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Acids, Alkalis and Titrations


Question paper 1
Level IGCSE(9-1)
Subject Chemistry
Exam Board Edexcel IGCSE
Module Double Award (Paper 1C)
Topic Inorganic Chemistry
Sub-Topic Acids, Alkalis and Titrations
Booklet Question paper 1

Time Allowed: 59 minutes

Score: /49

Percentage: /100

Grade Boundaries:

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

>90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%


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1 A student investigates the reaction of aqueous sodium hydroxide with two different
aqueous solutions of hydrochloric acid, solution X and solution Y.
She carries out two experiments.
Experiment 1
x Using a measuring cylinder, she pours 20 cm3 of aqueous sodium hydroxide
into a conical flask and records its temperature.
x Using a burette, she adds 5 cm3 of solution X to the conical flask.
x She stirs the mixture with the thermometer and records the temperature.
x She adds further 5 cm3 volumes of solution X and stirs with the thermometer.
x She records the temperature after each addition of solution X.
x She stops when a total of 40 cm3 of solution X has been added.
Experiment 2
x She empties the burette and rinses it first with water and then with solution Y.
She then fills the burette with solution Y.
x She repeats the experiment using solution Y.
The table shows the results she obtains in Experiment 1.

Experiment 1 – Solution X
Volume in cm3 of
Temperature in °C
solution X added
0 23.0
5 27.0
10 31.0
15 32.2
20 30.6
25 28.9
30 27.3
35 25.6
40 24.0
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(a) Plot the results for Experiment 1 on the grid.


Draw a straight line of best fit through the first three points and a second straight
line of best fit through the last six points.
Make sure that the two straight lines cross.
(4)
35 –

30 –

Temperature
in °C

25 –

20 –


0 10 20 30 40
Volume of solution X added in cm3

(b) (i) Use the graph to determine the volume of solution X that will produce the
maximum temperature rise when added to 20 cm3 of the aqueous sodium hydroxide.
(1)

volume of solution X = ....................................... . cm3


(ii) Use the graph to determine the maximum temperature rise.
(1)

maximum temperature rise = .................................. . . . . . . °C


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(c) Why did the student rinse the burette first with water, and then with solution Y,
before performing Experiment 2?
(2)

water ......................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .

. . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

solution Y ............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(d) The maximum temperature rise in Experiment 2 was less than that in Experiment 1.
Suggest a reason why.
(1)

. . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 1 = 9 marks)


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2 A student investigates the reactions between acids and alkalis. He uses this
apparatus to measure the temperature change in the reaction between dilute
hydrochloric acid (HCl) and aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH).

polystyrene
cup

This is his method.


• add 25 cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid to the polystyrene cup and record the
steady temperature
• add some aqueous sodium hydroxide and stir the mixture
• record the maximum temperature of the mixture
The student repeats the experiment using different volumes of aqueous sodium hydroxide.
(a) What is the advantage of using a polystyrene cup rather than a glass beaker?

(1)

. . . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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(b) These are the thermometer readings from one experiment.

°C 20 °C 20

15 15

before adding after adding


aqueous sodium hydroxide aqueous sodium hydroxide

Use these readings to complete the table.


(3)

temperature in °C after adding aqueous sodium hydroxide

temperature in °C before adding aqueous sodium hydroxide

temperature change in °C
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(c) The table shows the results of some experiments.


The initial temperature of both solutions in all the experiments is 17.6 °C.

Volume of aqueous
Temperature of
sodium hydroxide
mixture in °C
added in cm3
0.0 17.6
5.0 19.7
10.0 21.6
15.0 23.6
20.0 23.8
25.0 23.0
30.0 22.2

(i) Plot these results on the grid. Draw a straight line of best fit through the first
four points, and another straight line of best fit through the last three points.
Extend both lines so that they cross each other.
(4)

25.0 –

Temperature
20.0 –
in °C

15.0 –

0 10.0 20.0 30.0


Volume of aqueous sodium hydroxide in cm3
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(ii) For the point where the lines cross, write down
(2)

the temperature of the mixture = .............................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . °C

the volume of aqueous sodium hydroxide = ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . cm3

(d) In a similar experiment, using a different acid and alkali, the student records these results.
volume of dilute sulfuric acid = 25.0 cm3
volume of aqueous potassium hydroxide = 22.7 cm3
initial temperature of each solution = 18.9 °C
final temperature of mixture = 24.7 °C

Calculate the heat energy change during this reaction using this equation.
heat energy change = mass × 4.2 × temperature change
Assume that 1.0 cm3 of each solution has a mass of 1.0 g.
(3)

heat energy change = ...................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J

(Total for Question 2 = 13 marks)


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3 A student carries out a titration to find the concentration of some dilute sulfuric acid.

She is given

t a supply of the dilute sulfuric acid

t sodium hydroxide solution of concentration 0.150 mol/dm3

t apparatus suitable for carrying out a titration

t phenolphthalein indicator

She uses this method to do the titration.


3
step
ep 1 add 25. of the sodium hydroxide solution to a conical flask
step
ep 2 add ops of phenolphthalein indicator to the conical flask
step
ep 3 fill a ette with the sulfuric acid
step
ep 4 add the sulfuric acid to the conical flask until the phenolphthalein indicator just
changes colour

(a) Name the piece of apparatus that the student should use to add the sodium hydroxide
solution in step 1.
(1)
pipette
. . . . . . ..................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(b) What is the colour change of the phenolphthalein indicator in step 4?


(1)
A colourless to pink
B pink to colourless
C red to yellow
D yellow to red

(c) Why is it better to use phenolphthalein indicator rather than universal indicator in
this titration?
(1)
universal indicator has a range og colours. But we need an indicator with
maximum 2 coours
. . . . . . ..................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . ..................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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(d) The diagram shows the burette readings in one titration.

