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- I NSO LFSQ 2005
- 1. CHAPTER 1_INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS_Part 1 - (1) (1).pdf
- FINAL CHAPTERS 1 AND 2 RESEARCH PROPOSAL
- FINAL
- Synopsis
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Conceptual Framework

- It is a bit like a recipe or a blueprint.

- A set of coherent ideas to make it easy to communicate to others

- An organized way of thinking about how and why a project takes place and about how we

understand its activities

- Overview of ideas and practices or a set of assumptions, values, an definitions

- Provides an outline of how you plan to conduct the research for your thesis, but it goes further

than that by also positioning your work within the larger field of research.

- Help to guide your thesis to ensure that your research stays on track, but also helps to guide

fellow researchers or advisers who are analyzing your thesis.

Conduct a review of literature

- Before you can start your own research, you need to understand what research has

already been conducted on your topic of interest.

- “Your Research should always be new research that helps to advance your field of study.”

Write a Narrative

- Not all conceptual frameworks have to include a diagram or graphic. You can present the

same information by writing a narrative.

- Narrative – it should be summarize the variables influencing your research and explore how

they may change your hypothesis

- should also explain the basic methodology for your research

Theoretical Framework

- The connection between a theory and the problem

- Serves as a basis as to how the study will be investigated

- Involves the application of the theory, principle or model, to offer an explanation of an event, or

shed some light on a particular phenomenon or research problem.

- The theoretical framework may be further explained and illustrated in concrete terms using a

conceptual framework.

- Theoretical framework introduces and describes the theory that explains why the research

problem under study exists (Swanson, 2013).

Example Theory:

Self-Perception Theory ( Bem, 1972) in Myes, 1983)

“When one is unsure of his / her attitude, he/she infers it back by looking at behavior and the

circumstances under which it occurs. When a person’s attitude is weak, he/she simply observes

his/her behavior and its circumstances and simply infers what is his/her attitude will be.

o The theory suggests that man’s attitude is influenced by his actions. A child abuser may tend

to have an indifferent attitude towards children.

MEASUREMENT

- Very useful since although we can often distinguish between people in terms of extreme

categories, finer distinctions are much more difficult to recognize.

- It can detect clear variations in levels of job satisfaction between people who love their jobs

and people who hate their job but we will find small differences much more difficult to detect

Measurement

- Allows us to delineate fine differences between people in terms of the characteristic in

question.

- Gives us a consistent device or yardstick for making distinctions.

- Measure should generate consistent results, other than those that occur as a result of natural

changes.

- Provides the basis for more precise estimates of the degree of relationship between concepts.

Example:

Is there a significant mean difference on the weight increment of Eucheuma (Seaweed)

cultured in municipal waters of Estancia, Iloilo, Philippines?

Levels of Measurement:

Nominal level of measurement

- Identifies variables whose values have no mathematical interpretation; they vary in kind

or quality, but not in amount.

- No order implied in the attributes of the nominal variable.

Example:

A. Variable: Gender has two attributes (categories or qualities) – MALE & FEMALE

Indication:

1 – MALE The numbers simply

2 – FEMALE represent a category

B. Attributes: Hair Color: brown, blond, black, sandy, blond, strawberry blond, red

head, light brown, and dark brown (no order)

Ordinal level of measurement

- At this level, the numbers assigned to cases specify only the order of cases, permitting

greater than and less than distinctions.

- Ordinal measures are variables with attributes that can be logically rank-ordered.

Example:

Level of education

- Some high school

- High school

- Some college

- College graduate

- Post – graduate

Under the ordinal level of measurement, the distance between categories does not

matter; what matter is that you can rank-order the categories (Babbie,2010,p.36)

- The values of a variable measured at the interval level of measurement represent fixed

measurement units but have no absolute, or fixed, zero point.

- With interval measures, we can have three sets of data or information. One, we can say

that people are different from one another on this variable. Two, we can also say that

one person is more than another person on this variable. Three, we can also say “how

much” more the person is than the other person.

Example:

Temperature and IQ tests.

Ratio level of measurement

- Represents fixed measuring units and an absolute zero point (zero means absolutely no

amount of whatever the variable indicates).

