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c

1. SISTEMA OPERATIVO

1.1 Definición

p cc  c
c   c c
  ccc
c  c
c  c
 
c
c  c  c  c c c
cc
  c  c
c  c   

 ccc
c c  c ccc c   ccc c
c
 c  c c  c c   c c   c c c   c c  c   c c   c c

 c
c c  c

c  c    c  c   c  

c c  c c c
  

c  c   c c 

c c    c c c c
c  c  c
   c  c    c  
 c c   c c  c   c c   c

 c  
c c  c c c  c  c c  c  c   c   c
 
 c
c!"! c
 c 
 c
 c #c

1.2 Historia

\$% c&   c


c
c'()*#c

+ c   c   c
c c, c  c c
,
 cc c  c
cc
  c  c c- c
c c c   c c
,
 c c 
cc
 c
 c  cc   c
cccc c   c
c   cp  c c c
 c
c c   c
c  cc c

c c c c cc
 cc c
c cc c c    c  c  cc
cc
 c-c  c
c c cc c
 cc  c   c cc
  cc c c   c cc   cc

\$. 
c&   c c 
c
cc

c
c'(/*#c

+c   c
c c   c   c c c
c
c c   c 
 c
c     cc c    c
c    cpc c   c
c
    c  c  c
c  c c  cc c c c c
   c   cc c 
c c  c
  c
cccccpc
 c   c
c    c c  c  c 
 c cc c  c
   ccc 

c
c  c c
c
c  c
cc  cc

c
c

c'(/*cc 
c

c
c'(1*#c

. c   c c'(/2 ccc 

 c
cc  c
c 
 c.  34/*c
c567c
+ c 
 c
c c   c c
,
 c c   cc  c
   c c  c c   c
c   cc c c
c c

cc
cc  cpc   c
c 
 c 8  c c
c  c c
   c  cc c c 
 c  c
c c cc
   cpc
cc   cc c cc 
cc
 cc  c
c c   c
c
c  c cc c
c
  cc c
 c
cc c c  
c c c c
c
   cc
  

ccc c cc    cc c  
 c c   cc

\$c&   c 

c
c

c
c'(1*c c
 #c

+ c   c
ccc   c   c c 
cc
cc c
7 c
,
 cc   c c  cc  
 c
 c
c  c 9    c
c c   c   c
cc  c   cc

cc   c
c c
c
c
c 
 cc
c  c c c c
   c  c cc 
 c 
 c    cc c
c  c
  c
c   cc

1.3 Características

pc   c c

c
 c cc.  c:  c  c c   c    ;c

cc 
cc

Eficiencia.cc.  c:  c   c c c   c

cc 
c c c
c
c  c  c    c  cc

Habilidad para evolucionar.cc.  c:  c

 c   c
c  c c
  c c
 c cc 
 c   c
c  c  c
c  c c
   cc c   cc

c  c
c
c c  c c   c
cc 
c ccc
 c c   cc

Relacionar dispositivos.cpc.  c:  c c

 c c
c  cc c

   c    c
c c  c cc  cc

Organizar datos para acceso rápido y seguro.

Manejar las comunicaciones en red.cpc.  c:  c   cc  c  c
cc 

c
cc    ccc   cc c
c c
c
c 
 cc

Facilitar las entradas y salidas.cc.  c:  c

 c  c cc  c c
 cc  c
c c
   c
cp
3c.
c
cc 
c

 c c c   c c  

c cc 
 c
 c c  
c

c cc
c
 ccc  c  c
:) Cargador para el sistema operativo

p  c  c c c
c    c

c 8c
c
c    c 9 c

 c  c c  #c c c  c    c  c   c
c  c   c  c
  c c 

c   c c   c
cc
c  c
c cp9  cc
 c   c   
c c  c <:7c  c c c
c  c c  c
 c 
c 
c c  c   c c 
c c  c  c c
c c
c c   c
c  c

