicable:
H=F+T1+T2(I+2P/D)
where
T1 = positional tolerance diameter of clearance of hole
T2 = positional tolerance diameter of tapped or tight fitting
holes
D = the minimum depth of engagement of threaded or tight
fitting member
P = maximum projection of fastener

## Geometric Dimensioning and 91

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EXAMPLE: Given that the fasteners have the maximum diameter
of 6.35 (F), the positional tolerance of the clearance hole is
0.2 (T1), the positional tolerance of the tapped hole is 0.4 (T
2), the maximum thickness of the plate with the clear-ance
hole is 12.0 (P), and the minimum thickness of the plate
with the tapped hole is 8.0 (D), find the required clearance
hole size (H).
H = F + T1 + T2 ( 1 + 2P/D)
= 6.35 + 0.2 + 0.4( 1 + (2*12/8) )
= 6.35 + 0.2 + 0.4 (1 + 3)
= 6.35 + 0.2 + 0.4 (4)
= 6.35 + 0.2 + 1.6
= 8.15

## Geometric Dimensioning and 92

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COAXIAL FEATURES
The formula previously given for the floating fastener case also
applies to mating parts having two coaxial features where one of
these features is a datum for the other. See Fig. B-3. Where it is
desired to divide the available tolerance unequally between the
parts, the following formula is useful:

H1 + H2 = F1 + F2 + T1 + T2

## EXAMPLE: Given the information shown in Fig. B-3, solve for

T1 and T 2:
H1 + H2 = F1 + F2 + TI + T2
T1 + T2 = (H1 + H2) -(F1 + F2)
= (20 + 10) -(19.95 + 9.95)
= 0.1 total available tolerance

## If T1 = 0.06 , then T2 = 0.04

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