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Food Safety Assurance System: Principles & Practice Dr. MA. ASUNCION G. BELTRAN TARLAC AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY

Food Safety Assurance

System:

Principles & Practice

Dr. MA. ASUNCION G. BELTRAN

TARLAC AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY Camiling, Tarlac, Philippines

System: Principles & Practice Dr. MA. ASUNCION G. BELTRAN TARLAC AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY Camiling, Tarlac, Philippines
System: Principles & Practice Dr. MA. ASUNCION G. BELTRAN TARLAC AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY Camiling, Tarlac, Philippines
Relationship of Microorganisms and food Pathogenic or Toxogenic: cause disease  Beneficial/ desirable ( make
Relationship of Microorganisms and food Pathogenic or Toxogenic: cause disease  Beneficial/ desirable ( make

Relationship of Microorganisms and food

Pathogenic or Toxogenic: cause disease

Beneficial/ desirable( make food)

Lactobacilli Bacteria In Fermented Food (Yoghurt,

Pickles)

Yeast Saccharomyces In Bread And Baking

Deteriorated/ undesirable

Non-pathogenic: Spoilage

Fungi, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Bacillus

Conditions for Spoilage • Water, pH, physical structure, oxygen, temperature Water • pH • Physical
Conditions for Spoilage • Water, pH, physical structure, oxygen, temperature Water • pH • Physical

Conditions for Spoilage

Water, pH, physical structure, oxygen, temperature

WaterpH

Physical structure

Oxygen

temperature

Water, pH, physical structure, oxygen, temperature Water • pH • Physical structure • Oxygen • temperature
Water, pH, physical structure, oxygen, temperature Water • pH • Physical structure • Oxygen • temperature
Spoilage of food  Organisms that cause spoilage  Pseudomonas , Proteus, Serratia, Lactobacillus, Micrococcus
Spoilage of food  Organisms that cause spoilage  Pseudomonas , Proteus, Serratia, Lactobacillus, Micrococcus

Spoilage of food

Organisms that cause spoilage

Pseudomonas , Proteus, Serratia,

Lactobacillus, Micrococcus, fungi such as

Aspergillus, Rhizopus, yeast.

Spoilage appear as greening, moldy appearance, rotting, discoloration, souring ,

bad smell.

Foodborne disease

Is any illness resulting from the consumption of

food contaminated with one or more disease-

viruses,

producing agents

(bacteria,

parasites,

fungi and their products toxic substances)

Two primary types Food infection : due to presence of living organism Food poisoning due to presence of toxins (Clostridium perfringens, and Staphylococcal, Botulism, Bacillus cereus food poisoning)

due to presence of toxins (C lostridium perfringens , and S taphylococcal, Botulism, Bacillus cereus food

Food borne infections vs. intoxication

Infections

Bacterial / viral / parasite

Invade and or multiply

in lining of intestine

Incubation period-

hours to days

S/s diarrhea , nausea,

vomiting , abdominal cramps, fever

Communicable-spreads from person to person

Factors-inadequate cooking, cross

contamination , poor

personal hygiene , bare hand contact

Intoxications

Toxins ( natural / preformed bacterial / chemical)

No invasion or multiplication

Incubation period- minutes to hours

S/s vomiting , nausea, diarrhea , diplopia, weakness, resp. Failure , numbness, sensory/motor dysfunction

Not communicable

Factors-inadequate cooking , improper handling temperatures

sensory/motor dysfunction  Not communicable  Factors -inadequate cooking , improper handling temperatures

The numbers and types of microorganisms present on a food are affected by the following factors;

The general environment which the food was originally obtained from

The microbial content of the food in the unprocessed state

The sanitary conditions during the processing

The adequacy of subsequence packaging, handling and storage conditions.

sanitary conditions during the processing  The adequacy of subsequence packaging, handling and storage conditions.

General facts

Every person is at risk of food borne illness.

No long-term health threat to average person

May be serious for very young, very old, people with

long term illness

Reaction may occur in a few hours or up to several

days after exposure

Symptoms Abdominal cramps, headache, vomiting, diarrhea (may be bloody), fever, death

to several days after exposure Symptoms  Abdominal cramps, headache, vomiting, diarrhea (may be bloody), fever,
After Ingestion of bacteria 1. Will be sick within 6-72 hours after eating contaminated food.
After Ingestion of bacteria 1. Will be sick within 6-72 hours after eating contaminated food.

After Ingestion of bacteria

1.

Will be sick within 6-72 hours after eating contaminated food. (NOT usually sick immediately after eating!)

2.

Symptoms usually last 4-7 days;

3.

