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Saif Serag, Rachid Benchrifa hydrogen

Hydrogen
Saif Serag, Rachid Benchrifa
Physics Department, Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco
Email: saifserag75@gmail.com, rachid.benchrifa@gmail.com.

Hydrogen :
Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe. It represents 75% of the mass matter and
about 90% of the atoms. It is abundant in stars and giant gaseous planets, but it is very small in the
Earth's atmosphere. The most common material containing is water, in addition to several other
sources such as natural gas and coal Fossil fuels, especially methane.

Hydrogen properties:
It is the lightest material with a single atomic number, which is colorless, tasteless and odorless. It is
also very flammable and is a clean energy carrier. Hydrogen generators are the lowest in emitting
carbon dioxide and other contaminants.

2
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
gasolin electric feul cell using feul cell using H2 cell H2 cell
motor motor & gasolin methanol production production
gasolin by methan by wind
machin energy
(figure5)comparsion for co2 emmission between diffrente car motors

The hydrogen generator is the least polluted among all the generators. It has almost no pollution.
Gasoline is the most polluting of the environment, so we know the importance of energy production
by hydrogen as it is cleaner and environmentally friendly.

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Saif Serag, Rachid Benchrifa hydrogen

The advantage of hydrogen energy vector:


Recently, the importance of generating energy from hydrogen gas has emerged, especially since its
sources on the ground are many, the most important of which is the huge water reserves in the seas,
the oceans, Over the past two decades developed countries have been interested in trying, where
hydrogen has several advantages, including:
- The thermal energy caused by burning is much higher than that of burning other sources compared to
weight, burning 1 kg of gasoline, for example, can give 47200 kJ while giving 1 kg of hydrogen
142000 kJ
Of energy, three times as much as other sources.
- Its use as a fuel does not result in any products that are polluting the environment and burning it does
not lead to the lack of it, but to its union with oxygen, forming water and then it can be used again.
- A hydrogen flame is a very high temperature and as a result of its low density, it spreads rapidly and
then its concentration is reduced. This is a positive feature, as the transmission of fires in the hydrogen
tanks exposed to the explosion is few.
- It can be used as fuel in different means of transportation, especially airplanes where it is
characterized by lightweight and in the work of heating, cooling and electricity generation and in
meteorological balloons and others. As well as its use in the chemical industry.
- Hydrogen does not have a smell or color, so when you use it, you must add other substances that
indicate its presence or leakage.
- Its use with its diffusion capacity will provide mankind with an important alternative source of fossil
fuels currently widely used.
Hydrogen is the most variable energy carrier. Thus, fossil energies can be converted into useful energy
(mechanical, thermal, electric) through a single process, combustion, on the contrary, hydrogen can be
converted into useful energy through five processes in addition to combustion, Converted into heat
through incineration, converted directly into electricity through chemical and electrical methods.
There are also the three most stable hydrogen isotopes

(Figure6) Hydrogen isotopes

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Saif Serag, Rachid Benchrifa hydrogen

Usage of hydrogen :
1) Used in the ammonia production

As well as hydrogen and fat hydrogenation and methanol production


2) Manufacture of hydrochloric acid and welding
3) Used as fuel for missiles
4) Used in cooling in generators for its thermal conductivity
5) Deuterium is used in nuclear fusion and as a sedative for neutrons in nuclear fission
6) Tritium is used to make nuclear bombs

Method for hydrogen production :


• Conversion of methane :
Fossil fuels are the main source of hydrogen production in industry. A hydrocarbon repair process can
be applied to hydrocarbons differently, especially on the simplest of them, such as methane or natural
gas.
At high temperatures ranging from 700-1100 ° C, the H2O water vapor passes on methane in a heat-
reactive reaction to give the synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide.