2 23

3 24

4 25

before after

Use the readings to complete the table, entering all values to the nearest 0.05 cm3.
(3)

burette reading in cm3 after adding acid 24.15

2.30
burette reading in cm3 before adding acid

volume of acid added in cm3 21.85


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(e) The student repeats the experiment using the same sodium hydroxide solution
but another solution of sulfuric acid of a different concentration.
The table shows her results.

burette reading in cm3 after adding acid 27.65 27.80 27.75 27.40

burette reading in cm3 before adding acid 0.50 1.50 1.00 1.00

volume of acid added in cm3 27.15 26.30 26.75 26.40

titration results to be used (9)

The average (mean) volume of acid should be calculated using only concordant results.
Concordant results are those volumes that differ from each other by 0.20 cm3 or less.
(i) Identify the concordant results by placing ticks (9) in the table where appropriate.
(1)
(ii) Use your ticked results to calculate the average volume of acid added.
(2)
26.30+26.40/2
26.35cm3

26.35
average volume of acid = ................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . cm
3
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(f ) The student uses a similar method to find the concentration of a solution of


phosphoric acid (H3PO4).
The equation for the reaction is
3NaOH + H3PO4 o Na3PO4 + 3H2O
The table shows her results.

volume of sodium hydroxide solution added to conical flask 25.0 cm3

concentration of sodium hydroxide solution 0.180 mol/dm3

average volume of phosphoric acid solution added from burette 28.30 cm3

(i) Calculate the amount, in moles, of NaOH in 25.0 cm3 of the sodium hydroxide solution.
(2)
moles of sodium hydroxide= v*c
=25.0*0.00018
=4.5 mol

0.0045
amount of NaOH = ................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mol
(ii) Calculate the amount, in moles, of H3PO4 in the phosphoric acid solution.
(1)
0.0045/3
0.0015

0.0015
amount of H3PO4 = ................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mol
(iii) Calculate the concentration, in mol/dm3, of the phosphoric acid.
(2)
0.0015/28.30*1000

0.053
concentration of phosphoric acid = .............................................................. mol/dm3

(Total for Question 3 = 14 marks)


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4 The formula for hydrated iron(II) sulfate is FeSO4.xH2O

The value of x is a whole number between 1 and 10. It can be determined by carrying out
a titration with 0.0200 mol/dm3 potassium manganate(VII) (KMnO4) solution as follows:
• dissolve a sample of FeSO4.xH2O in water to make 250 cm3 of solution
• measure out 25.0 cm3 of this solution into a conical flask
• add the KMnO4 solution using a burette until the end point is reached
• record the volume of solution added
• repeat the titration three more times

The table shows the results.

titration number 1 2 3 3

volume in cm3 of KMnO4 solution added 22.80 22.10 22.50 22.20

concordant titration results (9)

(a) Concordant results are those within 0.20 cm3 of each other.
Place ticks (9) in the table to show the concordant results.
(1)
(b) Using the concordant results, calculate the average (mean) volume of KMnO4
solution added. Give your answer to 2 decimal places.
(2)
22.10+22.20/2
22.15

22.15
average volume added = ........................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cm3
(c) Which is the most suitable piece of apparatus to measure out 25.0 cm3 of
FeSO4 solution?
(1)

A beaker
B gas syringe
C measuring cylinder
D pipette
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(d) These results were obtained in another titration.

mass of FeSO4.xH2O in 250 cm3 of the FeSO4 solution 5.56 g

average volume of KMnO4 solution added to 25.0 cm3 of solution 20.00 cm3

concentration of the KMnO4 solution


o .0200 mol/dm3

(i) Calculate the amount, in moles, of KMnO4 in 20.00 cm3 of solution.


(2)

n=c*v
=0.0200/1000*20.00

0.0004
amount of KMnO4 = ........................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mol

(ii) In this reaction one mole of KMnO4 reacts with five moles of FeSO4
Calculate the amount, in moles, of FeSO4 in 25.0 cm3 of the FeSO4 solution.
(1)

0.002
amount of FeSO4 in 25.0 cm3 = ........................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mol

(iii) Calculate the amount, in moles, of FeSO4 in 250 cm3 of this FeSO4 solution.
(1)

amount of FeSO4 in 250 cm3 = ........................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mol

(iv) Using your answer from (d)(iii), calculate the mass, in grams, of FeSO4 in the
5.56 g of FeSO4.xH2O.
[Mr of FeSO4 = 152]
(1)

mass of FeSO4 = ................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . g


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(e) In another experiment it is found that 24.2 g of FeSO4.xH2O contains


15.2 g of iron(II) sulfate (FeSO4).
(i) Calculate the mass of water in 24.2 g of FeSO4.xH2O
(1)

mass of water = ................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . g

(ii) Calculate the amount, in moles, of H2O in this mass of water.


(1)

amount of H2O = ........................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mol

(iii) Calculate the amount, in moles, of FeSO4 in 15.2 g of iron(II) sulfate.


[Mr of FeSO4 = 152]
(1)

amount of FeSO4 = ........................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mol

(iv)
i sing your answers to parts (ii) and (iii), calculate the value of x in FeSO4.xH2O.
(1)

value of x = ............................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 4 = 13 marks)


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Acids, Alkalis and Titrations


Question paper 2
Level IGCSE(9-1)
Subject Chemistry
Exam Board Edexcel IGCSE
Module Double Award (Paper 1C)
Topic Inorganic Chemistry
Sub-Topic Acids, Alkalis and Titrations
Booklet Question paper 2

Time Allowed: 59 minutes

Score: /49

Percentage: /100

Grade Boundaries:

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

>90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%


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1 A total volume of 50 cm3 of hydrochloric acid is added gradually to 50 cm3 of sodium hydroxide
solution containing some universal indicator.
The graph shows how the pH of the solution changes as the acid is added.
14

12

10

pH

0
0 10 20 30 40 50
Volume of acid added in cm3
(a) Use the graph to answer these questions.
(i) What is the pH of the sodium hydroxide solution before any acid is added?
(1)

. . . . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) What is the pH of the solution after 40 cm3 of acid is added?


(1)

. . . . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(iii) What volume of acid is needed to completely neutralise the sodium hydroxide?
(1)

. . . . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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(b) The table shows the colour of universal indicator at different pH values.

pH 0–2 3–4 5–6 7 8–9 10–12 13–14

Colour red orange yellow green blue indigo violet

Complete the table below to show the colour of the solution when the volume of
hydrochloric acid added is 20 cm3 and when the volume added is 35 cm3.
(2)

Volume of hydrochloric acid


Colour of solution
added in cm3

20

35

(c) Write a chemical equation for the reaction between sodium hydroxide and
hydrochloric acid.
(1)

. . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 1 = 6 marks)


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2 (a) A student made a solution of sodium hydroxide by dissolving 10.0 g of solid


sodium hydroxide in distilled water to make 250 cm3 of solution.
(i) Calculate the amount, in moles, of NaOH in 10.0 g of sodium hydroxide.
(3)

amount = ............................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mol

(ii) Calculate the concentration, in mol/dm3, of this solution of sodium hydroxide.


(2)

concentration = ............................................................ . . mol/dm3


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(b) (i) The student uses the sodium hydroxide solution to find the concentration of a
solution of hydrochloric acid.
He uses this method
x use a pipette to put 25.0 cm3 of the sodium hydroxide solution into a
conical flask
x add a few drops of methyl orange indicator to the solution
x gradually add the hydrochloric acid from a burette until the solution in the
flask just changes colour
The diagram shows his burette readings.

