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Objectives:

1) To determine the bending moment and shear force on the beam.

2) To study how to establish the shearing force and the bending moment on the beam.

Introduction:

The purpose of doing this experiment was to determine the bending moment and shear force

at any section through different cases which involve concentrated load, symmetrical load and

unsymmetrical load. Besides, it also helps to establish the relationship between bending

moment and shear force at any section.

Bending moment and shearing force were two important factors to be considered while

designing any structural component. The experiment was carried out by setting up two edges

support on the base of two structural frames with an equal separation distance on both ends.

The equality balance between both ends will prevent it from collapse and it will benefit for us

to measure the shearing and bending moment accurately. At the same time, all of the shearing

force apparatus were prepared and screwed up tightly all the time during experiment .To

further verify the shearing force and bending moment at different condition, the experiment

were conducted at different cases at which the load were putted at distinct separation such as

load at mid span, symmetrical load and non-symmetrical load at different distance. The load

of different masses will be tested for these cases through measuring the reading of shearing

forces and bending moment, analysing the difference between actual and experimental

reading, and this will enable us to identify whether the load are able to withstand at maximum

masses along the beam.

Shear force through the experiment is the internal resistance created in the beam of cross

sections, in order to balance transverse external load acting on beam. It usually acts as an

unaligned force that will balanced the load that pushing in one direction, and another part of

the body (shear force) will react at the opposite direction. When both of the forces are aligned

into each other, they usually knew as compression forces. The shear force(F) at any section(X)

is taken as positive if the right-hand side tends to slide downwards relative to the left hand

portion. The negative force tends to cause the right hand portion to slide upwards relative to

the left. If the shearing forces pushed in opposite direction at random position into the beam,

the unequal forces that acts between them will results in shearing deformation and it normally

happen during earthquake.

Bending moment defined as a rotational forces or torque that acts perpendicularly to the point

at given distance away from that point. It is calculated as the perpendicular force multiplied

by the distance from the point and this will make the element to bend. If the tensile stress is

greater than the applied force and this will results in failure bending to the beam. In this

experiment, the bending effect at any section X of a concentrated load W is measured by the

applied moment (Wx), where x is the perpendicular distance of the line of action of W from

section X. This moment is called the bending moment M. The equation used to described the

bending moment as:

M=Wx

The bending moment is balanced by an equal and opposite moment exerted by the material of

the beam at X, called the moment of resistance. The bending moment is positive if its effect

makes the beam to sag at the section considered. If the moment tends to make the beam bend

upward or hog at the section, it is negative. For any value of x, the relationship between load

W and shearing force F is: -

W = dF / dx

And the relationship between shearing force and bending moment M is: -

F = dM / dx

Case1: (Concentrated Load)

For the first case, the load is acting on the center of the beam. Load acting on the beam

vertically downward, there will be two forces from the left and right end of the beam acting

vertically upward.

P=W

1 M

2

x

F1 F2

⟲ + ∑M1 = 0 + ↑∑f(y) = 0

L

- P ( 2) + F2(L) = 0 F1 + F2 - P = 0

P L

F2 = 2F1 + 2 - P = 0

P

F1 = 2

F1=F2

x M

V

x

+ ↑∑f(y) = 0 ⟲ + ∑Mx = 0

P P

-V=0 -2(x) - M = 0

2

P Px

V=2 M= 2

Case2: (Symmetrical Load)

For the second case, there are two loads with the same weight are acting on the beam

vertically downward and this two loads are placed at the same length, a, measured from the

left and right end of the beam respectively.

P P

a a

F1 F2

⟲ + ∑M1 = 0 + ↑∑f(y) = 0

- P a – P (L - a) + F2L = 0 F1 + F2 – P – P = 0

- P a – P L + P a + F2 L = 0 F1 + P – P = 0

- P L + F2L = 0 F1 = P

F2L = P L

F2 = P

P P

P

P

a a a

V

M

F1 F2 x

+ ↑∑f(y) = 0 ⟲ + ∑Mx = 0

F1 – F1 – V = 0 - P (x) + P(x – a) = 0

P–P–V=0 -Px+Px–Pa+M=0

M=Pa

Case 3: (Non-symmetrical Load) a>x

For third case, there will be a load acting on the beam where the length, b, must be greater

than the length, a, of the dynamometers measured from the end side of the beam and it is and

is placed different side of the dynamometers.

