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Triple Play business development

TrendCommunications

FTTx Summit
International: +44 (0)1628 503500
United Kingdom: +44 (0)1628 503500
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+91-22-28521059
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by José M. Caballero (Jose.caballero@trendcomms.com)
Email: Infoline@trendcomms.com
Web: www.trendcomms.com

TrendCommunications
About Trend Communications

Trend Communications is an international company supplying hand-held test equipment and on-line
monitoring systems to the communications market. Trend’s solutions are intended to cover businesses
involved with broadband access, voice, datacom, network management, photonic transmission,
metropolitan and mobile networks.
Trend has always been at the forefront of the communications test market, and our strength is based on
the robustness and high quality of our products. Our solutions combine excellence and high technology
with ease of use, covering such technologies as Triple Play, xDSL, 3G/UMTS, ISDN, IP, Carrier Ethernet,
NG-SDH/SONET and NGN.
At Trend our mission is to be the preferred supplier of Field-Deployable Testers through innovative design
and cost leadership.

Trend Communications is a subsidiary of IDEAL INDUSTRIES, INC.

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
The Triple Play Challenge
What is Triple Play?

IPTV VoD VoIP Internet VPN Mobile Gaming

Triple play is a business concept; a bundle of services rather than a completely new development.
1. Triple play is not a new technology, but a marketing concept for delivering three services:
broadband access, television and telephone services over a single access network.
2. If mobile services are included, the bundle is often referred to as Quadruple Play.
3. There are two concepts closely related to triple-play:
• Service bundling: all the services are bundled into a commercial product.
• Technological convergence: one network supports voice/data/video applications.

4. Triple play can be delivered over various network types - copper, fibre, coaxial and wireless.
5. Inter-operability is not a requirement, but IP is at the heart of every implementation.

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Triple Play business: consumer view

Consumer Needs Multiple Services One Provider


- Anytime, anywhere - Internet access - One bill
- Tailored - Telephony / Video calls - One customer support
- Affordable - Television - Integrated voice mail
- Video-on-Demand - One address book
- Mobile bundling - Terminal convergence

Teruel Telecoms

Triple play, enabled by the network convergence, means: multiple services on multiple devices,
supplied by one network and one vendor.

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Triple Play business: provider view

Network Convergence Multiple Services


- IP-centric - Internet access
- Packet-oriented - Telephony / Video calls
- QoS-enabled - Television
- Multiservice - Video-on-Demand
- Multiterminal - Mobile bundling

IP

Telecom operators are embracing a new strategy to deliver new, thrilling services by means of next
generation networks. This packet of services includes line rental and fixed telephony with a
combination of Internet access, IP television, video-on-demand, entertainment applications and,
eventually, cellular phone services.

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Network Convergence and Device Diversity
Internet TV Music Games VoIP VoD

Laptop PDA MP3/4 TV Hand-held Mobile

Triple Play is not only a set of multiple information flows, but it is a way to make a wide range of devices
and terminals manage data, audio and video applications.

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Telecoms Deregulation
Telecom Operator Cable Operator Mobile Operator Internet Provider
Voice Voice
Data Data
TV
FDM GSM DSL
PCM Video
DSL DOCSIS GPRS VoIP
IPTV
VoIP 3G
IPTV

VoIP

DSL (and Fiber) HFC IMS Any

Telcos, Cable, Mobiles and ISPs Become Competitors

Advances in technology and new regulations have made ISPs, Cable and Mobile operators competitors
of telcos in voice and data access services. So, companies that were originally in different markets, are
now all racing to bundle and offer the same services, using their own version of a converged network.