1 25

2 26

start end

Complete the table, giving all values to the nearest 0.05 cm3.
(3)

burette reading at end in cm3

burette reading at start in cm3

volume of acid added in cm3

(ii) State the colour of the methyl orange at the start and at the end of the experiment.
(2)

colour at start .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

colour at end ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(iii) Why is a burette used instead of a pipette for adding the acid?
(1)

. . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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(c) Sodium hydroxide reacts with carbon dioxide.


The equation for this reaction is

2NaOH + CO2 o Na2CO3 + H2O

A solution of sodium hydroxide of concentration 2.00 mol/dm3 is used.


(i) Calculate the amount, in moles, of sodium hydroxide in 200 cm3 of this solution.
(2)

amount of sodium hydroxide = ............................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mol

(ii) Deduce the maximum mass, in grams, of carbon dioxide that can react with
this solution of sodium hydroxide.
(2)

mass of carbon dioxide = ........................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . g

(Total for Question 2 = 15 marks)


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3 The diagram shows some pieces of apparatus used to measure volumes.

25
cm3

50
cm3

25
cm3

250
cm3

A student was given a large bottle containing sodium hydroxide solution and a supply
of dilute sulfuric acid of known concentration.
He was allowed to use normal laboratory apparatus, including the pieces of apparatus
shown in the diagram.
He was told to plan an experiment to find the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution.
This is his plan.

Step 1 Obtain about 150 cm3 of each solution.

Step 2 Use a measuring cylinder to add exactly 25.0 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution
to a conical flask.

Step 3 Add a few drops of universal indicator to the conical flask.

Step 4 Use a burette to add the sulfuric acid to the conical flask until the indicator
changes colour.

(a) (i) Give the name of the most suitable piece of apparatus in the diagram that
should be used in Step 1.
(1)

. . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) Give the name of the piece of apparatus in the diagram that should be used
instead of a measuring cylinder in Step 2.
(1)

. . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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(iii) State why universal indicator is not a good choice for this experiment and
suggest an indicator that would be more suitable.
(2)

. . . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(iv) Why is a pipette not suitable for adding the acid in Step 4?
(1)

. . . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(b) The diagram shows the burette readings in one experiment before and after
adding the acid.

Before After

2 22

3 23

4 24

Use the readings to complete the table, entering all values to the nearest 0.05 cm3.
(3)

Burette reading after adding acid in cm3

Burette reading before adding acid in cm3

Volume of acid added in cm3


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(c) The student repeated the experiment using a different concentration of sodium hydroxide
solution and recorded these results.

Burette reading after adding acid in cm3 24.90 25.85 24.85 25.55
Burette reading before adding acid in cm3 1.20 2.75 1.50 2.10
Volume of acid added in cm3 23.70 23.10 23.35 23.45
Titration results to be used (9)

The volumes of acid added during these titrations are not all the same. The average
(mean) volume of acid should be calculated using only concordant results.
Concordant results are those volumes that differ from each other by 0.20 cm3 or less.

(i) Identify the concordant results by placing ticks (9) in the table where appropriate.
(1)
(ii) Use your ticked results to calculate the average (mean) volume of acid added.
(2)

Average (mean) volume of acid = ......................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . cm3


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(d) The student used the same method to find the concentration of a solution of
potassium hydroxide. The equation for the reaction is

2KOH + H2SO4  K2SO4 + 2H2O


These are his results.

Volume of potassium hydroxide solution 25.0 cm3

Volume of sulfuric acid 23.60 cm3

Concentration of sulfuric acid 0.0500 mol/dm3

He used these results to calculate the concentration of the potassium hydroxide


solution.

0.0500 × 23.60
Step 1 amount of H2SO4 = = 0.0118 mol
100

0.0118
Step 2 amount of KOH = = 0.00590 mol
2

0.00590
Step 3 concentration of KOH = × 1000 = 0.250 mol/dm3
23.60

There is one mistake in each step of the calculation.


What correction should the student make in each step?
(i) Step 1
(1)

. . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) Step 2
(1)

. . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(iii) Step 3
(1)

. . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 3 = 14 marks)


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4 A student uses the neutralisation method to make a sample of the soluble salt,
sodium sulfate.
The equation for the reaction he uses is

2NaOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq) o Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l)

(a) He does a titration using these steps to find the ratio of the volumes of reactants
needed.
x add 25.0 cm3 solution of dilute sodium hydroxide solution to a conical flask
x add a few drops of phenolphthalein indicator to the conical flask
x add dilute sulfuric acid from a burette until the indicator just changes colour
x repeat the experiment until concordant results are obtained

(i) Which piece of apparatus should the student use to add the
sodium hydroxide solution?
(1)

. . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) What colour change would the student see when he neutralises the
sodium hydroxide solution?
(2)

colour before neutralisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................... ................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

colour after neutralisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................................................................................... ...................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


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(b) The diagram shows the burette readings in one experiment before and after
adding the acid.

1 22

2 23

3 24

before after

Use the readings to calculate the volume of acid added, entering all values to the
nearest 0.05 cm3.
(3)
burette reading after adding acid .............................................................. cm3
burette reading before adding acid .............................................................. cm3
volume of acid added .............................................................. cm3

(c) The student repeats the experiment and records these results.

burette reading in cm3 after adding acid 25.20 25.05 23.65 23.50

burette reading in cm3 before adding acid 2.90 3.10 2.55 2.30

volume of acid added in cm3 22.30 21.95 21.10 21.20

titration results to be used (9)

The average (mean) volume of acid added should be calculated using only
concordant results (those that differ from each other by 0.20 cm3 or less).
(i) Identify the concordant results by placing ticks (9) in the table where appropriate.
(1)
(ii) Use your ticked results to calculate the average volume of acid added.
(2)

average volume = ................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . cm3


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(d) The student uses 200 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution of concentration 0.300 mol/dm3
to prepare a sample of sodium sulfate solution.
(i) Calculate the amount, in moles, of NaOH in the sodium hydroxide solution.
(2)

amount of NaOH = ............................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mol

(ii) Calculate the amount, in moles, of H2SO4 needed to neutralise this amount of NaOH.
(1)

amount of H2SO4 = ............................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mol

(iii) Calculate the mass, in grams, of this amount of H2SO4


(2)

mass of H2SO4 = ........................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . g

(Total for Question 4 = 14 marks)


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Acids, Alkalis and Titrations


Question paper 3
Level IGCSE(9-1)
Subject Chemistry
Exam Board Edexcel IGCSE
Module Single Award (Paper 2C)
Topic Inorganic Chemistry
Sub-Topic Acids, Alkalis and Titrations
Booklet Question paper 3

Time Allowed: 72 minutes

Score: /60

Percentage: /100

Grade Boundaries:

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

>90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%


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1 This apparatus can be used in a method to find the volume of sulfuric acid required
to neutralise a solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH).

burette containing
0.100mol/dm3 H2SO4

conical flask

25.0cm3 of KOH

(a) What name is given to this method?


