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2017

2018

DUHOK POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY


DUHOK POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF TECHNICAL ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT PETROCHEMICALS

(Free/Force convection H.T from pinned&Finned)

BY:
Îbrahîm Dêwalî
Heat transfer practical
Group. B
Report No. EXP 1
Date.4\3\2018

Lecturer's Name: Mr. Anas


Abstract
____________________________________________________

An experiment was conducted to perform and demonstrate free and force


convection heat transfer using different type extended surface plate. This following
experiment outlines the proper procedure for determining these temperature distribution
along an extended surface and consequently helps the student to demonstrate them
graphically by doing the analysis based on the all the data and readings obtained.

Heat transfer by convection between a surface and the surrounding fluid can be
increased, by attaching thin strips of metal fins to the surface. When heat transfer takes
place by convection from both interior and exterior surfaces of a tube or a plate, generally
fins are used on the surfaces where the heat transfer coefficients are low.

Heat transfer by simultaneous conduction and convection, whether free or forced,


forms the basis of most industrial heat exchangers and related equipment. The
measurement and prediction of heat transfer coefficients for such circumstances is achieved
in the free and forced convection heat transfer apparatus by studying the temperature
profiles and heat flux in an air duct with associated flat and extended transfer surfaces.

Introduction and Objectives


______________________________________________________
In this particular laboratory experiment, students are required to demonstrate the
use of extended surfaces to improve heat transfer from a surface and to demonstrate
convection heat transfer by using different type of extended surface. Besides that, the
temperature distribution along an extended surface is also to be determined at the end of
the experiment.
In addition to that, this experiment is also useful in such a way that it helps to
provide some exposure to the students so that they are able to interpret the obtained test
data and at the same time are able to apply the theory they have learned in class.
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Theory
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A heated surface dissipates heat to the surrounding fluid primarily through a


process called convection. Heat is also dissipated by conduction and radiation, however
these effects are not considered in this experiment. Air in contact with the hot surface is
heated by the surface and rises due to reduction in density. The heated air is replaced by
cooler air, which is in turn heated by the surface, and rises. This process is called free
convection.

In free convection small movements of air generated by this heat limit the heat
transfer rate from the surface. Therefore more heat is transfer if the velocity is increase
over the heated surface. This process of assisting the movement of air over the heated
surface is called forced convection. A heated surface experiencing forced convection will
have a lower surface temperature than that of the same surface in free convection, for the
same power input.

Convection heat transfer from an object can be improved by increasing the surface
area in contact with the air. In practical it may be difficult to increase the size of the body
to suit. In these circumstances the surface area in contact with the air may be increased by
adding fins or pins normal to the surface. These features are called extended surfaces. A
typical example is the use of fins on the cylinder and head on an air-cooled petrol engine.
The effect of extended surfaces can be demonstrated by comparing finned and pinned
surfaces with a flat under the same conditions of power input and airflow.

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Description of Experimental Apparatus
______________________________________________________

Figure 1: Sketch diagram of Convention Heat Transfer Rig

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To make the student familiar with free and forced convection, and heat convection
efficiency of the different surfaces.

1. Air duct with a cross-section of 120x120mm2 and a length of 1m is used to


guide the
flow of air.
2. Measuring glands that enable the temperature to be recorder at various points by
pushing in a type K thermo-couple.
3. Thermo-couple.
4. Flow sensor thatrecords the flow rate of the inlet air.
5. Pt100 element record the inlet temperature.
6. Pt100 elementrecord the outlet temperature.
7. Heater insert
8. Heater insert
9. Heater insert -These are mounted using simple toggle type fasteners. The different
heated
surfaces (flat plate, pipe bundle or fins) are each heated by four resistive heaters with a
maximum total power output of approx. 170W. The voltage applied is adjustable giving a
variable heat output. Bi-metallic strips, which interrupt the supply of power when a set
threshold is re-ached, are used to ensure that the temperature does not exceed 120°C. The
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activation of the electrical power supply starts again at 105°C.
10. Control and display unit contains the power supply and the regulators for the fan and
heater inserts. In addition, this unit displays the electrical power supplied to the heater
elements, the flow rate, the inlet and outlet air temperature and the temperature measured
with the thermocouple. A PC can be connected at the rear for data acquisition.
11. built-infan with variable speed conveys the air for the experiments relating to
forced
convection.

shows different geometries for the heated surface;


• Flat plate,
• Pipe bundle (needle fins),
• Rectangular fins.
Air flows past the heating element and absorbs heat in the process. Sensors record the
volumetric flow rate of
the air, the heating power and the temperatures at all relevant points. The measured
values can be read on
digital displays. At the same time, the measured values can also be transmitted directly to
a PC. Free and
forced convective cooling will be investigated on all three surface configurations.
Comparison between the
flat plate results and the results of finned surfaces can be used to find the effects of fins
on the heat transfer
coefficient under free and forced convection heat transfer

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Procedure_____________________________________________
___
Experiment 1

1. The fan assembly is removed from the top of the duct


2. The finned heat exchanger is placed into the test duct.
3. The power cable and temperature sensor cable is connected to the heat
exchanger.
4. The ambient air temperature is recorded.
5. To accelerate the heating time, the heater power control is set to 70 watts (90
watts for pinned heat exchanger). Once the plate temperature reaches about
550C (700C for pinned heat exchanger), the heater power is set to 50 watts.
6. After a sufficient time is allowed for the heated plate to achieve steady state
condition, the heated temperature plate (tH) is recorded.
7. The distance of the access holes on the pinned and finned heat exchanger is
measured from the black plate.
8. The temperature probe is inserted into the duct through the hole nearest to the
heated plate, T1, ensuring that the tip of the probe is in contact with the pin.
9. The temperature of the next two holes on the fins. (T 2 and T3) are measured.