Most recover without antibiotics;

4.

Diarrhea can be severe enough to hospitalize person (dehydration).

Sources of Pathogens in Food 1. Food itself: soil contaminated, water irrigation ( Vibrio, Brucella,
Sources of Pathogens in Food 1. Food itself: soil contaminated, water irrigation ( Vibrio, Brucella,
Sources of Pathogens in Food 1. Food itself: soil contaminated, water irrigation ( Vibrio, Brucella,

Sources of Pathogens in Food

1. Food itself: soil contaminated, water irrigation

(Vibrio, Brucella, Salmonella)

2. Food handlers : cooks, workers, waiters. (Staph, salmonella, shigella, hepatitis)

workers, waiters. (Staph, salmonella, shigella, hepatitis) 3. Environment: food storage, sanitation of markets,
workers, waiters. (Staph, salmonella, shigella, hepatitis) 3. Environment: food storage, sanitation of markets,

3. Environment: food storage, sanitation of

markets, utensils and benches,food

Transport bacillus, yersinia, campylobacter

Food risky to food-borne diseases  Fermented/ pickled food  Sausages, pickled vegetables, yoghurt 
Food risky to food-borne diseases  Fermented/ pickled food  Sausages, pickled vegetables, yoghurt 
Food risky to food-borne diseases  Fermented/ pickled food  Sausages, pickled vegetables, yoghurt 

Food risky to food-borne diseases

Fermented/ pickled food

Sausages, pickled vegetables, yoghurt

Raw contaminated food Raw meat , milk, salads, chicken

Undercooked food Steaks, eggs, creams, fish

Readymade food Canned, frozen , ready made sandwiches

chicken  Undercooked food Steaks, eggs, creams, fish  Readymade food  Canned, frozen , ready
chicken  Undercooked food Steaks, eggs, creams, fish  Readymade food  Canned, frozen , ready

What to do in case of food poisoning

Look for pathogenic organisms in food, patient samples,etc.

Look for toxins in food

Must take samples from

1- patients

2-handlers

3- food leftovers

4- utensils and boards, storage places

toxins in food  Must take samples from 1- patients 2-handlers 3- food leftovers 4- utensils
toxins in food  Must take samples from 1- patients 2-handlers 3- food leftovers 4- utensils
toxins in food  Must take samples from 1- patients 2-handlers 3- food leftovers 4- utensils
toxins in food  Must take samples from 1- patients 2-handlers 3- food leftovers 4- utensils
toxins in food  Must take samples from 1- patients 2-handlers 3- food leftovers 4- utensils

Detection of m.o. in food

Conventional cultural techniques Standard plate count (SPC) Most probable number (MPN)

Rapid tests biochemical, immunological Commercial kits : MMO-MUG, ELISA

Molecular techniques Nucleotide hybridisation Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

kits : MMO-MUG, ELISA  Molecular techniques  Nucleotide hybridisation  Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
kits : MMO-MUG, ELISA  Molecular techniques  Nucleotide hybridisation  Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
kits : MMO-MUG, ELISA  Molecular techniques  Nucleotide hybridisation  Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
kits : MMO-MUG, ELISA  Molecular techniques  Nucleotide hybridisation  Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
kits : MMO-MUG, ELISA  Molecular techniques  Nucleotide hybridisation  Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Comparison of detection methods  All methods must be must be rapid and sensitive 
Comparison of detection methods  All methods must be must be rapid and sensitive 

Comparison of detection methods

All methods must be must be rapid and sensitive

Methods include:

Culture techniques may be too slow

Rapid biochemical techniques- rapid

Immunological techniques - very sensitive

Molecular techniques new, sensitive and specific

Evaluating the sanitary quality of foods

It is impractical to analyze all food for

presence of pathogens

Use of indicator organisms

If present in greater than allowable numbers, it indicates that food is not of acceptable

sanity quality. If absent food is almost safe.

SPC method can be used to test different organisms.

not of acceptable sanity quality. If absent food is almost safe.  SPC method can be
not of acceptable sanity quality. If absent food is almost safe.  SPC method can be
not of acceptable sanity quality. If absent food is almost safe.  SPC method can be
not of acceptable sanity quality. If absent food is almost safe.  SPC method can be
not of acceptable sanity quality. If absent food is almost safe.  SPC method can be

Standard plate count (SPC)