.c  c c c c  c 

 c  c   c     c c c   c
c c
 c

Supervisor (ejecutivo o monitor)

p c c
 
c
c  c cc
c c c
cc   cc
c

ccc8 c
c  c c c c c
c c  
 c= c c
 c  c  c   c
c   c c 
 c  c   c  c c  c    c
  
 cc c cc     c cc c   c

pc   c  c  c c  c c ;c

>c-
 cc  c

>c -
  c
c  c   c  c c c   c
c  c    c
c c
 
c

>c7 c
c-  c

>c-
  ccc
cc   c
c c  c

Lenguaje de comunicación

p c c
cc c
cc c  c  8c
   cc c  c  cc
c  
c c  
 c  c c 

 c c  c
c 8c
  c
&    cc 
c c
c
 c cc c 
cccc c

  c c 
ccc cc  ccc 
c cccc
c c
c  c c   c   c
  c   c
c  c c c
 c c
 
c

Utilería de sistema

.c   c c   c

c  c   c  c   c
  c   c
c  c
 8cc  c   c c ;c   c c c  c   c

2.1 Proceso de interrupciones

pc c
c   cc   c c   c
c c
c  cc
 
 c
 ccc   c
c    c
c cc
cc  c c
   c c  c

+   c c c
cc c 
cc  cc   c  cc
  cc   c  c c 
cc c
cc c  c

pcc
  c
cc
c
 c  c
cc cc
  c c

c  cc   c
c   c

2.2 Temporizador de intervalos o reloj de interrupción

c. c
 c cc c c c   c
c  c 
ccCPUc. c c c
    cc  c   c c
 c c c  c  c c c   cc c

c c
  c c cc  c%c  c c c   c   c
c  c
  
  c c
  # c c  c   c   c   c
c cc%cc  c

pc  c  c   c c  c

c    c c   c    c 
c
 c  c c  c   c c c
c c %c  c  c c   c
   c c c    cc c # c c c c c    cc c
 ccc   c
cc  c
cc%c. c c  c c  c c
  c c c  c    c c  c  c c c   cc   c
c   c cc 
c cc
c c
c c c c c   cc

pc  c
c    c  c  c  8c  c  c c    c
c
 
c pc  c    c 
 c c  c  c
  c c  c
c %c
 c  c
  c   c c c
c p3.c c
c c %c  c 
c c  c
  c
c   c c  c    c    c  
c  c c  c 
c
 
c cc  c   c
c8c  c c    c  c  c  c  
cc
 c
 
 c
c  c + c   c  c
 c   c   
  c

 
c
c c
c    c

2.3 Planificación de la CPU

p cc c
c
c  c   cc cc   c c   cc c
9  cc c cc 
c? @c
c c  cc

c
c cc c  
   c
c 
cc
  
# c c cc c cc
ccc%c c c   c c
   cc
c cc c
c c
c% c  c
c c?c
cc
%@ ccc c c  c
cc   c
c  c  c c 
 c
 c
c   c  c #c
c
cc? c
cc
c @c %6#c c

  c
c c 
c
cc c

+c   c c c cc    c

c , c  c  cc c  cc
c cc
ccc
c  c   cp cc
 cc  c

c c c
c   c c  c c   c
c    c
c  c +c
  c  c   c c    c c    c 3c   c  c
c
  c

 cc  c   cc    c  
 c+c   c
   c    c , c
c  c  3
#c  c   c   c
c c c   c    c
c 
 c   cc c c c
c    c . c c   c 

c  c   c c   c
c
  c 
 c
c 
 cc  c
c c  
 ccc  c
 c cc   c
  c
c
cc

3.1 Intercambio

pcc  c c  c c   c

c c  c c   c  c c 

c
 c cc   c    cc  c c
 cc c c 
 cc c
9  c  c   c
c c c
c cc   ccc c cc   c
 c c 9 c
c  c   c c
 c c  c c c  
 c  c
  c
 c c 

 ccc  cc  c-c 
c
c  c
c
c
c  cc    c cc c c    c

3.2 Paginación

pc  c
c
   c
c 
c  c c

c c  c
c  ,c   c
 
 c   c  c  c c 
c c
c
c  c c  c c

  c cc

7  c
c c c
c  c c c
c c
c  cc  c

c  c

c  c   cc c c  c c  cc c  c

3.3 Memoria virtual

pc 
c
,
cc=   c c'(/'c c c cMemoria Virtual cc
c
c  c c  ,c   
c
c c   c  c c
 c 
c 9
c c  c
 c
  cc cpc.:c   c c  c  c c
c c c
c
 c    c c  cc c cc
c c
 c c c  c c
ccc
 c c    c
c 
c c cc  
c

