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Title: Shear Force and Bending Moment

Objectives:
1) To determine the bending moment and shear force on the beam.
2) To study how to establish the shearing force and the bending moment on the beam.

Introduction:

The purpose of doing this experiment was to determine the bending moment and shear force
at any section through different cases which involve concentrated load, symmetrical load and
unsymmetrical load. Besides, it also helps to establish the relationship between bending
moment and shear force at any section.

Bending moment and shearing force were two important factors to be considered while
designing any structural component. The experiment was carried out by setting up two edges
support on the base of two structural frames with an equal separation distance on both ends.
The equality balance between both ends will prevent it from collapse and it will benefit for us
to measure the shearing and bending moment accurately. At the same time, all of the shearing
force apparatus were prepared and screwed up tightly all the time during experiment .To
further verify the shearing force and bending moment at different condition, the experiment
were conducted at different cases at which the load were putted at distinct separation such as
load at mid span, symmetrical load and non-symmetrical load at different distance. The load
of different masses will be tested for these cases through measuring the reading of shearing
forces and bending moment, analysing the difference between actual and experimental
reading, and this will enable us to identify whether the load are able to withstand at maximum
masses along the beam.

Shear force through the experiment is the internal resistance created in the beam of cross
sections, in order to balance transverse external load acting on beam. It usually acts as an
unaligned force that will balanced the load that pushing in one direction, and another part of
the body (shear force) will react at the opposite direction. When both of the forces are aligned
into each other, they usually knew as compression forces. The shear force(F) at any section(X)
is taken as positive if the right-hand side tends to slide downwards relative to the left hand
portion. The negative force tends to cause the right hand portion to slide upwards relative to
the left. If the shearing forces pushed in opposite direction at random position into the beam,
the unequal forces that acts between them will results in shearing deformation and it normally
happen during earthquake.
Bending moment defined as a rotational forces or torque that acts perpendicularly to the point
at given distance away from that point. It is calculated as the perpendicular force multiplied
by the distance from the point and this will make the element to bend. If the tensile stress is
greater than the applied force and this will results in failure bending to the beam. In this
experiment, the bending effect at any section X of a concentrated load W is measured by the
applied moment (Wx), where x is the perpendicular distance of the line of action of W from
section X. This moment is called the bending moment M. The equation used to described the
bending moment as:

M=Wx

The bending moment is balanced by an equal and opposite moment exerted by the material of
the beam at X, called the moment of resistance. The bending moment is positive if its effect
makes the beam to sag at the section considered. If the moment tends to make the beam bend
upward or hog at the section, it is negative. For any value of x, the relationship between load
W and shearing force F is: -

W = dF / dx

And the relationship between shearing force and bending moment M is: -

F = dM / dx
Case1: (Concentrated Load)
For the first case, the load is acting on the center of the beam. Load acting on the beam
vertically downward, there will be two forces from the left and right end of the beam acting
vertically upward.

P=W
1 M
2
x

F1 F2

⟲ + ∑M1 = 0 + ↑∑f(y) = 0
L
- P ( 2) + F2(L) = 0 F1 + F2 - P = 0
P L
F2 = 2F1 + 2 - P = 0
P
F1 = 2

F1=F2

x M

V
x

+ ↑∑f(y) = 0 ⟲ + ∑Mx = 0
P P
-V=0 -2(x) - M = 0
2
P Px
V=2 M= 2
Case2: (Symmetrical Load)
For the second case, there are two loads with the same weight are acting on the beam
vertically downward and this two loads are placed at the same length, a, measured from the
left and right end of the beam respectively.

P P

a a

F1 F2
⟲ + ∑M1 = 0 + ↑∑f(y) = 0
- P a – P (L - a) + F2L = 0 F1 + F2 – P – P = 0
- P a – P L + P a + F2 L = 0 F1 + P – P = 0
- P L + F2L = 0 F1 = P
F2L = P L
F2 = P

P P
P
P
a a a
V
M

F1 F2 x

+ ↑∑f(y) = 0 ⟲ + ∑Mx = 0
F1 – F1 – V = 0 - P (x) + P(x – a) = 0
P–P–V=0 -Px+Px–Pa+M=0
M=Pa
Case 3: (Non-symmetrical Load) a>x
For third case, there will be a load acting on the beam where the length, b, must be greater
than the length, a, of the dynamometers measured from the end side of the beam and it is and
is placed different side of the dynamometers.
W
b

