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EXERCISE l(A)

x 2 +2,x ~ 1 '
Ex.1 lff(x) = , then LHV- f(x) equals ­
{ 2x+l,x<1 x-»

(A) 1 (B) 2
(C) 3 (D) Does not exist
Sol. lim fix)
x-->1-0
\
lim = [2(I-h)+1]= 3
h-->O

lim
x-->I+0 \
lim [(1+h)Z + 2] = 3
fix) = h-->O
. LHL = RHL, so lim f(x)
., \ = 3. x~l Ans.[C]

, l+e- I1x
Ex.2 lim is equal to ­
x-->o 1- e -II x
(A) 1 (B)-1
(C) 0 (D) Does not exist
IIh
I
Sol. LHL= lim ~ lf h h-->O 1- e
-IIh I

= h-->O
lim = e +-1

e-1/h-l

, l+e- II h 1+0
RHL = 11m = =-= 1 Ans.[D]
h-->O l_e-1/ h 1-0
LHL ;;/:. RHL, so given limit does not exist.

!
X- l, X < O

Ex.3 lff(x)= lI;,X: O then ~~o f{x)equals­

x ,x> o
(A) 0 (B) 1
(C) -1 (D) Does not exist
Sol. Here x---+o+
lim f(x)
\
= Jim
x-+o+
X2 = 0

lim_ f(x) = lim_ (x-I) =-1

and x-->O \ x-->o

.. lim f(x);;/:. lim_ f(x)

x---+o+ \ x-s-O \

!~ f(x) does not exist. Ans.[D]

Ex.4 lim~'
I x -31' IS equal to­
x-->3

(A) 1 (B)-1
(C) 0 (D) Does not exist
LHL - lim- (3~h)-3
Sol. - h-->O 1(3-h)-31

-h
= lim -=-1
h-->O I-hi

RHL - liim ----'---'-­

(3+h)-3
- h-s-O 1(3 + h) - 31

1
ee
· -h: =
I im 1
h-tO Ih I
LHL *- RHL, so limit does not exist. Ans.[D]

. 2x 2 +3x
Ex.S lim equals-
x-too 3x2+4
(A) 1/2 (B) 2/3
(C) 3/4 (D) 0
-lim 2+(3/x) 2
Sol. - x-too 3+(4/x 2 ) 3 Ans.[B]

Ex.6 ~~~ (~x2 + I-X) equals-

(A)-1 (B) 0
(C) (D) None of these

X~OO
x[(I+~)ll2 ;'1]
x~'

:= lim X [1+- 2
1- -_1_+ ...-1]
x-too 2x 8x~

:= lim [_1 __1_+...]:= 0

x-eec2x 8x3 •
Ans.[B]

x-sin x .
Ex.7 Iff(x) :=-1----::-2 - ,then lim f(x) equals -
x + cos X x-too

(A) 0 (B) 00
(C) i (D) None of these
{I-(sin xix)}
Sol. lim f( x)
x-too \
= x-too
lim
{I + (cos 2 X I x)}

Ans.[C]
(
Ex.8
. [x -(a+I)x+a]
lim
x..... x3 _a3
2
is equal to -

a-I
(A)- (B) a- I
3a 2
(C) a (D) 0

(~oform)
2
Sol. lim [x -Ca3 + 1)x
3
+a]
x-e-a x _a

:= lim
2x-a-I - a-I
x.... a 3x 2 - 3a2
(D.L.Hospital rule) Ans.[A]

2
lim x
Ex.9 tt:": r;----- is equal to ­
x-sO v1+x-v1-x
(A) 1/2 (B)2
(C) 1 (D) 0

Sol.
"
LImit l'
= 1m
x(.Jl+x +~)
---'--------'­
x-eo (1+x)-(1-x)

= lim .J];"; +~ = 1
Ans.[C]
x-->o 2 .

. tan 2x - x
Ex.10 lim
x-e-O 3x
.
-Sill X
equals-

(A) 2/3 (B) 1/3

(C) 1/2 (D) 0

Sol.
The given limit is in the form , therefore applying L 'Hospital's rule, we get
" lim 2 sec 2 2x - 1 2-1 1
L mut = -=­ Ans.[C]
x-->o 3 - cos x 3-1 2

, (tanxJI/X
Ex.11 hm
x-->o
-X- is equal to ­

(A) e3 (B) ell 3 (C) 1 (D) e

2
Sol. · ' = I"im (x+x 3/3+ .... JI/X
L imit
x-->o X

= lim (1+~JI/X2
x-->o 3

['.' X ~ 0, so neglecting higher powers of x]

Ans.[B]

Ii sin XO •
Ex.12 1m - ­
x~o x IS equal to ­
(
(A) 1 (B) n (C) x (D) n/180
Sol. Limit = lim sin(7t/180)x
x-e-O X

= lim (7t/180)cos(7t/180)x
x-e-O 1

7t
180 Ans.[D]

Ex.13 lim
x~co
(~-
2
tan -1 XJI/X equals­

(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) co (D)-l

I/X
Sol. Let y = lim ( ~-tan-I x
X-->OO 2 )

3
= lim (corx)!"
X-''''

I -1
:. log y = lim ogcot x
x~c.o X

(Ox 00 form)

=_ lim (l+x
2
r
l
x-.+'" cor" x

-2x

. (I+X 2 ) 2
. x
hm ...0..-----'_
x-.+'" -I =-2 II m - ­ 2

x-'<XlI+x
l+x 2

X-.+<Xl 2x

Ex.14 IfG (x) = -J25-x 2 ,

/.1
then Jim G(x)..!-G(1) equals _
x-e l x-I
(A) 1/24 .(B) 1/5
(C) -.J24' (D) None of these
Sol. Here G(1) = -~25-X2 =-.J24
:. Given limit

= lim -~+.J24

x-e l x-I

= ~i~ ~25-X2 (By L Hospital ruel)

I
=.J24 Ans.[D]

. Jf(x)-3
Ex.15 Iff(9) = 9 and f'(9) = 4, then h~ r is equal to-
x-.+ '\Ix-3 (
(A) 1 (B)3 (C) 4 (D) 9
Sol. Given limit is in % form, so using Hospital rule, we get
I
~.f(x)
2v f (x)

Limit = x-.+9
Jim I

2..h

Ans.[C]

- 1' whenx < -1

Ex.16 Functionf(x)= -x,when-1:;;xs1 IS
{
1, whenx >1

continuous ­
(A) Only at x = 1
(B) Onlyatx=-1
(C) At both x = 1 and x = - 1
(D) Neither at x = 1 nor at x = - 1
Sol. f(-1-O) =-1, f(-1) =-(-1)= 1
=> f( -1-0) 7:- fe-I)
=> f(x) is not continuous at x = - I
Further , f( 1) = -I
f(1+0) = I => f(1)7:-f(1+0)
=> f(x) is not continuous at x = 1. ADS. [D]

Ex.17 Iff(x) = { 0,
k
x cos(l/x), x 7:- 0
xe O
~.... ""-?..\t~ £d e{..
~"f....!"
\., L< ::0'
. contmuous
IS
. L" d~ \:. s eO 4-~ tue ~ ~
at x = 0, then ~€. ~ ~ ;6 ~ I
t!
(A) k < 0 (B) k > 0 (C) k = 0 (D) k z 0
'" Sol. Since f{x) is continuous at x = 0
:. !~ ftx) = f(O)
but f(0)= 0 ( given)
: • x-e-O
lim fr x) = x-e-O
lim xk cos (I/x)
L\.

= 0, ifk > O. ADs.[B]

1 I
--x O<x<­
2 ' 2
0, x=O
1 1
Ex.18 Iff(x) = X=­
2' 2
3 I
--x -<x <1
2 ' 2
1, x =1

( then wrong statement is ­

(A) fix) is discontinuous at x = 0
(B) ftx) is continuous at x = 1/2
(C) f(x) is discontinuous at x = 1
(D) f(x) is continuous at x = 1/4
Sol. Obviously function f{x) is discontinuous at x = 0 and x= I because the function is not defined, when
x< 0 and x> 1, therefore f(O-O) and f{I+0) do not exist. Again

f(.!.-+O)
2
= lim (~-x)
2
=I
x--+1/2

f (.!.--O)
2
lim (~-x)=o
=
2x--+112

function f(x) is discontinuous at x =~ ADs.[B]

2
5
3
X +X2 -16x+20 2
2 ,X ""
Ex.19 Iff(x)= { (x-2) is-
k, X =2
continuous for all values of x, then the value ofk is ­
(A) 5 (B) 6 (C) 7 (D) 8
Sol. .: f(x) is continuous at x =2
:. f(2-o) = f(2+O) = ft2) = k
But ft2+0)
= lim (2+h)3 +(2+h)2 -16(2+h)+20
h-->O (2 + h - 2)2

Ans. [C]

I, x::;2
Ex.20 If~pe function fix) = ax + b, 2<x<4
{ 7,
, x24 (
is continuous at x = 2 and 4, then the values of a and b are­
. (A) 3, 5 (B) 3, -5
(C) 0, 3 (D) 0, 5
Sol. Since f(x) is continuous at x = 2
:. f(2) = x-->
Iim 2
+ f(x)

=> 1 = !~~+ (ax+ b)

.. 1=2a+b ...(1)
Again f(x) is continuous at x = 4,
.. f(4) = !~~_ f(x)
=> 7 = lim (ax+ b)
x-->4

:.7=4a+b ...(2)
Solving (l) and (2), we get a= 3, b = -5. Ans.[B]
x, whenx E Q
Ex.21 Iff(x)= { h Q,thenf(x)
-x, W en x s
is continuous at ­
(A) All rational numbers
(B) Zero only
(C) Zero and 1 only
(D) No where
Sol. Let us first examine continuity at x = O.
f(O)=O (":OEQ)
= f (0-0) = ~~ f( 0- h) = ~~ ft-h)

= ~~ { -h or h according as - h E Q or -h ~ Q)
=0
f( 0+0) = ~~ ftO+h) = ~~ f(h)

6
= lim { h or -h} = 0
h~O

f(a--Q) =!~ f( a-h)

= !~ {(a-h) or - (a-h)}
= a or -a, which is not unique.
=> f(a-O) does not exist
=> f(x) is not continuous at aERo.
Hence flx) is continuous only at x = o. Ans.[B]

Ex.22 f(x) = x -[x] is continuous at ­

(A) x=O (B)x=-1
(C) x= 1 (D) x = 1/2
Sol. We know that [x] is discontinuous at every integer. Therefore it is continuous only at
x = 1/2, while the function x is continuous at all points x= 0, -1, 1, 1/2. Thus the given function is
continuous only at x = 1/2. Ans.[D]
/1
x<nl2
Ex.23 Iff(x) = a, x = nl2 is continuous ar x = n12, then value ofa and b are-
b(1-sin x) x > nl2
(n-2x)2 '

(A) 1/2, 1/4 (B) 2,4

(C) 1/2,4 (D) 1/4,2

3(%-h)
l-sin
Sol. f ("::-0)
2
= lim
h~O

3COS
2(%-h
J
· l-cOS3h
= I1m _-::-_

h->O 3sin2h

° (1- cosh)(1 + cosh--cos" h)

= 1~ =In
h->O 3(I-cosh)(1 + cosh)

h->O 4h 2

= lim 2b~n2h/2 b
h-+O 4h 2 8

2

=>f(~-OJ=f(~+OJ =f(~J =>~=%=a

.. a = 1/2, b = 4 Ans.[C]
7
Ex.24 If the function

1+sin2: xfor-co < x ~ 1

2
f(x) = ax + b for I < x < 3
X1t
6 tan - for 3 ~ x < 6
12

is continuous in the interval (- co, 6), then the value of a and b are respectively ­
(A) 0, 2 (B) 1, 1 (C) 2, 0 (D) 2, 1
Sol. Obviously the function f(x) is continuous at x = 1 and 3. Therefore !~+ f(x) = f(1)
~ a+ b=2 ...(1)
and !~~_ f(x) = f(3)
~3a+b=6 ...(2)
Solving (1) and (2), we get a = 2, b = O. Ans.[C)

l-cos4x
2
0
,x < r' {
x
Ex.25 Iff(x) = a, x=o
s: .x c- O
~16+~ -4
then at x = 0­
(A) f(x) is continuous, when a = 0
(B) f(x) is continuous, when a = 8
(C) f{x) is discontinuous for every value of a

(D) None of these

22x
Sol. f(O-O) = lim l-cos4x = 2sin =8
x-->o x2 x2

, £ ~+4
f(O +0) = Iim x
x-e-O (~16+£ -4) ~16+£ +4

= lim £(~ +4)=8 (

x-e-O 16+£-16
f (0 + 0) = f{0 - 0)

f(x) can be continuous at x = 0, if

f(O) = a= 8. Ans.[B]

sin[ x] 0
--x>
[x]+I'

cos-­
Ex26 Iff(x)= lim 2[x] ,x <0
• \ x---+o [x]

k, x = 0

8
(Where [x] = greatest integer s x) is continuous at x = 0, then k is equal to ­
(A) 0 (B) 1
(C) -1 (D) Indeterminate
Sol. As given f(O - 0) = f(O + 0) = k
cos (-h)
Now f(O - 0) = h....O
lim 2[-h]
[-h]

= lim cosC~:I))
h....O --'--:........;.~

=_ 1
-I

f(O + 0) = lim sin[h] = lim ~ =0

h....O [h]+1 h....O 0+1

Ex.27 Iff(x) = b , x=0

{ etan2x/tan3x, 0 < x < n/ 6

is continuous at x = 0, then value of a, bare ­

(
(A) 2/3, e2/3 (B) 1/3, e ll 3
(C) 2/3, 1/3 (D) None of these
Sol. f (0-0) == ~~ (1+ I sin (_h)l)aJ1sinC-hll
= (1+ sin h)alsinh =e a

f( o+ 0) = h~
r tan2h
e tan3h =
r
eh~
(tan2h)
tan3h

lim 2sec' 2h _ 213

e".... 3sec' 3h - e

Now f(x) is continuous at x == 0

=> f(O-O) = f(0+0) = f(O)
=> ea = e2!3 =b
.. a = 2/3, b= e2l3 Ans.[A]

Ex.28 f(x) == [x] is not differentiable at ­

(A) x=-l (B)x=O
(C) x= 1 (D) None of these
Sol. at x = 0:

h....O -h

f' (0+0)= limIO+h\-O = 1

h....O h
N ow, since f' (0-0) :t- f' (0+0)
=> f(x) is not differentiable at x = O. Ans.[B]

- x if x <0
2
Ex.29 Function f(x) = lim x : if 0 s x s 1, is
h~O{
x 3 -x+ 1, if x> 1
differentiable at ­
(A) x = 0 but not at x = 1
(B) x = 1 but not at x = 0

9
(C) x = 0 and x = 1 both
(D) neither x = 0 nor x = 1

Sol. Differentiability at x = 0

R [f' (0)] = lim f(O+h)-f(O)

h-.O h

0 _ limh-O
-- 1°1m (O+h)2_ - ­
h.....O h h..... o

h.....O -h

h.....O -h

f(x) is not differentiable at x = 0

Differentiability at x = 1

R[f'(l)]= lim f (1+ h)3 - f (l)

h.....O h

- 10 (1+h)3-(l+h)+I-1
- Im~~~-~-
h.....O h

-1°
- 1m
2h+3h 2+h 3_
- 2

h.....O h

L [f'(1)] = lim f(l-h)-f(I)

h.....O -h

= lim -,-(l_-_h~)-_I

h.....O -h

2
- 1°1m -2h+h -­ 2
-
h.....O -h

:. function fix) is differentiable at x = 1

Ans.[B]

3X,- 1S; X S; 1
Ex.30 If f(x) = { 4- x.l < x < 4

then at x = 1, f(x) is ­
(A) Continuous but not differentiable
(B) Neither continuous nor differentiable
(C) Continuous and differentiable
(D) Differentiable but not continuous
Sol. Since fi(l..c..Q) = x.....
lim1 3x = 3

f(1+0) = ~~ (4-x)=3
and f(l) = 3 1 = 3

f(l..c..Q) = f(1+0) = f(l)