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
The Business Challenge for Service Providers
Telecom Operator Cable Operator Mobile Operator Internet Provider
Voice TV Voice
Data Data
TV
GSM DSL
PCM Video
DSL DOCSIS FDM GPRS VoIP
IPTV
VoIP 3G
IPTV

VoIP

DSL (and Fibre) HFC IMS Any

Network Convergence

Threats Threats Threats Threats


• Voice revenue drop • Telcos video entry • ARPU drop • Limited market size
• Attacked by ISP in VoIP • Access restriction • Flat subs growth • Competition from ISPs
• LLU (Local Loop Unbundling) • Fierce competition • Networks not owned
• High churn Opportunities
• Two-way upgrading Opportunities Opportunities
Opportunities
• New video technologies • More bandwidth
• Triple Play • 3G, Triple Play • Triple Play

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
The Telecom market status
Total
Voice
Mill Data
World Subscribers Monthly World ARPU

Mobile 50
2000 40

Fixed
30
1000 20

Cable 10

2006 year 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008


1980

More competition leads to:


• More segmentation: smaller scale than before.
• Less differentiation: to meet the same customer requirement due to convergence.
• Low entry barrier: more players, business cycle shorter.
• Price reduction: low margin.

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Competition: the voice market

Traffic in minutes (Western Europe)


100% 100%
PSTN 2006
4%

Mobile
Sk

% Calls
70% Mobile yp
65% e
60% 57% Mobile Fixed line PSTN
55%
45% 55% VoIP 76%
Fixed line 20%

VoIP
0% 0%
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 1980 2006 year

Unfortunately for telcos, ISPs, cable and mobile operators are also offering phone services. The
revenues of fixed telephony are declining, because mobile phones are so popular, and there is more
competition now when cable operators also offer broadband access and voice services.

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Competition: Wire vs. Mobile vs. Cable

Mobile substitution, Oct. 2006 Cable penetration, Dec. 2006


Ratio
5
60% US
Portugal
Calls involving mobiles (%)

Penetration (Cable/DSL)
1
50%
Austria Finland Japan
France Austria
0,5 Holland
40% Spain
Belgium
Ireland
Belgium
30% Denmark
UK UK
Italy Spain
Greece 0.25
20% Netherlands
Sweden
10% Germany
Germany
France
Italy
5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 1M 2M 3M 4M 5M 15 M 100 M
Homes using only mobiles (%) Cable subscribers (Millions)

It is easy to understand that bundling has become a protective strategy for incumbent operators to keep
in business by means of wireline access while for cable and competitive operators it is seen as a threat.

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
The Driving Factors of Triple Play

Redefining the business


• Lower revenues: voice services are declining, data is a
commodity, ARPU is flat
• Social changes: personal telecommunication services

Increased competition
• Internet, Mobile and Cable operators get up to 2% of fixed line
subscribers per year
• New regulations: unbundling the local loop, wireless unlicensed

Network convergence
• IP-centric and QoS-enabled
• Access independent: Many alternatives are valid, i.e. ADSL2+,
VDSL2, FTTH, Wi-Fi, EFM

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Triple Play’s Aims
Differentiating services
• For better positioning, create a market, avoid head-to-head competition.
Churn prevention
• Gain customer loyalty with one package that includes all services.
Minimize costs
• Integrate infrastructure and human teams by using network convergence.
Gain new customers
• Face competition from cable companies for TV and video customers.
Promote Branding
• Cultivate the perception of the company as being able to supply any type of
telecommunication service.
Efficient Service improvement
• Use advanced management solutions for quick and easy provisioning.
New revenue stream
• By adding data and video services.
Increase profits
• By using legacy and innovative applications to raise the ARPU.

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Telcos’ Strategies
Focus on urban and high-speed connections
Those customers are more likely to contract new bundled services and stay loyal.

Cost is a key factor


Residential customers are very sensitive to cost when contracting commodities such as
telephony, TV and broadband access.

It is Video, can’t you see!


Only Video-on-Demand is really new. Television is not, because there are many services
based on broadcast, satellite and cable.

The Mobile Convergence


The “mobile vs. fixed lines” time is over. Integration of both worlds is strategic.

Keep it simple and reliable


One bill, one provider is probably less important than a reliable service: but it should be
simple to manage by the customer and easy to maintain by the operator.