L
F2
F1F1
F1
⟲ + ∑M1 = 0 + ↑∑Fy = 0
F2L = P(L – b) F1 + F2 - P = 0
P( L –b ) P( L –b )
F2 = F1 + -P=0
L L
Pb
F1 = L

x M
V

⟲ + ∑Mx = 0 + ↑∑f(y) = 0
Pb Pb
- (x) + M =0 -V=0
L L
Pb Pb
M= (x) V=
L L
Case 4: (Non-symmetrical Load) a<x
For forth case, there will be a load acting on the beam where the length, b, must be smaller
than the length, a, of the dynamometers measured from the end side of the beam and it is and
is placed different side of the dynamometers.

P
a M

L
x
F2
F1

-∑M1 = 0 -↓∑Fy = 0
F2L = P(L – b) F1 + F2 - P = 0
P( L –b ) P( L –b )
F2 = F1 + -P=0
L L
Pb
F1 = L

Apparatus and Materials


 shear force apparatus: 1 set of 80mm x 50mm x 38mm aluminum section with 2
adjustable span support
 1 unit of shear force dynamometer
 2 sets of weight hangers
 1 set of weights
 2m measuring tape
Procedure:
CASE 1

Shear force and bending movement experiment for concentrated load.

1. The two edge supports were set up on the base of the structural test frame at a
distance of 810 mm from edge to edge.
2. The shear force apparatus was placed on the supports.
3. The beam was aligned horizontally by adjusting the screws.
4. The weight hanger was placed in the centre of the beam 400mm from the support.
5. The screws were adjusted to repeat the horizontal beam alignment.
6. The shear force and bending movement dynamometers were set to zero.
7. The weights as in the table were placed and the shear force and bending were noticed.
8. The dynamometers were zeroed and horizontal beam alignment was carried out when
placing the weights.
9. The percentage error for each set of reading was calculated.

CASE2

Shear force and bending moment experiment for symmetrical load.

1. The two edge supports were set up on the base of the structural test frame at a
distance of 810 mm from edge to edge.
2. The shear force apparatus was placed on the supports.
3. The beam was aligned horizontally by adjusting the screws.
4. The weight hanger was placed at the distance of 50mm from the support.
5. The screws were adjusted to repeat the horizontal beam alignment.
6. The shear force and bending movement dynamometers were set to zero.
7. The weights as in the table were placed and the shear force and bending were noticed.
8. The dynamometers were zeroed and horizontal beam alignment was carried out when
placing the weights.
9. The percentage error for each set of reading was calculated.
CASE 3

Shear force and bending moment experiment for non- symmetrical load.

1. The two edge supports were set up on the base of the structural test frame at a
distance of 810 mm from edge to edge.
2. The shear force apparatus was placed on the supports.
3. The beam was aligned horizontally by adjusting the screws.
4. The weight hanger was placed at the distance of 500mm from the support.
5. The screws were adjusted to repeat the horizontal beam alignment.
6. The shear force and bending movement dynamometers were set to zero.
7. The weights as in the table were placed and the shear force and bending were noticed.
8. The dynamometers were zeroed and horizontal beam alignment was carried out when
placing the weights.
9. The percentage error for each set of reading was calculated.

CASE 4

Shear force and bending moment experiment for non- symmetrical load.

1. The two edge supports were set up on the base of the structural test frame at a
distance of 810 mm from edge to edge.
2. The shear force apparatus was placed on the supports.
3. The beam was aligned horizontally by adjusting the screws.
4. The weight hanger was placed at the distance of 50mm from the support.
5. The screws were adjusted to repeat the horizontal beam alignment.
6. The shear force and bending movement dynamometers were set to zero.
7. The weights as in the table were placed and the shear force and bending were noticed.
8. The dynamometers were zeroed and horizontal beam alignment was carried out when
placing the weights.
9. The percentage error for each set of reading was calculated.
Result:

Case1: Load at Mid span

Span, L= 0.810 m
Level arm= 0.180 m
x= 0.250 m

Experimental Theoretical Value Experimental Error


Value Value
Load Load R (%)
(g) (N) (N) Shear Bending Shear Bending V M V M
Force, Moment Force, Moment
(g) (Nm) (N) (Nm)
V (g) V (N)