(1)

. . . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(b) Which piece of apparatus should be used to measure the 25.0cm3 of KOH?
(1)
A beaker
B measuring cylinder
C pipette
D syringe

(c) State the colours that are seen if methyl orange is used as the indicator.
(2)

colour before adding the acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..................................................................................................... ...................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

colour after KOH is neutralised . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................ .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


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(d) A student carries out the experiment. His burette readings are shown in the
diagram.

2 23

3 24

before after

Use the diagram to complete the table. Give the readings to the nearest 0.05cm3.
(3)

Burette reading after adding the acid

Burette reading before adding the acid

Volume in cm3 of acid added

(e) A second student did the experiment four times, using a different solution of
potassium hydroxide. The table shows her results.

Volume in cm3 of acid added 22.90 22.60 22.45 22.55

Concordant results (9)

Concordant results are those within 0.20cm3 of one another.


(i) Place ticks in the table to indicate which results are concordant with one
another.
(1)
(ii) Use your ticked results to calculate the average (mean) volume of acid added.
(2)

average (mean) volume of acid = ............................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cm3

(Total for Question 1 = 10 marks)


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2 A group of students planned an experiment to find the temperature rise in a


neutralisation reaction. This is their method.
x Use a measuring cylinder to add 25 cm3 of an alkali to a 100 cm3 beaker
x Record the temperature of the alkali
x Use a burette to add an acid to the alkali in 5.0 cm3 portions
x Record the temperature of the mixture after adding each portion of acid
x Stop the experiment when the neutralisation is complete
(a) The teacher asked the students about their method.
Suggest an answer to each of her questions.
(i) Why would it be better to use a pipette instead of a measuring cylinder?
(1)

. . . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) It would be better if a polystyrene cup were used instead of a beaker.


What property of polystyrene makes this an improvement?
(1)

. . . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(iii) What extra step should there be between adding each portion of acid and
measuring the temperature?
(1)

. . . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(iv) How would you know when the neutralisation was complete?
(1)

. . . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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(b) The diagrams show the readings on the thermometer before and after one of the
students added a portion of acid.

°C 20 °C 25

15 20

before adding acid after adding acid

Write down the thermometer readings and calculate the temperature change.
(3)
Temperature before adding acid ................................................................ °C

Temperature after adding acid . .................................................................... °C

Temperature change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................................................................... °C


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(c) One student obtained these results from an experiment in which she added
a total of 40.0 cm3 of hydrochloric acid to 25 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution.

Volume of acid in cm3 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0

Temperature in °C 21.0 22.3 24.4 26.2 27.8 27.8 27.5 26.7 26.2

(i) Plot a graph of these results on the grid below.


Draw a straight line of best fit through the first five points and another straight line
of best fit through the last four points. Make sure that the two lines cross.
(4)

30.0

Temperature
in °C
25.0

20.0
0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0

Volume of acid in cm3

(ii) The point where the lines cross indicates the volume of acid needed to exactly
neutralise the alkali, and also the maximum temperature reached.
Use your graph to record these values.
(2)
Volume of acid ......................................................................... cm3

Maximum temperature ................................................... °C


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(d) A second student used the same method and found that 30.0 cm3 of acid were needed
to neutralise 25 cm3 of alkali.
He obtained a temperature rise of 5.5 °C in his experiment.
Calculate the heat energy change in this experiment using the expression:
heat energy change = total volume of mixture u 4.2 u temperature change
(2)

Heat energy change = ......................................................................... J

(e) A third student calculated that the heat energy change in her experiment was
1800 J. This heat energy was released by the neutralisation of 25 cm3 of
1.50 mol/dm3 sodium hydroxide solution.
(i) Calculate the amount, in moles, of sodium hydroxide neutralised.
(2)

Amount = ......................................................................... mol


(ii) Calculate the molar enthalpy change, in kJ/mol, for the neutralisation of
sodium hydroxide.
(2)

Molar enthalpy change = ......................................................................... kJ/mol

(Total for Question 2 = 19 marks)


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3 A student prepares a solution of the soluble salt lithium sulfate, using the
neutralisation reaction between sulfuric acid and the alkali lithium hydroxide.
To make sure that she obtains a pure solution of the salt, she first carries out a titration
to find the volumes of sulfuric acid and lithium hydroxide that react exactly together.
She uses this method in the titration.
Ɣ use a pipette to add 25.0 cm3 of dilute sulfuric acid to a conical flask
Ɣ add a few drops of phenolphthalein indicator
Ɣ fill a burette with lithium hydroxide solution
Ɣ add the lithium hydroxide solution from the burette until the indicator just
changes colour

(a) The diagram shows the burette readings in the experiment before and after
adding the lithium hydroxide solution.

1 22

2 23

3 24

before after

Use these readings to complete the table, giving all values to the nearest 0.05 cm3.
(3)

Burette reading in cm3 after adding alkali

Burette reading in cm3 before adding alkali

Volume in cm3 of alkali added


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(b) The student repeats the experiment using a different concentration of sulfuric acid
The table shows her results.

Burette reading in cm3 after adding alkali 25.05 25.65 24.85 26.10

Burette reading in cm3 before adding alkali 0.75 1.70 1.35 2.40

Volume in cm3 of alkali added 24.30 23.95 23.50 23.70

Titration results to be used (9)

The average (mean) volume of alkali should be calculated using only concordant
results.
Concordant results are those volumes that differ from each other by 0.20 cm3 or less.
(i) Identify the titration results to be used by placing ticks (9) in the table where
appropriate.
(1)
(ii) Use the titration results you ticked in (i) to calculate the average (mean)
volume of alkali added.
(2)

average volume = ................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cm3


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(c) In a titration using solutions of the same acid and alkali but of different concentrations,
she recorded these results.
volume of sulfuric acid = 25.0 cm3
concentration of sulfuric acid = 0.107 mol/dm3
average (mean) volume of lithium hydroxide solution = 22.85 cm3
The equation for the reaction is

2LiOH + H2SO4 o Li2SO4 + 2H2O

(i) Calculate the amount, in moles, of H2SO4 in 25.0 cm3 of 0.107 mol/dm3 sulfuric acid.
(2)

amount of H2SO4 = ................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mol

(ii) Calculate the amount, in moles, of LiOH in the 22.85 cm3 of lithium hydroxide solution.
(1)

amount of LiOH = ................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mol

(iii) Calculate the concentration, in mol/dm3, of LiOH in the lithium hydroxide solution.
(2)

concentration of LiOH = ............................................................... . mol/dm3


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(d) To prepare the solution of lithium sulfate, the student mixes together the volumes
of acid and alkali obtained from the titration results.
She then tests a sample of the lithium sulfate solution formed by adding a few drops
of barium chloride solution.
(i) Describe the observation she makes.
(1)

. . . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) State the name of the substance responsible for this observation.
(1)

. . . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 3 = 13 marks)


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4 A student investigated the neutralisation of acids by measuring the temperature changes


when alkalis were added to acids of known concentrations.
He used this apparatus to add different volumes of sodium hydroxide solution to a
fixed volume of dilute nitric acid.

polystyrene
cup

He used this method.