W

b

L

F2

F1F1

F1

⟲ + ∑M1 = 0 + ↑∑Fy = 0

F2L = P(L – b) F1 + F2 - P = 0

P( L –b ) P( L –b )

F2 = F1 + -P=0

L L

Pb

F1 = L

x M

V

⟲ + ∑Mx = 0 + ↑∑f(y) = 0

Pb Pb

- (x) + M =0 -V=0

L L

Pb Pb

M= (x) V=

L L

Case 4: (Non-symmetrical Load) a<x

For forth case, there will be a load acting on the beam where the length, b, must be smaller

than the length, a, of the dynamometers measured from the end side of the beam and it is and

is placed different side of the dynamometers.

P

a M

L

x

F2

F1

-∑M1 = 0 -↓∑Fy = 0

F2L = P(L – b) F1 + F2 - P = 0

P( L –b ) P( L –b )

F2 = F1 + -P=0

L L

Pb

F1 = L

shear force apparatus: 1 set of 80mm x 50mm x 38mm aluminum section with 2

adjustable span support

1 unit of shear force dynamometer

2 sets of weight hangers

1 set of weights

2m measuring tape

Procedure:

CASE 1

1. The two edge supports were set up on the base of the structural test frame at a

distance of 810 mm from edge to edge.

2. The shear force apparatus was placed on the supports.

3. The beam was aligned horizontally by adjusting the screws.

4. The weight hanger was placed in the centre of the beam 400mm from the support.

5. The screws were adjusted to repeat the horizontal beam alignment.

6. The shear force and bending movement dynamometers were set to zero.

7. The weights as in the table were placed and the shear force and bending were noticed.

8. The dynamometers were zeroed and horizontal beam alignment was carried out when

placing the weights.

9. The percentage error for each set of reading was calculated.

CASE2

1. The two edge supports were set up on the base of the structural test frame at a

distance of 810 mm from edge to edge.

2. The shear force apparatus was placed on the supports.

3. The beam was aligned horizontally by adjusting the screws.

4. The weight hanger was placed at the distance of 50mm from the support.

5. The screws were adjusted to repeat the horizontal beam alignment.

6. The shear force and bending movement dynamometers were set to zero.

7. The weights as in the table were placed and the shear force and bending were noticed.

8. The dynamometers were zeroed and horizontal beam alignment was carried out when

placing the weights.

9. The percentage error for each set of reading was calculated.

CASE 3

Shear force and bending moment experiment for non- symmetrical load.

1. The two edge supports were set up on the base of the structural test frame at a

distance of 810 mm from edge to edge.

2. The shear force apparatus was placed on the supports.

3. The beam was aligned horizontally by adjusting the screws.

4. The weight hanger was placed at the distance of 500mm from the support.

5. The screws were adjusted to repeat the horizontal beam alignment.

6. The shear force and bending movement dynamometers were set to zero.

7. The weights as in the table were placed and the shear force and bending were noticed.

8. The dynamometers were zeroed and horizontal beam alignment was carried out when

placing the weights.

9. The percentage error for each set of reading was calculated.

CASE 4

Shear force and bending moment experiment for non- symmetrical load.

1. The two edge supports were set up on the base of the structural test frame at a

distance of 810 mm from edge to edge.

2. The shear force apparatus was placed on the supports.

3. The beam was aligned horizontally by adjusting the screws.

4. The weight hanger was placed at the distance of 50mm from the support.

5. The screws were adjusted to repeat the horizontal beam alignment.

6. The shear force and bending movement dynamometers were set to zero.

7. The weights as in the table were placed and the shear force and bending were noticed.

8. The dynamometers were zeroed and horizontal beam alignment was carried out when

placing the weights.

