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Cell Splitting and Sectoring

Frequency reuse is the process of using the same radio frequencies on radio transmitter sites
within a geographic area that are separated by sufficient distance to cause minimal interference
with each other. Frequency reuse allows for a dramatic increase in the number of customers that
can be served (capacity) within a geographic area on a limited amount of radio spectrum (limited
number of radio channels).
The maximum data rate that can be attained over a given channel is known as channel capacity.
C= M*K*N
C is channel capacity
M is number of clusters.
K is the allotted channels to a cell
N is the number of cells in a cluster

As the number of users in the system increases the channel capacity consequently decreases. By
using methods such as Cell Splitting or Cell Sectoring, the capacity is increased.
Cell Splitting
Cell splitting is done in case of congested cells. In such a congested cell, we divide it into smaller
cells, which are covered by their own base stations, with a reduction in antenna height.
Cell sectoring leads to increased capacity.

Cell Splitting and Sectoring

In wireless telephony, a cell is the geographical area covered by a cellular telephone transmitter.
Cell Shape
The cell shape is generally chosen to be hexagonal, as it avoids the overlap that occurs in case of
circular shape, and unlike in square shaped cells, the distance of the edges from the center are
almost equal.
There are some limitations involved in cell splitting. These include :
> More Frequent Handoffs
> Difficult to execute channel assignments
> All the cells are not split simultanetously
The Umbrella approach saves one from building multiple base stations. In the Umbrella
approach, the single base tower serves all the split cells via antennas on it at different heights.
Cell Sectoring
It basically involves replacing an omni directional antenna at the base station by several
directional antennas. Cell sectoring is done mainly to reduce factors such as co-channel
It offers the following advantages:
> Better S/I ratio
> Reduces interference, increases capacity
> Reduces cluster size, more freedom in assigning channels
Advantages of Cell Sectoring
> Increased number of antennas per base station
> Decrease in trunk efficiency
> Loss of traffic
> Increased number of handoffs
Limitations of Cell Sectoring

Problems because of interference:

1. Interference on voice channels causes cross talk, where the subscriber hears interference in
the background due to an undesired transmission.
2. On control channels, interference leads to missed and blocked calls due to errors in the
digital signaling.

What are femto, macro, micro, and pico cells in wireless communication?

What exactly is a small cell? On the most basic level, small cells are low-powered radio access
nodes, with a range of a few meters to a mile in diameter. There are three types of small cells,
and ranging from smallest to largest they are called femtocells, picocells, and microcells. As a
class, they are considered “small” compared to a mobile macrocell, which can have a range of
about 20 miles.

The various types of small cells have various applications. Femtocells are typically user-
installed to improve coverage area within a small vicinity, such as home office or a dead zone
within a building. Femtocells can be obtained through your mobile operator or purchased from a
reseller. Unlike picocells and microcells, femtocells are designed to support only a handful of
users and is only capable of handling a few simultaneous calls.

Picocells offer greater capacities and coverage areas, supporting up to 100 users over a range of
less than 250 yards. Picocells are frequently deployed indoors to improve poor wireless and
cellular coverage within a building, such as an office floor or retail space.

Microcells are difficult to precisely distinguish from picocells, but their coverage area is the
prime delineator. Microcells can cover areas less than a mile in diameter and uses power control
to limit this radius. Microcells can be deployed temporarily in anticipation of high-traffic within
a limited area, such as a sporting event, but are also installed as a permanent feature of mobile
cellular networks.

Macro cell:-

macrocell is a cell used in cellular networks with the function of providing radio coverage to a
large area of mobile network access. A macrocell differs from a microcell by offering a larger
coverage area and high-efficiency output. The macrocell is placed on stations where the output
power is higher, usually in a range of tens of watts.
Hard handoff: It means that all the old radio links in the MS are removed before the new radio
links are established. In GSM, it is general. we can say Break before Make. so in this case higher
rates of call drops is found.

Soft Handoff: It means the radio links are added and removed in a way that the MS always
keeps at least one radio link to the UTRAN. In CDMA this technique is performed. In simple
words we can say Make befor Break. To lower the rates of call drops, this technique is used.

Hard Handover:- When mobile(in Call) switches to a new sector/Cell which is on different
frequency , then it performs hard Handover. It is basically an inter-frequency handover.

SOft Handover:- When mobile ( in Call) switches to a new sector/cell which is on the same
frequency then it is called a soft handover.