3.4 Segmentación

pc  c
cc   cc c c c
cc  c c c
c
cc 

c
c
  c   c  c c  c 
c  c c  c    c  c c
   c c
   c
c c   c 
c

c  c  c c   c
 cc     c c
c c , c cc
ccc  c c
 cc c cccc c
 c
c 9  c c    c  c c

c  c   c c c +c   c c   c 

c c  
c c
c c cc  

%  c c c  c c   c c 

 c c  c c c   ;c >c . c  c c
  
c 0c c .   c  c c   c   c     c   c
 c   cc  c  c  c c

c c   c  cc ,c
8 c
c cc

p  c 
c   c .   c c
c  c c
c
c c
  c ?"@c c c
  c  c   c .   c % c c !  c c c  c .   c c
 c cc c
c ccc0c
c   c
c c
c
ccc

   c c c c

c   c  
c c c  c   
c c

  c c c  
ccc
  c cc0c-   ccc c cc

  c cc c
 c
c?"@cc

pc c  c c c 8 c c 

c
c   c   c c   c  c
c
c  cc c c  c
cc  c c+c  c c
 c c 
 c
c
   c 
c    c c 
c  c c c   c

 
 c c c  c
c c  c  ccc c 
cc

4. Sistema de archivos

+ csistemas de archivosc  c c  # c cc   c


c c
c

c
c   c    cc
c
#c
cc 
 c c
 c c  
cc c 9cc   c  
cc c
c  c
+c c
c c   c   c c c c  c
c  c

+c c c  c

   c
c   c
c
 c c   c c cc
 c
 c cc
c
c c
cc c , cc  c 
 c  c
   c
c)'Ac c
c 
cpc  c
c  c
c  c c   c

cc  c

c  c  c c  cc
   cc   cc  c
c
c  c    ccc  cc ccc
c  
 cpcc  cc
 c
c  c  c
c c  
cc
cc
 c  
 c

   c c c  
 cc c
cc 9 c
c
c cc    c

cc
  c
c   #c

Archivos

c cc  c   c cc 


c c  ccc   c  c

c c  
c cc  c
c  c 
c cc  c 
 c
cc


c+ c  c c
 c c
   c
c
c  c
c  cc
c
  
 ccc  c
c cpc  c cc
   c8 c c
  cc c c  c c c c
  cc
+ c  c c  c
c c
c  c
 c
c  c    ccc

 c c  c 
 cc c c
cc  c  c   c

c c
c8 c c   c  c  c cc  cc

Funciones de archivo

ðc (uardar y organizarcc
  c   c   c  c cc

 c cc

c
 c c    c
cc!  c c c    c

c c
   c     c  
 c

c c,c'B'Ac
ðc (arantizar la conservación y custodiac
c c
  cc
c cc


 c  c c 

 c
ðc Facilitar la documentación y la informaciónc    ccc  c
cc
!  c c cc
 c
   c cc c   
 cc c c

c   c  c c
c 
c c    c
ðc Elaborar los instrumentos de descripciónc c  c c c c cc
c   c
cc    c
cc   c
ðc Asegurar a los ciudadanos el derecho de acceso cc   c cc c  c
 c c
 ccc 

ccc c
c c
  c 
 c
ðc Asesorarc c   c
c c
c c  c
c  c
ðc Seleccionar y evaluar la documentaciónc c
c
c c  c
c
   cc c c
c  c  c
c  cc   cc c
 c    c cc   c
ðc Proponer e impartirc  c
c  c c cc c.   c
c
<   cC  c
 
 cc c   c
c c  c
c  c

5. SISTEMAS DE ENTRADA Y SALIDA

pc 
c c  cccc
c   c c  8c  c c
c   c c  

cp c c   c c c
c
c 8c c
 c c  cc%cDc c
   c
cp3.c+c%c c c
c
  c
c
 cc
c   c c    c    cc  c c c


ccc  c%c c c c
   c
cp3.c c  c c
   c c   c
c
 ccc   cc c   cc c
 
 cp  c
   c c
c  c  
c c c c   c
   ;c. 8c c 

c !    c
c5 c
c   c
c-   cc
c
    #cc. 8c c-
  c !