:. f(x) is continuous at x = 1

=> Again f' (1 + 0) = lim f(x) - f(I)

x .....l+ x-I

x-3
_ I. 3
- I m - ­
x .....l x-I

10
. 3J+h_3
=hm-­
h->O h

. 3h-I
=3hm-­
h->O h
= 31og3
and f '(1+ 0) lim f(x) -f(I)
x-I
x ....l "

. 4-x-3
= hm =-1
x-s-l x-I
.. f' (1+0)*f'(1-0)
(}/I- f(x) is not differentiable at x = 1. Ans.[A]
x
x.31 Function ftx) = 1+ I x I is differentiable in the set­
(A) (-ex:>,ex:» (B)(-<lO,O)
(C) (-<lO, 0) U (0, co (D)(O, co
x
Sol. When x <0, f(x) ~r~-x
( 1
f'(x) = (I-x)2 ... (1)

which exists finitely for all x < 0

1
Also when x > 0, f(x) = -1­
+x
1
~f'(x)=(l+X)2 ...(2)
which exists finitely for all x > O. Also from (1) and (2) we have

e:
f '(O- O) = 1
{ f'(O+O)=I ~f'(O)=l ~
Hence f(x) is differentiabl~ R Ans.[A]

2
x sin ~,x * 0
Ex.32 Iff(x) = x , then
{
0, x=0
(
(A) f and f' are continuous at x = 0
(B) fis derivable at x = 0
(C) f and f' are derivable at x = 0
(D) f is derivable at x = 0 and f' is continuous at x = 0
Sol. When x *0
f' (x)=2xsin -+x2cos -. - 2 1
x
1( x1)
x

. 1 (1)
= 2x sm -;- cos -;
which exists finitely for all x*-O
2sinllx
and f' (0) = lim f(x)-f(O) lim x = 0
x->O X- 0 x->O X

:. fis also derivable at x = O. Thus

11
f' (x) =
! 2x sin l- - cos l- , x * 0

0,
x x
x =0

Also xuirn
....o
).rm (2xsm--cos­
f' (x) = x....o
. 1
X
1)
X

)1m . 1
= 2- x....o
COS -
X

But ;~ cos'; does not exist, so !~ f' (x) does not exist. Hence f' is not continuous (so not

derivable) at x = O. Ans.[B]

Ex.33 If x = a (8 + sin 8), y = a (1- cos 8), ~~ then dy/dx equals ­

(A) tan 8 (B) cot 8
1 I
(C) tan 28 (D) cot 2 8

dx dx.
Sol. de = a (1 + cos), de = a sin 8
(
dy dy I de a sin e I

(A)

(C) (D) None of these

Sol. Y= log e" -log (e" + 1)
=x-log(ex + 1)

. dy = 1- ~=_1_
X+l
Ans.[A]

., dx e eX+l

Ex.35 If y = -Z--Z
)
, then
dZy
-Z equals-
(
x -a dx

3x +a
Z z 3x 2 +a z

(A) (x Z_a Z ) 3 (B) (x Z_a 2 ) 4

2(3x 2 +a 2 ) 2(3x 2 +a 2 )
(C) (x 2 _a 2 ) 3 (D) (x Z_ aZ) 4

Sol.

(x 2 _ a 2 ) 2 .2- 2x.2(x 2 - a 2 ).2x

-- (x 2_a 2 ) 4

2
2(3x 2 +a )

= (x 2_a 2 ) 3 Ans.[C]

12
sec x - tan x dy
Ex.36 If Y= ,then -d equals­
secx+ tan x x
(A) 2 sec x (sec x - tan X)2
(B) - 2 sec x (sec x - tan x)'
(C) 2 sec x (sec x + tan X)2
(D) - 2 sec x( sec x + tan x)'
sec x - tan x sec x - tan x
Sol.
y= sec x i tan x ' secx-tanx
= (sec x - tan x)21l
dy

=-2 sec x (sec x- tan x? Ans.[B]

dy
Ex.37 If x J1+Y + y~ = 0, then dx equals­

1 1
(A) (l+x)2 (B) - (l+X)2

.F' 1
(C) 1+x 2 (D) None of these
Sol. Let us first express y in terms of x because all alternatives are in terms of x. So

x v1+; = -yJ!D.

=> x" (l + y) = y2 (l + x)

=> x2 -y2 + x2y - y2 X = 0

=> (x-y) (x +y + xy) = 0
=> x + Y + xy = 0 (': x 7: y)
x
=>y=-­
I-x

dy = (l+x)l-x.l = __1_

.. dx (l+x)2 (l+X)2 Ans.[B]

dy
Ex.38 If x> yX = 1, then dx equals-

x(y+xlogy)
(A)
y(x+ylogx)

x(x+ylogy)
(B)
y(y+xlogx)

y(y+x)ogy)
(C)
x(x+ylogx)

y(y+xlogy)
(D) x(x+ ylogx)
Sol. Taking log on both sides, we have
y log x + x log Y = 0
Now using partial derivatives, we have
dy =_ y / x + log y y(y+xlogy)

dx logx+x/y x(x+ ylogx) Ans [D]

13
Ex.39 Ify = ~Sinx+~Sinx+.JSinx+ ......a: , then dy/dx equals­

sinx COS X
(A) 2y+l (B) 2y-l

cosx
(C) 2y+l (D) None of these

Sol. Herey= ~sinx+y => y2= sin x + y

dy dy dy cos x
:.2y dx =cosx+ dx => dx = 2y-l Ans.[B]

Ex.40 If ex+e"<"~ , then dy/dx is ­

y
(A) (B) ----'L
l+y y-l

y
(C) l-y (D) None of these
Sol. y = eX+Y

logy=x +y => J.. dy =1+ dy

y dx dx

dy y
dx - l-y Ans.[C]

14

EXERCISE 1(B)
More than one options may be correct

x . en (cos x) x '* 0
If f(x) = en (I +x2 ) then:

o x=O
(A *) fis continuous at x = 0
(B) fis continuous at x = 0 but not differentiable at x = 0

(C*)fis differentiable at x = 0

(D) fis not continuous at x == O.

2
· hln(cosh) . In(cosh)l/h 1 1 1
[Hint: f' (0+)- L1m 2 - LIm = Lim -(cosh-I) =- _. lilly f' (0-) =-­
- h~O hln(I+h ) - h~O In(l+h 2 ) h~O h 2 2' 2
h2
hence f is continuous and derivable at x = °]
2 Which of the following limits vanish?

lim x t sin _1_

( A *) X--Jooo (B*) lim (1 - sin x) ° tan x
J;. x--,>,,12

2
( C) lim 2x + 3 ° s (x) (D*) lim [xf - 9

x-eeo x2 + X - 5 gn x--,>3+ x 2 - 9

where [ ] denotes greatest integer function

Li1m (I-sinx)sinx l-i-sin x
[Sol. 0 _ _­

x~o cosx l-i-sin x

. sinxcosx

L im =0]

x~1C12 1 + sin x

3 Let [xl denote the greatest integer less than or equal to x ° If f(x) = [x Sin 1t x], then f(x) is:
(A*) continuous at x = 0 (B*) continuous in (-1,0)
(C) differentiable at x = 1 (D*) differentiable in (-1, 1)
0 O<x<1
[Hint: f(x)= [ 0 x=Oorior-I ~ f(x)=Oforallin[-I,l]
o -I<x<O
(
4 The function, f(x) == [ x I I] - I I
[xl where [x] denotes greatest integer function
(A*) is continuous for all positive integers
(B*) is discontinuous for all non positive integers
(C*) has finite number of elements in its range
(D*) is such that its graph does not lie above the x - axis °
o

l
x=-I
-1 -I<x<O

[Sol.
[ I x I] -I [xl I == ~ ~ ~::i- . Y

=> :;e~~;s-I} =r:::::q~r"

x
5 Let f (x + y) == f(x) + fey) for all x, y E R. Then:
(A) f(x) must be continuous 'if x E R (B*) f(x) may be continuous 'if x E R
(C) f(x) must be discontinuous 'if x E R (D*) f(x) may be discontinuous 'if x E R
15
[Hint: Limit f (x + h) = Limit f(x) + f'(h) = f(x) + Limit f (h)
h~O h~O h~O

6 The function f(x) = Jl-"h-x 2

(A *) has its domain -1 :::: x:::: 1.

(D*) is continuous but not differentiable at x = O.

1
[Hint: f'(O+) = - . f' (0-) =- -
1
. f(x) =
~ =
Ixl ]
.J2' .J2 ' J1+~1-x2 J1+~1-x2
7 Consider thefunction f(x) = I x3 + 1 I then
(A*) Domain of f x E R
(B) Range of f is R+

[Sol. Range is R+ v {OJ => B is not correct

,-'
f is not differentiable at x = - 1 (
x 3+1 if x z >I 3x 2 ifx>-l

f' (-1 +) = 3; f' (-1-) = - 3 => f is not differentiable at x = - 1

also since fis not bijective hence it has no inverse => (C)]

. . 8 2 +8-2 f(8) 8 2 +28-1 . . . .

8 Assume that LIm f(8) exists and s -82 s holds for certam mterval contaming
e~-1 8+3 8+3
the point 8 = - 1 then Lim f(8)
e~-l

(A*) is equal tof(-l) (B) is equal to 1

(C) is non existent (D*) is equal to - 1
1-1-2 1-2-1
[Sol. put 8=-1; 2 ::;f(-l)::; 2
-1::;f(-l)::;-l => f(-l)=-l (
. 82+8-2 . 8 2+29-1
L l lfl =-1 = Llm---­
e~-1 8 +3 e~-1 8 + 3

. f(8)

~-1 8 e~-1

9 f is a continous function in [a, b]; g is a continuous functin in [b, c]

A function h (x) is defined as
h(xj=f(x) for x E [a, b)
=g(x) for x e tb;c]
if feb) = g (b), then
(A *) hex) has a removable discontinuity at x=b.
(B) hex) mayor may not be continuous in [a, c]

(C*) h(b-) = g(b+) and lub") = f(b-)

16
(D) htb") = g(b-) and h(b-) = f(b+)
[Sol. Given [ is continuous in [a, b] (1)
g is continuous in [b, c] (2)
feb) = g(b) ....(3)
h (x) =f(x) fOrXE[a,b)}
=f(b)=g(b) forx=b ....(4)
= g (x) for x E (b, c]
h (x) is continuous in [a, b) u (b, c] [using (1), (2)]
also f(b-) == feb); g (b") = g(b) ....(5) [using (1), (2)]
.. h (b) = f(b-) == feb) == g(b) = g(b+) = h(b+) [using (4), (5)
now, verify each alternative. Of course! g(b-) and f (b") are undefined.
h (b) = f (b") = feb) = g (b) = g(b+)

(A *) continuous at x = 1 (B*) diff. at x = 1

(C*) continuous at x = 3 (D) differentiable at x == 3

x -3 if x ~3

[Sol. f (x) = 3-x if 1:s; x < 3

x 2 3x 13.
---+-lfx<1
4 2 4

· . 3 - (1 + h) - 2
f Tl") == Limit f(1+h)-f(1) = L Imrt 1
==­
h--70 h h--70 h

(l-h)2 3 13
--'---'-- - -(1- h)+-- 2 (1- h)2 - 6(1- h)+ 5
f ' (1-) = Limit 4 2 4 = Limit --'-----~----'-------'--
h--70 - h h--70 - 4h

2
. . h - 2h + 6h _1
= LI mlt---­
( h--70 -4h

f is continuous at x = 1 ]

(A *) If xe XY == y + sin-x, then at y I (0) = 1.

(B) If f(x) == a o x2m+ 1+ a l x2m + a3 X2m- 1 + ...... + azm+1= 0 (aa 7:- 0) is a polynomial equation with
rational co-efficients then the equation f' (x) = 0 must have a real root. ( mEN ).

aa
(C*) If (x - r) is a factor of the polynomial f(x) = an x" + an_ 1 xn- I + an- 2 x n- 2 + ..... + repeated m

times where 1 :s; m s n then r is a root ofthe equation f' (x) = 0 repeated (m - 1) times.

(D*) Ify = sin-I(cos sirr' x) + COS-I (sin COS-IX) then :~ is independent on x.

1t
[Hint: (D) Let sin!x = t => COS-IX = - - t
2

17
y = sin-I( cos t) + cos' (sin( - t ~ JJ= sin-I( cos t) + cosl(cos t)
1t dy
y= - => -=0 True]
2 dx

(A*) _1_ (B) _x_ (C*) 1 (D*) Y

2y -1 x +2y J1 + 4x 2x + Y

dy 1 x dy y
[Hint: y2 = X + Y => - = - - also y = - + 1 => _ = - ­
dx 2y - 1 Y dx 2x + y

make a quadratic in y to get explicit function => C]

13 If.Jy + x +.Jy - x = c (where c:t: 0), then dy has the value equal to

dx

2x x c2
(A*) 2 (B*) y +J y 2-
x 2 (D)­
2y

(
[Hint: square both sides, differentiate and rationalise ]

14 Iff(x) = cos[ ~]cos(%(x - 1)J ; where [x] is the greatest integerr function of x, then f(x) is continuous

at

(A) x = 0 (B*) x = 1 (C*) x = 2 (D) none of these

[Hint: (A) = Not defined at x = 0; B = f (l) = cos 3 ; f(2) = 0 and both the limits exist

15 Select the correct statements.

2
3
(A) The function f defined by fix) = [2X + for x:O:1 is neither differentiable nor continuous at x=1.
3x+2 for x >I

I I
(B*) The function f(x) = x2 x is twice differentiable at x = o.

(C*) IfJis continuous at x = 5 andJ(5) = 2 then Lim J(4x 2 -11) exists.

x--*2

(
(D) If Lim (f(x) + g(x») = 2 and
x--*a
~~ (f(x) - g(x»)= 1 then Lim J(x) . g (x) need not exist.
x--*a

16 Which of the following functions has/have removable discontinuity at x = 1.

1 x 2 -1
(A) f(x) = -II
in x (B*) f(x) = x 3 - 1

(C) f(x)=2-2('~X) (D*) f(x) = JX+i2 --J2;.

x
x
Sol (A) lim
x-e-I
f (x) does not exist

(B) limf(x)=~
x-e-l 3 f(x} has removable discontinuity at x = 1

18
(C) limf(x)
x-->I
does not exist

-1
(D) limf(x) = Tn f(x) has removable discontinuity at x = 1
HI 2'\12

17 Let f(x) = -VIX-2~ . x then:

~-l
(A*) f' (10) = 1 (B*) f' (3/2) = - 1
(C) domain of f (x) is x ~ 1 (D) none

Sol. f(x) =V
1(..Fi)2 + 1- 2~
~ _ 1
.x =
1..Fi - 11 .x = .if
~_1
[-J x E [1 ,2)
@ If x E (2 , 00)
]
(
18 Given that the derivative f' (a) exists, Indicate which of the following statement(s) is/are always True.
. f(h) - f(a) '( ) I' f(a)-f(a-h)
(A*) f'(a) = hm----'-'---'---'- (B*) f a = Im---'--'---'--­
h
h-->a h-a h-->O

(C) f '(a ) = liirn ---'----'-----'---'­

f(a+ 2t)-f(a) f'() li f(a+2t)-f(a+t)
HO t (D) a = t~ 2t

Sol. ° 1
(C) is false and is True only iff' (a) = limit is 2f' (a). In (D) same logic limit is "2f'(a)]
\

X -cos 2 X . IS hdx
19 Let I J = Lim . and 12 = LIIl}. h 2 2' Then

(A *) both II and 12 are less than 722

(B*) one ofthe two limits is rational and other irrational.
(C*) 12 > II
(D*) 12 is greater than 3 times of I I'

2
1- cos X
[Sol. II = Lim x = 1
( X~ 1+ sinx
x

12 = Lim 2
h~O+
J ~dX+ 2=
0 h x
Lim
h~O+
[2~tan-1
h
~]I
h 0+
= 1t Ans.

22
Note: ->1t [2 = 3.1428571 and 1t::::: 3.1415929]]
7 72

20 f(x) is an even function, x = 1 is a point of minima and x = 2 is a point of maxima for y = f(x).