Ɣ measure the temperature of 25.0 cm3 of the acid in the polystyrene cup
Ɣ add the sodium hydroxide solution in 5.0 cm3 portions until a total of 30.0 cm3
has been added
(a) State two properties of the sodium hydroxide solution that should be kept constant
for each 5.0 cm3 portion.
(2)

1 . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . ..................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . ..................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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(b) The diagram shows the thermometer readings in one experiment.

°C 20 °C 20

15 15

before adding alkali after adding alkali

Write down the thermometer readings and calculate the temperature change.
(3)

temperature after adding alkali .................................................................... °C

temperature before adding alkali ............................................................... °C

temperature change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................................................................... °C


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(c) The student carried out the experiment three times.


The table shows his results.

Volume of alkali Temperature in °C


added in cm3 experiment 1 experiment 2 experiment 3
0.0 17.4 16.6 15.9
5.0 18.5 21.0 18.0
10.0 19.6 24.5 20.0
15.0 20.5 23.6 22.2
20.0 21.4 22.7 23.6
25.0 22.5 21.4 22.8
30.0 23.4 20.5 22.0

The teacher said that only the results for experiment 3 showed the expected
increase and decrease in temperature.

(i) Why was there no temperature decrease in experiment 1?


(1)
A The alkali was added too quickly
B The starting temperature of the acid was too high
C The acid concentration was half what it should have been
D The volume of acid used was 50.0 cm3 instead of 25.0 cm3

(ii) Why were the temperature increases in experiment 2 much greater than expected?
(1)
A The starting temperature of the acid was too high
B The acid concentration was double what it should have been
C The volume of acid used was 50.0 cm3 instead of 25.0 cm3
D The alkali was added in 10.0 cm3 portions but were recorded as 5.0 cm3 portions
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(d) Plot the results of experiment 3 on the grid.


Draw a straight line of best fit through the first four points, and another straight
line of best fit through the last three points. Make sure that the two lines cross.
(4)

25.0 –

Temperature
in °C 20.0 –

15.0 –


0 10.0 20.0 30.0
Volume of alkali in cm3

(e) The point where the lines cross indicates the volume of alkali added to exactly neutralise
the acid and also the maximum temperature reached.
Record these values.
(2)
volume of alkali. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................................................... cm3

maximum temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................................................... °C


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(f ) Another student used sulfuric acid instead of nitric acid in her experiments.
She started with 25.0 cm3 of sulfuric acid of concentration 0.650 mol/dm3.
She added 0.500 mol/dm3 sodium hydroxide solution until the acid was
completely neutralised.
The equation for this reaction is
2NaOH + H2SO4 o Na2SO4 + 2H2O
(i) Calculate the amount, in moles, of sulfuric acid used.
(2)

amount = .................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mol


(ii) Calculate the amount, in moles, of sodium hydroxide needed to neutralise this
amount of sulfuric acid.
(1)

amount = .................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mol


(iii) Calculate the volume, in cm3, of sodium hydroxide solution needed to neutralise
this amount of sulfuric acid.
(2)

volume = .................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cm3

(Total for Question 4 = 18 marks)


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Acids, Bases and Salt


preparations
Question paper 1
Level IGCSE(9-1)
Subject Chemistry
Exam Board Edexcel IGCSE
Module Double Award (Paper 1C)
Topic Inorganic Chemistry
Sub-Topic Acids, Bases and salt preparations
Booklet Question paper 1

Time Allowed: 44 minutes

Score: /36

Percentage: /100

Grade Boundaries:

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

>90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%


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1 This question is about the reactions of calcium and some calcium compounds.

(a) Calcium reacts with cold water. The equation for the reaction is
Ca(s) + 2H2O(l) o Ca(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)
(i) State two observations that are made when calcium reacts with water.
(2)

1 . . .................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 . . .................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) Explain a possible value for the pH of the solution formed.


(2)

. . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(b) The diagram shows some reactions involving calcium compounds.


Identify solid X, solution Y and solid Z.

heat
CaCO3 solid X + CO2

H2O(l)

dilute
Ca(OH)2(aq) solution Y + H2O
HCl(aq)

CO2(g)

solid Z

(3)

solid X ...................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .

solution Y ............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

solid Z ..................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 1 = 7 marks)


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2 The diagrams show the reactions of some metals with cold water and with dilute
hydrochloric acid.
bubbles
of gas

Metals in
cold water

calcium copper iron magnesium zinc

Metals in dilute
hydrochloric acid

calcium copper iron magnesium zinc

(a) Answer the following questions, using only the metals that appear in the diagrams.
(i) Name two metals that react with cold water.
(2)

. . . . . . ..................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..................... and ......................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


(ii) Name one metal that reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid but not with cold water.
(1)

. . . . . . ..................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(iii) Arrange the five metals in order of reactivity.


(3)

Most reactive metal . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................................................................

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .................................................................

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .................................................................

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .................................................................

Least reactive metal . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................................................................


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(b) Some magnesium powder is added to dilute sulfuric acid in a test tube.
A colourless solution is formed and a gas is given off.
When more magnesium is added, the reaction continues for a while and then stops,
leaving some magnesium powder in the test tube.
When a flame is placed at the mouth of the test tube, the gas burns with a
squeaky pop.
(i) Identify the gas produced.
(1)

. . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) Suggest why the reaction stops.


(1)

. . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(iii) State the name of the colourless solution.


(1)

. . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(iv) How could you separate the magnesium powder from the colourless solution?
(1)

. . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(c) In some fireworks, magnesium powder reacts quickly with oxygen in the air.
During this reaction heat energy is produced.
(i) What name is given to reactions in which heat energy is produced?
(1)

. . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) Name the compound formed when magnesium reacts with oxygen.
(1)

. . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 2 = 12 marks)


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3 Several methods are used to prepare salts. The method chosen depends on whether the
salt is soluble or insoluble in water.