Think Tank
Network convergence makes it possible to provision any type of telecom service.

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
The Triple Play Market

Subscribers
• Yankee Group (Aug. 2006): The US market has been calculated at 32 million annually, with an
average operator spending rate of about $ 4 000 per subscriber
• Pyramid research (2006): World market 35 million dollars by 2010

ARPU
• Heavy Reading (2006): ARPU can be increased by 100% when bundled services are running
• Gartner research (2006): Monthly european ARPU for fixed voice, Internet and TV is €93,70
• Fastweb (Italy) obtains an ARPU of €900 a year

Revenues
• Forrester (2006): Initial cumulative loss higher than €3 000 per subscriber

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
The Big Game
Convergence Support Provision

video 3G
Multiservice
multimedia
(TV, VoD, VoIP, Internet, Mobile...)
Voice
Mobile bundle
SMS One bill
in/outdoors cells Multiaccess
(copper, fiber, wireless) One network
GSM+WiFi
Voice
Fixed bundle One vendor
Broadband Multiplatform
Triple Play (PC, TV, Mobile, Game Console)
TV
VoD (voice, data, video)

Bundling
Competition, Target Customer, Segmentation, Timing, Cost, Tariff, Cultural

Although triple play strategies may start only with service bundling, migrating to an IP-centric converged
network needs to be part of the strategy of the operators involved, in order to reduce the delivery costs
and simplify the management structure.

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Triple Play Architectures
Applications and Protocols

UMTS Voice
VoD
Mobile Storage
- Consumer behavior
VPN VoD
Triple Play TV
IPTV
- QoS & QoE Requirement
Services ISDN VoIP
Data
- Time
Tele- Gaming
VoIP Internet - Segmentation
phone
- Tariff
- Billing

IP

IEEE 802.1Q MPLS


- Technology
Ethernet MAC - Cost
- Management
Pseudowires RFC 2684 - Convergence
- Tariff
Networks - QoS Assurance
PPP LAPS ATM / FR

Ethernet MAC GFP


PDH / SDH / OTN
Ethernet PHY
- Access Capability
- Deployment Cost
Media WDM / Dark Fibre / Coax / Wireless/ Twisted Pair

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Triple Play Network
Service Providers Metro/Core Access CPE

IP layer

IPTV

VoIP
Carrier Ethernet
Internet

LSR LSR
LSR LSR
MPLS/VPLS layer
LER LER
LSR LSR

NG SDH/SONET layer
MSSP

Optic/WDM layer

This architecture overcomes most of the drawbacks of native Ethernet, including:


• Carrier class: scalability, protection, QoS
• Advanced OAM functions, both centralized (SDH-like) and distributed (Internet-like)
• Automatic topology awareness, billing

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Access: Air, Copper, and Fibre Access

WiMAX
(20 Mbit/s) DSLAM
Modem
ADSL
DSL
(8 Mbit/s) 3000m
Modem
Bonding
Ethernet
(50 Mbit/s)
Switch
ADSL2/VDSL2 Fibre
FTTN 1500m
(24 Mbit/s)
Modem DSLAM Switch