Example:

A. Scores on an achievement test (how many points out of 10) can have a score of

zero, indicating a total lack of skills and knowledge on the topic

number of times you attend church yearly

SCALES AND INDEXES

Rating scales

- Also known as level of measurement (Bhattacherjee, 2012)

- Used to capture a respondent’s reactions or responses to a given item in the scale.

Binary Scale

- Is a nominal scale consisting of binary items that assume one of two possible values.

- If employment status is more than two values such as unemployed, full-time, part-time,

and retired, then the scale is no longer binary, but still remains nominal (Bhattacherjee,

2012)

Example:

- Yes/No, True/False and so on.

- Male/Female (gender)

- Full-time/part-time (employment status)

Likert Scale

- Designed by Rensis Likert

- Are simply worded statements to which respondents can indicate their extent of

agreement or disagreement on a five-or-seven-point scale ranging from “strongly agree”

to “strongly disagree”.

Semantic differential Scale

- Composite or multi item scale.

- Respondents are typically asked to indicate their opinions or feelings toward a single

statement using different pairs of adjectives framed as polar opposites or two extremes.

- Semantic differential scales are used in social sciences research as an excellent

technique for measuring people’s attitude or feelings toward events, objects, or

behaviors (Bhattacherjee, 2012).

Guttman Scale

- A composite or multi item scale designed by Louis Guttman.

- Uses series of items arranged in increasing order of intensity of the concept of interest,

from least intense to most intense.

- Each item in the series has a weight which varies with the intensity of that item.

SAMPLING PROBABILITY

Sampling

- is the statistical process of selecting a subset (called a sample) of a population for interest for

purposes of making observations and statistical inferences about that population

Population

- is the group you want to generalize to

Sample

- refers to the actual units selected for observation (Bhattacherjee (2012, p. 65).

“Since it is impossible to study entire populations due to feasibility and cost concerns, it becomes necessary to

select a representative sample from the population of interest for observation and analysis. Quantitative

research sampling is based only on random sampling.”

Random sampling

- is defined as that method of drawing a portion (sample) of a population so that all possible

samples of a fixed size have the same probability of being selected

1. Defining the target population

- The unit of analysis may be a person, group, organization, country, object, or any other entity

that one wishes to draw inferences from

- Is the list from which you can draw your sample

- Usually the list contains the accessible section of the target population from where a sampke

can be drawn, and consequently, where inferences can be based

3. Choosing a sample from the sampling frame using a well-defined sampling technique

- There are two broad types of sampling techniques

Probability (random) sampling

Nonprobability sampling

- Probability sampling is a must if the study aims at the generalizability of results

Probability sampling

- Is a technique in which ever unit in the population has a chance of being selected in the

sample, and this chance can be accurately determined

“Sampling statistics thus produced, such as a sample mean or standard deviation, are unbiased estimates of

population parameters as long as the sampled units are weighted according to their probability of selection.”

Every unit in the population has a known nonzero probability of being sampled

The sampling procedure involves random selection at some point

Sampling Description Advantages Disadvantages

Technique

from whole representative if all without complete

population subjects list of population

participates; the members;

ideal uneconomical to

achieve

Stratified random Random sample Can ensure that More complex;

from identifiable specific groups are requires greater

groups (strata), represented, even effort than simple

subgroups, etc. proportionally, in random; strata

the sample(s) (e.g., must be carefully

by gender) by defined

selecting

individuals from

strata list

Cluster Random samples Possible to select Clusters in a level

of successive randomly when no must be equivalent

clusters of subjects single list of but some natural

(e.g., by institution) population ones are not for

until small groups members exists but essential

are chosen as units local lists do characteristics

(e.g., geographic;

numbers equal but

unemployment

rates differ)

Stage Combination of Can make up Complex,

cluster and probability sample combines

stratified random by random at limitations of

stages and within clusters and

groups stratified random

sampling

- The simplest and yet the most generalizable among all probability sampling techniques

- The recommended way of selecting a sample via the simple random sampling technique is by

using a random numbers table, usually found as appendix in quantitative research methods

and statistics books

Selecting a Sample through Probability Sampling Techniques

Simple random In this technique, all possibilities subsets

of a population are given an equal

probability of being selected. Simple

random sampling involves randomly

selecting respondents from a sampling

frame. But with the large sampling

frames, usually a table of random

numbers or a computerized random

number generator is used.