500 4.905 2.453 0.0 310.0 2.453 0.613 0.000 0.547 100.00 10.72

1000 9.810 4.905 0.0 643.0 4.905 1.226 0.000 1.135 100.00 7.41

1500 14.715 7.358 0.0 956..0 7.358 1.839 0.000 1.688 100.00 8.22

2000 19.620 9.810 0.0 1281.0 9.810 2.453 0.000 2.262 100.00 7.77

Case2: Symmetrical Load


Distance, a = 0.070 m

Experimental Theoretical Value Experimental Error


Load Value Value
Load R (%)
(N)
(g) (N) Shear Bending Shear Bending V M V M
Force, Moment Force, Moment
(g) (Nm) (N) (Nm)
V (g) V (N)

500 4.905 4.905 0.0 171.0 0.000 0.343 0.000 0.302 - 12.06

1000 9.810 9.810 0.0 349.0 0.000 0.687 0.000 0.616 - 10.26

1500 14.71 14.71


5 5 0.0 580.0 0.000 1.030 0.000 1.024 - 0.57

2000 19.62 19.62


0 0 0.0 780.0 0.000 1.373 0.000 1.377 - 0.29
Case3: Non Symmetrical Load (a>x)
Distance, a = 0.210m

Load Experimental Theoretical Value Experimental Error


Value Value
(g) Load R (%)
(N) (N) Shear Bending Shear Bending V M V M
Force, Moment Force, Moment
(g) (Nm) (N) (Nm)
V (g) V (N)

500 4.905 1.272 0.0 156.0 1.272 0.318 0.000 0.275 100.00 13.35

1000 9.810 2.543 0.0 326.0 2.543 0.636 0.000 0.576 100.00 9.47

1500 14.715 3.815 0.0 475.0 3.815 0.954 0.000 0.839 100.00 12.06

2000 19.620 5.087 0.0 635.0 5.087 1.272 0.000 1.121 100.00 11.83

Case4: Non Symmetrical Load (a<x)


Distance, a=0.1m

Experimental Theoretical Value Experimental Error


Value Value
Load Load R (%)
(g) (N) (N) Shear Bending Shear Bending V M V M
Force, Moment Force, Moment
(g) (Nm) (N) (Nm)
V (g) V (N)

500 4.905 4.481 0.0 128.0 -0.424 0.237 0.000 0.226 100.00 4.78

1000 9.810 8.962 0.0 265.0 -0.848 0.475 0.000 0.468 100.00 1.44

1500 14.715 13.443 0.0 370.0 -1.272 0.712 0.000 0.653 100.00 8.26

2000 19.620 17.924 0.0 498.0 -1.696 0.950 0.000 0.879 100.00 7.39
Calculations:

P = Load

𝐹1 = 𝐹2 = Reaction Force

L = Length of beam

X = Distance of the head of beam to load

𝑥1 = Distance of the shear force occur

v = Shear Force

M = Bending Moment

𝑥𝑙 = Distance of level arm

a = Distance from load to end of beam


Case 1: Controlled Load

Distance from load to end of beam,a = 810mm

Distance of the shear force occur, 𝑥1 = 250 mm

The distance of level arm, 𝑥𝑙 = 0.180 m

Load, P = 500 g
500
= 1000 𝑘𝑔 × 9.81𝑚𝑠 −2
= 4.905 N
𝑃 4.905
Reaction, R = 𝐹2 = = = 2.453𝑁
2 2

Theoretical value of shear force, 𝑣𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = R = 2.453 N


𝑃𝑥1 250
Theoretical value of bending moment, 𝑀𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = = 2.453N × 1000 𝑚
2

= 0.613Nm

From experiment,

𝑣/𝑔 = 0 g
0
𝑣 = 1000 𝑘𝑔 × 9.81𝑚𝑠 −2 = 0N

𝑀/(𝑔 × 𝑥𝑙 ) = 0 g
310
M = 1000 𝑘𝑔 × 9.81𝑚𝑠 −2 × 0.180𝑚 = 0.547N

𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒−𝐸𝑥𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒


% error of shear force = | | × 100%
𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

2.453−0
=| | × 100%
2.453

= 100%
𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒−𝐸𝑥𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒
% error of bending moment = | | × 100%
𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