ADSL2+/VDSL2 Fibre/Ethernet
FTTC
(50 Mbit/s) 150m OLT
Modem Line head

Fibre PON
FTTH/FTTP Fibre
(100 Mbit/s)
ONU Splitter

HFC (Cable) Fibre


(30 Mbit/s)
Cable modem Coax

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
DSL: A Success

Mbit/s
89

94

96

99

00

01

02

03

04

05
19

19

19

19

20

20

20

20

20

20
100

VD
SL
ADSL2+

2
DSL introduced G.992.1 G.dmt G.993.2 VDSL2
G.992.2 G.lite 100M subscribers
DSL Forum formed

Downstream bit rate


5M subscribers ADSL2
10
G.991.2 G.shdsl G.993.1 VDSL
ANSI DMT ADSL Standard

VD
G.992.3 G.dmt.bis G.992.5 ADSL2+ ADSL
G.992.4 G.lite.bis

SL
G.992.3 RE-ADSL
25M subscribers
1
1.5 3.0 4.5 6.0 km
Reach

Latest improvements on DSL


• ADSL2: Real-time rate adaptation support and Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA)
• ADSL2: Native support (no ATM) of packet-based services (for example Ethernet)
• ADSL2+: Higher bit rates than ADSL2, but less reach
• VDSL: Faster than ADSL, but it needs remote DSLAMs closer to the customers
• VDSL2: Matches Fast Ethernet rate at 100 m and has native support for packet-based services
• VDSL2: Asymmetric and Symmetric configurations, compatible with POTS and ISDN
• VDSL2: Needs remote DSLAM deployment and FTTN

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Optical Access in the Loop
APON / BPON GPON EPON P2P Ethernet
(legacy) (ITU) (ITU)
Standard ITU-T G.983 ITU-T G.984 IEEE 802.3ah IEEE 802.3ah
Downstream rate (Mbaud) 155, 622 1244, 2488 1250 1250
Downstream throughput (Mbit/s) 136, 543 1144, 2289 899 925
Upstream rate (Mbaud) 155, 622 622, 1244 1250 1250
Upstream throughput (Mbit/s) 136, 543 572, 1144 836 925
Downstream efficiency 87 % 92 % 72 % 74 %
Upstream efficiency 87 % 92 % 67 % 74 %
Configuration or split ratio 1:32 1:32, 1:64 1:32, 1:64 (with FEC) 1:1 (point to point)
Range (km) 20 20 20 10
Encapsulation ATM GEM / ATM Ethernet Ethernet
Encryption AES AES Not standard Not standard
Network Protection Standard Standard Not standard Not standard

• Passive Optical Network (PON) is an optical technology for the access network, based only on
passive elements like splitters. In a PON, the transmission medium is shared, and traffic from different
stations is multiplexed. Due to the use of simple and inexpensive transmission elements and a shared
medium, a PON is a cost-effective solution for the optical access network.
• Active Ethernet is an alternative technology based on point-to-point optical links instead of a shared
infrastructure such as PON. It can provide higher bandwidth per user than any other access
technology, but it is also more expensive.

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Ethernet in the First Mile

Bit rate (Mbit/s)


10000
Carrier Ethernet

1000
Optical LAN
Electrical LAN 1000BASE-X
1000BASE-T
100 100BASE-T
10BASE-T Optical EFM
P2P Ethernet
EPON
10
Legacy Electrical EFM
Ethernet Copper Ethernet
1
0.01 0.1 1 10 100
Reach (km)

EFM interfaces provide low and medium speeds when compared to the available LAN or WAN standards.
The new interfaces, however, are optimized to be profitable in the existing and newly installed provider
access networks.

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Triple Play: Access Alternatives

FTTB
500
0m
VDSL2
Triple Play
2000 m
xDSL & FTTx
FTTN 1500 m
400 m
VDSL2
FTTx
CO
VDSL2
bonded ADSL2+

FTTH
FTTx

FTTH

The access technology used depends on:


• Target bit rate or application to be rolled out
• Distance to the Central Office (CO) short distances enable xDSL; if longer then FTTx is a must
• Installed base, i.e. a lot of copper and good quality facilitate ADSL2+ and VDLS2 rollout
• Fiber availability close to the subscriber’s site makes FTTN installation easier
• Budget i.e. xDSL is inexpensive (if copper is available), fiber is not expensive, but digging is!