CH4 + H2O → CO + 3H
In a second phase, additional amounts of hydrogen are generated as a result of the heat-diffusing
reaction, a gas-water reaction:

CO + H2O → CO2 + H2
During this reaction, an oxygen atom is stripped of the added water vapor for CO oxidation to
CO2. This oxidation process provides energy to the medium. The process can be powered by
burning a section of methane

• Conversion of biomass into a gas :


It is a process that converts organic carbon or fossil material at high temperatures (> 700 ° C), without
combustion, with a controlled amount of oxygen and/or steams to carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and
carbon dioxide. Carbon monoxide then interacts with water to form carbon dioxide and more
hydrogen through the reaction of water and gas transformation. Macotrapes or special membranes can
separate hydrogen from this gas stream.
A simplified example of a reaction

C6H12O6 + O2 + H2O → CO + CO2 + H2 + other materials


Water and gas conversion reaction

CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 (+ small amount of heat)

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 hydrogen production from coal :


Conversion of coal to the gaseous state (Bush method)
1. Enter steam on heated coke up to 1200 ° C.

C + H2O → CO + H2
2- The temperature drops to about 800 ° C, which enters the current step air (4N + O2), which reacts
with the carbon and causes the temperature to rise again to about 1200 C because it is a reaction of
diffuse heat:

2C + ( 4N+O2) → 2CO + 4N2

3. In the final step, the water gas is treated with water vapor in the degree C ° 045 with a medium of
iron oxide

CO + H2 +H2O → CO2 + 2H2


4- We observe that the reaction is reversible so get rid of CO2 by treating it with a hot base solution or
by water. High-pressure bar 50 bar
In recent advances to efforts to find an inexpensive way to make hydrogen from ordinary water,
scientists have announced that high-quality coal powder and other forms of carbon can release
hydrogen from water exposed to laser pulses. Where the published research in the Journal of Physical
Chemistry of the American Chemical Society ACS 'Journal of Physical Chemistry C.
Akoko Akimoto and his colleagues pointed out that the traditional approach to destroying hydrogen
and oxygen water involves the use of expensive catalysts or electricity through water. Since the
economic production of hydrogen from water can promote the transition from coal, oil and other fuels.
Scientists are looking for less expensive catalysts. These substances accelerate chemical reactions that
can not occur without them. Based on references from decades of research, scientists have decided to
check the ability of carbon powder and charcoal powder, which is inexpensive and readily available, to
separate hydrogen gas from oxygen within the water.
Akimoto tested carbon and charcoal powder by adding them to the water and exposing them to laser
radiation at nano-second pulses within the mix. The experiment generated hydrogen at room
temperature without the need for expensive catalysts or electrodes. Its success is an important tool to
provide an inexpensive alternative to producing small amounts of hydrogen from water.

• Biochemical method
Algae and blue bacteria have gained major concerns as potential cell manufacturers to produce
hydrogen. In conjunction with photosynthesis, these organisms use inexpensive inorganic substrates
and solar energy for simultaneous bio-synthesis and hydrogen evolution. However, hydrogen
production associated with these organisms is still too low to compete with existing chemical systems

• Hydrogen production by electrolysis


Our study will be on the production of hydrogen by electrolysis as we will use the electricity from the
wind station we have already studied for electrolysis

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Saif Serag, Rachid Benchrifa hydrogen

(Figure7) steps of electrolysis by PEM

Is the process of passing a constant current in water leads to its analysis of its main components,
namely hydrogen and oxygen
The device analysis process is shown in Fig
Where a continuous electrical source uses its negative electrode called a cathode and its positive
polynomial called anode being immersed in water where electrolysis is performed according to the
equation

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Saif Serag, Rachid Benchrifa hydrogen

(Figure8) Hydrogen isotopes

The equations obtained are:


Electrolysis of water: -

Anode: -

Cathode: -

The results of the analysis are as follows:

It should be considered that the water solution is not pure because the pure water is not conveyor for an
insulator, and the analysis poles must be made of corrosion resistant materials, in addition to a broken
dinner that prevents the mixing of hydrogen gas with oxygen
The amount of hydrogen produced by the water analysis process is twice that of the oxygen, due to the
water structure of the hydrogen atom and the single oxygen atom

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Note : we can to calcule kWh cost from PEM electrolysis by this relation