(a) An insoluble salt is prepared by mixing solutions of silver nitrate and sodium
chloride.
(i) State the name of the insoluble salt formed.
(1)

. ............................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) Write a chemical equation for the reaction occurring.


(2)

. ............................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(b) The chemical equation for the preparation of the insoluble salt lead(II) sulfate is
shown below.

Complete the equation by adding state symbols.


(1)

Pb(NO3)2(….......… ) + Na2SO4(… . . . . . . . … ) → PbSO4(… . . . . . . . … ) + 2NaNO3(… . . . . . . . … )


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(c) A soluble salt is prepared from solutions of an acid and an alkali.


(i) Identify the acid and the alkali used to prepare sodium nitrate.
(2)
Acid

.............................. ............................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Alkali

.............................. ............................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) The diagrams show the readings on a burette before and after a student added an
alkali to an acid during a titration.

Before After

2 22

3 23

4 24

Use these diagrams to complete the table below, entering all values to the
nearest 0.05 cm3.

Burette reading after adding alkali in cm3

Burette reading before adding alkali in cm3

Volume of alkali added in cm3

(3)
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(d) A second student also did the titration and recorded these results:

Burette reading after adding alkali in cm3 24.05 23.30 23.55 23.80

Burette reading before adding alkali in cm3 0.50 0.80 0.60 1.20

Volume of alkali added in cm3 23.55 22.50 22.95 22.60

Titration results to be used (  )

The volumes of alkali added during these titrations are not all the same. The average
(mean) volume of alkali should be calculated using only concordant results.

Concordant results are those volumes that differ from each other by 0.20 cm3 or less.
(i) Identify the concordant results by placing ticks (  ) in the table as shown.
(1)
(ii) Use your ticked results to calculate the average (mean) volume of alkali added.
(2)

Average (mean) volume = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cm3


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(e) A student mixed together the acid and alkali to form sodium nitrate solution. She
used the volumes needed for complete reaction found in the titration. She heated this
solution in an evaporating basin to remove some of the water.

After cooling the concentrated solution, crystals of sodium nitrate formed.

What steps should she now take to obtain dry crystals of sodium nitrate?
(2)

. . . . . ............................................................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . ............................................................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . ............................................................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . ............................................................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(f) Sodium nitrate decomposes when heated, as shown by the equation

2NaNO3  →  2NaNO2 + O2

A 1.70 g sample of sodium nitrate (Mr = 85) was completely decomposed to sodium
nitrite (NaNO2) and oxygen.

Calculate the mass of sodium nitrite formed.


(3)

Mass of sodium nitrite = .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . g

(Total for Question 3 = 17 marks)


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Acids, Bases and Salt


preparations
Question paper 2
Level IGCSE(9-1)
Subject Chemistry
Exam Board Edexcel IGCSE
Module Double Award (Paper 1C)
Topic Inorganic Chemistry
Sub-Topic Acids, Bases and salt preparations
Booklet Question paper 2

Time Allowed: 48 minutes

Score: /40

Percentage: /100

Grade Boundaries:

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

>90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%


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1 This question is about different metals.


The list shows part of the reactivity series of metals.
potassium most reactive
sodium
magnesium
zinc
iron
lead
copper least reactive

(a) Name a metal from the list that is extracted by electrolysis.


(1)

. ..................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(b) Uranium is a metal that is in between magnesium and zinc in the reactivity series.
Equal sized pieces of these three metals are placed in separate solutions of dilute
hydrochloric acid of the same concentration and at the same temperature.
The observations for magnesium and zinc are shown in the table.
Complete the table by stating the observations that would be made for uranium.
(2)

Metal Observations

Bubbles of gas produced very rapidly.


magnesium
Solid disappears very quickly.

Bubbles of gas produced slowly.


zinc
Solid disappears slowly.

uranium

(c) (i) Metals high in the reactivity series react readily with water.
Name the compound formed when potassium reacts with water.
(1)

. ..................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) Give the formula of the compound formed when magnesium reacts with steam.
(1)

. ..................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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(d) Zinc can be extracted by heating zinc oxide with carbon.


The equation for the reaction is

ZnO + C → Zn + CO
(i) Explain whether zinc or carbon is the more reactive element.
(1)

. . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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(ii) Explain which element is acting as a reducing agent in this reaction.


(2)

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(Total for Question 1 = 8 marks)


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2 This question is about the insoluble salt lead(II) bromide.

(a) A student uses the precipitation method to prepare lead(II) bromide.


The equation for the reaction she uses is

Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2NaBr(aq) o PbBr2(s) + 2NaNO3(aq)

Describe how she could use solutions of lead(II) nitrate and sodium bromide to obtain
a pure, dry sample of lead(II) bromide.
(5)

. . . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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(b) The student’s teacher uses this apparatus to electrolyse a pure sample of
molten lead(II) bromide.

lamp

molten lead(II) bromide

heat

The student records these observations.

a small blob of a silvery liquid appears at one electrode


a brown substance forms at the other electrode
the lamp stops working soon after the teacher stops heating the lead(II) bromide

(i) Which is the correct statement about this electrolysis?


(1)
A the brown substance is bromide
B the products are both elements
C the silvery liquid forms at the positive electrode
D the silvery liquid is molten lead(II) bromide
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(ii) The student writes this half-equation to show the reaction in which the brown
substance forms.

2Br – + 2e– o 2Br

Identify the two mistakes in her half-equation.


(2)

1 . . ..................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2 . . ..................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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(iii) Explain why the lamp stops working after the teacher stops heating the
lead(II) bromide.
(1)

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(Total for Question 2 = 9 marks)


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3 The reactivity of metals can be studied using displacement reactions. In these reactions,
one metal is added to a solution of a salt of a different metal.
If a displacement reaction occurs, there is a temperature rise.
A student used the following method in a series of experiments.
Ɣ Pour some metal salt solution into a polystyrene cup supported in a glass beaker
and record the temperature of the solution.
Ɣ Add a known mass of a metal and stir.
Ɣ Record the maximum temperature of the mixture.
(a) Suggest three variables that should be kept the same for the student’s experiments
to be a fair test.
(3)

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(b) The student used a thermometer to measure the temperature rise. The diagrams
show the thermometer readings before and after adding the metal.

°C 20 °C 25

15 20

before adding metal after adding metal

Use the diagrams to complete the table.


(3)

Temperature after adding the metal in °C

Temperature before adding the metal in °C

Temperature change in °C
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(c) The student used copper(II) sulfate solution in all her experiments. She used five
different metals. She did not know the identity of the metal labelled X.
The student did each experiment twice. The table shows her results.