0.613−0.547
=| | × 100%
0.613

=10.77%
Case 2: Symmetrical load

Distance from load to end of beam, a = 70mm

Load, P= 500g
500
=1000 𝑘𝑔 × 9.81𝑚𝑠 −2

=4.905N

Reaction, R=𝐹1 = 𝐹2 = 𝑝 = 4.905𝑁

Theoretical value of shear force, 𝑣𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 0

Theoretical value of bending moment, 𝑀𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 𝑃𝑎

=4.905 𝑥 0.07
=0.343N

From experiment,

𝑣/𝑔 = 0 g
0
𝑣 = 1000 𝑘𝑔 × 9.81𝑚𝑠 −2 = 0

𝑀/(𝑔 × 𝑥𝑙 ) = 171.0 g
171
M = 1000 𝑘𝑔 × 9.81𝑚𝑠 −2 × 0.180𝑚 = 0.302 N

𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒−𝐸𝑥𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒


% error of shear force = | | × 100%
𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

0−0
=| | × 100%
0

= nil
𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒−𝐸𝑥𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒
% error of bending moment = | | × 100%
𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

0.343−0.302
=| | × 100%
0.343

= 11.95%
Case 3: Non-symmetrical Load

Distance from load to end of beam, a = 210mm

Load, P= 500g
500
=1000 𝑘𝑔 × 9.81𝑚𝑠 −2

= 4.905 N
𝑃(𝐿−𝑎)
Reaction, R = 𝐹1 =
𝐿

4.905𝑥(0.81−0.21)
= = 3.633N
0.81

𝑃𝑎
𝐹2 =
𝐿

4.905𝑥0.21
= = 1.272 N
0.81

𝑃𝑎
Theoretical value of shear force, 𝑣𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 𝐿

=1.272 N
𝑃𝑎
Theoretical value of bending moment, 𝑀𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = (𝑋)
𝐿

=1.272 x 0.25

=0.318Nm

From experiment,

𝑣/𝑔 = 0 g
0
𝑣 = 1000 𝑘𝑔 × 9.81𝑚𝑠 −2 = 0 N

𝑀/(𝑔 × 𝑥𝑙 ) = 156.0 g
156
M = 1000 𝑘𝑔 × 9.81𝑚𝑠 −2 × 0.180𝑚 = 0.275 N

𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒−𝐸𝑥𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒


% error of shear force = | | × 100%
𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

1.272−0
=| | × 100%
1.272

= 100%
𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒−𝐸𝑥𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒
% error of bending moment = | | × 100%
𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒
0.318−0.275
=| | × 100%
0.318

= 13.52%

Case 4: Non-symmetrical Load

Distance from load to end of beam, a = 70mm

Load, P= 500g
500
=1000 𝑘𝑔 × 9.81𝑚𝑠 −2

=4.905 N
𝑃𝑎
Reaction, R = 𝐹1 =
𝐿

4.905𝑥0.07
= = 0.424 N
0.81

𝑃(𝐿−𝑎)
𝐹2 =
𝐿

4.905𝑥(0.81−0.07)
= = 4.481 N
0.81

𝑃𝑎
Theoretical value of shear force, 𝑣𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 𝐿

=0.424 N
𝑃𝑎
Theoretical value of bending moment, 𝑀𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = (𝑋)
𝐿

=0.424 x (0.81-0.25)

=0.237Nm

From experiment,

𝑣/𝑔 = 0g
0
𝑣 = 1000 𝑘𝑔 × 9.81𝑚𝑠 −2 = 0 N

𝑀/(𝑔 × 𝑥𝑙 ) = 128.0 g
128
M = 1000 𝑘𝑔 × 9.81𝑚𝑠 −2 × 0.180𝑚 = 0.226 N
𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒−𝐸𝑥𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒
% error of shear force = | | × 100%
𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

0.424−0
=| | × 100%
0.424

= 100%
𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒−𝐸𝑥𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒
% error of bending moment = | | × 100%
𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