𝑇𝑂𝑇𝐴𝐿 𝐿𝐼𝐹𝐸 𝐶𝑌𝐶𝐿𝐸 𝐶𝑂𝑆𝑇


(levelized cost of energy) LCOE =
𝑇𝑂𝑇𝐴𝐿 𝐿𝐼𝐹𝐸𝑇𝐼𝑀𝐸 𝐸𝑁𝐸𝑅𝐺𝑌 𝑃𝑅𝑂𝐷𝑈𝐶𝑇𝐼𝑂𝑁

1𝑘𝑊 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑎𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑓𝑜𝑟 1𝑘𝑔 ℎ𝑦𝑑𝑟𝑜𝑔𝑒𝑛 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑛


kWh cost = *
1𝑘𝑤∗𝑙𝑖𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒(ℎ)∗𝐶𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑎𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑤ℎ𝑖𝑐ℎ 𝑔𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑢𝑠 1𝑘𝑔 ℎ𝑦𝑑𝑟𝑜𝑔𝑒𝑛

The quantity of outputs can be calculated through the Faraday law of analysis where it can be
mathematically formulated:

Q The quantity of charge flowing in the material


m The amount of mass-produced by the analysis
F It is the constant of Faraday

z Transfer rate of electrons to ions


𝑀
Is the equivalent weight of the material
𝑍

(Figure9) Detailed of electrolysis of water

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This is a table showing the production of some types of analysis stations per
day and year:
(Table5) Type of electrolysis station

Amount of hydrogen production Type of electrolysis station

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Thermal analysis:
In this process, the water temperature is raised to about 2500 ° C. The water dissolves into hydrogen
and oxygen, but this temperature is very large and cannot be obtained in a simple way so it is
expensive and almost impossible because the combustion of hydrogen cannot reach water for this
value unless used Solar furnaces

Thermal Chemical Method:


It depends on the reaction of water with some chemical compounds at high temperatures up to 800 ° C
resulting in water degradation after a series of reactions. This method intercepts the problem of high
heat on the one hand and conducts a series of reactions after obtaining the hydrogen to return the used
materials and compounds to their first nature
That the production of hydrogen through electrolysis of water is very promising as long as this
production aims to store energy from a renewable and irregular supply. The surplus of electricity
produced in a fluid and irregular manner in time is used to produce and store hydrogen until it is
needed or transferred to the place of demand

Calculations of the gas amount :


There are special equations for calculating the quantities of gas produced under ideal conditions (25 C
or K 298 and kPa 101.3), for measuring the value of hydrogen or oxygen produced within an hour, we
first measure the voltage on the analyzer terminals during and after the operation We measure the
value of the current and then multiply the previous values with each other to get the input capacity at a
voltage of 2 volts and a current of 20 amp. The power value of the analyzer is 40 watts. After that, we
convert the measured value from watts to volts. In case of use for an hour, The analyst is averaging 40
* 3600 joules per hour, equivalent to 144 kWh..
One liter of water produces 1358.3 liters of hydrogen and 679.15 liters of oxygen and we need
13170.9 kilojoules for analysis of one liter of water. Therefore, we divide 13170.9 kJ at 144 kJ. We
get the time to get the results of the analysis of one liter of water, ie 91.46 To calculate the amount of
hydrogen produced within one hour, we divide the amount of hydrogen produced by analyzing one
liter of water 1358.3 on the number of hours needed to analyze one liter of water 91.46 hours. The
result is the number of liters produced within one hour and in our system, this is 14.85 liters of
hydrogen per hour. Similarly, we calculate the amount of oxygen produced per hour. In order to obtain
the values in cubic feet, we divide the number of liters by 28.317. For a system of connected analyzers
with an electrochemical system, the value of the income can be determined by means of solar maps,
which determine the value of the solar radiation of the compound in the world.
Note:-
We talked about several ways to produce hydrogen, all of which were relatively expensive. As a result
of previous research and their relentless efforts to produce hydrogen at the lowest cost, Ikoko Akimoto
and his colleagues pointed to the use of fossil fuels as catalysts for the interaction of dissociation of
water-atom bonds as a low-cost catalyst The other catalysts are catalysts, which are the materials that
accelerate the reaction otherwise it did not interact effectively. Therefore, scientists decided to verify
the ability of coal powder to help separate hydrogen from oxygen in water by adding it The powder
into the water and then directed to the laser in nanosecond pulses and indeed generate hydrogen at
room temperature without the need for expensive catalysts or electrodes. It is an inexpensive way to
produce small amounts of hydrogen from water