Systematic In this technique, the sampling frame is

ordered according to some criteria and

elements are selected at regular intervals

through that ordered list.

This involves a random start and then

proceeds with the selection of every kth

element from that point onwards, where

K= N/n, where k is the ratio of sampling

frame size N and the desired sample n,

and is formally called the sampling ratio.

It is important that the starting point is not

automatically the first in the list but is

instead randomly chosen from within the

first k elements on the list.

frame is divided into homogeneous and

nonoverlapping subgroups ( called

“strata”), and a simple random sample is

drawn within each subgroup.

Nonproportional stratified is used

because the proportion of sample within

each subgroup does not reflect the

proportions in the sampling frame (or the

population of interest), and the smaller

subgroup (large-sized films) is

oversampled

Cluster If you have a population dispersed over a

wide geographic region, it may not be

feasible to conduct a simple random

sampling of the entire population. In such

case, it may be reasonable to divide the

populations into “clusters” (usually along

the geographic boundaries), randomly

sample a few clusters, and measure all

units within cluster.

Example you can cluster these

governments based on their countries,

randomly select a set of the tree

countries, and then interview officials

from every official in those countries.

The variability of sample estimates in a

cluster sample will generally be higher

than that of a simple random sample.

Stage The probability sampling techniques

described previously are all examples of

single-stage sampling techniques.

Depending on your sampling need, you

may continue these single-stage

techniques to conduct multi stage

sampling.

businesses based on firm size, and then

conduct systematic sampling within each

stratum. This is a two-stage combination

of stratified and systematic sampling.

Likewise, you can start with a cluster of

school district in the state of New York,

and within each cluster, select a simple

random sample of schools. In this case,

you have a four-stage sampling process

consisting of cluster and simple random

sampling.

TYPES OF QUANTITATIVE DATA COLLECTION

Data Collection

- The process of gathering and measuring information on targeted variables in an established

systematic fashion.

- it is important because it is one way to come up with answers, which come in the form of

useful information, converted from data.

Quantitative Surveys

Quantitative Observation

Experiments

Official Statistics

Content Analysis

Quantitative Surveys

- Methods emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical

analysis of data.

- It has two types which is the questionnaire and the interview survey.

Questionnaires

- A research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of

gathering information from respondents.

- They are often designed for statistical analysis of the responses

Interview Survey

- A survey method that is utilized when a specific target population is involved.

- The purpose of conducting a personal interview survey is to explore the responses of the

people to gather more and deeper information.

1. Face to Face interview

- Is a data collection method when the interviewer directly communicates with the

respondent in accordance with the prepared questionnaire.

2. Telephone and/or online, web-based interviews

- Is an interview conducted on the phone or on the computer-mediated communication

(CMC).

3. Computer-assisted interviews

- Is an interviewing technique in which the respondent or interviewer uses a computer to

answer the questions.

Quantitative Observation

- Data may be collected through systematic observation by, say counting the number of users

present and currently accessing services in a specific area.

- it mostly involves using the senses and keen observation skills to get data about the “what”,

and not really about the “why” and “how”.

1. Laboratory experiments

- Is a type of experiment is conducted in a well-controlled environment (not necessarily a

laboratory), where accurate measurements are possible.

2. Field Experiment

- Is applies the scientific method to experimentally examine an intervention in the real

world (or as many experimentalists like to say, naturally occurring environments) rather

than in the laboratory.

3. Natural experiments

- An empirical study in which individuals exposed to the experimental and control

conditions are determined by nature or by other factors outside the control of the

investigators.

Official Statistics

- The use and analysis of official statistics for purposes of social research is another alternative

to collecting data.

- They can be classified as a form of unobtrusive measure/method.

Content Analysis

- It is a method by which some observable contents, such as texts, images, objects, etc. are

transferred through coding into a measurable and verifiable form.

- The process of conducting a content analysis follows the general research process of

quantitative inquiries.

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