Further X400
lim f(x) = 0, and lim
X40
f(x) = 00. f(x) is increasing in (l,2) & decreasing everywhere

in (0,1) u (2, (0). Also f(l) = 3 & f(2) = 5. Then

(* A) f(x) = 0 has no real roots

19
(*B) y = f(x) and y = If(x)1 are identical functions

(*C) f''(x) =0 has exactly four real roots whose sum is zero

X-70 x~'"

from the graph Hence (A), (B), (C)

-2 -1 2

PASSAGE 1

A curve is represented parametrically by the equations x = f(t) = alnCbt) and y = get) = b-lnCat)

°
a, b > and a "j; I, b "j; I where t E R.

21 Which of the following is not a correct expression for ~~ ?

-1 (C) - get) - f(t)
(B) - (g(t»)Z (D*) - ­
(A) f(t)z f(t) get)

dZy
22 The value of -Z at the point where f(t) = get) is
dx

(A) ° (B) ­
2
1

(C) 1 (D*) 2

f(t) f"(-t) f(-t) fIlet)

23 The value of f'(t)' f'(-t) + f'(-t)' f'(t) Vt E R, is equal to
(A) - 2 (B*) 2 (C) - 4 (D) 4

{
xy = I

I dy I

x

dy I yZ

Also xy =I => dx = -~=--I =- gZ(t) => (B) is correct

dy Y get)
Again xy = I => -=--=-­ (C) is correct (D) is incorrect
dx x f(t)

(ii) f(t) = get) => f(t) = f(-t) => t = 0

{ .: f(t) is one-one function}
At t = 0, x = y = I

20
At x = 1,

(iii) " xy = 1 :. fg = 1 ., fg'+gf'=O

f g" + g' f' + g' f" + g f " = 0

fg"+gf"+2g'f'=O

f g'' gf"
--+-=-2 ....(3)
f' g' g'f"
from equation (2) g(t) = f(-t)

" g'(t)=-f'(-t)

and g"(t)=f"(-t)
substituting in equation (3)
f(t) . f"(-t) + f(-t) .f"(t) =-2
f'(t) -f'(-t) -f'(-O f'(t)

f'(t) f'(-t) f'(-t) f'(t)

PASSAGE 2

1
[x] ,-2~x~--
Let a function be defined as f(x) = 2, where [.] denotes greatest integer
2 1
{2x -1 , --<x< 2
2 ­
function.

24 The number of points of discontinuity of f(x) is

(A) 1 (B*) 2 (C) 3
(0) °
Sol Two points of discon. -1, -1 / 2 .
(
-2 -1 -1/2 1/../2

, ,
_ _ ____e
r
25 The function f(x-l) is discontinuous at the points
1 1. 1
(A) -1'-2 (B) -2'1 (C*) 0'2 (0) 0,1

21
Sol Discontinuous at 1,1/2

-1 112
1+1/../2

26 number of points where If(x) I is not differentiable is

(A) 1 (B) 2 (C*) 3 (D) 4

Sol

-1 -1/2 (
1
.J2
at -1,-l/2,1/J2 the functionis not differentiable.

PASSAGE 3
Two students, A & B are asked to solve two different problem. A is asked to evaluate

lim
x~o
1- cos(ln(1 + x))
x2
& B is asked to evaluate lim ~ + ~
n~oo \ln 3 +1 \ln 3 +2
+ +~ J,n EN. A provides
(.In.Jn.Jn
\ln 3 +2n
the following solution

Let
1- cos(ln(1+X) .
x
x) 1-cosx
(A 5
u1m [n(1 + x)
--=
1) =:)
1
11 = ­
[1 = lim 2 lim - - 2- X~O x 2
x~o x x~o X ~

B provides the following solution

(
.fri)
2n __n_ = lim {2n
{~ ~n3 +r
.fri ] 1
n~oo ~ R
Let 12 = lim n
n-e-co n

= n~oo
lim n [!{R1+R2+·······+A2!J
n+-
n 2 n+-
n 2 n+---.D.
n 2

lim
= n~OO
[![~ + 1+; ....+1]] = lim 2n = 2
n 2n times n~oo
n

(B) both of them get the incorrect answer

(C) A gets the correct answer while B gets the incorrect answer.

22

(D) B gets the correct answer while A gets the incorrect answer.

28 Who has solved the problem correctly

(A) A (B) B (C) both of them (D*) no one

4l, (tanx ~3 sinx) x< a

29

..
f(x) Z2
(eX1 -- cosx
x - 1 )
x = a where l1 and l2 are correct values of the corresponding limits, if

x> a

Z1 = lim 1- cos(Zn (1 + x)).(zn (1 + X}J2 =!

Sol.
x~o Zn 2 (1 + x) x 2

A & B have made the same mistake, they used the notion of limit partly in the problem, where
( as once the limiting notion has been used the resulting expression must be free from the
variable on which the limit has been imposed
"
Z1m 2n.m Z Z" 2n.m
~<2< 1m ~
n~lXl "n 3 +1 n~lXl 3 + 1
"n
Hence 12 = 2 (sandwich theorem)

So1.3 lim 4.!(tanx - sinxJ = 4.!.! = 1

x~o 2 x3 2 2
2
lim
x~o
Z2[e
X
-:
x
-1. x
1-cosx
J=2(2.2} =8
for no value of K Hence (D)

PASSAGE 4

( Let fix) is a function continuous for all x E R except at x = O. Such that f" (x) < 0 \;j XE (- 00, 0) and
f I (x) > ° \;j X E (0, 00). Let Lim f(x) = 2,
X --70+
Lim f(x) = 3 and f (0) = 4.
X--70

3_X2 4-X 5
30 The value of 'A for which 2 (Lim f(X )) = 'A (Lim f(2X ) \) is
X--70 X--70

r
(A) ­ (B) 2 (C*) 3 (D) 5
3
2
31 The values of Lim· -x) X } where [ . ] denote greatest integer function and { . } denote fraction
X--70+ l-cosx
[f(x)]
part function.
(A) 6 (B*) 12 (C) 18 (D) 24

23
[[ ( )] [[ ]\]J
3
X -sin 3 x sin x"
32 3f x4 -f -x- where [ . ] denote greatest integer function.

(AP (B*) 5 (C)7 (D) 9

Sol.
(i) x -e O , x3 - x2 = x2(x - 1) ~ 0­
x -o O , 2x 4 - x5 = x4(2 - x) ~ 0+ y
2 (3) = A (2) => A= 3 Ans.

(ii)
f(-x)x 2 ~,
(\~~:;; )_[ 1[~~~;; ]
l-cosx 0
2

= 6 x 2 = 12 Ans.

2 . 2 .) 1
(iii) x +sm x+xsmx x= - (3)x~ 0- => f(O-) = 3
( 2 I 6 "
X
/
3] (
Sin x
=> [ x =0 f(O) = 4
.
3
x -sin3 x)
3f ( 4 >9
x
[9+] - f(O) = 9 - 4 = 5 Ans.]

Assertion I reasoning type

33 Let h (x) = f l (x) + fix) + fix) + + fn(x) where flex), f2(x), fix), , fn(x) are real valued functions
ofx.
I II
Statement-It I(x) = cos I x +cos-\sgn x) + lin x \ is not differentiable at 3 points in (0, 2n)
because

Statement-2: Exactly one function flx), i = I, 2, ..... , n not differentiable and the rest ofthe function

differentiable at x = a makes h (x) not differentiable at x = a. (

(A *) Statement-I is true, statement-2 is true and statement-2 is correct explanation for statement-I.

(B) Statement-I is true, statement-2 is true and statement-2 is NOT the correct explanation for statement- I.
(C) Statement-I is true, statement-2 is false.
(D) Statement-I is false, statement-2 is true.
[Sol. y = lin x I not differentiable at x = 1
n 3n
y = Icos I x II is not differentiable at x = "2' 2:
y = cosJ(sgn x) = cos:' (1) = 0 differentiable v x E (0, 2n) ]

34 Statement-I: f (x) = I x I sin x is differentiable at x = 0

because
Statement-2 : If g (x) is not differentiable at x= a and h (x) is differentiable at x = a then g (x) . h (x) can
not be differentiable at x = a.
(A) Statement-I is true, statement-2 is true and statement-2 is correct explanation for statement-I.

24
(B) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true and statement-2 is NOTthe correct explanation for statement-I.
(C*) Statement-I is true, statement-2 is false.
(D) Statement-1 is false, statement-2 is true.

hsinh-O .

[Sol. f" (0+) = = 0

h
hsin(-h)-O
f" (0-) = =0
-h

f(x) is diff. at x = 0

e.g. x I x I is derivable at x = 0]

7t
35 Statement-It f(x) = I cos x I is not deviable at x = "2 .
because

Statement-2: If g (x) is differentiable at x = a and g (a) = 0 then I g(x) I is non-derivable at x = a.

(A) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true and statement-2 is correct explanation for statement-I.
(B) Statement-I is true, statement-2 is true and statement-2 is NOTthe correct explanation for statement-I.
(C*) Statement-l is true, statement-2 is false.
(D) Statement-l is false, statement-2 is true.
[Hint: Consider g (x) = x 3 at x = 0; g (0) = 0
I g(x) I is derivable as x = 0
actually nothing definite can be ~a!d/lso for g (x) = x - 1 with g (1) = 0
then I g(x) I not derivable at x = ~ .

36 Letf(x) =x - x2 and g (x) = {x} \:j X E R. Where { . } denotes fractional part function.
Statement-1: f(g(x)) will be continuous \:j x E R.
because
Statement-2: f(O) = f(l) and g (x) is periodic with period 1.

(A*) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true; statement-2 is correct explanation for statement-I.

(B) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true; statement-2 is NOT the correct explanation for statement-I.
(C) Statement-l is true, statement-2 is false.
(D) Statement-l is false, statement-2 is true.
[Hint:

~
-1 0 1 2 3

37 Statement 1: f(x) = sinx + [x] is discontinuous at x =0

because
Statement 2: If g(x) is continuous and hex) is discontinuous at x = a, then g(x) + hex) will
necessarily be discontinuous at x = a
(A *) Statement-l is true, statement-2 is true and statement-2 is correct explanation for statement-I.
(B) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true and statement-2 is NOT the correct explanation for statement-I.
(C) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is false.
(D) Statement-I is false, statement-2 is true.

Sol !~.(sinx+[x])=O

25
lim (sinx + [x]) =-1
x....o
Limit doesn't exist

~~(f(x) + h(x)) = ~~f(x)+ ~~h(x)

;t:f(a) + h(a)
f(x) + h(x) is discontinuous function

Matrix match type

38 Column-I Column-II
l-cos2x
(A) Lim
x~o x2 x equa 1s (P)
e -e +x

, ((3/X)+ 1)I/X

(Q) 2

form of ep/q, where p and q are relative prime thenl(p + q) is equal to

(
, tan 3x-tanx3
(C) LIm equals (R) 4
x~o x5

' x+2sinx
(D) L1m -r======-----r==== (S) 5
x~o -J x 2 + 2 sin x + 1- -Jsin 2 x - x + 1
[Ans, (A) R; (B) S; (C) P; (D) Q]
[Sol.

(A)

1
1=4 Ans,

. 3+x I/X Lim

. >1(3+X)
--I . 2x
LIm-­
(B) I = Lim (- -) = e".... o x 3-x =e x....o x(3-x) = e2/3 ~ 2 + 3 = 5'Ans,
x~o 3-x (

(C)
v
zero (by expansion)

2x+xtanx+x 2)
= Lim (tanx-x).(tan =.!. x3=1 Ans.
x-e-O x3 x2 3
(D) rationalising gives

LIm 2

x-e-D (x +2sinx+l)-(sin 2x-x+l)

26

sin2x
2. Lim x+sin2~ =2' Lim 1+-~ = 2(1+2) =2
x~O x 2-sin2x+2smx+x x-e-O sin 2x 3

x---+2+1

39 Column-I Column-If
x+ 1 if x < 0
(A) I(x) = [ at x = 0 is (P) continuous
cos x if x ~ 0
(B) For every x E R the function (Q) differentiability

sin(1t[x -1t])

g(x)= l+[xf (R) discontinuous

where [x] denotes the greatest integer function is (S) non derivable
(C) h (x) =~{x}2 where {x} denotes fractional part function

for all x E I, is

f -­
- I r
X [nx if x :t: 1
(D) k(x)= [ at x = 1 is
e if x = 1
[Ans. (A) P, S; (B) P, Q; (C) R, S; (D) P, Q]
. cosh-O
[Sol. (A) f' (0) = LIm does not exist. Obviously f (0) = f (0-) = f (0+) = 1
h-tO h
Hence continuous and not derivable
(B) g (x) = 0 for all x, hence continuous and derivable

l-x-2 1< x < 2 (J 0:$x + 2:$1 ~ -2:$x:$-1

1-4+x 2:$x~4 (J 0:$4-x~I~3:$x:$4

= -x+6 2<x<3
-x+2 1<x<2

x Os x s I

f(f(x)) = x x=2

-x+6 2<x<3

x-3 3~x~4

( (2,4)~

Y
(3,3)
(2,2)
(4, 1)
1

2 3 4

at x = 2, 3 & non diff. at x = 1, 2, 3

15 Let f be a function that is differentiable every where and that has the following properties:
(i)f(x+h)=f(x)·f(h) (ii) f(x»Oforallrealx. (iii) f'(O)=-1
41
Use the definition of derivative to find II (x) in terms of I(x).

x=O
Sol. f(x + h) = f(x) . f(h) f(O) (f(O)- 1) = 0 => f(O) = 1
Ih=O

· f(x + h) - f(x)
f'(x) = 11m -----'----'------~
h-->O h

= lim (x).f(h) ­ f(x) = lim f(h) -1 f(x)

h-->O h h-->O h

. f(h)-f(O)
=> f'(x) =hm
h-->O h
f(x)

= f'(O) f(x)
=> f'(x) = ­ f(x)
:. f'(x) = ­ f(x)
/' (
16 Discuss the continuity & the derivability of 'f where f(x) = degree of (UX 2 + u2 + 2u - 3) at x = ~2.
x2 2 t:
Sol. f(x)=degreeof(u +u +2u-3)atx =,,2

. f(h+Ji)-f(Ji)
f' (Ji ) = Lh!..~ h

-lE~ f(h+Ji~-f(Ji)
. f(h+ Ji)-f(Ji)
LIlfl -----'------'---'---'­
h-->o­ h

2
Lim 2+ 2Jih + h - 2
= h-->o+ h
{
o

42

Hance f(x) is non differentiable at x = J2

Limf'(x) = Lim x 2

x--'>.J2 x--'>.J2

=2

Hance f(x) is confinous at x = J2

17 Letf(x) be a function defined on (-a, a) with a> O. Assume thatf(x) is continuous at x = 0 and
. f(x) - f(kx)
Lim = a , where k E (0, 1) then compute f' (0+) and f' (0-), and comment upon the
x-tO X

differentiability of fat x = o.

Sol.
": Lim f(x)-f(ka) =a
x--'>o X

" f(x)-f(O)+f(O)-(kx)
=> L 1m =a
x--,>o X

' f(x)-f(O)-f(kx)+f(O)
=> L 1 m . a
x~o x

=> L 1m =a
X--'>o X X

=> (L ' IHl

x-e-O
f(X)-f(O»)
X
-
(L' 1m f(kX)-f(O») k =a
X--'>O kx

43
. f(x)-f(O) L· f(kx)-f(O) k
1m 1m . =0­
X-->O- X X-->O- kx
~
{L
Lim f(x)-f(O) -Lim f(kx)-f(O).k =0­
x-->o+ X x-->o+ kx

f '(O- ) - kf'(O-) = 0­
= { f'(O+)- kf'(O+) = 0­

]8 A derivable function f: R+ ~ R satisfies the condition f(x) - fey) ;::: In (xjy) + x - y for every

x, y E R+. If g denotes the derivative of f then compute the value of the sum L g(1)
100
- .

n=l n

Sol. f(x) - f(x);::: fn(x/y) + x - y

~ f(x)- f(y);::: fnx- fny + x - y

f(x)-f(y) .enx -my ]

~
x-y
>
- x-y
+ [for x:;t: y]

· f(x)-t(y) 1· fn x-fny ] (
~lm 1 ;:::Im +
X-4y X - Y X-4y X - Y

(Y+h)

~ lim f(h+y)-f(y) ;::: lim m -y- +1

h-->O h h-->O h

h)l/h
h-->O
(
=:> f'(y);::: lim fn ]+-
Y
+1

]9 If y= ~-+~x~x2+1+/n~x+~x2+]provethat2y=xy'+/ny'.where'denotesthederivative.