Hydrogen storage: -
It is necessary to store hydrogen for different uses. The storage of hydrogen is one of the problems
facing researchers because of its very small atomic volume, which facilitates leakage from the
reservoirs so that it should be safer as well as the cost problem as the cost of storage of hydrogen is
high in many storage methods.

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Hydrogen can be stored in its gaseous state or liquid or solid state. We will now review hydrogen
storage methods and the advantages and disadvantages of each method
For calculate kWh cost from storag :
𝑇𝑂𝑇𝐴𝐿 𝐿𝐼𝐹𝐸 𝐶𝑌𝐶𝐿𝐸 𝐶𝑂𝑆𝑇
(levelized cost of energy) LCOE =
𝑇𝑂𝑇𝐴𝐿 𝐿𝐼𝐹𝐸𝑇𝐼𝑀𝐸 𝐸𝑁𝐸𝑅𝐺𝑌 𝑃𝑅𝑂𝐷𝑈𝐶𝑇𝐼𝑂𝑁

𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡 𝑜𝑓 1 𝑘𝑔 ℎ𝑦𝑑𝑟𝑜𝑔𝑒𝑛∗𝑘𝑔 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝐻2


1kWh cost =
𝑙𝑖𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒∗𝑘𝑊ℎ 𝑎𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 1𝑘𝑔 𝐻2

Gas hydrogen: -
Storage of hydrogen and its gas is one of the most common methods. It is stored in tanks in this
condition and under pressures ranging from 350 to 700 bar. These tanks are designed to be lightweight
and safe to avoid hydrogen leakage. Increase the volume capacity of tanks by cooling the tank to 169 °
C - 77 kB which is commercially available
Its disadvantages are the high cost of $ 500-600 per kilogram of hydrogen and with the development
of the manufacture of these reservoirs, but it suffers from loss in hydrogen if used in the long term in
addition to the effect of hydrogen on the constituent materials of the tank is not understood so now still
need some kind of Research and development to develop this process to reduce cost, size and safety as
well as the development of technology to restore the energy of pressure and storage during operation
as it uses 20% of energy

(Figure10) hydrogen gas tank

Liquid hydrogen:-
Hydrogen gas can be converted into liquid by applying low pressure on the gas and then cooling it to -
253C ° with helium gas, which reaches a density of 70.8 kg / m3. This means that the liquid hydrogen
density is much greater than the gas and this reduces the loss of hydrogen, The method is expensive
for both liquid conversion and storage, where 25-45% of stored energy is stored in hydrogen, in
addition to the problem of re-evaporation of liquefied hydrogen as well as the risk of pressure and
cooling, making the system unsafe

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Saif Serag, Rachid Benchrifa hydrogen

(Figure11) liquid hydrogen storage

Solid hydrogen: -
It is one of the safest and safest ways to store hydrogen either in the form of physisorption,
chemisorption or nanostructure, and we will review the most common methods used to determine the
mechanism in which solid hydrogen is stored.

1. Adsorption method: -
Adsorption is the method of accumulating atoms or molecules of gas on the surface of a solid material,
ie, the aggregation of a substance on the surface of another absorbent material and is classified as
physisorption where the physical forces of Van der Waals weak physical strength is achieved only at
low temperatures and increase the pressure of gas and decrease in high temperature
Most of the materials used for industrial adsorption fall into one of three categories :
1. Oxygen-containing compounds - usually hydrophobic, and polarity, including substances such as
silica gel and zeolite.
2. Carbon-based compounds, including substances such as activated carbon and graphite.
3. Polymer compounds - polar or non-polar materials in the perforated polymer matrix.
Both of the above materials are characterized by high porosity and a large surface area that can absorb
a large part of the gases under certain conditions of pressure and temperature. To ensure that large
volumes of hydrogen can be stored, granules from the base material are used to increase the bonding
surfaces and are then supplied with hydrogen by injecting hydrogen at high pressures into the reservoir
filled with fine particles of the substance