Temperature rise in °C Average


Metal temperature rise
Run 1 Run 2 in °C
magnesium 10.5 15.5 13.0
silver 0.0 0.0 0.0
iron 3.5 4.5 4.0
X 0.0 0.0 0.0
zinc 8.0 9.0 8.5

(i) Which of the metals gave the least reliable temperature rise?
Explain your choice.
(2)

Metal .......................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .

Explanation ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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(ii) Identify the most reactive of the metals used.


Explain how the results show that it is the most reactive.
(2)

Metal .......................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .

Explanation ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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(iii) Why is there no temperature rise when silver is added to copper(II) sulfate solution?
(1)

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(iv) Why do the results make it impossible to decide which of the metals is the
least reactive?
(1)

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(d) A word equation for one of the reactions is

zinc + copper(II) sulfate o copper + zinc sulfate

Write a chemical equation for this reaction.


(1)

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(Total for Question 3 = 13 marks)


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4 Some students investigated displacement reactions involving three different metals and
solutions of their salts. This equation represents one of these reactions:
Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) → ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s)
This reaction occurs because zinc is more reactive than copper.
When a displacement reaction occurs, there is a temperature rise. The bigger the
difference in reactivity between the two metals, the bigger the temperature rise.

(a) What word is used to describe reactions in which there is a temperature rise?
(1)

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(b) The students used this method.


   Ɣ 3RXUVRPHPHWDOVDOWVROXWLRQLQWRDEHDNHUSODFHDWKHUPRPHWHULQWKHEHDNHU
and record the temperature
   Ɣ $GGVRPHRIWKHPHWDODQGVWLUWKHPL[WXUH
   Ɣ 5HFRUGWKHPD[LPXPWHPSHUDWXUH
(i) State two variables that the students should keep the same to ensure that the experiment
was valid.
(2)

1 . ............................... ............................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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2 . ............................... ............................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . ................................ ............................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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(ii) The diagrams show the thermometer readings at the start and at the end of one
of the experiments.

start end

20

25

15

20

   5HFRUGWKHWHPSHUDWXUHVDQGFDOFXODWHWKHWHPSHUDWXUHULVHLQWKLVH[SHULPHQW
(3)

Temperature at start ................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . °C

Temperature at end ................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . °C

Temperature rise ......................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . °C


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(iii) Each experiment was repeated twice. The table shows the average temperatures
obtained.

Metal and metal salt used Average temperature rise in °C


Zn + CuSO4 12.2
X + CuSO4 8.3
X + ZnSO4 0.0
Cu + ZnSO4 0.0
Zn + XSO4 2.7
Cu + XSO4 0.0

Use these results to identify the more reactive metal in each of the following pairs.
(2)

Zn and X .......................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Cu and X ............. ............................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(c) Write an equation for the reaction with a temperature rise of 2.7 °C.
(1)

. . . . . ............................................................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(d) Suggest why the students did not use calcium metal in their experiments.
(1)

. . . . . ............................................................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . ............................................................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . ............................................................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 4 = 10 marks)


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Acids, Bases and Salt


preparations
Question paper 3
Level IGCSE(9-1)
Subject Chemistry
Exam Board Edexcel IGCSE
Module Single Award (Paper 2C)
Topic Inorganic Chemistry
Sub-Topic Acids, Bases and salt preparations
Booklet Question paper 3

Time Allowed: 80 minutes

Score: /66

Percentage: /100

Grade Boundaries:

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

>90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%


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1 This question is about the laboratory preparation of salts.

(a) A student writes this plan for preparing a sample of hydrated magnesium sulfate crystals.
step 1 Pour about 100 cm3 of dilute nitric acid into a 250 cm3 beaker.
step 2 Add a solution of magnesium carbonate to the acid until there is no
more effervescence.
step 3 Heat the solution until all of the water has boiled off.

This plan will not succeed because there is one mistake in each step.
Identify the mistake in each of the steps.
(3)

step 1 .......................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .

. . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

step 2 .......................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .

. . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

step 3 .......................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .

. . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(b) Another student uses the following plan to prepare a sample of ammonium
hydrogenphosphate, formed in this reaction between aqueous ammonia and
dilute phosphoric acid

2NH3(aq) + H3PO4(aq) o (NH4)2HPO4(aq)


• use a pipette to transfer 25.0 cm3 of phosphoric acid to a conical flask
• add 3 drops of indicator
• use a burette to add aqueous ammonia until the indicator just changes colour
permanently
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(i) The diagram shows the burette readings in one experiment before and after
adding aqueous ammonia.

Before After

2 23

3 24

4 25

Use the readings to complete the table, entering all values to the nearest 0.05 cm3.
(3)

burette reading in cm3 after adding aqueous ammonia

burette reading in cm3 before adding aqueous ammonia

volume in cm3 of aqueous ammonia added

(ii) In another titration, the student made a mistake. After he filled the burette,
he noticed that the space between the tap of the burette and the tip
contained air. After adding the aqueous ammonia, he noticed that it now
contained liquid.
Explain how, if at all, this mistake affects the calculated volume of aqueous ammonia
added.
(2)

. . . . . . ..................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . ..................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . ..................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . ..................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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(c) He repeats the experiment until he obtains concordant results.


The table shows the results.

burette reading in cm3 after adding ammonia 27.95 28.05 28.00 26.75

burette reading in cm3 before adding ammonia 0.80 1.60 1.20 0.50

volume in cm3 of aqueous ammonia added 27.15 26.45 26.80 26.25

concordant results (9)

Concordant results are those volumes that differ from each other by 0.20 cm3 or
less.
(i) Identify the concordant results by placing ticks (9) in the table where appropriate.
(1)
(ii) Use the concordant results to calculate the average (mean) volume of
aqueous ammonia added.
(2)

average volume of aqueous ammonia = ...................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cm3


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(d) The student then mixed the volumes of aqueous ammonia and phosphoric acid
found in the titration.
Describe how to use the method of crystallisation to obtain a pure dry sample of
the salt from this mixture.
(3)

. . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 1 = 14 marks)


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2 Solutions of lead(II) nitrate and sodium sulfate react together to form the insoluble salt
lead(II) sulfate.
(a) A student wrote this plan to prepare a pure dry sample of lead(II) sulfate.
step 1 pour some lead(II) nitrate solution into a beaker
step 2 add sodium sulfate solution until the reaction is complete
step 3 filter the mixture
step 4 heat the filtrate to evaporate some of the water
step 5 cool the filtrate and remove the crystals

(i) How will the student know when the reaction in step 2 is complete?
(1)

. . . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) Which compound could the student use in this preparation instead of sodium sulfate?
(1)
A lead(II) hydroxide
B nitric acid
C sodium hydroxide
D sulfuric acid
(iii) State why the student should not have included steps 4 and 5 in his plan.
(1)

. . . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(iv) Suggest replacement steps to obtain a pure dry sample of lead(II) sulfate.
(2)

step 4 ........................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .

. . . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

step 5 ........................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .

. . . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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(v) Lead(II) carbonate cannot be used instead of lead(II) nitrate in this preparation.
This is because lead(II) carbonate
(1)
A contains ionic bonding
B has a high relative formula mass
C is insoluble in water
D is toxic
(b) The equation for the reaction in the student’s plan is

Pb(NO3)2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq) ĺ PbSO4(s) + 2NaNO3(aq)

(i) Deduce the amount of each reactant needed to form 0.150 mol of lead(II) sulfate.
(1)

Pb(NO3)2 ................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mol

Na2SO4 ...................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mol


(ii) What volume of 0.500 mol/dm3 lead(II) nitrate solution is needed to form
0.150 mol of lead(II) sulfate?
(2)

volume = ..................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 2 = 9 marks)


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3 Part of the pH scale is shown.

pH 1 7 14
strongly acidic neutral strongly alkaline
solution solution

Some of these experiments involve a pH change.


A sodium chloride (common salt) is dissolved in pure water
B carbon dioxide gas is dissolved in pure water
C sodium hydroxide solution is neutralised by adding dilute hydrochloric acid
D excess sodium hydroxide solution is added to a weakly acidic solution
E ammonia gas is dissolved in pure water

The table shows the pH at the start and at the end of the five experiments.
Complete the table by inserting the appropriate letter in each box. You may use each
letter only once.
The first one has been done for you.
(4)

pH at start pH at end Experiment

5 14 D

7 11

14 7

(Total for Question 3 = 4 marks)


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4 A student measured the temperature change when 0.5 g of magnesium powder was
added to 50 cm3 of copper(II) sulfate solution.
She repeated the experiment using 1.0 g, 1.5 g and 2.0 g of magnesium powder.

thermometer

magnesium
powder

copper(II) sulfate solution

The diagrams of the thermometer show the highest temperature, in °C, reached in
each of the experiments.

35 35 35 35

30 30 30 30

25 25 25 25
0.5 g of 1.0 g of 1.5 g of 2.0 g of
magnesium magnesium magnesium magnesium

(a) Use the thermometer readings to complete the table of results.


(2)

Mass of magnesium Initial temperature Highest temperature Temperature rise


in g in °C in °C in °C

0.5 25

1.0 24

1.5 23

2.0 23
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(b) A second student carried out the experiment. The table shows his results.

Mass of magnesium Temperature rise


in g in °C
0.5 2
1.0 4
1.5 6
2.0 6
2.5 6

(i) Plot the points on the grid.


Draw a straight line through the first three points and another straight line
through the last two points. Make sure that the two lines cross.
(3)

8–

6–

Temperature
4–
rise in °C

2–

0–

0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5


Mass of magnesium in g

(ii) Use your graph to find the mass of magnesium required to produce a
temperature rise of 3 °C.
(1)

. . . . . . ..................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(c) Suggest why the last three temperature rises were the same.
(1)

. . . . . . ..................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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(d) State and explain the effect on the temperature rises if the student were to repeat the
experiment using the same masses of zinc powder instead of magnesium powder.
Do not refer to the difference in reactivity of the two metals.
[relative atomic masses: Mg = 24; Zn = 65]
(2)

. . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 4 = 9 marks)


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5 The diagram shows how iron is produced in a blast furnace.

raw material P iron

limestone and coke blast furnace product Q

hot air waste gases

(a) Give the name of raw material P and of product Q.


(2)

raw material P .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

product Q ............ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(b) The equations for some reactions in a blast furnace are

A C + O2 → CO2

B C + CO2 → 2CO

C Fe2O3 + 3CO → 2Fe + 3CO2

D CaCO3 → CaO + CO2

E CaO + SiO2 → CaSiO3

The table shows some types of reaction that occur in a blast furnace.
Complete the table by writing a letter, A, B, C, D, or E, to link each type of reaction
to an appropriate reaction equation.
Each letter may be used once, more than once or not at all.
The first one has been done for you.
(3)

Type of reaction Letter

one that gives out heat A

one that is a thermal decomposition

one that is a neutralisation

one that forms a poisonous gas


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(c) The rusting of iron objects is a major problem.


Name the two substances needed for iron to rust.
(2)

1 . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(d) The order of reactivity of three metals is

most reactive
zinc
iron
tin
least reactive

Iron objects can be prevented from rusting by coating them with zinc or tin.
Some of these objects may be scratched when used, so the coating may come off.
Use the order of reactivity of the metals to suggest why coating these objects
with zinc is more effective than coating them with tin.
(3)

. . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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(Total for Question 5 = 10 marks)


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6 Soluble salts can be made by reacting an acid with a metal hydroxide, a metal oxide,
or a metal carbonate.
Insoluble salts can be made by using a precipitation reaction.

(a) Complete the table to show which acid or metal compound is used to make each
salt listed.
For each metal compound, state whether it would be used as a solid or in
aqueous solution.
(5)

Metal compound
Salt made Acid used Solid or aqueous
Name
solution

copper(II) sulfate copper(II) oxide

silver chloride hydrochloric acid aqueous solution

potassium nitrate potassium carbonate

(b) An acid is a source of hydrogen ions, H+


Write an equation to show the ions formed when sulfuric acid is dissolved in water.
(2)

. . . . . . ..................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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(c) Lead(II) chloride is an insoluble salt that can be prepared by reacting lead(II) nitrate
with sodium chloride.
Describe how you would prepare a pure, dry sample of lead(II) chloride starting
from solid lead(II) nitrate and solid sodium chloride.
(5)

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(Total for Question 6 = 12 marks)


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7 Lead(II) sulfate, PbSO4, is an insoluble salt.


It can be made as a precipitate from a solution of lead(II) nitrate, Pb(NO3)2
(a) (i) Identify a substance that could be added to lead(II) nitrate solution to form a
precipitate of lead(II) sulfate.
(1)

............................ ............................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) Write a chemical equation for the reaction between lead(II) nitrate and the substance
you identified in (a)(i).
(2)

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(iii) Outline how you would produce a pure, dry sample of lead(II) sulfate from the
reaction mixture in (a)(ii).
(3)

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............................ ............................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

............................ ............................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

............................ ............................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

............................ ............................................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(b) A solution of lead(II) nitrate can be made by reacting solid lead(II) carbonate with
dilute nitric acid.

The equation for this reaction is:

PbCO3(s) + 2HNO3(aq) → Pb(NO3)2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

State two observations you would make when dilute nitric acid is added to solid
lead(II) carbonate.
(2)

1 ................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.......................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 ................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.......................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 7 = 8 marks)