The process of using standard plate count is

to dilute samples of the material to be tested

with the

agar

medium,

after

48

hours

of

incubation

at

35c

visible

colonies

are

counted

Homogenise food sample (50g of food +

450ml of S. Saline) Make ten fold serial dilutions from mixed

sample Plate on suitable selective media Incubate at 35 o C, for 24 hours Colony count

serial dilutions from mixed sample Plate on suitable selective media Incubate at 35 o C, for
serial dilutions from mixed sample Plate on suitable selective media Incubate at 35 o C, for
Analysis of food using ATP photometry  Breakdown non microbial cells in food ( somatic
Analysis of food using ATP photometry  Breakdown non microbial cells in food ( somatic
Analysis of food using ATP photometry  Breakdown non microbial cells in food ( somatic
Analysis of food using ATP photometry  Breakdown non microbial cells in food ( somatic

Analysis of food using ATP photometry

Breakdown non microbial cells in food ( somatic cells)to release their ATP

Remove the non microbial ATP using the

enzyme atpase

Release the bacterial ATP from bacterial cells

Assay the amount of bacterial ATP by the addition of firefly luciferin/ luciferase

Record the amount of light emitted using ATP photometer

Using a correlation curve to convert relative light units to colony forming units (cfu's)/ml

Rapid tests

Commercial kits: many

Faster than conventional method

Ex. The MMO-MUG method for coliform testing

method  Ex. The MMO-MUG method for coliform testing Negative E. coli Positive Negative Positive Total

Negative

E. coli

Positive

method  Ex. The MMO-MUG method for coliform testing Negative E. coli Positive Negative Positive Total

Negative

Positive

Total Coliform

method  Ex. The MMO-MUG method for coliform testing Negative E. coli Positive Negative Positive Total
method  Ex. The MMO-MUG method for coliform testing Negative E. coli Positive Negative Positive Total
method  Ex. The MMO-MUG method for coliform testing Negative E. coli Positive Negative Positive Total
method  Ex. The MMO-MUG method for coliform testing Negative E. coli Positive Negative Positive Total
method  Ex. The MMO-MUG method for coliform testing Negative E. coli Positive Negative Positive Total

Pathogens of Most Concern on Fresh Produce

Salmonella Shigella

Escherichia coli

Yersinia enterocolitica

Clostridium species

Vibrio species Viruses (Hepatitis A, Norwalk)

Parasites/protozoa- (Giardia, Entamoeba, Toxoplasma,

Campylobacter Staphylococcus aureus

Bacillus cereus

Sarccystis, Isospora, Cryptosporidium, Eimeria, Cyclospora)

What Are the Most Common Causes of Foodborne Illness?  Those caused by the bacteria:
What Are the Most Common Causes of Foodborne Illness?  Those caused by the bacteria:
What Are the Most Common Causes of Foodborne Illness?  Those caused by the bacteria:

What Are the Most Common Causes of Foodborne Illness?

Those caused by the bacteria:

Campylobacter Salmonella E. coli O157:H7

 Campylobacter  Salmonella  E. coli O157:H7  Those caused by a group of viruses:
 Campylobacter  Salmonella  E. coli O157:H7  Those caused by a group of viruses:
 Campylobacter  Salmonella  E. coli O157:H7  Those caused by a group of viruses:

Those caused by a group of viruses:

Norwalk and Norwalk-like viruses

What Foods Are Most Likely to be Contaminated?

raw meat and poultry

raw eggs (even in uncooked brownie, cake, or cookie dough)

unpasteurized milk

raw shellfish

unwashed raw fruits and vegetables

unpasteurized fruit juice

dough)  unpasteurized milk  raw shellfish  unwashed raw fruits and vegetables  unpasteurized fruit

How Do You Know If You Have Foodborne Illness?

Onset of symptoms can occur in hours to days of food consumption

known as the incubation period

Symptoms vary

mild to severe (requiring hospitalization)

Common symptoms include:

 mild to severe ( requiring hospitalization )  Common symptoms include:  diarrhea, abdominal cramps,

diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and nausea

 mild to severe ( requiring hospitalization )  Common symptoms include:  diarrhea, abdominal cramps,

Am I at Risk?

YES

76 million cases of foodborne illness occur each year in the U.S.alone

pregnant women, infants, the elderly, and those weakened immune systems are at greater risk for foodborne illness

 pregnant women, infants, the elderly, and those weakened immune systems are at greater risk for
 pregnant women, infants, the elderly, and those weakened immune systems are at greater risk for
 pregnant women, infants, the elderly, and those weakened immune systems are at greater risk for
 pregnant women, infants, the elderly, and those weakened immune systems are at greater risk for
General Control of food borne disease  Food inspection  Check handlers health  Education
General Control of food borne disease  Food inspection  Check handlers health  Education
General Control of food borne disease  Food inspection  Check handlers health  Education
General Control of food borne disease  Food inspection  Check handlers health  Education
General Control of food borne disease  Food inspection  Check handlers health  Education