(Figure12) shows adsorption

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2. Absorption method: -
The use of solid, liquid, and absorbent carbon compounds as well as nanotubes, are the main ways to
chemically bind hydrogen. It is the safest way, as no hydrogen will be released in the event of an
emergency, but it is large and heavy. Metal hydrides such as LaNi5, Mg2Ni, FeTi are used to store
hydrogen by chemically binding to the surface of the material. To ensure that large volumes of
hydrogen can be stored, granules from the base material are used to increase the bonding surfaces. The
material is then filtered by hydrogen injection at high pressure in the tank filled with fine particles of
matter, the process of binding hydrogen with the material is associated with the release of quantities of
heat, and this temperature must be re-introduced to separate the hydrogen from the material again

(Figure13) Absorption method

Hydrate: -
Hydrate is a mixture of hydrogen and one or more other elements, in which the links may be very
different in nature (ionic, covalent, metal or mixed)
To store hydrogen, we are interested in metal hydrides that are usually produced from a combination
of hydrogen with transition elements or some of their alloys (2TiH, LaNi5H6, 1FeTiH). These
compounds have a strongly marked metal character, so much so that they can be considered as metal-
hydrogen alloys
The following table shows some of the common hydrate types used for absorption as well as the
percentage of hydrogen absorbed as well as the absorption temperature of each metal

(Table6) Common hydrate types, ( H2 Wt%) & T °C

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Hydrates of metals such as hydrogen hydride release hydrogen at high temperatures between 550-
600 k. Hydrogen is chemically linked to magnesium, as is the case with all hydrids, where hydrogen is
released only at high temperature and pressure

(Figure14) hydrure absorpation

2. Carbon nanotubes: -
Carbon nanotubes have the capacity to store between 4.2 - 65% of their weight of hydrogen, and if
they are produced in a large and economical manner, 13.2 liters of carbon nanotubes contain the same
amount of energy as 50 liters of the fuel tank. The relatively low density and high porosity help due to
the large surface area of the potential for physical adsorption of carbon nanotubes that may solve the
hydrogen storage problem. However, practical experiments have shown that the current pipe capacity
does not exceed 0.01% and the pipe quantity is 0.2% of the sample. In total carbon high porosity at
room temperature and pressure 11.35 mpa The storage ratio was 11.26% Block for pipes, 67.55% for
carbon fiber and 4.25% for graphite These values have launched many kinds researches to understand
the process of physical adsorption and storage of hull molecules Drogen in nanotubes Since the case is
physical and depends on the strength of Vander Falls, the simulation idea was introduced, which gave
an average of 6.3 kJ / mol compared to the 4 kJ / mol adsorption card,

(Figure15) Hydrogen absorbed in carbon nanotubes

Carbon nanotubes have the ability to release hydrogen at room temperature because it is physically
adsorbed on the surface of the tube to allow a small amount of heat to be released.
Scientists have found during many years of research and research that the most promising mineral that
can be practically used to store hydrogen in hydride & magnesium. It has low density (4.5 times
lighter than iron and 1.5 times lighter than aluminum), relatively low cost and theoretically can react

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Saif Serag, Rachid Benchrifa hydrogen

with 7.66% hydrogen per block. However, it is extremely difficult to achieve maximum value, and this
issue is being worked out by scientists all over the world. Work must be done to become a magnesium
powder material that can be used in the system several times. In addition, the temperature of the
hydrogen release (hydrogen hydride giving the hydrogen at 360 ° C) and increasing the flow rate of
hydrogen saturation reaction (hydrogen hydrogenation) should be reduced (this is necessary for the
tank to be fully filled with hydrogen within 5 minutes rather than within half an hour). .