44
2+
=x+ 2.Jx 2+1 [2 (x 1)]

y' = x + .Jx 2 + 1

Also2y=x2+X.Jx 2+1 +In(x+ .Jx 2+1 )

=x(x+ .Jx2+1 )+In(x+ .Jx 2+1) =xy'+lny'Renceproved]

dy 16t(1-t 4 )
20 If Y= sec 4 x and x = tan-let), prove that
dt (1_6t 2+t 4)2'

1 1+tan 22x
[Sol. y= cos4x = 1-tan22x ....(1)

using tan x = t(given)

2t
tan2x= - ­ 2

1-t
substituting in (l)

4t 2
1+-----0--::­
(1-ei _ (1+t 2)2 _ (1+t 2)2

y= 4t 2 -(1_t 2)2_4t2-1-6t2+t 4

1- -----=-_=_

2)2
(1-t

dt (1-6t 2+t 4)2

4t(1+ t 2)[(1-6t2 + t 4 ) - (1 + t 2)(t2 - 3)] 4t(1+ t 2)(1- t 2) 4t(1- t 4 )

(1_(t 2+t 4)2) = (1-6t 2+t 4)2 = (1_6t 2+t 4)2

21
l+lnt
If X=-2- and y
3+2lnt dy
" Show that y - = 2x -
(d )2+ 1.
y
t t dx dx
dx t -(1 + lnt) 2t t(1- 2 -lnt) (l + 2lnt)
[Sol. 4 4 3
dt t t t

t(~t )-(3
+ 2lnt)
dy =----"---..:....-~_- (1+21nt)
dt t2 - - t2

3
dy = 1 + 2ln t t
dx t2 "1+ 2In t = t

3+2lnt
Now L.R.S. .t = 3 + 2Int
t

45
2(1 + Int)
2
R.H.S. == 2 . t + 1== 3 + 2In2
t
=> L.H.S. == R.H.S. ]
X, x 2·x x 3.x 2
22 If y == 1+-_-+ ( _ )( _ ) + ( )( )( ) +..... upto (n+ 1) terms then prove that
x x, x x, X X2 x-xl X-X 2 X-X 3

dy
dx
==J...[~+~+~+
X X,-X X X3-X
... +~]
Xn-X2-X
[Sol. adding term by term

X X x x
Iny== In + In - - - + In - - - + +In - - ­
(x-cx.) (x-x2) (x-s x.,')
(
_ x ) _ x-x n [(X-Xn)-X] _ ~ [~)
nowD [ ­ 2 ­
X- Xn X (x - x n) x x n - X

Hence y1 dxdy 1 [Xl X2

= ~ xl -x + X2 -x + .... + Xn -x
Xn ]

dy
dx
=y[~+~+ +~]
X xl - X X - X .... X - X ]
2 n
23 Suppose f (x) == tan (sin-, (2x))
(a) Find the domain and range of f
(b) Express f(x) as an algebaric function ofx.

1 1) 2x "(c) 16.fi ]
(c) Find f' (1/4). [Ans.(a) ( -2'2 ' (-00,00); (b) f(x) = ~1-4x2
9
[Sol. f (x) = tan (sin-\2x)) (
(a) for f to be well defined
1 1 1 1t
-1 < 2x < 1 => - 2 <x <"2 [... for x == ± "2 ' tan 2" is not defined]

Hence domain is (- ~, ~)
for x E (-~,~), sin- 12x E (-%' %) hence for (-%,~) can take all real values.
Hence range of f is x E R

(b) f (x) = tan e where sin- I(2x) = e

=> sine = 2x
2x

f(x) == ~ 2

1-4x

46

(c)

dy 1
24 If x== tanI-ln
2
Show that dx == "2 sin y(1 + sin y + cos y).

Y . 2t 1-t Z
Sol Put tan- ==t smy=--z ,cosy==--z
2 l+t l+t
. 2+2t
l+smy+cosy ==--2
l+t
and y==2tan-1t ...(1)
dy 2
-==-­
2 ...(2)
dt 1+t
Now X == t -21og(1 +t)+ logt

dx=l_~+!==~
dt 1+ t t t (t + 1)

dy dy dx 2 t 2 +t
dx == dt +dt == 1+t 2 ·1+t2' by (2) & (3)

dy
or - = -2t-2 . 1_2t+2
-­2
dx 1+t 2 1+ t

1. (
==-smy .
l+smy+cosy ) ,by(1)
2
(

~
OS 3X dy 6 . 0.
25 If Y== arc cos - - 3­ then show that dx == - ,smx>
cos x cos2x + cos4x
Sol We have,
cos3x
y=cos -I
cos' x

cos3x
cosy=
cos' x

cosy=
)4COS x-3cosx
--­
3

cos' X

=> cosy =.J4-3sec 2 x

47
:=:} COS
2
y=4-3(1+tan 2 x)
:=:} l-cos 2 y=3tan 2 x
:=:} sin 2 y = 3 tan 2 x

:=:} sin y = J3 tan x

Differentiating both side with respect to x, we get, cos y: = J3 sec'' x

:=:}
dy
=
J3
dx cos vcos" X

dy
=-­
J3 =
3
dx cos" X cosx cos3x

dy 6 .
Hence Proved dx = 1 - - - - - , smx> O.
cos2x + cos4x

26 Prove tha if I al sin x + ~sin 2x + + ansin nx I s I sin x Ifor x E R, (

then lal+2al+38:3+......+nan I s 1
[Sol. Let f'(xj v a.sin x e-a.sin Zx } +ansinnx
f' (x) = a l cos x + 2~cos 2x + + nan cos nx
f' (0) = a l + 2~ + ....... + nan
Hence TPT If' (0) I ~ 1

h~O h

h~O h

I f' (0) I = . If(h)\

LIm - . ISinhl
~ LIm - = 1 [as lf'(xj l s l sin x ] ]
h~O h h--70 h
Hence If' (0) I ~ 1 ]

(
In(tan~) changes the equation
2
dy
27 Showthatthesubstitution z= d ; +cotx +4ycosec2x=0
2 dx dx
to (d2y/dz2) + 4 Y = O.

Sol Since x=lntan(~)

dz dx .
-=cosecx or -=smx ...(1)
dx dz
dy dydz dy.
Now, - = -. - = cos ec x·-- [From (1)] ...(2)
dx dz dx dz

=~(dY)=~(cosecxdY)
2y
d
dx' dx dx dx dz

48

dx dz dz

= cosec x·- - Y ) ·--cosec

d (d dz dy
xcotx­
dz dz dx dz

d2 d
= cos ec 2 x - { - c o s ec x cotx 2 [From (1)] ....(3)
dz dz
2
d d
But given ----?+
dx
cotx 2+4ycosec
dx
2x
=0
2
cos ec'x --?-
d
dz
d
dz
d
cos ec x cot x -.2::. + cot x cos ec x -.2::. + 4Y cos ec' x = 0
dz
[From (2) and (3) ]

2
2 d y 2
cosec x-z+4ycosec x=O or
dz
xe" xs 0
28 Letj(x) = [ then prove that
2_X3
X+X x c-O
(a) / is continuous and differentiable for all x. (b) / 'is continuous and differentiable for all
x.
xex+ex =eX(x+l), x c O
[Sol. f' (x) = [

1+2x-3x2 x >0

Lim f'(x) = 1; Lim f'(x) = 1

x~o- x-+o+
hence f (x) is continuous hence/ is continuous and differentiable at x = 0

ex +(x+l)e X =e X(x+2),
x c O

Again f ''(x) =
[
2-6x x c- O
Lim /"(x) = Lim /"(x) = 2 f' (x) is also continuous and differentiable]
x--+o+ x-e-O"

a+x b+x c--x

29 Let f(x)= R+x m+x n--xr . Showthat f" (x) = 0 andthat f(x)=f(O)+kx where kdenotes the sum
( p+x q+x r+x
of all the co-factors of the elements in [(0).
a+x b+x c+x a+x b+x c--x
[Hint: f' (x) =
R+x m+x n+x + + R+x m-i-x n+x
p+x q--x r+x p+x q+x r+x
f" (x) = 0 (obviously - two identical rows)
[' (x) = k ::::> f(x) = kx + x, f(O) = c
f(x) = [(0) + kx. Note that f' (x) = k
I abc abc
l
f' (0) = k = R m n + II+Rmn
p q r p q r 11
+ C l2 + c 13) + (c 2 1 + c22 + c23) + (c 31 +
(C I I C32 + C33)
sum of co-factors of elements [(0) ]
49
30 IfY = sX and Z = tX, whereallthe letters denotes the functions ofx and suffixes denotes the differentiation

X1 YY1
w.r.t. x then prove that X ZZl __ X3 /S1 t11
X y Z S2 t2
2 2 2

Sol Since y = sX and Z = tX ...(1)

r; = sXI + XSI and ZI =tX I + Xtl ...(2)
~ r; =sX2 +Xs 2 +2s1XI and Z2 =tX2 +Xt2 +2t1X1 ...(3)

x sX tX
XI sXI + XS I tX I + Xtl [From (1),(2) and (3)]
X 2 sX2 + XS 2 + 2slXI tX 2 + Xt 2 +.2tIXI
(

Expand w.r.t. first row, then

XSI
-X
I
Xs2+2s IX I

50

EXERCISE 3

x
Let f(x) = -.-, x> 0 and g(x)=x+3, xcl
smx
=2-x, x s O =x 2-2x-2,lsx<2
=x-5. x:::::2
find LHL and RHL of g( f'(xj ] at x = 0 and hence find Lim g( f'(x) ].
x--+o ,

x>O
Sol. f(X)={Si:X
2-x xsO

X+ 3 x<O
g(x)= x 2-2x-2 1 SX < 2
{
x-5 x~2

/
f (X) + 3 / f(x) < 1
2(x)-2f(x)-2
g(f(x))= f lsf(x)<2
{
f(x)-5 . f(x) ~ 2

x x
--+3 x>On--<l
sinx sinx
2-x+3 xs 0 n 2x<1

= (r()
-
x
sinx
x
-2 - - 2
sinx
(2-x)2_2(2-x)-2
x>On ls--<2

xsOn1s2-x<2
x
sinx

x x
-.--5 x>On--:::::2
smx sin x
2-x-5 xsOn2-x:::::2
(
't.



(_ x )2 _2(_X)-2 x>Onls-.-<2
x
sinx sinx smx

_x__ x
5 x>On--~2
sinx sin x
2-x-5 xsO

1
-x-3 xsO
X X x
=> g(f(x)) = ( - )
2 -2 ( - -) 2
Is--<2nx>0
sin x sin x sinx
x x
--5 x > On--;::: 2
sinx sinx

'.' gf(O) = - 0 - 3
=-3

LHL = !~~ g(f(x))

= x->o
lim -(x + 3)

=-0-3=-3

RHL = !~ g(f(x))

,
= I1m x
- -)
2 -x- - 2
2- ( ) ]
[(
x->o+ sin x sin x

=1-2-2
=-3
': LHL =RHL=-3
:. lim
x-> og(f(x))=-3

2 Let Pn =a Pn- 1
-I, 'if n = 2, 3, and Let PI = aX - 1 where a E R+then evaluate Lim Pn .
x~o X
Sol. Given Pn = a Pn-1 -I; Pn-I = a Pn-2 -1
Let PI = aX - 1

lim~
x~o x

, a Po-1 -I p
=> lim x --!!.=l
x~o X Pn-l
2
=> lim Rna x Pn-l
X40 X

. ap -I p
lim Rnax n-l x n-2
=> X40 X Pn-2

X40 X

=> lim(Rnat- 1 x£!

X40 X

=:> (Rnat

, I (I I
3 /'
l+ax)
If the ~~ x 3 .Jl + x - 1+ bx exists and has the value equal to I, then find the value of ;- -T2 + b3 .

Sol. r
x~~
1[I l+axJ
.Jl + x - 1+ bx

= lim_1 [1+bX-(I+ax)~]

x~o x' ~ (1+ bx)

, l+bx-(1+ax) (1+xyI2

- I1m

- HO x\l+xyI2(1+bx)

We know that

n(n -1) 2+ n(n -1) (n - 2)

3+
(l+xr=l+nx+ x x ....
2! 3!

where, n E Q & I x I < 1

b 1 22.
1-(1--1) 1-(l-l) (1--
2 22 2
2)
3
]
1+ x-(1+ax) 1+2"x+ 2! x + 3! x + .

= lim
HO
r
-'=-

x 3(1
+ XY/2 (1+ bx)
____='_

H~-]) (~-2)
3!
X3_ ... _axl(1+!x+H~-1)~2+H~-1)(~-2)x . .
2 2! 3!
3+ Jj
l i m - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - : c - - -3- - - - : - ; - ; - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - : . . .
x-->o x (l + X)1I2(l + bx)

3
1221.(1.- 1) 2222
1.(1. -1) (1.- 2) 3
l(122 1.(1. -1) 2222
1.(1. -1) (1. - 2) 3
~\
bx - 2"
X - 2! X - 3! X - ••. - ax 1+ 2" + 2!
X X + 3! X +.....

=lim
x->O x\1 + X)J/2(l + bx)

b-~- ~G-l) x- ~(~-1)G-X)X2 . . . -a(ll+~x+ ~(~-1) x2+~(~-1) G-2) x+.~J

2 2! 2 2!
3

3! 3!

=lim------------ ----,-------------­
.-.0 x 2 ( +xy/2(1+ bx)

( b- a - ~) -(~+
l ~(~-1)1J X -(t(~-1)
2
l2
(~-2) +a.t(t-1)lJX2-(
2! 3! 2!
)X3 _ ( ) X 4 _ •••••••

= lim---------------- -=--------------­
2.1.1
X-40 x

(i)b-a-!=O
2
1(1 1.)

(ii)~+ 2 2-
2 2!
=0
1 1
a 22
=:>---=0
2 2
1
=:>a--=O
4
1
=:> a=­
4
1
.: b-a =­
2
1
=:>b=a+­
2
3
=
4
1 3
a=-&b=­
4 4

-l( 1(1 ) 1(1 )(1 )'

2" "2 ~ 1 a _"2 2 -1 , "2 - 2
2. 3.
j x2 _ ( )x 3 _ ( )x4 _ .

= lim-----------::---------­
x-->o

4
.
= lim
HO
l---J-(
[
( a !~l~
8
222
2.3 )x-()x -
2

]
.

