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1987 CONSTITUTION such contracts are subject to the special laws on labor unions,

collective bargaining, strikes and lockouts, closed shop, wages,


Article II working conditions, hours of labor and similar subjects.
Section 9. The State shall promote a just and dynamic social
Article 1701. Neither capital nor labor shall act oppressively
order that will ensure the prosperity and independence of the
against the other, or impair the interest or convenience of the
nation and free the people from poverty through policies that
public.
provide adequate social services, promote full employment, a
rising standard of living, and an improved quality of life for all.
Article 1702. In case of doubt, all labor legislation and all labor
Section 10. The State shall promote social justice in all phases contracts shall be construed in favor of the safety and decent
of national development. living for the laborer.

Section 18. The State affirms labor as a primary social Article 1703. No contract which practically amounts to
economic force. It shall protect the rights of workers and involuntary servitude, under any guise whatsoever, shall be
promote their welfare. valid.

Section 20. The State recognizes the indispensable role of the


Article 1704. In collective bargaining, the labor union or
private sector, encourages private enterprise, and provides
members of the board or committee signing the contract shall
incentives to needed investments.
be liable for non-fulfillment thereof.
Article III
Article 1705. The laborer's wages shall be paid in legal
Section 1. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or currency.
property without due process of law, nor shall any person be
denied the equal protection of the laws. Article 1706. Withholding of the wages, except for a debt due,
shall not be made by the employer.
Section 4. No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of
speech, of expression, or of the press, or the right of the people
peaceably to assemble and petition the government for redress Article 1707. The laborer's wages shall be a lien on the goods
manufactured or the work done.
of grievances.

Section 8. The right of the people, including those employed in Article 1708. The laborer's wages shall not be subject to
the public and private sectors, to form unions, associations, or execution or attachment, except for debts incurred for food,
societies for purposes not contrary to law shall not be abridged. shelter, clothing and medical attendance.

Article XIII Article 1709. The employer shall neither seize nor retain any
tool or other articles belonging to the laborer.
Section 3. The State shall afford full protection to labor, local
and overseas, organized and unorganized, and promote full
employment and equality of employment opportunities for all. Article 1710. Dismissal of laborers shall be subject to the
supervision of the Government, under special laws.
It shall guarantee the rights of all workers to self-organization,
collective bargaining and negotiations, and peaceful concerted Article 1711. Owners of enterprises and other employers are
activities, including the right to strike in accordance with law. obliged to pay compensation for the death of or injuries to their
They shall be entitled to security of tenure, humane conditions laborers, workmen, mechanics or other employees, even
of work, and a living wage. They shall also participate in policy though the event may have been purely accidental or entirely
and decision-making processes affecting their rights and due to a fortuitous cause, if the death or personal injury arose
benefits as may be provided by law. out of and in the course of the employment. The employer is
also liable for compensation if the employee contracts any
The State shall promote the principle of shared responsibility illness or disease caused by such employment or as the result
between workers and employers and the preferential use of of the nature of the employment. If the mishap was due to the
voluntary modes in settling disputes, including conciliation, and employee's own notorious negligence, or voluntary act, or
shall enforce their mutual compliance therewith to foster drunkenness, the employer shall not be liable for
industrial peace. compensation. When the employee's lack of due care
contributed to his death or injury, the compensation shall be
The State shall regulate the relations between workers and equitably reduced.
employers, recognizing the right of labor to its just share in the
fruits of production and the right of enterprises to reasonable Article 1712. If the death or injury is due to the negligence of a
returns to investments, and to expansion and growth. fellow worker, the latter and the employer shall be solidarily
liable for compensation. If a fellow worker's intentional or
Section 14. The State shall protect working women by malicious act is the only cause of the death or injury, the
providing safe and healthful working conditions, taking into employer shall not be answerable, unless it should be shown
account their maternal functions, and such facilities and that the latter did not exercise due diligence in the selection or
opportunities that will enhance their welfare and enable them to supervision of the plaintiff's fellow worker.
realize their full potential in the service of the nation.

SECTION 2
Contract of Labor (n)

Article 1700. The relations between capital and labor are not
merely contractual. They are so impressed with public interest
that labor contracts must yield to the common good. Therefore,