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Network plan case studies
FTTN

40010m00 m
ADSL2+
3000 m
xDSL
FTTN

40010m00 m 1500 m
8 Mbit/s service VDSL2 - 12MHz
CO
· 1 x SDTV (MPEG-2) + Data + VoIP
· 1 x HDTV (MPEG-4) + Data + VoIP ADSL2+
· 2 x SDTV (MPEG-4) + Data + VoIP
VDSL2 - 12MHz
bonding ADSL2+

FTTH
FTTN FTTN

40010m00 m

FTTN
1000 m
20 Mbit/s service 40010m00 m
VDSL2 - 12MHz
· 1 x HDTV (MPEG-2) + Data + VoIP VDSL2+
· 2 x HDTV (MPEG-4) + Data + VoIP
bonding ADSL2+

VDSL2 - 12MHz

FTTH FTTB
FTTH

FTTH
FTTC
VDSL2+
50 Mbit/s service
400 m
· 2 x HDTV + Data + VoIP
400 m VDSL2+

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VDSL2
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Metro Ethernet Should Be Carrier Ethernet

Star
Data Topologies Ring
Internet Meshed
Applications VoD
VoIP Event detection
Congestion
Triple play Fault propagation
Data-efficient Maintenance
Monitoring

Carrier Ethernet
UTP, Fibre Low-cost Service verification
Roll-out Single-ended test
Ethernet

Multipoint
Optical integration 50 ms restoration
Bridging
Reliability* 99,999% availability
STP, RSTP MAN/WAN Carrier protection
Tree topology Connection
Architecture Connectionless Fixed
Best-effort Multitechnology Billing
Variable
VLAN QoS
Free SLA Centralized / Distributed
Service Management Separated Data/Control
E-Line
(OAM)* Integrated
E-LAN

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Ethernet Scalability Problems

Triple Play
Switch Switch

Ethernet
VLAN
3Play
SDH NG
Services
Mapping in Frames

CPE Network Operator CPE

Native Ethernet has important drawbacks:


• Connectionless: This is often an advantage, but it limits QoS and requires constant address learning
• Privacy/efficiency: Switches and bridges use broadcasting for learning (IEEE 802.1d)
• VLAN limitations of 4 094 identifiers cannot be used in a WAN (IEEE 802.1q)
• Non-hierarchical MAC addresses are flat, so the switching table does not scale well
• It takes seconds to restore the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP). It cannot match 50 ms!
• No Ring topologies can be used, because STP allows only tree or star topologies
• Limited QoS, because native Ethernet is basically a best-effort technology
• Poor Management of nodes, topologies, events, performance
• Network Demarcation, the CPE and the Operator network must be separated clearly

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Ethernet in MAN/WAN
Dark Fibre
IP
A proper Ethernet
service must keep the
Switch Dark Fibre
Ethernet MAC MAC layer end-to-end.
LAN

Giga Switch Ethernet PHY

Dark Fibre

CWDM/DWDM
Ethe
rnet
IP
OADM

CWDM/DWDM
Ethernet MAC IP
SDH
SDH
ADM Ethernet PHY Ethernet MAC
WDM MPLS
WDM Any PHY

MPLS
NG SDH IP

Ethernet MAC
TD M
M TD Adaptation MPLS works over any
Router
NG SDH
Ethernet SDH/SONET physical infrastructure.
switch MSPP MSPP
SAN switch NG SDH

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Multiprotocol Label Switching
CPE
MPLS domain
LER: Label Edge Router

LSR: Label Switched Router POTS/ISDN

LSP: Label Switched Path VoIP STB


PWE3: pseudowires
SDH NG Triple Play
IPTV
DSLAM

Internet
VoD

MPLS manages traffic streams by separating route selection and packet-forwarding functions.
Pseudowire Edge-to-Edge Emulation PWE3 require a Tunnel label, used for guiding the frame
through the MPLS domain, and a VC label, used to identify each customer’s traffic matching an MAC,
Port or VLAN tag to a constant label.
Including VPLS (the PWE3 multipoint implementation) the Metro Ethernet network can provide easily:
• QoS to support triple play services
• Increased scalability overcoming the MAC address explosion issues
• Integrated protection architectures
• Advanced management