11111 11 1

= ---.-.-.-=--+-=-­
32 2 2 2 2 16 32 32

=>
.
~~7
1 (1 1+ ax)1

..)1+ X -1+bx =- 32

. f = - ­
.. 32

123

---+­
.. a f b

123

=---+­
1 -1 3

- - -
4 32 4

=4 + 2.32 +4
=4+64+4
=72

4
Let {an}, {bn}, {cn} be sequences such that
(i) an + bn + cn = 2n + 1 ; (ii) anbn +bncn + cnan = 2n - 1; (iii) anbncn =- 1 ; (iv) an < bn < c
n
Then find the value of Lim na .
n-7 00 n

Sol. x 3
- (2x + 1)x2 + (2x - 1) x + 1 = 0 ...(1)
roots of equation an' bn, cn an < b n < cn
x = 1 is a root of equation (1)
( so (x- l)(x2 - 2nx - 1) = 0

x = n±~n2 +1

x = n±~n2 +1

x = n±~n2 +1

5
x 3 - (2x + I)x 2 + (2n -I)x + 1
(x -1)
x 3 _x 2

- + 1

-2nx 2 +2nx
+
-x+1

-x+I

n +~n2 + I,n -Jn 2

+ 1,1

do ·
I im => hm
. ~ n + j;;2;l
" n-e-eo
na
n n~co
n(n-\ln~
+I)x ~
n+\ln 2 +1
(

=> ~~
.
( r:IJ
-n

n I+Vl+~
1
=-"2

5 If n E N and an = 22 + 42 + 62 + ....... + (2nf and bn = 12 + 32 + 52 + ..... + (2n - 1f. Find the value

Llm
. F:-.jb; .
n~co ~

2n(2n + I) (4n + I)
an + bn = 6

b = 2n(2n+l) (4n+l) _ 4(n(n+I))(2n+l)

n 6 6

n(2n + I)
bn = 6 [2(4n+I)-4(n+I)]

n 6 3

n~oo J-;;

2nn(n + 1) (2n + 1) n(n + 1)(2n + 1)

6
Lim---'------~--­
2
n~oo J-;;

Lim
n~oo
~(J4n2+6n+2-J4n2-1)
,,3

1 6

= )3"2+2

=)3
2

6 At the end points A, B ofthe fixed segment oflength L, lines are drawn meeting in C and making angles
8 and 28 respectively with the given segment. Let D be the foot of the altitude CD and letx represents

( the length ofAD" Find the value ofx as 8 tends to zero i.e. Lim x .
e~o

CD
Sol. tan8 = ­
x

CD
tan28= - ­
L-x

2tan8

xtan8 = (L - x) 1 28

-tan

2(L- x)

x-
- I-tan 28

..
II(
x(1- tan 28) = 2L - 2x

7
x(2 + I - tan 28) == 2L

2L
x 3 -tan 2 8 ' tan8 --t 0

8--tO

7 At the end-points and the midpoint of a circular arc AB tangent lines are drawn, and the points A and B
are joined with a chord. Prove that the ratio ofthe areas ofthe two triangles thus formed tends to 4 as the
arc AB decreases indefinitely.
Sol. Let radius of circle is r &
LAOB=20
LACB =1t-28
( '.' points A, C, B, 0 are concyclic) (
:. LAOP = LBOP = 8

1t
L ACP=LBCP= --8
2

In ~AOP,

AP AP
sin8=-=­
OA r

=>AP= r sin8

OP OP
cos8= -==­
OA r

=> OP == rcos8

AB == 2AP = 2r sin8

(
in~AOC,

r
=>cos8= ­
OC

r
=:>OC= - ­
cos8

pc=oc-OP

_r_ r cose
case

= r(_1 -case)
case

r
= - - (1 - cas 2e)
case

r . 2e
:. PC= --sm
case

1
:. ar(LiABC) = "2 AB. PC

1 r. 2e
= - 2r sine. --.sm
( 2 case

r
'.' OC= - - OR=r
case

RC=OC-OR

r
=---r
case

r
= --(I-case)
case

In LiDRC,

DR
~ cate = RC ~ DR = RC case

r
= --e (1 - case). cotl)
cas

r case r(1- case)

= --(1-case).-..­
case sine sine

DR+RE=DE
~DE=2DR

9
2r
= -.-(1- cos G)
sin G

1
are (.6.DEC) = - x DE x RC
2

_1 2r(l-cosO).r(1-cosO)
2 sin O cosf

r 2(I-cosS)(I-
cose)
= -'----'--'-----'­
sin O.cosf

sine.cosa

4r 2 sin" ~sin2 ~ 4r 2sin" ~

= __-=2_--=2 _ 2
sin e. cos e sin e cos e /' (
AB =2r sinO
IfAB ~ 0 i.e. 2sinO ~ 0 ::::::> S ~ 0

. ar(.6.ABC)
11m -----'---'-­
• 0 oar(.6.CDE)
AB....

= r 2 tan e.sin 2 _

lim _--::-- e
0....0 4r 2 sin 0 /2

sinO.cose

, taneosin30.cosO
= I1 m - - - - , - - - ­
0.... 0 4sin 4 S /2

tanS.sin 3SocosS (
e4
=lim--~--- 4
0---+0 4 sin 0/2

e 4

. Ca~e) -( si;er·cos o
= lim
0....0
4 (sine 12) ' ­1
4

0/2 24

1.1.1 =4

4.1.1/16

10
x
Sol. Put -1- = Y => Y ~ 1 as x ~ 00
+x

1 - _1_ = Y => 1 + x = _1_ => x = _1_ -1 => x = _y_

l+x l-y· l-y l-y

e Lim[COS2lty'-I{
y->I ~l-y
Lf = e Lim(-2Sin 2lty'{
y~1
1,
(I-y)
I)

Lim_2[Sin
y->I
2"(I-y')

,,2(I_y.)2
,,2(l_y·)2
(l_y)2

.l]

e l-y x-e-l x-I

AI t, : Let limit = eL

x
Let = - - = t
l+x

9 Lim (x -1 + cos x)"

x~ X

Sol. Lim
x--+o
(x -1+COSX)~
x
(

(x-l+l-~+
1/ X
4

x + .....J1
Lim
x-->o

l 21 4!
X

• x( X
3 \ I/x
I
c.;
~~l2+4r+
x
2
II
..... J~ =e
-1/2

Llmll--+- ) => e
.--.0 2 4!

·
L un (X-l+COSX-X) -::::)e
1 -112

AIt: e x->O X X

11
10

Sol.

Lima 1/ X
- 1 a llx - 1 a 1/ x _ 1
_1_ _ + _2_ _ + .... + _n_ _
eX-O<D
1Ix 1Ix 1Ix
(
e' £n., )+(£n·2)+···+(£n.")

11 Letf(x)= sin-1(l-{x}).cos-1(l-{x}) then find LiIl}. f(x)and Li~ f(x), where {x} denotesthe fractional
..j2{x} . (l-{x}) x-e-O x--*o
part function.

. sin-l(1-{x})cos-l(l-{X})
Sol. L 1m _--'--.=-~'----_"----'-:..L._
{x} ~ 0 for x ~ 0+
x-->O' .J2{x}.(1- {x})

L' sin-1(1- {x} )sin- I ~1- (1- {x} i

xl~ .J2{x}(1- {x}) [1 - 1 - {x}2 + 2{x}}

1(1-{x})sin-1
Lim sin- J{x}(2-{x}) =2:
x-->o' .J2{x}(1- {x}) 2

{x})) [{x}~ 1]
1 1(1-
Lim sin- (1- {x})(cos-
x-->O- .J2{x}(1- {x])

12

L' ae" -bcosx+ce- x

12 Find the values of a, b & c so that x~ • =2
X.SInX

. ae" - bcos x + ce- x

Sol. L 1m . =2
x->o xsmx
2 2
a[I+~+ ]-b[I-~~+ ]+C[I-~+
4

x + ..... x - ••••• x - .....]

. I! 21 2! 4! l! 2!
Lim .
x->o X2[SI:X J
(i) a - b + c = 0 = constant

coeff. ofx = (ii) a - c = 0 => a = c

2(a + c) = 4 => a - c = 2

ja=l=c!

!b=2!

2 2

13 Lim 1 2 2 [a
2 : x - 2Sin(a Sin(7t where a is an odd integer
x-oa (a -x ) 27t) 2XJ)

2+x2
Sol. Lim 2 1 2 2 [a 7t
+cos-(a+x)-cos (-(a-x)
7t)]

x-e-a (a - x ) ax 2 2

.
Lim 2 1 2 2 [(a-xl +cos-(a+x)+(l+l)--cos-(a-x)
7t 2ax 7t ]
x->a (a - x ) ax 2 ax 2

a7t 7t ) _ . (a7t
[ cos ( -+-x -SIn - -
((a+X)7t))~+ Lim (4sin2%(a-x)~
)2 2
4 4 2 4 x--+a a - x 7t 2
. . (a+ x)
16

13
2 3 2n)
14 If L = Lim (1- x)(1- X )(1- x ) •.•..• (1- x then show that L can be equal to
x~l [(1- x)(1- x 2)(1­ x') (1- xn)f

(a)
fIn+r lfI(4r-2)
(b)
r=l r n! r=1

(c) The sum of the coefficients of two middle terms in the expansion of (1 + x)2n-l.
(d) The coefficient of x" in the expansion of(l + x?n.

Sol.

l_x n +1 l_x n+2 l_x n +3 (1-x 2n )

• 2 • 3 + .
I-x I-x I-x (1-x n )

divide by (l - x) in N" and Dr both-»

Cn + 1) (n + 2) 2n = 2n! = 2nC
, I
1.2.3....n n!n! n
r (
2.6.10 .....(4n - 2) 2n[1.3.5 .....(2n -1)]
( a) (b) = ----"----'-------'-"­
n! n!

2n[1.3.5 .....2n -1] [2.4.6......2n] 2n!

=
n!.2 n.n! n!n!
( c) 2n-Icn + 2n- 1cn+l
(d) 2nc
. n

. l-x+lnx
15 Evaluate, LIm - - - ­
x-e-l 1+cosnx
2h2
L' 1- x + {;nx
II L'Im-----,--'--------'~-
h+£n(1-£h)/n
Sol. x~rp 1+ cos nx h-+O 1- cos nfu
n 2£h 2
put x = 1- h (
Lim _h_+_£_n--O.(I_-_£_h,,---)

fh-+O 1 + cos n(1- £h)

. h+£h(1-£h)
L 1m --"":"'---::--'-
fh-+O 2' 2 n £h
sm­
2

. £h+[-h- ~ - ~ . .J Lim ,-~f

Lim
eh-+O (n
.
2sm - -
£h) 2
= n . (nh)
-.2sm -
2 2
ih-+O 2
n 2

2
14
16
·
LIm
roo exp( xIn(l + a: )) - exp( xln(l + b:))
LIIDlt----------­
j
y~O <-400 Y

Sol.

• erJ::! - eby • [e(a-b)y -1]

LIm =Llm .eby
y-40 y y-40 Y
=a-b

17 L et "0= 2 cos6'
1t I
and x n = -V2+xn_I' n= 1, 2 , 3, , fiIIId Lim
n-oec
~
2(n+l).-i-r>« 0

~
8 Of 8=­
Sol. xl = 2+ 2cos- = 2cos­ I
1t
6 2 6

8 8
x 2 = 2 cos '4 ~= 2 cos Y

1t 1t
= 28 = 2x-=­
6 3

..

18
· [.en (1 + X)IH
LIm __ 1]
x~ x2 X

· .en(1 + x)!"
Sol. LIm --'-------'­
2
X-40 x X

15
(l+X)[~_~+x
3
Lim .•.•.. ]-1
HO x 1 2 3
x

1 1
=--+1 =­
2 2

19 Let L = IT
00

1- 2
4
; M = IT
00 [
n ­
3
-3-
1J
n=3
(
n )
n=2 n +1

(1-~) (1-1) (1-~) (1-~) (1+~) (1+1) -(1+~)

1 2 3 4

-x-x-x­
3 4 5 6 . (%)(~) (I)
= lx1=(~)

2 3 -1 33 -1 43-1

M = -3-·-3-·-3-········
2 +1 3 +1 4 +1
2
-­..­
(n -1)(n + n + 1) = (2 -1. 3 -1. 4 -1. 5 -1 .....)

(n+1)(n 2-n+1) 2+1 3+1 4+1 5+1

(2 2+2+132+3+11

r
l2 2 -2+ 32 -3+ 1)"····

· ~)-v
102 n 2+n+1 2 ,~~
=> . =
(n + l)n 3 3 (b _
i' -FM" ...('Nr~ tl // ¥
20 A circular arc of radius 1 subtends an angle o~ians, 0 < x <
the figure. The point C is the intersection of the two tangent lines at A & B. Let
T(x) be the area of triangle ABC & let Sex) be the area of the shaded region.
Compute:
(a) T(x) (b) Sex) &
%as shown in

(c) the limit of T(x) as x ~ o.

f)c
o 1 A
Sex)

16

2sin(7t
Sol. Act: ar (L\ABC) = ..!...e = x)
2

1 2 1 2 •
ar (L\ABC) = -r x--r smx
2 2

x
.e=rtan­
2

1 2 X •
T(x) -tan -smx
_=2 2
Sex) !(x-sinx)

1 1
(a) ar(L\ABC) = T(x) =2".AB.CD = 2" .2r sin 2"' rsec2"- rcos2"
x ( x X)

• 2 X • 3 X
sm - sm ­
= r2 sin ~ __2_ = r 2 _ _2_
2 x x
cos- cos­
2 2

1 2 X .
= -tan -smx ('.: r = 1)
2 2
1 1. =-
(b) Sex)= -x--smx 1(x-smx
. )
222
I I
(area of ar c = 2" r2el area of L\ = 2" b C sin A)

1 2X. 2 X •
-tan -.smx tan -.smx
(c) Lim 2 2 Lim 23
X-40 1 . HO ( x "1
-(x-smx) x-lx-3T+ .....)
( 2
x
tan 2
=> Lim -----.i. sin x = ~ =i
HO x2 1 4 2
4- x­
4 3!

17
n
21 Letf(x) = Lim ~)n-I sin ' ~ and g (x) = x - 4f(x). Evaluate Lim(l + g(x))cotx .
n-+co n=1 3n x--+o
3x
. 3 3sinx-4sin
Sol. sm x = 4 sin 3x = 3sin x - 4 sin 3 x

-1 ~
L..J (3 sm--smx
. x . ) + 3(3' x . 3 2"
sm2"-sm x) + 32(3' x . 3 3
x)
sm 3-sm
4 ne.l 3 3 3 3 3

-1 In 3n-1sm.--smx
' X •
4 n=l 3n ­ 1

1. XSin(~)
3 n

1

- LIm -smx

4 n....cc x

r 3n

..!..[x-sinx]

=g(x)=x-4 [~(X-SinX)]

g(x) = sin x \~

y .....) o

22 If fen, 8)= Ull-tan J, 2

; then compute ~l~ f(n,8)
Sol. f(n,O)=rr(1-tan2~) l( use tan 28 = _2_t_an---:8_)
r=1 2 I-tan 28

8 8 8

2tan- 2tan-2 2tan­3

_ 2 2 2
---.
tan 8
tan- tan­
8'
2
8
2

2
.
(

8tan­n

Lim 2
8

n....co {\ 8 tan 8

tanu-s­n
2

./cos 2x + (1 + 3x)1/3 _ 3 4cos 3 x -[n(1 + x)4

L= Lim V 2 4

x--+o X

If L = alb where 'a' and 'b' are relatively primes find (a + b).

18

cos2x+(1 +3xy/3 _ 3 4cos 3 x-fn(1 + xt

Sol. 2 4
Lim---'-----------"=----------'------'---­
x-->o x

2 t t
24 j
Lim [COSh (1t X))X where cosh t = e + e­
x~oo cos (1tjx) 2

e t
3
.
2! 3!