9. The percentage error for each set of reading was calculated.

Result:

Span, L= 0.810 m

Level arm= 0.180 m

x= 0.250 m

Value Value

Load Load R (%)

(g) (N) (N) Shear Bending Shear Bending V M V M

Force, Moment Force, Moment

(g) (Nm) (N) (Nm)

V (g) V (N)

500 4.905 2.453 0.0 310.0 2.453 0.613 0.000 0.547 100.00 10.72

1000 9.810 4.905 0.0 643.0 4.905 1.226 0.000 1.135 100.00 7.41

1500 14.715 7.358 0.0 956..0 7.358 1.839 0.000 1.688 100.00 8.22

2000 19.620 9.810 0.0 1281.0 9.810 2.453 0.000 2.262 100.00 7.77

Distance, a = 0.070 m

Load Value Value

Load R (%)

(N)

(g) (N) Shear Bending Shear Bending V M V M

Force, Moment Force, Moment

(g) (Nm) (N) (Nm)

V (g) V (N)

500 4.905 4.905 0.0 171.0 0.000 0.343 0.000 0.302 - 12.06

1000 9.810 9.810 0.0 349.0 0.000 0.687 0.000 0.616 - 10.26

5 5 0.0 580.0 0.000 1.030 0.000 1.024 - 0.57

0 0 0.0 780.0 0.000 1.373 0.000 1.377 - 0.29

Case3: Non Symmetrical Load (a>x)

Distance, a = 0.210m

Value Value

(g) Load R (%)

(N) (N) Shear Bending Shear Bending V M V M

Force, Moment Force, Moment

(g) (Nm) (N) (Nm)

V (g) V (N)

500 4.905 1.272 0.0 156.0 1.272 0.318 0.000 0.275 100.00 13.35

1000 9.810 2.543 0.0 326.0 2.543 0.636 0.000 0.576 100.00 9.47

1500 14.715 3.815 0.0 475.0 3.815 0.954 0.000 0.839 100.00 12.06

2000 19.620 5.087 0.0 635.0 5.087 1.272 0.000 1.121 100.00 11.83

Distance, a=0.1m

Value Value

Load Load R (%)

(g) (N) (N) Shear Bending Shear Bending V M V M

Force, Moment Force, Moment

(g) (Nm) (N) (Nm)

V (g) V (N)

500 4.905 4.481 0.0 128.0 -0.424 0.237 0.000 0.226 100.00 4.78

1000 9.810 8.962 0.0 265.0 -0.848 0.475 0.000 0.468 100.00 1.44

1500 14.715 13.443 0.0 370.0 -1.272 0.712 0.000 0.653 100.00 8.26

2000 19.620 17.924 0.0 498.0 -1.696 0.950 0.000 0.879 100.00 7.39

Calculations:

P = Load

𝐹1 = 𝐹2 = Reaction Force

L = Length of beam

v = Shear Force

M = Bending Moment

Case 1: Controlled Load

Load, P = 500 g

500

= 1000 𝑘𝑔 × 9.81𝑚𝑠 −2

= 4.905 N

𝑃 4.905

Reaction, R = 𝐹2 = = = 2.453𝑁

2 2

𝑃𝑥1 250

Theoretical value of bending moment, 𝑀𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = = 2.453N × 1000 𝑚

2

= 0.613Nm

From experiment,

𝑣/𝑔 = 0 g

0

𝑣 = 1000 𝑘𝑔 × 9.81𝑚𝑠 −2 = 0N

𝑀/(𝑔 × 𝑥𝑙 ) = 0 g

310

M = 1000 𝑘𝑔 × 9.81𝑚𝑠 −2 × 0.180𝑚 = 0.547N

% error of shear force = | | × 100%

𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

2.453−0

=| | × 100%

2.453

= 100%

𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒−𝐸𝑥𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