Hydrogen transfer: -
Hydrogen can be transported in several ways depending on the state of hydrogen (solid,
liquid, gaseous). The cost of conduction depends on the distance to which the hydrogen is
transported. If hydrogen is in a solid or gaseous state, it can be transported in tanks loaded
on trucks or filled in cylinders, And then transferred to the point of consumption as in Fig

(Figure15) Hydrogen absorbed in carbon nanotubes

Figure 16

Or transfer through long pipelines from the production area to the point of consumption The
following table shows transport costs for liquid and gas situations:

(Table 8 ) transport cost in diffrent types

State Transport mode transport cost £/kg

Gas pipeline 1.65


Gas truck 2.16
Liquide truck 2.09

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Saif Serag, Rachid Benchrifa hydrogen

The following table shows the prices of pipelines according to their diameter

(Table9) pipelines prices according it diameter

Diameter tube ( inch ) Cost)$/mile(

3 400,000
9 900,000
12 1,000,000
14 1,400,000
And do not forget to mention that there are taxes for transportation as in the United States of America
up to half a dollar or 0.38 euros per gallon

(Figure17) Piplinne cost according it diameter

If the solid state is filled with containers or cylinders under certain conditions (pressure and
temperature) The cost of solid-state trailers in the Hydrexia company about half the capital
cost ($/kg) of the conventional tube trailers and can reduce the total cost of hydrogen delivery
by 30 -40%. Hydrogen can also be stored in solid sheets, containing approximately 500 liters,
as shown in the figure below
Greatest hydrogen storage - can density solid state trailer carry up to 900 kg of hydrogen in
one trip, ie three times more than a standard tube trailer

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Saif Serag, Rachid Benchrifa hydrogen

(Figure18) Disque it diameter 30 cm countain 500 liter of hydrogen in atmospher pression

Electricity production by hydrogen :


The production of electric power is one of the most important things that scientists, countries,
and governments are interested in. It is one of the most important service capabilities that
enable consumers to convert to different kinds of energies and the easiest way. In this
research, we will discuss how to produce electricity using hydrogen.
Hydrogen power can be produced either by hydrogen Fuel cells or by using it in hydroelectric
power plants. We will now review some of these applications and how to extract electricity by
using hydrogen fuel.
Fuel cells:-
A fuel cell is a device that converts potential energy (energy stored in molecular bonds) into
electrical energy, generating a continuous low-voltage electric current, thus connecting
several cells in parallel and in parallel to obtain the voltage and current required. The fuel cell
uses hydrogen gas (H2) and oxygen gas (O2) as fuel. The reaction products in the cell are
water, electricity, and heat. This greatly improves internal combustion engines, coal-fired
power plants, and nuclear power plants, all of which produce harmful products.
Since O2 is easily available in the atmosphere, we only need to supply the H2 fuel cell that
can come from the electrolysis process.
There are four basic elements of a fuel cell:

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Anode: is the negative electrode of the fuel cell, has many functions. Administers electrons
released from the hydrogen molecules so they can be used in an external circuit. They have
channels in which hydrogen gas is distributed evenly over the catalyst surface.
Cathode : is the positive electrode of the fuel cell and contains channels on which the oxygen
is distributed on the surface of the catalyst. It also introduces electrons from the outer circuit
to the catalyst, where they can be regrouped with hydrogen ions and oxygen to form water.
Electrolyte: is a proton exchange membrane. This specially processed material only charges
positively charged ions. The membrane obscures the electrons. The membrane must be
moistened to function and remain constant.
Catalyst: A special substance that facilitates the interaction of oxygen and hydrogen. They
are usually made of nanoparticles coated well on carbon paper or cloth. The catalyst is stiff
and thick so that the maximum surface area of the platinum can be exposed to hydrogen or
oxygen. The platinum side of the catalyst envelope faces.
The fuel cells (the proton exchange membrane) which is in the heart of the cell is called the
proton exchange membrane. It allows protons to pass through them unhindered, while
electrons are blocked. So, when the H2 hits the catalyst and is divided into protons and
electrons (remember, the proton is the same as the H + ion), the protons go directly to the
cathode side, forcing the electrons to travel through an outer circle. Along the way perform
useful work, such as lamp lighting or drive, before combining protons and O2 on the other
side to produce water.
How does it works? Compressed hydrogen gas (H2) enters the fuel cell on the anode side.
This gas is forced through the catalyst by pressure. When the H2 molecule touches the
platinum on the catalyst, it is divided into two H + ions and two electrons (e-). The electrons
are made through the anode, making their way through the outer circle (doing useful work
such as engine operation) and returning to the cathode side of the fuel cell.
Meanwhile, on the cathode side of the fuel cell, oxygen gas (O2) is forced through the
catalyst, forming two atoms of oxygen. Each of these atoms has a strong negative charge.
This negative charge attracts H + ions across the membrane, where they combine with an
oxygen atom and two electrons from the outer circle to form a water molecule (H2O).
All this interaction occurs in the so-called heap cells. Experience also includes setting up a
complete system around the core component which is the cell stack.