1t
put -= t
x

L' ( e1+e-1\"1 'I 1z

1!.1J1l 2 cos t )
(
. (e1+e-t-'+'-2costV "')
Ltml
1-+0 2ees t t2)l­
e

2+2I' / 2!+2S -2COSlf '\

L· ~ "
I~[ 2~st t»
e

Lim(el+e-I-2+2(1-COSI»).'C
t--+O 2cost t2
(II) Alt: e
( ,,' . e'+e- I-2 4siIll/2
2~~-I'-+-I'­
e
e,,'/2(1+1) = e"

25 Through a point A on a circle, a chord AP is drawn & on the tangent at A a point T is taken such that
AT = AP. IfTP produced meet the diameter through A at Q, prove that the limiting value ofAQ when P
moves upto A is double the diameter ofthe circle.

when P~A AQ
Sol. T~A sin(1t -8)

1t-28 ~ 0

AQ = fsin8 ,.,(1)
cos8

19
AP = R= 2r cos (28 - ~) = 2r sin 28 when P--)A

2rsi028.si08 2

AQ =
cos
8 = 4r sin 8

Alt :- gemetrically:­

AQ=AS + SQ

in I1TAQ ~ LQ ="2

io I1PSQ--)

LQ=LP = Q

SQ=PS

as P --) A ~ SP = SA = 2r y-ISQ ~ AQ = AS + SQ = 2r + 2r = 4r
(
26 Using Sandwich theorem, evaluate