% error of bending moment = | | × 100%

𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

0.613−0.547

=| | × 100%

0.613

=10.77%

Case 2: Symmetrical load

Load, P= 500g

500

=1000 𝑘𝑔 × 9.81𝑚𝑠 −2

=4.905N

=4.905 𝑥 0.07

=0.343N

From experiment,

𝑣/𝑔 = 0 g

0

𝑣 = 1000 𝑘𝑔 × 9.81𝑚𝑠 −2 = 0

𝑀/(𝑔 × 𝑥𝑙 ) = 171.0 g

171

M = 1000 𝑘𝑔 × 9.81𝑚𝑠 −2 × 0.180𝑚 = 0.302 N

% error of shear force = | | × 100%

𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

0−0

=| | × 100%

0

= nil

𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒−𝐸𝑥𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

% error of bending moment = | | × 100%

𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

0.343−0.302

=| | × 100%

0.343

= 11.95%

Case 3: Non-symmetrical Load

Load, P= 500g

500

=1000 𝑘𝑔 × 9.81𝑚𝑠 −2

= 4.905 N

𝑃(𝐿−𝑎)

Reaction, R = 𝐹1 =

𝐿

4.905𝑥(0.81−0.21)

= = 3.633N

0.81

𝑃𝑎

𝐹2 =

𝐿

4.905𝑥0.21

= = 1.272 N

0.81

𝑃𝑎

Theoretical value of shear force, 𝑣𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 𝐿

=1.272 N

𝑃𝑎

Theoretical value of bending moment, 𝑀𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = (𝑋)

𝐿

=1.272 x 0.25

=0.318Nm

From experiment,

𝑣/𝑔 = 0 g

0

𝑣 = 1000 𝑘𝑔 × 9.81𝑚𝑠 −2 = 0 N

𝑀/(𝑔 × 𝑥𝑙 ) = 156.0 g

156

M = 1000 𝑘𝑔 × 9.81𝑚𝑠 −2 × 0.180𝑚 = 0.275 N

% error of shear force = | | × 100%

𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

1.272−0

=| | × 100%

1.272

= 100%

𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒−𝐸𝑥𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

% error of bending moment = | | × 100%

𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

0.318−0.275

=| | × 100%

0.318

= 13.52%

Load, P= 500g

500

=1000 𝑘𝑔 × 9.81𝑚𝑠 −2

=4.905 N

𝑃𝑎

Reaction, R = 𝐹1 =

𝐿

4.905𝑥0.07

= = 0.424 N

0.81

𝑃(𝐿−𝑎)

𝐹2 =

𝐿

4.905𝑥(0.81−0.07)

= = 4.481 N

0.81

𝑃𝑎

Theoretical value of shear force, 𝑣𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 𝐿

=0.424 N

𝑃𝑎

Theoretical value of bending moment, 𝑀𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = (𝑋)

𝐿

=0.424 x (0.81-0.25)

=0.237Nm

From experiment,

𝑣/𝑔 = 0g

0

𝑣 = 1000 𝑘𝑔 × 9.81𝑚𝑠 −2 = 0 N

𝑀/(𝑔 × 𝑥𝑙 ) = 128.0 g

128

M = 1000 𝑘𝑔 × 9.81𝑚𝑠 −2 × 0.180𝑚 = 0.226 N

𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒−𝐸𝑥𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

% error of shear force = | | × 100%

𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

0.424−0

=| | × 100%

0.424

= 100%

𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒−𝐸𝑥𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

% error of bending moment = | | × 100%

𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

0.237−0.226

=| | × 100%

0.237

= 4.64%

Discussion

The stress and the strain are created throughout the interior of a beam when the beam

is loaded by a weight. A bending moment will occur in an element when a moment is

applied to the element that result the element to bend. Shear force is the force in the beam

that acting perpendicular to its longitudinal axis. The beam that is bending downwards by

the force is producing a positive bending moment. The shear force at any section is taken as

positive if the right-hand side tends to slide downwards relative to the left hand portion.

Thus, the relationship between the stress, bending moment and the load can be determined.

The area of the shear diagram to the left or to the right of the section is equal to the moment

at that section. The slope of the moment diagram at a given point is the shear at that point.

The slope of the shear diagram at a given point equals the load at that point.

For Case 1, the load is placed at the distance of L/2 which is the center of the beam.