0.237−0.226
=| | × 100%
0.237

= 4.64%
Discussion

The stress and the strain are created throughout the interior of a beam when the beam
is loaded by a weight. A bending moment will occur in an element when a moment is
applied to the element that result the element to bend. Shear force is the force in the beam
that acting perpendicular to its longitudinal axis. The beam that is bending downwards by
the force is producing a positive bending moment. The shear force at any section is taken as
positive if the right-hand side tends to slide downwards relative to the left hand portion.
Thus, the relationship between the stress, bending moment and the load can be determined.
The area of the shear diagram to the left or to the right of the section is equal to the moment
at that section. The slope of the moment diagram at a given point is the shear at that point.
The slope of the shear diagram at a given point equals the load at that point.
For Case 1, the load is placed at the distance of L/2 which is the center of the beam.
The free body diagram is in equilibrium by the force P. The resultant stress is used to
maintain the equilibrium of the beam. This resultant stresses acting on the cross sections can
be reduced to a shear force, V and a bending moment, M. Moments at any point can be
calculated by multiplying the magnitude of the external forces by the distance between the
point at which moment is being determined and the point at which the external forces are
being applied. For Case 2, sections are symmetrical about the plane of bending. In this case,
the beam is at equilibrium at natural when the P is applied symmetrical on both sides. As a
result, there is no shear force created in this case.
Some assumptions should be taken into account in this experiment. The material of
the beam is assumed to be homogenous and isotropic. A beam with homogenous material is
made up of uniform composition and the mechanical properties are the same in any sections
or directions of the beam. Besides that, the beam should be assumed to be straight initially
without any bending. Bending in the beam will affect the results obtained in the experiment.
The stress and strain relationship is linear and elastic. The readings that obtained from the
dynamometer are assumed to be correct for the experimental values for both shear force and
bending moment in each case. No any other external force is applied on the beam other than
the load applied on it.
Different percentage error is observed in all three cases, it is believed that some
inevitable error have been occurred throughout the experiment. Below explain on why the
percentage error occurred in each case:
Case 1: Load at Mid Span (Concentrated load)
For this case, it is found that the percentage error between actual shear force and
theoretical shear force, actual bending moment and theoretical bending moment. Thus, the
percentage error obtained in case 1 is 100% for shear force due to the shear force
measurement instrument was spoiled and 10.77% for bending moment. There are a lot of
factors that affect the results obtained during the experiment. One of the possible reasons is
that the position of load applied might not be exactly at the center (middle), the load might
slightly away from the center and due to this reason, the dynamometer gives reading of both
shear force and bending moment at the particular position. Our calculation is based on
exactly center. Furthermore, there is a slight moving, vibrating or oscillating of the load while
recording the shear force.

Case2: Symmetrical Load


The percentage error in Case 2 is 11.95% for bending moment. However, based on
the calculation that has been done, it is found that theoretical reading of shear force, V is zero.
However, the experimental shear force obtained is not equal to zero. In Case 2, percentage
error cannot be calculated because there is no theoretical value to be used as a reference.

a a

From the calculation: F1=F2=P with left distance, a and right distance, a are equal.
This distance a should always be constant throughout the experiment. However, the load
applied, F1& F2 must be equal in this case. After the result is analyzed, it is found that one of
the possible reasons are these two load are not exactly same (±100g). Due to this reason
dynamometer will gives some error in the readings.
Next, the two distances, a might be not exactly the same. There might be slight
difference in the distance of a for both ends. Consider left side distance from end to the
position of upward force applied, P be a and right side distance from end to the position of
upward force applied P be b and L be the length of test specimen.
Then, in equilibrium:
⟲ + ƩM1 = 0
-Pa-P(L-b)+ F2L = 0
F2 = [Pa+P(L-b)]/L
Based on this equation, if the value of b ≠ a, then F2 gives some value as well as F1.
The bending moment in Case 1 is higher than Case 2 because the P applied in Case 1
is at the center of the beam. This eventually created a larger bending moment which will
cause the beam to bend more inward in Case 1 as compared to Case 2.

Case 3: Unsymmetrical load (a>x)


After calculate the percentage error, it is found that the percentage error in case 3 is
100% for shear force due to there are no value for the experimental results and 13.52% for
bending moment. There are many reasons behind to cause these differences between
experimental and theoretical readings. One of the reasons behind is that the position of load is
not exactly at the point, x=0.25 m. Human error may occurred when measuring the length of
L and a, thus this eventually will affect the results obtained. The position of the load applied
is not at the desired position, slight shifting may occurred.
From the experiment, it is found that decreasing the distance from a reference position
need lesser bending moment. Moment is the sum of the moments about that section of all
external forces acting to one side of that section. Based on the equation
M=Vx, The lesser the x (perpendicular distance), the lower is the bending moment.
When there is a moment produced, the shear force must exist to keep the system in
equilibrium. Note that if the system is not in equilibrium, the previous equations that is why
recording the reading while the load oscillating is a wrong method of carry out this
experiment.