.
[ 1 1
~~~ j;;2 + ~02 +1 + ~02 +2 +
. 1 1
+ ~02 +20

]
111

2 2 2

--<2
- - 2< - ­ 2

0+n - 2+0 -1+0

3 3 3

--< --<-­
0+n 2 - 0+0 2 -1+0 2

n(n+l) S
---''------,- 0(0+1)
< 0 < ----'--"'­ (
2
2(0+0 ) - -2(1+0 2 )

1 1 1

(a) -J02 + 20 S J;;2 S R

20
---,==== <
S0 <20­
-J0 2+20
- - R
t = 2

20

27
(1
If L = Lim , -
1
r:-?"
x~o \In(1+x) In(x+-vI+x 2 ) ;
I
then find the value of
L+I53
L .

Sol. L-Lim[_1-
- HO en(1+ x)
1
en(x +.JI + x")
1
put x = - x (.: x ~ 0, we can put x = - x) i

I
t
L = L. [1

im
HO en(1-x)
1]
---,====­
en(.JI+x 2-x)
I'

I
f

1 1
I
2L= L Hfl
.1
HO en(1+ x)
+--­
1
en(1- x) en(x+.JI+x 2) - en(~(1+x2_x))
,.I
iI
i!
/

2) 2-x2)
. en(I-x { en(1+x }
2L = LIm - = 0 .. N is absolute zero
HO en(1+x)en(1-x) en(x+.JI+x 2)en(.JI+x2-x) (. r )

x 2)/en(1
= Lim en(1-2 + x). en(1- x) = +1
HO -x X (-x)

1
L=+ ­
2

1
+-+ 153 306+1
2 = =307
+­1 +1
2
(
ax 2+bx+c+e nx
28 A function f: R ~ R is defined as f(x) = lim nx where f is continuous on R. Find the
n--+oo 1+ c.e

value of a, band c.

. ax" + bx t c t e'"
Sol. f(x) = I1 m - - - - - ­
n--+oo 1 + c.e'"

ax 2 + bx + c + e"
lim ;x<O
n--+oo 1+ c.e'"
ax" + bx-r c-r e'"
lim
;x=O
n--+'" 1+ c.e"

ax? + bx + c + enx
lim .x c- O
n--+oo 1+ c.e"
21
ax" + bx+c+O nx
x < O(lim e = 0)
l+c.O n-><XJ

c+l
x=O
c+l

ax ' bx c

-nx
+-+-+1
. -=------=-----"'---
hm e e" e" x>O
l+c

(lim
h-><XJ
ehx = (0)

ax' + bx + C ; f <0
r
; " x =0
(
; x c- O
c

X40+ x----:,.o­

=;> lim!=1 & Iimtaxi-r bx-r c) e J

x->o+ C x->o­

1
=;> -=1 =;>a-0+3.0+c= I
c

:. c = 1 =;>c=1
:. c = 1, a, b E R
(
14X- 5[ [xl for x> 1
29 Discuss the continuity offin [0,2] where f(x) = [[ ] ; where [x] is the greatest integer
COS1tX for x:::;; 1
not greater than x.
Sol. f(x) = cos 1tX

1 x=O
1
[cos nx] = 0 X <x:::;;- 0
2
1
-1 -<x:::;;1
2

22

5
(4x -5) l<x<­
4
14X- 5 1 ; 1<x <2 5
14x - 51 [x] = { 6 ; 4x-5 -:S:x<z
x=2 4
6 x=2
.
6
3
x =0
0 O<x:>:.!.­
2
1
-1 .!.- < x :>: 1

f(x) =
~

·· 5
4x - 5
5
-:>:x<2
4
2 ·i 4
4 ~
6 x =2 1'1

function dis at 0, o,.!-,

2
1,2

30 Iff(x) = x + {-x} + [x] , where [x] is the integral part & {x} is the fractional part ofx. Discuss the
continuity off in [ - 2, 2 ].
Sol. f(x) = x + {-x} + [x]
.: {x} =x-[x]
{-x} =-x- [-x]
f(x) = x + (- x - [- x] + [xj)

<
X- (- X) = 2X; X E I

f(x) ={ 1_22~X] : :::

-4 x =-2

5 -2 < x <-1

-2 x = -1

3 -1<x<O

f(x) = 0 x=O

1 0< x < 1

2 x = 1

-1 1 < x < 2

4 x=2

23
so the function is discontinuous at all integers in [-2, 2].

31
is continuous at x = 1 but discontinuous at x == 2.
ax-b for
Find the locus of (a, b) for which the function f(x) = 3x lI
x~1
for 1 < x < 2
bx 2 - a for xz2

Sol. conti at x == 1
a-b==3 ...(1)
dis at x == 2
6:;t 4b - a
6:;t 4b -3 - b
6:;t 3b - 3
(a, b):;t (6, 3)
(x, y):;t (6,3) Ans

32 f (x) ==.
asj!lX -a tan X
.
tan X-SIn x

for x > ° (
__ In(1 + x + x 2 ) +In(1- x + x 2 )

for x < 0, if f is continuous at x == 0, find 'a'

secx-cosx

now if 9 (x) = In (2 - :) . cot (x - a) for x:;t a, a:;t 0, a> 0. If g is continuous at x = a then show that
g(e-I) =- e.
Sol. Since the function is conti at x == then °
V.F-Ix = 0 == RHLlx=o == LHLl x = 0 since the function is conti then

RHLlx=o = !~rr.f(x) f(O) == LHLlx=o == RHLlx=o

• a sinx _ a tanx
== h m - - - ­ -£na==l
x-->o· tan x - sin x

• a!llnx(asinx-tanx -1) (
== hm -----'------'­

g(a) =limg(x)
x-->a

LHLI x--0 == x-->o

lim f(x) == lim£n(2-~)cot(x-a)
x-->a a

2
= lim £n(1 + x + x ) + £n(1- x + x 2 ) == lim_£n_(-'-2_-_-_:-'-)
X-->O- sec x - cos x x-->a tan(x - a)

24
2) 2)).cos
= lim £n((1+ x + x (1- X + x X
put x= a + h
x-->O- 1- cos 2x

putx= O-h

2 4)cosh 1
= lim £n(1 + h + h
g(a)=-­
h-tO sin" h a

= lim(~)2
smh
h-->O
(l+h2)cosh

33 Let f(x + y) = f(x) + fey) for all x , y & if the function f(x) is continuous at x = 0, then show that f(x) is
continuous at all x.
Sol. f(x + y) = f(x) + fey) V x, y E R
put x =y = 0
f(O + 0) = f(0) + f(0)
=> £to) + 2f(0)
=> f(O) = 0
since f(x) is continuous at x = 0

lim
x-->O
f(x) = f(0)

lim f(x) = lim f(x) = f(O)

=> x----.o- x-)oo+

consider an orbitrary constant point x = a

so we have to prove

x-->a

LHS = limf(x) = lim f(x)

x---+a x-a40

= V~f(a+h) (putx-a=h)

= lim(f(a)+ f(h)) [',' f(x + y) = f(x) + feY)]

h-->O

25
= lim f(a) + limf(h)
h40 h40

= f(a)
\.
+ limf(h)
h~O

= f(a) + f(O)

= f(a) + 0

= f(a)

=RHS

34 Given f(x) =
f=1
± tan(~) 2f
sec(~1)
r: ; r, n E N

en (f(X) + tan -¥) - (f(X) + tan -¥f .[sin (tan~)]

g(x) = ~~~
1 + (f(X) + tan {of
n
.r' = k for x = 4" and the domain of g (x) is (0, nI2). (
where [ ] denotes the greatest integer function.

Find the value ofk, ifpossible, so that g(x) is continuous at x = 1t/4.Also state the points ofdiscontinuity

of g (x) in (0, 1(/4) , if any.

. x . x

smxcos--cosxsm- x
sinx/2 2 2 = tanx-tan-

Sol.
x x x 2

2 2 2

x x

2 2

x x x x

tan - 2 sec- = tan--tan­ 2

2 • 2 2 2
(
x x x x

tan-.sec-=tan-·
3 2 2
-tan­ 3

2 2 2 2

x x x x

tan-.sec-1 = tan--tan­
1
2 0
2 20
-2 0
-
0

using (1)

26

. €n(tan x) - (tan x)" [sin (tan %)] 1t

11m - - - - - - - = - - - - ' - - - - - - - ' ' - - = ­ x:;t:­
g(x) = n->oo 1+ (tan x t 4
1t
k x=­
4

1t
x;;t.­
4
g(x) =
1t
x=­
4

.~

f
'<..

lim
n-->oo x" =rr:IJ
x <1
x=1
x c- l
/'

1t
0 x<­
4
1t
limttan x)" = 1 x=­
n-->oo 4
1t
r:IJ x>­
4

35 Let f be continuous on the interval [0, 1] to R such that f(O) = f(1). Prove that there exists a point c in

[o,~] such that f (c) = f (c+i)

Sol. Consider a conti function

Now

g(~J g(l)- f(~J =>g(O)=f(1) - f(~)

since g is continuous and g(O) and g( ~) are of opposite sign hence the equation g(x) = 0 must hav~~t

least one root in[ 0, ~ J.

; xcO
36
; x c- O

where a> 0, find the value of 'a' & 'g(O)' so that the function g(x) is continuous at x = O.

LHLI x--0 = x-->o

lim gtx) RHLI = (.en2a)2
Sol. x=o 2

_r
_III!
[I-aX + xax.ena)
x2 since the function is conti (
x~ aa
put x= a-h g(O) = LHLlxo=() = RHLlxo=()
= lim[ 1- a-h- ha-h.ena) (.en(2a)/ = (.ena/
x-->o a-hh2 2 2
. [ah-I-h.ena).~~
I1m , lorm
=
x-->o 2h 0 (.en 2a + .ena) (.en 2a - .ena) = 0

= Iim[ah.ena-o-.ena).~ .en(2a2) . .en2 = 0

h~ 2h '0 Ans

.en2a2 = 0

1
LHL I = (.ena)2 2a2 = 1, a = ± ,,2
r;:;' a > 0
x=o 2 '

RHLI _ = lim g(x)

x-o x-->o+

(.en2a)2
:. g(O) = .
.2

put x = 0 + h 1(
="2 .en2·
1)2
h

28
. [(2a)h - h£n2- h£na -l),Q~ 1 t: 2
= 1h~O
1m
h
2 '
0
lorrn = -(£n,,2)
2

= Ii1m (2a)h £n2a - £na2 "-lOrrn

h-so 2h
0 c:
'0
="21(14 (£n2) 2)

= lim (2a)\£n2a)2 1 2
= -(£n2)
h~O 2 8

37 A function f:R~R satisfies the equation f(x+y)=f(x). fey) for all x,y in Rand

f(x) =1= 0 for any x in R. Let the function the differentiable at x = 0 and f'(O) = 2.
Show that fl(X) = 2f(x) for all x in R. Hence determine f(x).

Putting x = y := 0 in (1) ,/we get

I.
"
" f (O){f (0) -I} := 0 => f (0) = 0 orf (0) = 1

If f(O):=O, then f(x).:=f(x+O) = f(x).f(O):= 0 for all xER

Which is not true (given f (x) =1= 0 )

So, f(O)=l

.. f'(x) = lim f(x+h)-f(x)

h~O h

= lim f(x)f(h)-f(x)
h~O h
f(h) -1
= f (x) lim-----'---''--­
h~O h

:= f (x) lim f (x) - f ( 0 ) (': f(O) =1)

h-+O h-O
(
= f(x)f'(O) = 2f(x) (': f'(O) = 2)
f'(x) := 2
f(x)
Integrating both sides w.r.t.x and taking limit 0 to x

If'(x)
-dx = .hrX2dx
f(x)

In f(x) -0 = 2x f(x) = e 2x "

29
38 Letfbe a function such that f(x+f(y))=f(f(x))+f(y) v x.y e R and f(h)=h for

Sol Given f(x+f(y)) = f(f(x)+f(y)) .... (1)

Putting x = y = 0 in (1), then
f(O + f(O)) = f(f(O)) + f(O) ~ f(f(O)) = f(f(O)) +f(O)

.. f(O)=O .... (2)

f(x + h) - f(x)
Now f'(x) = lim~-!...-~ (for 0 < h < E)
h-->O h

= lim f(h+x)-f(x)
h-->O h

= lim f(f(h))
(form (1))

h-->O h

h-->O h

=lim~=l
h-->°h
(-:f(h)=h)

Integrating both sides with limites 0 to x then f(x) = x

f'(x)=1.

-2 , -3 $X$0
39 Let f(x)= { x-2 , 0<x$3 ,where g(x)=f(lxl)+lf(x)l· Test the differentiability of g(x) in the interval (-3,3). Sol From the given function 2+2 for -3$X $0 f(lxl)={-X-2 for -3$x$0 and !f(X)I={_X for 0 < x s 2 x - 2 for 0 < x s 3 x- 2 for 2 < x s 3 ( g(x) = f(lxl)+lf(x)1 -x for -3$x$O - 0 for 0 <x s 2 { 2x-4 for 2<x$3
Check the differentiability
At

h-->O -h

-(O-h)-O
= lim =-1
h-->O -h

30

Rg'(O) = limg(O + h) - g(O)

h--+O h

( 0 - 0)
= lim
h--+O h
=a

Lg'(O) * Rg'(O)
.. g (x) is not differentiable at x= a
Check at

h--+O -h
0-0
=lim-=O
h--+O -h

and Rg'(2) = lim g(2 + h) -g(2)

h--+O h

-
/ =lim 2(2+h)-4-0 =2
/'

~.
• h--+O h

Lg'(2) * Rg'(2)
Hence g (x)' is not differentiable at x = 2.
Graphical method:
-2 -3::; x s a
.. f (x) = {x_ 2 ; a < x::; 3
Graph of f(x) :

31
Graph of f(lx!) :

Graph of If(x)! :

y
~

(
1

-3 -2 -1

-1

Graph of g(x)=lf(x)l+f(lx!) :

-3 -2 -1

Sol Since If(x)-f(y)I~lx-yI3 x:;t:y

.. f(x)-f(y) ~lx_yI2
x-y
Taking lim as y ~ x, we get

32

lim f(x)-f(y) ~limlx-yI2

y-->x X - Y y-->x

y-->x X- Y y-->x

hex) is a linear function of x which is continuous for all x E R.

41 Let f(x;YJ= f(X);f(Y) for all real x and y.1f f'(O) exists and equals -1 and f(O)=l,

then find f(2).

,)

Sol
.
Since
'~(x+YJ_f(X)+f(Y)
-2­ - 2 .... (1)

.. f' (x) = limf (x + h) - f (x) = lim

f( 2x + 2h) f(2x +
2 - -2­
0)
~ h ~ h

f (2x) + f(2h) f(2x) + f (0)

= lim- - - - -2- ' ' ' ' - - - - - - -2= - - ­ [ from (1) ]
h-->O h

= lim f (2h) - f (0)

h-->O 2h - 0
= f'(O)
=-1 'if xER ( given)
Integrating, we get f(x)=-x+c
(
Putting x=O, then f(O)=O+c=l ( given)
.. c = 1 then f(x) = 1- x f(2) = 1- 2 =-1
Graphical method :
Suppose A(x,f(x)) and B(y,f(Y)) be any two points on the curve y = f(x).

33
B
y

X+ Y f(x) + f(Y)]
If M is the mid-point of AB then co-ordinates of Mare [ -2-' 2

y
x+
According to the graph, co-ordinates of Pare ( -2-,f (x+YJJ
-2­ and PL >ML .
(
~ f(x ;Y J > f(X);f(Y)

x + YJ f(x)+f(Y)
But given f ( -2­ = 2 which is possible when P ~ M

i.e. P lies on AB. Hence Y= f (x) must be a linear function.

Let f (x) = ax + b ~ f(O)=O+b=l (given)
and f'(x) =a ~ f'(O)=a=-l (given)
.. f(x)=-x+1 f(2) = -2+ 1 =-1.

Putting x = Y= 0, we get (n-2)f(0) = °

.. f(O)=O (.: n-2:;t:O)

f(nx + nh) _f(nx+O)

f' (x) = limf(x +-h)-'- f (x) = lim n n
~o h ~o h

34

f(nx)+f(nh) _ f(nx)+f(O)
n n
= lim--=-------------=-"-­ [ from (1) ]
h-->O h

h-+O nh-O
=> I'{x] = k

.. c = 0 then f(x) = kx.

x + Y) 2+f(x)+f(y)
43 If f ( -3- = 3 for all real x and y and fl(2) = 2 then determine y = f(x).

5 o 1r
1 f(x+ y)= 2+f(X~+f(Y)
0 :

... (1)
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x treating y as constant,

f'(x) = f'(O) = c ( say)

At x = 2, f'(2)=c=2 (given)

fl(X)=2

Putting x=O, then f(0)=0+d=2 [ from (1) ]

., f(x)=2x+2

Hence y = 2x + 2.

X+ 2y ) _ f(x) + 2f (v)
44 If f ( - 3 - - 3 "i x,YER and f'(O)=l; prove that f(x) is continuous for

all x E R.

Sol o. f(X+ Y)=f(X)+32f(y)

32
Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x treating y as constant

f 1 ( x + 2y
3
).1.3 = fl(X)+3
0

and replacing x by 0 and y by 23x

then f'(x) = f'(O) = 1 ( given)
35
On integrating, we get
f(x)=x+d,d is constant of integration which is linear function in x and hence it is
always continuous function for all x.

1- xy x--+o X
f(J3) and

f'( -2).

l-xy

Now f'(x) = lim f(x+h)-f(x)

h--+O h
..r'.
= lim f(x+h)+f(-x) (
h--+O h

=2·-­ 2
1 .: lim f(x) = 2J
1+x [ x--+o X

2
=
1+x 2
.. f(x)=2tan-1x+c or f(0)=2tan-10+c=0
=> O=O+c c=O
then f(x) = 2 tan' x (

46 Let f(x+Y)=f(x)+f(y)+2xy-1 for all X,YER. If f(x) is differentiable and f'(O)=sin~

then prove that f(x»O V XER.
Sol Given f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)+2xy-1 V x,YER ... (1)
Putting x = Y= 0 in (1), we get
f(O) = 1 ... (2)

h--+O h
36

h->O h

=lim f(h)+2xh-l
h->O h

= Ih->O
1m
h h->O h

f(h)-f(O)
= lim + lim(2x)
h->O h h->O

= f'(O)+2x

= sin ] + 2x (: f(O) = sin ]

Integrating both sides w.r.t. x and taking limit 0 to x, then

J:f'(x)dx = J:(sin <j>+ 2x)dx

=> f(x)-f(O)=xsin<j>+x 2
2+xsin<j>+1
=> f(x)=x (-: f(O) =1)
Here coefficient of x 2 is 1 > 0 and Discriminant
o = sin 2 <j> - 4 <°.

Sol We have f(x)f(Y)+ 2 = f(x)+f(Y)+f(xy) ... (1)

Putting x = 1 and Y= 1, we get

(f(1))2 + 2 = 3f(1)

( f(l) = 1,2 => f(1)=2 ... (2)

f(1):;t:1 (': f(O) = 1 and f is one-one function)
1
In (1), replacing Y by ­
x

f(X)f(~J =f(X)+f(~J (':f(1)=2)

f (x) = 1 ± x n (x E N)

=> f'(x) = ±nx n - 1 => f'(1)=±n=2

Taking positive sign => n=2 then f(x)=1+x 2
37
Now, 3 Jf(x)dx-x(f(x)+2)
2)dx-x(1+x 2
=3 J(1+x +2)

=3(x+ ~J+C-3X-X3
= C= constant.

Now, f'(x) =limf(x+h)-f(x)

h.....O h

= lim----,---f
( x_(1 +_~)--'-..-)-_f(x_.1) ,rl
h.....O h (

. ehf( x) + e X+h-I-~f( 1 + ~) - f(x) - eX-If (1)

= hm-----~------1.-----
h.....O h

hJ
e h.-!'.Xf ( 1 +-
" (eh
= f( x )11m - + e (x-I) n
- -lJ 1m h x (:f(l)=O)
h.....O h h.....O
x·­
X

fl(l)
= f(x).l + e X-I . ­
x
(
x-I
=f(X)+~ (':f'(1)==e)
x
eX

f'(x) = f(x) +­
X

=> ~(e-Xf(x)) =!
dx x
O~ in.tegrating we have e-Xf(x) = In x+c at x=l,c=O

49 Let f:R~R, such that f'(O)=l

and f (x + v) = f (x) + f (v) + e X+ Y(x + v)- xe" - ye Y+ 2xy V x, Y E R then determine f (x).

38

Putting x = y = 0, we get f(O) = 0 ... (2)

= lim--of(,--x+_h---"-).;f--,-(x---!.. .)
Now, f'(x)
h--70 h
h
= lim f(x)+f(h)+ex+h(x+h)-xe x -he +2xh-f(x)
h--70 h

f(h) (eh -1) }

=lim -+xe X +e x+h _e h +2x
h--70{ h h

= f I (0) + xe".1 + eX -1 + 2x
= 1 + xe" + e" + 2x -1
= xe" +e x +2x
Integrating both sides w.r.t. x with limit 0 to x
.. f(x)-f(0)=xe x-e X + e X + x 2
f (x) - 0 = xe" + x2
Hence f(x)=x 2+xe x
50 Let f(xy)=xf(y)+yf(x) for all x,YER+ and f(x) be differentiable in (0,00) then

determine f(x).

Sol Given f(xy) = xf(y)+yf(x)

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x treating y as constant,
f'(xy).y = f(y) + yf'(x)

xf'(x) -f(x) f '[I]

x2 =-x­
=> ~[f(X)J = f'(l)
dx x x

x 1

x

51 Let f(xY)=f(x)f(y) \j x,YER and f is differentiable at x e I such that f'(l)=l also

f(l)"* 0 then show that f is differentiable for all x"* O. Hence, determine f(x).
Sol Given f(xy) = f(x)f(y)
39
Putting x = Y= 1 then we get f(l) = 1.
Differentiating both sides w.r. t. x treating Y as constant,
f'(xy).y = f'(x)f(Y)
Replacing Y by x and x by 1, then
f'(x).x = f'(l)f(x)

~ f'(x) = f(x)f'(l) = f(x) (-: f'(l) = 1)

x x

f'(x) 1
~ f(x) =;­
Integrating both sides w.r.t. x and taking limit 1 to x, then

r
1
f'(x) dx =
f(x)
r
1 X
.!.dx

~ In f (x) -In f (1) = In x -In 1 (.: f (1) = 1)

~ In f (x) ­ 0 = In x - 0 .. f (x) = x. }-'
(
52 If 2f(x) = f(XY)+f(~) for all X,Y E W,f(l) = 0 and f'(I) = 1, then find f(~) and f'(2).

Putting x e I in (1) then 2f(I)=f(Y)+f(~)=O (-: f(I)=O)

(
.. f(y)=-t(~) .. f(~J=-f(~) ... (4)

Now from (3) and (4), we get

2{f(x)-f(y)} = 2f(~)

Now, f'(x) =limf(x+h)-f(x)

h.....O h

40
[ From (5) ]

= lim
( h)
f 1+- 1 1
x =-f '(l)=- {-: fl(l) = 1}
h-->O h x x
-·x
x

f l (2) = .!
2
and f (x) = In x + In c for x = 1, and f (1) = In 1 + In c
=> O=O+Inc .. ln c e O
then f(x) = In x f(e)=Ine=l.

x 1- 1
53 Suppose p(x)=aO+alx+a2x2+ ... +anxn. If \p(x)!::;le - 1 for all x z O, prove that
la1 + 2a 2 + ... + nanl ::; 1.
(
2
Sol Given p(x) = a o +a1x +a 2x + ... + a.x"

=> p'[I] = a 1 + 2a 2 + ... + nan ...(1)

11
Now, Ip(l)\::; le - -11

=> Ip(l)I::;O => p(l)=O (·:/p(l)1 ~ 0)

As Ip(x)I::;lex-1-11

we get Ip(1+h)I::;leh-11 Vh>-l,h;t:O

h
=> Ip(l + h) -p(l)l::; le -11 (-: p(l) = 0)

h

=> lim p(l+h)-p(l) ::;liml

h-->O h h-e-O
eh
h
-11
h-
· p(l+h)-p(l)
Iim ::;
ti1m-­
' e 1 1

h-->O h h-->O h

[ from (1) ]

41
54 Let f(~)= f(X);(Y) for all real x and y. If f(l)=f'(l), show that f(x)+f(l-x)=

constant, for all non-zero real x.

. f(XY) _ f(x)f(Y)
Sol Given 2 - 2
Replacing x by 2x and Y by 1, we get
2f(x) = f(2x )f(l) ... (1)
and,

... (2)

now,

f (x)