 c 
 cc"  #c

Sistemas del hardware E/S

pc
 cc
 c c  c  c
cc

c
p c
cc c
c ccp;c
\$c7 c
\$c0 
c
\$c%c
\$c7 c
\$c5   c c
c

.c   c c   cc   c  c c  cc c

cc
° 
    

.c  c c  cc 
 c
 ccc 
cc c c+ c

 c c c
c c
   c
c 
cc c  c cc  c cc
 c+ c
   c
c 
c  cc   c c , c   c c c
  c cc  c c+ c
   c
c 
c  c c c 
 c
 c  c  c c
c 
c   E# c   c  c c

ãdispositivos de salida:

c
.c c c   c  c c 
 c 
#c
c c
c
 cpc

  c
c 
c c cccc  c: c
   c
c 
c ;c
  c  c 
 c c # c
 c  c   # c  c  c
 c

.c  c c  c
 c c
c  cc cc   c
c 
Fc
 c  c   ;c
\$c+c+ c
c!c
\$c+c!   c
\$c+ c%  c.6c
\$c7
c
\$c=9c
\$c  c
c!"!c

pc
 
c
c
 c cc  c
  c c   c  c c

 cc  c
c c  c cG0c

pc  c
c  cc
cG0c c c  c
c   ;c

HIp  

 0cp c c  c
c   c c  c7.!:.ccJ 
 c
0 c c  c
ccc
c  c
c   c =  c- 0 #c   c

c  c  c
c   c0  c
c   c c c c
c cc
   c 
cpcG0c c  c
c  c c   c=-0c
 c c
A))c  cc c   ccJ 
 c()c

HIp  

 .cp  c  c c c c:.3A ccG0c   c  c  c
 c
c  c cG0=.c

HIp  

 .c.c  c
 c
c  c
c   c
c c
 c G c0 c=  c.  #cc ccc8 c
c    c

 c  c c   c   c
6. SISTEMAS DISTRI:UIDOS

6.1 Estructura de redes

c
c  c  c c  c  c 
c  c c c - c .-#c.c   c
 c
c -

< %  c -  c c     cc !:!cc !  cc
!   c-c  c
c c, c/*c c
c c c
  c
c   c
c
  c   

c c  c   c  
 c -  c  c
c c
   c

cC c cG c7c
c  c c  c
c c
   c
 c
c c-<%-Gp0c

-<%-Gp0c
   c cc
c c   c   ;c

ðc v  ;c 7  c  c  c   c

c   c    #c pc c

   c c  c c   c
c ccc >
cc

ðc 
;c7   c c   c c c
c   c
cc cccpc
c c  c
c  c 
c
c  c 9 

 c c >
c   c
c
 c
   c
   ;c c  c
c cc c57%;c

Líneas de transmisiónFc   c c

 c   c c  c p c c
c
 cc c
cc c  cc c
c c
 c

I.M.P.c 5  c 7   #;c   c  

 c 
 c  
 c
c
  c 

 c
c     c    
 c
c
 c   c
 
 c c .c 

 c    
 c  c c  c   c
c
    c .c c c   c c  9 c  c c
 c c  c   c
c
 c 
c  c
 c  c c c  c
c 
 c c  c
c
  c
 c   cc c
c 
cc 9
 c

6.2 Sistema de archivo distribuidos

p c c  c
c   c
c  
 c  c  c c   c   c
  c c  c    c  c c    c     c c c 
c
c
 
 cpc c  c
c  c c c

c cc

c
c'(1* cc c
'(B).c7    c c c  c
c  c
c
cG=.c cc c    c
  
c c  c
c  c
 
c
NFS% c  c   c
c   c c 
c .c '(B2#c 
 c 
 c
  c  c    c 
c c   c   c c c 
c 3.c    c
 c c  c cc c
 cc cc
  c
cc  > c cc
 cc

AFSpc-
 c  c   c cc  c
c  c
 
c  cc  c
  c
c  c   c  c c 
 
 c
cc  c c

DCE DFS÷      c c c  c

c    c
 
c  c    c
c   c  
 c c
   c   c c c  c
c   c 8 c
p c 
c cc  c c c  c
c   c-=.c cc   c
    c

c
c

:I:LIO(RAFIA

  
 3c

   G c

  
 3c

;33 9 
3
3  3   3.   :   3.:4 c

 E 
3 E 3 
cc 
c