The free body diagram is in equilibrium by the force P. The resultant stress is used to

maintain the equilibrium of the beam. This resultant stresses acting on the cross sections can

be reduced to a shear force, V and a bending moment, M. Moments at any point can be

calculated by multiplying the magnitude of the external forces by the distance between the

point at which moment is being determined and the point at which the external forces are

being applied. For Case 2, sections are symmetrical about the plane of bending. In this case,

the beam is at equilibrium at natural when the P is applied symmetrical on both sides. As a

result, there is no shear force created in this case.

Some assumptions should be taken into account in this experiment. The material of

the beam is assumed to be homogenous and isotropic. A beam with homogenous material is

made up of uniform composition and the mechanical properties are the same in any sections

or directions of the beam. Besides that, the beam should be assumed to be straight initially

without any bending. Bending in the beam will affect the results obtained in the experiment.

The stress and strain relationship is linear and elastic. The readings that obtained from the

dynamometer are assumed to be correct for the experimental values for both shear force and

bending moment in each case. No any other external force is applied on the beam other than

the load applied on it.

Different percentage error is observed in all three cases, it is believed that some

inevitable error have been occurred throughout the experiment. Below explain on why the

percentage error occurred in each case:

Case 1: Load at Mid Span (Concentrated load)

For this case, it is found that the percentage error between actual shear force and

theoretical shear force, actual bending moment and theoretical bending moment. Thus, the

percentage error obtained in case 1 is 100% for shear force due to the shear force

measurement instrument was spoiled and 10.77% for bending moment. There are a lot of

factors that affect the results obtained during the experiment. One of the possible reasons is

that the position of load applied might not be exactly at the center (middle), the load might

slightly away from the center and due to this reason, the dynamometer gives reading of both

shear force and bending moment at the particular position. Our calculation is based on

exactly center. Furthermore, there is a slight moving, vibrating or oscillating of the load while

recording the shear force.

The percentage error in Case 2 is 11.95% for bending moment. However, based on

the calculation that has been done, it is found that theoretical reading of shear force, V is zero.

However, the experimental shear force obtained is not equal to zero. In Case 2, percentage

error cannot be calculated because there is no theoretical value to be used as a reference.

a a

From the calculation: F1=F2=P with left distance, a and right distance, a are equal.

This distance a should always be constant throughout the experiment. However, the load

applied, F1& F2 must be equal in this case. After the result is analyzed, it is found that one of

the possible reasons are these two load are not exactly same (±100g). Due to this reason

dynamometer will gives some error in the readings.

Next, the two distances, a might be not exactly the same. There might be slight

difference in the distance of a for both ends. Consider left side distance from end to the

position of upward force applied, P be a and right side distance from end to the position of

upward force applied P be b and L be the length of test specimen.

Then, in equilibrium:

⟲ + ƩM1 = 0

-Pa-P(L-b)+ F2L = 0

F2 = [Pa+P(L-b)]/L

Based on this equation, if the value of b ≠ a, then F2 gives some value as well as F1.

The bending moment in Case 1 is higher than Case 2 because the P applied in Case 1

is at the center of the beam. This eventually created a larger bending moment which will

cause the beam to bend more inward in Case 1 as compared to Case 2.

After calculate the percentage error, it is found that the percentage error in case 3 is

100% for shear force due to there are no value for the experimental results and 13.52% for

bending moment. There are many reasons behind to cause these differences between

experimental and theoretical readings. One of the reasons behind is that the position of load is

not exactly at the point, x=0.25 m. Human error may occurred when measuring the length of

L and a, thus this eventually will affect the results obtained. The position of the load applied

is not at the desired position, slight shifting may occurred.

From the experiment, it is found that decreasing the distance from a reference position

need lesser bending moment. Moment is the sum of the moments about that section of all

external forces acting to one side of that section. Based on the equation

M=Vx, The lesser the x (perpendicular distance), the lower is the bending moment.

When there is a moment produced, the shear force must exist to keep the system in

equilibrium. Note that if the system is not in equilibrium, the previous equations that is why

recording the reading while the load oscillating is a wrong method of carry out this

experiment.