I = lim f (x + h)- f (x)
h....O h l'
(

f(2X)f(1+~)
2 x -f(x) [ from (2) ]
=lim--=----­
h....O h

. f(2X)f(1 - 2f(x) +~)

== hm--~------<---
h....O 2h

=hm--~~----
h....O 2h

f(2x).
= --hm----"---~-
t(l+~)-f(l)
2 h....O h
x·­
x

= f(2x) .fl(l)
2x

= 2f(x) 'f'(l) = f(x)

f(1).2x X (': f '[I] = f(l))

fl(X) 1
==f(x)==~
Integrating both sides w.r.t. x, we get

42

Inf (x) = In x + In c
f(x)=cx (c is constant> 0)
f(x) +f(l-x) = cx+ c(l-x) = ex + c -cx = c = constant.

3 2
.
55 Let f(x) = x _x +x+ 1 and g(x) =tax{f(t): 0 s t s x}....D s xs 1Y-x,1 < x s 2.
€::..

Sol

( f(x) is strictly increasing in (0,2)

maximum value of f(t) in 0 s t s x is f(x)

g(x)={f(X) ,Osxs1
3-x , 1<xs2
3 2
= {x - x + X+1 ,Os x s 1
3-x 1<xs2

Graph of g(x) :

Clearly, 9 (x) is continuous for all x E (0,2) and differentiable at all points in this
interval except x = 1.

3 2 () {min f (t) : 0 s t s x ,Os x s 6

56 Let f (x) = x - 9x +15x + 6, and 9 x = x -18 , x > 6 ,then draw the

graph of 9 (x) and discuss the continuity and differentiability of 9 (x) .

Sol .. f(x) = x 3 -9x 2 +15x +6,
43
.. f'(x) = 3x 2 -18x + 15 = 3(x2 - 6x + 5) = 3(x -l)(x -5)

---,

Hence f(x) is increasing in

\'-----_------'1
(-00,1)u(5,00) and decreasing in (1,5).
Now, f(x)=6 ~ x3-9x2+15x+6=6

x(x 2 -9x+15) = 0

x=O
,
9±m
2

x=O
,
9-m

2 (
X :;f: 9+m
2'
'; 9-m
2
>6J
,/
(
6 o:s;x< 9-m
2
9-ffi
g(x)= x3-9x 2+15x+6 ---:s;x:s;6
2
x-18 x>6

Graph of g(x) :

Clearly g(x) is continuous in [0,(0) and differentiable at all points in this interval

other than
9-J2i and 6.
2

44

.
b sm _l(X+C)
--
1
--<x<O
2 ' 2
1 x =0 , If f (x) is differentiable at x = O. Find the
57 Let f{x) =
2
eax / 2 -1 1
O<x<­
x 2

value of a also prove that 64b 2 = 4 - c 2 •

ah
e 2 -1 1
Sol f{O+h)-f{O) ---­
Rf'{O) = lim = lim h 2
h-->O h h-->O h

.r'
(
a 1
at h~O numerator must be = 0, then 2.1 - "2 = 0

a=l

... (1)
=>

2(e ~-l)+h
Replacing h by -h then P = lim--'----.".-"'--- .,. (2)
h-->O 2h 2
h h h
e2 + e 2 - 2 e h - 2e2 + 1
Adding (1) and (2) then 2P = lim
h-->O h2 = lim
h-->O 2 ­
h

h e2

P=! => Rf'(O) =! ... (3)

8 8

45

Lf'(O)=limf(O-h)-f(O)=lim
b .
Sin
-l(-h+cJ
-2- -2
1

h-e-O -h h~O -h
Now, at h ~ 0 numerator must be = 0

..
. -1
b Sin (c2J-2=
1 0

then,

. _l(C-h) . -l(C)
U'(O) = blim Sin 2 -Sin 2
h~O -h

{(_C;
= blim----"-sm-'
h~O
h)JP:}_(1-
:_ - ~)(_1-
(c ;-------<-h
-h

n}

-%~1-(
"blrrn sin-'{( c;h )JP:} c;h ))}
(

,~O (C;h)JP:)_% [1-( c;r'JJ

{U~)R-%~}
-h

. {(T)R-%R~}{(T)R+%~}
~-b~ h{(C;h)R-%~}
{

. (Tn1-~)-~{1-(C~rJ

~-bl~ h{(C;h)f~~}%~}

=-blim (2c-h)(-h)
,~ 4h{(C;h)fl}% {1-(<C;hJ}}

46

2bc b

S-ZA
1 b

58 Let a E R. Prove that a function f: R ~ R is differentiable at x:= a if and only if there

is a function g:R~R which is continuous at a and satisfies f(x)-f(a):=g(x)(x-a)
for all a E R.
Sol Let f: R ~ R be differentiable at x = a E R, then

. f(x)-f(a) ,

hm ( x-a ):= f (a) exists and finite

.
( ~a

i.e. U'(a)=Rf'(a):=f'(a)

lim f(x)-f(a) = lim f(x)-f(a) :=f'(a)

x-->a- (x - a) x-->a+ ( X- a)

!~_ 9 (x):= !~~+ 9(x) = f' (a) {'.'f (x) - f(a ) := 9 (x) (x - a)} ...(1)
1 •f(x)-f(a)
Again f (a) := x-->a
hm ( X - a )

:= lim 9 (x) = 9 (a )
x-->a

L.H.L=R.H.L=V.F.

9 (x) is continuous function at x = a E R.

(
59 Let 9 (x) := 0 if -e s x < 1

:={1+~sin(lnx2n)} if Ls x s e,

f(x):= xg(x) for g(x):= l+~sin(ln x

2n)

:= x(g(x) + 1) otherwise
Discuss the continuity and differentiability of f( x) over its domain.

Sol Given g(x):= {l+~sin(ln x 2n)} for 1:s; x s; e

47
= 0 for - e :s:: x < 1

21t)]

i.e.,

= ~sin(ln x [~sin(ln x 21t)],1:S:: x :s:: e

21t)
-

= O,-e:s:: x <1
where [.] denotes the greatest integer function.
consider: 1 :s:: x :s:: e

=> O:S::ln(x 21t):S::27t

Case I: If O:S::ln(x
21t):S::7t i.e. l:s::x:s::~ then O:s::sin(1n(x 21t)):S::1

=> o, ~sin(ln(x21t)):s:: ~ .. [ ~ sin(In(x21t ))] = 0

r'
.. g(x) = ~sin(lnx21t) for l:s::x:s::~
(

Case II :

Case III: If In(x 21t)=27t => x=e => g(x)={l}=O

Combining all cases, we get

= x(1+ ~ sin(ln(x21t))J for1:s::x:s::~

(
=x(1+0) for-e:S:: x < 1

=x(1+0) for x = e

f (x) = x (1 + ~ sin(In(x )))

21t
for 1:s:: x s; e

=x
.. f is differentiable in (-e, 1) and (1,e)
Check the differentiable of f(x) at x = 1.

Lf'(l) = lim f(l-h) -f(l)

h--.O -h

= lim (1- h) -1 = 1

h--.O -h

48

and Rf'(l) = limf(l+h)-f(l)

h-tO h

. (l+h){l+~sin(ln(l+ht'))-l
= lim-----O...---------'--­
h-tO h

(1 + h) (In(l+h) 2,,)
h+--sin
= lim 3
h-tO h

= lim[1 + _(1+_h) _sin--,-{In_(l_+_h)2--,-"}]

. h-tO 3 h

. (l+h). sin(ln(1+h)2")
= 1 + lim lim --'------'­
h-tO 3 h-tO h

. (l+h). sin{21tln(1+h)} 21tln(1+h)

=l+hm lim .-~------!....
( h-tO 3 h-tO 21t In(1 + h) h

= 1 + (_1;_0}1.21t.1

21t
=1+-·
3
Thus f is not differentiable at x = 1.
Hence f is continuous and differentiable for all x E domain of except not
differentiable at x = 1.

60 Suppose that f and g are non-constant differentiable real valued functions on R.

If for every x, YE R,f(x + Y) = f(x )f(Y) - g(x)g(y), g(x + v) = g(x)f(Y) +f(x)g(y) and

'() I' f(x + h) - f(x) \. f(x + h) - f(x + 0)

Sol We have f x = rm = im ---'---<----'--------'­
( h-tO h h-tO h

= lim{f(x)f(h)-g(x)g(h)} -{f(x)f(O)-g(x)g(O)}
h-tO h

. f(x)(f(h)-f(O)) . g(x)(g(h)-g(O))
= lim - lim-----'--~--=-----.:...---,----'--'-'-
h-tO (h-O) h-tO (h-O)

= f(x)f'(O) - g(x)g'(O)

= O-g(x)g'(O) (': f'(O) = 0)

f'(x)=-g(x)g'(O) .... (1)

and g '()
x = I'im g (x + h) - g(x) = I'rm ------0.-_--'------'-_--'­
g (x + h) - g (x + 0)
h-tO h h-tO h

49
= lim {g (x )f (h) + f(x )g(h)} ­ {g(x)f(O) + f(x )g(O)}
h~O h

= g(x ) lim f(h) ­ f(O) + f(x ) lim g(h) ­ g(O)

h~O h- 0 h~O h- 0
= g(x)f'(O) + f(x)g'(O)

=O+f(x)g'(O) (-: f'(O) =0)

= f(x)g'(O) .... (2)
Multiplying (l) by f(x) and (2) by g(x) and adding we get
f(x)f'(x) +g(x)g'(x) = 0

or 2f(x)f'(x) + 2g(x)g'(x) = 0 on integrating we get

..... (3)
Putting x = 0, y = 0 in the given equation then
-I
f(O) = {f(O)}2 _{g(O)}2 and g(O) = 2f(0)g(0) F
(
1
or g(O){2f(O) -I} = 0 or g(O) = 0 or f(O) ="2

If g(O) = 0, then f(O) = (£(0))2 - 0 orf(O) = 1

1 1 (1)2
and for f(O) ="2'"2= "2 _(g(O))2

~ (g(0))2=_~ (Impossible)

Hence f(O) = 1 and g(O) = 0 from (3), {f(O)t + {g(0)}2 =C

~ 1+0=c .. c=1
Hence {f(X)}2 +{g(X)}2 =1.

61 Let f(x) be a real valued function not identically zero such that (
f(x+yn)=f(x)+{f(y)r;V x.v e R{where n is odd natural number> 1) and f'(O)~O.

Sol Given that f(x+yn)=f(x)+(f(y)f

Putting x = y = 0 ~ f(O) = 0

f '(0) = lim f (0 + h) - f (0 )
h~O h

=limf(h)-O
h~O h

50

= lim f (h) = A(say) ... (1)

h....O h

Also,

f 0) = lim f (0 + h) - f ( a)

I (

h....O h

. f(O+(hllnf)-f(O)
= lim-----'----------'---­
h....O h

=A n [from (1)]
From (1) and (2), A= An ,r'
(
A = -1,0,1 (': n is odd and A E R)

f'(O) ~ a (':A;i;-l)

f'(O) = 0,1

f(x + h) - f(x)
Agai n f I ( x) = lim ----'--~'-----~
h....O h

= lim f(X+(h1/nf)-f(x)
h....O h

. f(x)+(f(hlln)f -f(x)
= lim --'----'---------'-'----­
h....O h

For A = O,f'(x) = a

On intergrating we get f(x) = c

At x = 0, f (0) = c = a (:f(O)=O)

f(X) = a

which is impossible as f(x) is not identically zero, i.e., f(X);i; a

and for A=1 f'(x)=l
On intergrating w.r.t. x and taking limit a to x,

then f: f'(x)dx = f:l. dx

51
=> f(x)-f(O)=x => f(x)-(O)=X (-:f(O)=O)
Hencef(x) = x and f'(x) = 1 .. f'(lO) = 1 and f(5) = 5.

utting x=y=l then f(1)=e- 1(e1f(1)+e1f(1))

=> f(l) = 2f(1) .. f(l) = 0 ... (1)

f I ( x)
o

= 11m
f(x+h)-f(x) . f(X(l+~)J-f(X'l)
= hm--'-----'-------'--'---­
h....O h h....O h

X(l+~)-X-(l+~) (l+~)f(X) X.f(l+~) x-x-l{ef(x)+eXf(ll}

. e
= Ih....O
lm-------------­
e +e -e r' (0
h

h( (h)J
h-l-j{ el+!!xf(x)+exf l+j{
e -f(x)-O
= lim
h....O h
(0: f(l) = 0)

h I ' ex+h-l.-!'.xf ( 1 +­ hJ
= limf(x) (e -.) + lim x
h....O h h....O h

h X+h-l-~{t(l+~ )-f(ll}
= f(x)lim(~)
h + lim e
h....O h....O
(h)
x· ­ (
x

eX-l.f'(l) () ex-1·e
) 1+
= f( x· =f x + - ­ (-:f'(l)=e)
x X

eX eX
=f(x)+­ f'(x) - f(x) =­
x x

I (

eX x e 2x --;

52

eX

e

.. c == 0

63 Let f: W ~ R be a differentiable function with f(l) = 3 and satisfying:

f f (t) dt = y r
f (t) dt + x f f (t) dt; '<j x, yEW

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x treating y as constant; we get

f(xy).y==yf(x)+ S:f(t)dt
.,1"
(
Putting x == 1, we get yf(y) == Yf(l) + S: f(t)dt
~ yf(y)==3y+ J:f(t)dt (-:f(1)=3)

yf'(y) + f(y).l == 3 + f(y)

~ f'(y) == ~
y
Integrating both sides w.r.t. y with limit 1 to x then
yf'(l) = 31nx - 3ln1

( ~ f(x)==3+3Inx

Hence f(x) = 31n( ex).

64 Let f(xrnyn)==mf(x)+nf(y) '<j x.y e R" and '<j m.n s R If f'(x) exists and has the value

x_ x-->o X

Putting x=y=m=n=l, then f(l)=f(l)+f(l)

~ f(l)=O

53
. f(x+h)-f(x) . f(
f X) == lim
1( == lim----"--'--------'--'-------­
X(l+~))-f(X'l)
h-->O h h-->O h

.+vmr {(l+;JT}-+vmf((l)""r)
== hm-----"----------'-------­
h-->O h

. ml(X'lm) + nl{ + ~r} ml(xV m ) - nl(l)

== hm------"--------<------­
(1 -
h-->O h

r'
('
(Putting y == 1 in (1) then f( x m ) == mf(x))

f(l+~) ( h)
f 1+-
~ == ..!lim x lim x == e

f (1 + x)
Hence lim == e
h-->O X

65 Let f be a continuous and differentiable function in (X1,X2). If f(x).f'(x) ~ x~l-(f(x)t

1
and lim. (f(X))2 == 1 and lim_ (f(X))2 == 2 for x E (X1,X2), then prove that
X4~ X~X2
x~ -x~ ~ -3
1t

~ f(x)f'(x) -x ~ a or 2f (x)f' (x) _ 2x ~ a

J1-(f(x)r J1-(f(x)r

or d]lsin-1(f(x))2}
dx _x 2 ~O

~ lim. F (x) :s; lim F (x)

X4Xl X4X2

54
1t 2 1t 2 2 2 1t
--X <--X X -X >-.
2 1 - 6 2 1 2 - 3

66 Are there any non-constant differentiable functioef: R ---+ R such that

f(f(f(x))) =f(x) 2: 0 Iv' xER? ~
Sol Given f(f(f(x))) = f(x) .... (1)
Applying f to both sides of the equation (1), then
f(f(f(x))) = f{f(x)} .... (2)

If g(x) = f(f(x)) Iv' X E R then equation (2) can be written as g(g(x)) = g(x); g is also
a differentiable function on Rand g(x) 2: 0 Iv' X E R.
Then the range T=g(R) of g is an interval in [0,00). Let a be the infimum of T.
Since g(t) = t for all t E T and g is continuous.
=? g(a)=a
Assume T has more than one element. Choose 8 > 0 such that (a, a + 8 ~ T).
Then X E (a - 8,a)

g(x)-g(a) ~ 0
g(x) 2: g(a) = a
x-a

Lg (a) = lim g ( x) - g (a)

I ~0
x~a- x-a

=limg(a-h)-g(a) ~O
.... (3)
h~O -.:h

g(x)-g(a) =1
For x E (a,a+8) we have
x-a
f Hence Rg'(a) = lim g(x)-g(a) = 1 .... (4)
x-a
x~a+

As g is differentiable at a, therefore (3) and (4) are contradictory. This concludes that
T is a single point i.e., g is a constant function,
g(x)=c Iv' xER, (c is constant)
from (1), f( c) = f(x) Iv' x E R
This shows that f is a constant function. Thus there is no non-constant differentiable
function satisfying .(1).

67

55
g (x) = {max {f(t) : x +1 :s; t :s; x + 2,-3 :s; x < O}

I-x, for x ~ 0

Test continuity of g(x) for xE[-3,1].

Sol Since f(x)=x 3-3x2+6
~ fl(X) = 3x 2 -6x
= 3x(x -2)
for maximum and minima f'(x) = 0
x=0,2

f"(x) = 6x-6

f"(2) = 6 > 0 (local minima at x = 2 )

Cut off x-axis x3 _ 3x 2 + 6 = 0 has maximum 2 positive and 1 negative real roots.

Clearly f(x) is increasing in (-oo,0)u(2,oo) and decreasing in (0,2)

~ x+2 <0 ~ x < -2 ~ -3:s; x < -2

Now for x + 1 ~ 0 and x + 2 < 2 -1 s x < 0,g (x) = f (x + 1)

56

f(x+2) -3 ~ x <-2
f(O) -2~x<-1
g(x) ­
Hence - f(x+l) -1 ~ x <-0
I-x x:2:0

Hence g(x) is continuous in the interval [-3,1].

[2rx]
n
68 If f(x) = lim I-2-'
n
n-seo r=l
discuss the continuity of f(x) where [.] denotes the greatest

integer function.
Sol Since x =[x]+[x]
=> [x] = x - {x}, where {x} is the fractional part of x.
.. [2rx] = 2rx - {2rx}

n n n

I
r=l
0 ~ I {2rx} < II
r=l r=l

{2rx} 1
lim 0 ~ lim
n-4oo
I-2-
n

n-4oo r=l n
< lim­
n n-seo

.... (1)

n-4oo r=l
-
n

n 2

= lim f_2rx_ - 7-{2_rx~}

n-4OO r=l n2

n 2rx n {2rx}
= lim , , - - lim , , -2­
n-4oo
2
f::t n n-4oo f::t n

. -1 ( 1 + -1 J -
= 2x lim lim . I--
{2rx}
n
2
n-4oo 2 n n
n-4oo r=l

1- .
= 2x. (1+0)-0 { from (1) }
Z
=X \;j XER.

Hence f(x) = x \;j X E R,which is continuous everywhere.

57
I - ax+xaXlna

i
x 2 x<O
function f(x) = a .x
2xax- x In 2 - x Ina -1
2 x>O
x
where a> .

Without u ing C Hospital's rule or series expansion, find the value of 'a' and 'f(0)'

so that f( ) is continuous at x = O.

For x < ,

.... (1)

P lim a 21 -1- 2t In a (
1-.0 4e

_1I'
- -
41--+0
1m [ -
t
1 2I'
a 1 --)2 + -
4
1m [ -
1--+0
1e
-
a 1--- ; ctin
--­
a)

1 ( Ina )2 +-P
=- 1 [ from (1) ]
4 2

P=.!.(lna)2 .... (2)

2
For x> 0,
RH.L. = lim f(x) = limf(O + h)
x->O+ h->O
(
. 2 h.ah - h In 2 - h In a-I
= hm---------:~---
h->O h2

= lim[a h
h->O
-1)[2 h-1) + lim[a
h
h

h-.O
h - h In a
h2
-1) + lim[2
h-.O
h
- h In
h2
2-1)
1 - I'
= (In a)(ln 2) + -(In a)2 + -(In 2/ [ from (1) ]
2 2
But f(x) is continuous at x = 0
LH.L. = RH.L.

58

..

2 2 2

0= (In a Hin 2) + ~(in 2)2

1
=> 0= In a +2"In 2 (': In 27:-0)

=> In a = _! In 2 = In (2r~ a=2 2

2

and f(0)=L.H.L.=~(Ina)2

1(1
= 2" -2"In 2
1
)2 = 8(ln 2) 2.

X\I-X)Sin( ~) if Oc x s j '
70 I: [0, I] -)0 R is defined as I(x) = x , then prove that
[
° if x = °
(a) / is differentiable in [0, I] (b) / is bounded in [0, I] (c) /' is bounded in [0, 1]

X\I-X)Sin(:2) if Oc x s l
[Sol. I(x) =
[
° if x =0

f t (0+) = Lim
h \1- h) sin ~ -
h
°
°
=
h~O h

f' (1-) = Lim

(1- h)\+h)sin 1 2
(1- h)
° = Lim - (1- h)3 sin 1 2 = - sin 1

(x3 -X4)Cos(~J(-4)+sin~(3X2 -4x 3) x 7:- °

hence f' (x) = x x x
[
° if x =°

Lim = (0)+sinl(3-4) , hence f' is also bounded]

x~l-

·
L im (xx-J)
71 Find the value of x~O+ x . [Ans. I]

x~O+

(ex1nx_I)

x~o x-e-O x In x x-e-O

59
=Limit x(ln x)z (as x ~ 0 x lnx ~ 0)

x~o

. . (lnx)z .. 2lnx z

=Llmlt - ­ = Limit ---.X (use Lopital's rule)

x~o I/x x~o x
= Limit -2Inx.x = 0
x~o

. I-cosx·cos2x·cos3x........ cosnx
72 If L im has the value equal to 253, find the value of n
x~o xZ
(where n EN). [Ans. 11]

[Sol. L= 'L>z =253' n(n+l)(2n+l) =506' n == 11 satisfies this. Ans. ]

2 ' 6 '
73 Let a l > az > ll:3 an> 1; PI > Pz> P3"..· > Pn > 0 ; such that PI + Pz + P3 + + Pn = 1

(a) Lim F(x) (b) LimF(x) (c) Lim F(x)

//. x~o+ x~oo x~-oo.
[Sol. (
(1) x -­ L'rm ~ la lx +pza zx + ....... +P a x JlX
L'im F() (100 form)

x~o+ x~o+ n n
x x x 1
L = e1 where I == Lim PIal +pzaz +· ...... +Pnan­
1 x~o x
using L'HospitaI's Rule

I= ~~tIJ- (PI In a) a~ + pzlna z a~ +:...... + P n In an a~)

= PI In a) + pzln az + + Pn In an
== In raPI Pz Pn)
~ 1 'a Z .....a n

L ) = e1 = a )Pj ·a Z··
Pz a Pn
.. ·n Ans•

(2) Lim Ftxj>' L, =

x~oo
Lim(p)a~
x~oo
+pza~ + ....... +P naXn r (00 0 form)
[only when a) az etc. > 1]
. In(p)a~ +pza; + ....... +P aX)

In L = Lim n n
Z x~oo x (
using L'Hospital's Rule

L = Lim ~) Ina) a~ +pz/na z a~ +· +P n In an a~)

....(1)
z x~co p)a~ +pza~ + +Pna~

dividing by a~ and taking limit, we get

.
Lim ,
az
-
x [
, -
a3 ]X , etc all vanishes as x ~ 00
X~OO [ a) ] az .. .

p) Inal
= In a)
Pj
hence In L z = In a l => L z = a) Ans,
(3) Lim F(x) = L3 (say)
x~-co

60
dividing by (an? and taking x~~, anI ]X, [aa2n JX etc vanishes

[a

InL = Pn/nan

3
Pn
Lim 1-cos3x·cos9x·cos27x cos3°x 10 fi h I f
74 If ------------=-------,-----------,---- = 3 , ind t eva ue 0 n. [Ans.4]
x~o 1 1 1 1
1- cos - x .cos - x .cos - x cos - x

3 9 27 3°

2x 3x
· 1-cos3x 'cos3 ·cos3 cos J" x
[Sol. Let U = L l f f i - - - - - - - - -2
= - - - - - - - ­
n x~o x

x x x x

1-cos- ·coS 2·coS 3 cos n

and
V = Lim 3 3 3 3

.n x~o x 2

· -D(cos3x·cos32x·cos33X cos3°x)
U = L lffi-----O..-----------------'­
° x~o 2x

1 dy

dy
dx
= _ IT
r~l

2 2x+ n nx 2 2)2 3)2

U = Lim 3tan3x+3 tan3 +3 tan3 = 3 +(3 +(3 + +(3 n)2
n X~o 2x 2

32[32n -1]
U o = (32-1)'2 ....(1)

1
lilly replacing 3r by y:- we get

....(2)

2n +2 = 10 ~ In = 41 Ans.]

61