General Control of food borne disease

Food inspection

Check handlers health

Education and training for food handlers and

health  Education and training for food handlers and public  Market sanitation  Proper transport

public

Market sanitation

Proper transport and storage methods

Food control In the Home

Drink pasteurized milk and juices

Wash hands carefully and frequently

After using the bathroom, changing infants diapers, cleaning up animal feces

Wash hands before preparing food

Wash raw fruits and vegetables before eating

After contact with raw meat or poultry

Wash hands, utensils and kitchen surfaces with hot soapy water

eating  After contact with raw meat or poultry  Wash hands, utensils and kitchen surfaces
eating  After contact with raw meat or poultry  Wash hands, utensils and kitchen surfaces
eating  After contact with raw meat or poultry  Wash hands, utensils and kitchen surfaces
eating  After contact with raw meat or poultry  Wash hands, utensils and kitchen surfaces
eating  After contact with raw meat or poultry  Wash hands, utensils and kitchen surfaces

In the Home

Cook beef/beef products thoroughly Internal temperature of 70 o C

Cook poultry and eggs thoroughly Internal temperature of 80 o c

Eat cooked food promptly

Defrost meats in the refrigerator

Refrigerate leftovers within 2 hours after cooking

Store in shallow containers so that the contents

gets cooled evenly throughout

leftovers within 2 hours after cooking  Store in shallow containers so that the contents gets

Five keys to Safer food

1. Keep clean wash hands before handling food and often during preparation Wash hands after going to toilet Wash & sanitize all surfaces n equipment for food preparation-protect kitchen from insects , pets

2. Separate raw and cooked food-

Separate raw meat, poultry & seafood from other foods

Use separate utensils for handling raw foods

Store food in containers to avoid contact between raw and

cooked foods

3. Cook thoroughly

Meat , poultry , eggs and seafood Bring soups n stews to boiling (ensure>70 degree temp) Reheat cooked food thoroughly

Meat , poultry , eggs and seafood Bring soups n stews to boiling (ensure>70 degree temp)
Meat , poultry , eggs and seafood Bring soups n stews to boiling (ensure>70 degree temp)
Meat , poultry , eggs and seafood Bring soups n stews to boiling (ensure>70 degree temp)
Five Keys to Safer Food 4. Keep food at safe temperature - ✓ Don't leave
Five Keys to Safer Food 4. Keep food at safe temperature - ✓ Don't leave
Five Keys to Safer Food 4. Keep food at safe temperature - ✓ Don't leave

Five Keys to Safer Food

4. Keep food at safe temperature -

Don't leave cooked food at room temp.>2 hours

Prompt refrigeration of cooked n perishable food

Keep cooked food piping hot(>60 de.) Prior to serving

Dont store food too long even in refrigerator

Dont thaw frozen food at room temperature

5. Use safe water and raw materials-

Use safe water or treat to make it safe

Select fresh and wholesome fruits

Choose foods processed for safety - pasteurized milk

Wash fruits n vegetables if eaten raw

Dont use food beyond expiry date

for safety - pasteurized milk  Wash fruits n vegetables if eaten raw  Don ’
for safety - pasteurized milk  Wash fruits n vegetables if eaten raw  Don ’

Prevention of Food Borne diseases

Food processed for safety

Thoroughly cook

Eat immediately

Store carefully

Reheat thoroughly

No contact between raw & cooked

Wash hands

Keep food preparation surfaces clean

Protect from pests

Use potable water

raw & cooked ❖ Wash hands ❖ Keep food preparation surfaces clean ❖ Protect from pests
raw & cooked ❖ Wash hands ❖ Keep food preparation surfaces clean ❖ Protect from pests
raw & cooked ❖ Wash hands ❖ Keep food preparation surfaces clean ❖ Protect from pests
CONCLUSIONS 1. It is important to realize that with any of the method of analysis
CONCLUSIONS 1. It is important to realize that with any of the method of analysis
CONCLUSIONS 1. It is important to realize that with any of the method of analysis

CONCLUSIONS

1. It is important to realize that with any of the method of

analysis for pathogen or indicator, there is no absolute

guarantee of success.

2. The organisms under test can be missed completely (false negative) or other organisms can mimic positive results giving rise to false positives.

3. Developing and improving methods of analysis for

pathogens and indicators is an area of intensive and

continuing research.

4. This is particularly the case where `newpathogens are concerned and a widely accepted method needs to be

established.

5. Even when techniques are well established, research

continues to try and improve sensitivity, eliminate false

positive and reduce the time taken to obtain results.

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