Experiment 2

1. The fan assembly is placed on to the top of duct.


2. Insert the temperature probe is inserted into the duct through the hole nearest
the heated plate, T1, ensuring that the tip of the probe is in contact with the pin
3. The fan speed control is set to low speed.
4. After the temperature has achieve steady state condition (~3 minutes), the
temperature probe reading is noted
5. This procedure is repeated at medium and maximum speed

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6. The finned heat exchanger is removed and is then replaced with the pinned heat
exchanger.

Data and Observations


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Input Power = 30 W
Ambient air temperature (TA) = 16.6 0C
S1=8 MM S2=35 MM S3=60 MM
PINNED HEAT FINNED HEAT
FAN SPEED(M/S) EXCHANGER EXCHANGER
T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3
0 27,.5 27 29 50.8 57.9 50.8
LOW=1 29.3 27.2 26.9 57.2 53.3 41.9
HIGH=2 27.1 26.3 26 43.5 43.6 32.8

Input Power = 70 W
Ambient air temperature (TA) = 16.6 0C
AIR VELOCITY(M/S) FINNED PLATE PINNED PLATE
TH (TH- TA) (TH-TA)
0 64.2 47.6 69..8 53.2
1 50 33.4 58.5 41.9
1.5 40.2 23.6 45.5 28.9
2 35 18.4 36.6 20

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Graph: FINNED HEAT EXCHANGX

29.5 8, 29.3

60, 29
29

28.5

8, 28
28
Temp.

8, 27.5
27.5
35, 27.2
8, 27.1
35, 27
60, 26.9
27

26.5 35, 26.3

60, 26
26

25.5
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Distance

T1 T2 T3 T4

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60
0, 53.2

500, 47.6

1, 41.9

40
1, 33.4 1.5, 33.6

1.5, 28.9
Temp.

30

2, 20
2, 18.4
20

10

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
speed fan
Finned heat exchanger Pinned heat exchaner

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Graph of Extended Surface against Temperature.
70

60

50

T1 (finned)
40
Temperature

T2 (finned)
T3 (finned)
30
T1 (pinned)
T2(pinned)
20 T3(pinned)

10

0
0 LOW MEDIUM HIGH
Extendard Surface

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Discussions

1. Plot a graph of surface temperature against distance from back plate


for the two heat exchangers (pinned and finned) at various air
velocities and discuss the results.
Ans. plot a graph in page(8.9),We noticed that the higher the distance we see
that the temperature is reduced.

2. Indicate which heat exchanger (pinned or finned) has the best


performance? and why?
Ans. Finned, Because its surface is wider and cools faster.

3. What errors may be introduced by measuring the temperature and air


velocity?
Ans. In our test there are many errors for different reasons such as the effect
of pressure in the room test or urgency in the test, such as the first test to
pinned in the third dimension, we see that the urgency to make a mistake
was to reduce the degree of temperature was quite the opposite. As for
speed, there are also errors.

4. What would you recommend to improve the reliability of this


experiment?
Ans. We have to be careful in testing so that we do not go wrong.

5. Based on the data and discussion, make your overall conclusions.

Ans. Page(11)

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Conclusions
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From this experiment, we can see that the use of extended surfaces enhance heat
transfer from a surface. It is found that finned extended surface releases heat faster than
pinned extended surface due to higher surface area.
In theory, higher flow velocity would encourage convection heat transfer. This
theory is clearly illustrated in Graph 4 where rate of heat transfer increases as the fan speed
increases.
Generally, the temperature decreases as we measure from position 1 to 3. This
temperature distribution pattern is depicted in Graph 3. However, discrepancy may occur
due to some errors. For instance, the inconsistency of the fan speed that caused by worn
out equipment may greatly affect the entire experiment.
In conclusion, this experiment can be consider as successful since all the objectives
have been covered.

References
______________________________________________________

Instruction manual from the Heat Transfer & Applied Thermodynamics Lab

2012, Convection Heat Transfer,


http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/convective-heat-transfer-d_430.html

2012, Wikipedia, Convection


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convection

2012, Wikipedia, Heat Exchanger


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_exchanger

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2012, The theory behind heat transfer
http://www.distributionchalinox.com/produits/alfa-laval/echangeurs/heat-transfer-
brochure.pdf

Incropera, DeWitt, Bergmann, Lavine, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 7 th


Edition, Wiley Asia Student Edition

Yunus A. Cengel, Michael A. Boles, Thermodynamics An Engineering Approach, 7 th


Edition, Mc Graw Hill

Appendix
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Finned Extended Surface


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