After calculate the percentage error, it is found that the percentage error in case 3 is

100% for shear force because we not able to get the shear force value due to the machine was

spoiled and 4.64% for bending moment. There are many reasons behind to cause these

differences between experimental and theoretical readings. One of the reasons behind is that

the position of load is not exactly at the point, x=0.56 m. Human error may occurred when

measuring the length of L and a, thus this eventually will affect the results obtained. The

position of the load applied is not at the desired position, slight shifting may occurred.

From the experiment, it is found that decreasing the distance from a reference position

need lesser bending moment. Moment is the sum of the moments about that section of all

external forces acting to one side of that section. Based on the equation

M=Vx, The lesser the x (perpendicular distance), the lower is the bending moment.

When there is a moment produced, the shear force must exist to keep the system in

equilibrium. Note that if the system is not in equilibrium, the previous equations that is why

recording the reading while the load oscillating is a wrong method of carry out this

experiment.

There are some precautions steps must take into the consideration in order to reduce

the percentage error. One of the precautions steps is make sure eye is perpendicular to the

scale of instrument when taking reading to avoid parallax error. This is an important skill

because parallax error results in taking the wrong readings. Besides that, the condition of the

apparatus should be check beforehand such as the zero error. Furthermore, avoid moving the

apparatus while the experiment is being carried out. Next, make sure the aluminum test

specimen is correctly calibrated by double checking it using meter rule. Next, make sure that

the dynamometer is in good condition and function well. Shaking of the apparatus should be

prevented when taking readings in the experiment. Make sure that the length of L and a are

closely match with the actual value needed for each case. Make sure that the load must be

stationary (no movement) before taking the reading. Lastly, the dynamometer must always

adjust to zero.

Recommendation:

There are some recommendations suggested to improve this experiment. One of the

recommendations is do not record reading of shear force when the load is still vibrating or

oscillating. Therefore the apparatus should be screwed or fixed firmly on the table. Next,

make sure that the length of L and a are closely match with the actual value needed for each

case. Measure the length of L and a once again after different load is applied on the beam.

This is to make sure the length of L and a do not change due to shaking of table or other

factors that might change their length values. Lastly, best way to improve the result is

repeating the experiment at least three times and finds the mean values for the readings.

Conclusion

From this experiment, the bending moment in Case 1 has larger value than Case 2. Shear

force is increasing when the weight of the load is increasing. Case 2 have zero value in shear

force due to the symmetrical loads applied on it. The bending moment also increases when

the weight of the load increases. For Case 1, the load is from 5N to 20N and the bending

moment is found to have values from 0.547 Nm to 2.262 Nm. The percentage error in Case 1

is 100% due to the shear force measuring instrument was spoiled and for shear force and

range from 7.77% to 10.72% for bending moment. For Case 2, the load is also from 5N to

25N and the bending moment is found to have values from 0.302 Nm to 1.377 Nm, whereas

the shear force is equal to zero. The percentage error in Case 2 is range from 0.26% to 12.06%

for bending moment. For Case 3, the load is from 5N to 25N and the bending moment is

found to have values from 0.275 Nm to 1.121 Nm. The percentage error in Case 3 is range

from 9.47% to 13.35%. For Case 4, the load is from 5N to 25N and the bending moment is

found to have values from 0.226 Nm to 0.879 Nm. The percentage error in Case 4 is range

from 1.44% to 8.26%. The area of the shear diagram to the left or to the right of the section is

equal to the moment at that section. The slope of the moment diagram at a given point is the

shear at that point.

Reference

1. Malcolm Tatum, Wise GEEK clear answer for common questions. What is a bending

Moment. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-bending-moment.htm.

2. The Free Bending Moment and Shear Force BEAM CALCULATOR. How to

Calculate the Bending Moment Diagram of a Beam.

http://bendingmomentdiagram.com/tutorials/how-to-find-bending-moment-diagrams/.

3. Learning Engineering. Analysis of Beams | Shear Force & Bending Moment Diagram.

http://www.learnengineering.org/2013/08/shear-force-bending-moment-diagram.html.

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