Case 4: Unsymmetrical load (a<x)


After calculate the percentage error, it is found that the percentage error in case 3 is
100% for shear force because we not able to get the shear force value due to the machine was
spoiled and 4.64% for bending moment. There are many reasons behind to cause these
differences between experimental and theoretical readings. One of the reasons behind is that
the position of load is not exactly at the point, x=0.56 m. Human error may occurred when
measuring the length of L and a, thus this eventually will affect the results obtained. The
position of the load applied is not at the desired position, slight shifting may occurred.
From the experiment, it is found that decreasing the distance from a reference position
need lesser bending moment. Moment is the sum of the moments about that section of all
external forces acting to one side of that section. Based on the equation
M=Vx, The lesser the x (perpendicular distance), the lower is the bending moment.
When there is a moment produced, the shear force must exist to keep the system in
equilibrium. Note that if the system is not in equilibrium, the previous equations that is why
recording the reading while the load oscillating is a wrong method of carry out this
experiment.

There are some precautions steps must take into the consideration in order to reduce
the percentage error. One of the precautions steps is make sure eye is perpendicular to the
scale of instrument when taking reading to avoid parallax error. This is an important skill
because parallax error results in taking the wrong readings. Besides that, the condition of the
apparatus should be check beforehand such as the zero error. Furthermore, avoid moving the
apparatus while the experiment is being carried out. Next, make sure the aluminum test
specimen is correctly calibrated by double checking it using meter rule. Next, make sure that
the dynamometer is in good condition and function well. Shaking of the apparatus should be
prevented when taking readings in the experiment. Make sure that the length of L and a are
closely match with the actual value needed for each case. Make sure that the load must be
stationary (no movement) before taking the reading. Lastly, the dynamometer must always
adjust to zero.

Recommendation:
There are some recommendations suggested to improve this experiment. One of the
recommendations is do not record reading of shear force when the load is still vibrating or
oscillating. Therefore the apparatus should be screwed or fixed firmly on the table. Next,
make sure that the length of L and a are closely match with the actual value needed for each
case. Measure the length of L and a once again after different load is applied on the beam.
This is to make sure the length of L and a do not change due to shaking of table or other
factors that might change their length values. Lastly, best way to improve the result is
repeating the experiment at least three times and finds the mean values for the readings.
Conclusion

From this experiment, the bending moment in Case 1 has larger value than Case 2. Shear
force is increasing when the weight of the load is increasing. Case 2 have zero value in shear
force due to the symmetrical loads applied on it. The bending moment also increases when
the weight of the load increases. For Case 1, the load is from 5N to 20N and the bending
moment is found to have values from 0.547 Nm to 2.262 Nm. The percentage error in Case 1
is 100% due to the shear force measuring instrument was spoiled and for shear force and
range from 7.77% to 10.72% for bending moment. For Case 2, the load is also from 5N to
25N and the bending moment is found to have values from 0.302 Nm to 1.377 Nm, whereas
the shear force is equal to zero. The percentage error in Case 2 is range from 0.26% to 12.06%
for bending moment. For Case 3, the load is from 5N to 25N and the bending moment is
found to have values from 0.275 Nm to 1.121 Nm. The percentage error in Case 3 is range
from 9.47% to 13.35%. For Case 4, the load is from 5N to 25N and the bending moment is
found to have values from 0.226 Nm to 0.879 Nm. The percentage error in Case 4 is range
from 1.44% to 8.26%. The area of the shear diagram to the left or to the right of the section is
equal to the moment at that section. The slope of the moment diagram at a given point is the
shear at that point.

Reference
1. Malcolm Tatum, Wise GEEK clear answer for common questions. What is a bending
Moment. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-bending-moment.htm.
2. The Free Bending Moment and Shear Force BEAM CALCULATOR. How to
Calculate the Bending Moment Diagram of a Beam.
http://bendingmomentdiagram.com/tutorials/how-to-find-bending-moment-diagrams/.
3. Learning Engineering. Analysis of Beams | Shear Force & Bending Moment Diagram.
http://www.learnengineering.org/2013/08/shear-force-bending-moment-diagram.html.