(Figure 19) Fuel Cell Mechanism

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These are the equations of interactions that occur in the cell

(Table10) Equations of interactions in fuel cell

Cathode O2 + 4H+ + 4e– → 2H2O

Anode 2H2 → 4H+ + 4e–

Total reactions 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O

Due to highly efficient hydrogen content of the fuel cells (55%), this remarkable technique
can be used in many applications such as transportation (cars, buses, forklifts, etc.) and
backup power to produce electricity during an electrical network failure.
For calculate 1kWh adding cost from fuel cell :
𝑇𝑂𝑇𝐴𝐿 𝐿𝐼𝐹𝐸 𝐶𝑌𝐶𝐿𝐸 𝐶𝑂𝑆𝑇
(levelized cost of energy) LCOE =
𝑇𝑂𝑇𝐴𝐿 𝐿𝐼𝐹𝐸𝑇𝐼𝑀𝐸 𝐸𝑁𝐸𝑅𝐺𝑌 𝑃𝑅𝑂𝐷𝑈𝐶𝑇𝐼𝑂𝑁
1𝑘𝑊 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡
1kWh =
1𝑘𝑤∗𝑙𝑖𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒(ℎ)∗𝑐𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟

Technology advantages: -
By converting potential energy directly into electrical energy, the fuel cells avoid "thermal
pressure" (as a result of the second law of thermodynamics) and are therefore more efficient
than combustion engines, which must first convert potential energy into heat, then
mechanical work.
The direct emission of fuel cell machines has been just water and little heat. This significantly
improves the engines of the internal combustion engine of greenhouse gases.
Fuel cells do not contain moving parts. They are therefore more reliable than traditional
engines.
Hydrogen can be produced in an environmentally friendly manner while extracting and
refining oil is extremely harmful.
The prices of fuel cell devices to generate electricity in the range of 1-3 kW range from 3800-
22800 euros and these prices have a tendency to decline with the development of
manufacturing
The estimated cost of producing 1 kW of fuel-cell power for a system price of 1,200-1,500 €

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Saif Serag, Rachid Benchrifa hydrogen

Energy generators: -
There are different types of fuel supplied by generators such as gasoline, diesel, gas and other
fuels. However, hydrogen can be used to supply these generators. For example, Ballard Power
System, in cooperation with Ford Power Product, introduced the first power generator with an
internal combustion engine The Oxtar model was capable of generating a voltage between
120 and 480 volts at a frequency of 50-60 Hz and manufactured energy sources similar to the
market, especially from Asian companies
Hydrogen has also been introduced as a fuel for gas turbines in the past years. Power is
generated through turbines that use the heat energy generated by the combustion of hydrogen
to generate steam, which is a very fast-moving cycle that rotates the turbine,
The disadvantage of this method is that the turbines were low at less than 35%

Safety and security procedures:


Hydrogen is highly flammable and even explodes at ignition. It is a colorless, odorless gas. In
addition, an invisible flame is a great danger when it leaks. It can ignite without anyone being
aware of it, especially when the results of its combustion are water. Therefore, it is necessary
to store hydrogen in places far from the cities and communities and also must be a method of
storage is sophisticated and highly efficient to ensure that leakage and therefore in some
research it is recommended to work underground tanks to store hydrogen and avoid the
dangers of leakage as well must be a more careful and safe a The storage and transport of
hydrogen, which has a very small density enables it to leak from the most compact tanks. In
addition, liquid hydrogen and because of its very low temperature leads to the occurrence of
so-called cold burning and is more effective than the known burning, Respiratory system,
therefore, Condoms and protective gloves should be used for liquid hydrogen burns

(Figure 20) photo of hydrogen

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Saif Serag, Rachid Benchrifa hydrogen

The Hindenburg disaster in Lake Hurst, New Jersey, on May 6, 1937, put an end to the life of
the hydrogen airship. Where a hydrogen explosion killed 35 people in the airship and one
member of the crew, but a miracle remained 62 out of 97 passengers and crew. After more
than 30 years of passenger travel on a commercial balloon - tens of thousands of passengers
flying a million miles - on more than 2,000 flights without a single injury - the era of the
balloon has ended.

(Figure21) Hindenburg disaster in Lake Hurst, New Jersey

References
1) https://tophat.com/marketplace/science-&-math/earth-sciences/textbooks/the-human-planet-human-
geography-in-the-anthropocene-demian-hommel/535/29480
2) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_turbine
3) https://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/wind-power2.htm
4) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insular_energy_system
5) Electrical Energy Storagen https://www.iec.ch/whitepaper/pdf/iecWP-energystorage-LR-en.pdf
6) IEA Statistics © OECD/IEA, iea.org/stats/index.asp
7) Wind-turbin-models.com
8) COST ANALYSIS OF HYDROGEN ENERGY GENERATION
Karol Grab-Rogalinski, Stanislaw Szwaja
9) 2014 ‫سوريا‬-‫تقييم عملية فصل الماء الى مكوناتح بوجود محفزوضوئي (وسام نزية عبد القادر) جامعة دمشق‬
10) 2011 ‫اقتصاديات الهيدروجين وامكانيات تحقيق التنمية المستدامة (امال رحمن) (سلمى عائشة)جامعة ورقلة‬
11) Hydrogen economy – Wikipedia
12) http://electricity-world.blogspot.com
13) http://www.mpoweruk.com/index.htm
14) ‫الهيدروجين وقود المستقبل‬
a. ) 2015-2014 ‫حسن الشيحاوي( سوريا‬, ‫ جعفر اسكاف‬,‫ محمد عابد شنن مجد بليدي‬,‫ يزن زيدان‬,‫كرم شبيب‬
15) Hydrogen for Large-scale Electricity Generation in USA Deepak Prakash President, Global Energy Network
Institute (GENI) 2011
16) Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cells, Strategic Roadmap 2011
17) STOCKAGE DE L’HYDROGENE DANS LES SOLIDES www.nesshy.net
www.mcphy.com
Magnesium-based hydrides as promising candidates for competitive hydrogen storage Highly cited
paper IJHE DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2006.11.022
18) Economics of wind energy (M.Ragheb 2017)
19) Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization Genevieve Saur, Todd Ramsden Prepared under Task No.
H271.3710 May 2011
20) http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/pressroom/presspacs/2013/acs-presspac-august-28-2013/producing-
hydrogen-from-water-with-carbon-charcoal-powder.html

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Saif Serag, Rachid Benchrifa hydrogen

21) Techno-economic Analysis of PEM Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production Whitney G. Colella Brian D. James Jennie
M. Moton NREL Genevieve Saur Todd Ramsden 27 February 2014
22) PEM Electrolysis H2A Production Case Study Documentation Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell
Technologies Office 31 December 2013 By: Brian James (SA) Whitney Colella (SA) Jennie Moton (SA)
23) Costs of Storing and Transporting Hydrogen Wade A. Amos National Renewable Energy Laboratory
24) An economic analysis of the production of hydrogen from wind-generated electricity for use in transport
applications Philippe Menanteau, Marie-Marguerite Quéméré, Alain Le Duigou, Sandra Le Bastard
http://solarcellcentral.com/cost_page.html

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