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
MPLS and QoS

MPLS domain

LER: Label Edge Router

LSR: Label-Switched Router


SDH NG
LSR LSP Label-Switched Path
LER

• Provides routing, not QoS


• Overcomes many IP scaling problems
• Flexible and efficient, increasing the performance of IP networks
• Makes traffic isolation per customer or flow possible
• Transparent to QoS protocols
Therefore MPLS makes QoS provisioning easier, but using tools like DiffServ, RSVP, or ATM

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
A New Generation of TDM Network Elements
SDH
Triple Play Deploying Ethernet in MAN / WAN
PDH environments makes it necessary
SAN
to develop new types of SDH
DVB • Enhanced ADMs are like a
Ethernet traditional ADM, but they
SDH include Ethernet interfaces to
Multiservice Platform (MSP) enable access to new services,
and TDM interfaces for legacy
Layer 2 Layer 1 SDH ring Layer 2 Layer 1 SDH ring
services.
Processing Processing Processing Processing
• Packet ADMs have a
LCAS LCAS configuration similar to
Eth bridge

Eth bridge
Eth PHY

Eth PHY
GFP-F

GFP-F
enhanced ADMs: They include
MPLS

MPLS
Data

Data
VCAT

VCAT
Crossconnect

Crossconnect
TDM and packet interfaces, but
packet ADM offers common
Packetizer

packet-based management for


Framing

Framing
TDM

Circuit-Emulation
TDM

over Packet (CEP) both new and legacy services.

Enhanced ADM Packet ADM


SDH ring SDH ring

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
What is NG SDH?

N
VLA
LSP GFP-F GFP-T
nel LS P
Tun
VCG nel
WD
M Tun
λ MA C
i ca l Contiguous Concatenation Virtual Concatenation
Opt re λ
Fib LCAS
NG SDH

Fundamentally NG SDH is a packet-enabled technology made possible by three elements:


• GFP (Generic Framing Protocol) is an encapsulation procedure for packet data, performing bit rate
adaptation, managing features such as rate adaption, priorities, channel selection and
submultiplexing.

• VCAT (Virtual Concatenation) is a mechanism that assigns granular bandwidth sizes rather than
exponential provisioning of contiguous concatenation. This is why VCAT is flexible and efficient.

• LCAS (Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme) modifies the allocated VCAT bandwidth dynamically
by adding/removing members. LCAS is also being used to implement diversity for traffic resilience.

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Alternatives to QoS Control
Audio Video Data
VoIP Streamed MP3
Bandwidth 12~106 kbit/s 32 ~ 320 kbit/s Bandwidth 0.005 ~ 10 Mbit/s Bandwidth Variable
Loss 1% 2% Loss 2% Loss Sensitive
Delay 150 ms 5s Delay 5s Delay Insensitive
Jitter 30 ms Jitter buffer Jitter Jitter buffer Jitter Insensitive

1. Over-provisioning
• Traditional solution for private and public networks
• May work for a while; requires regular updates

2. Traffic Engineering (MPLS)


• Improves routing performance and indirectly helps QoS
• Compatible with most networking technologies and protocols

3. Resource Reservation (IntServ)


• End-to-end guarantee of QoS; needs a signalling procedure (RSVP)
4. Differentiated routing (DiffServ)
• Edge routers classify packets into priority classes

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Integrated Services (IntServ)

Source Destination

IP

PATH PATH
RESV RESV Initiation
Data Data
Data Data
RSVP Data transmission
Data Data
PATH PATH
RESV RESV Refresh
RESV Tear RESV Tear
Termination

Based on resource reservation using end-to-end signalling


• Applications require resource management
• Resource reservation is done per flow by means of Reservation Protocol (RSVP) signalling
• Guaranteed service and controlled load for QoS-sensitive flows
• Source-to-destination packet handling at each hop and per each flow
• It’s not very scalable: RSVP is end-to-end and too complex
• Large packet processing and resource reservation makes RSVP inappropriate for core routers

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Differentiated Services (DiffServ)

Ingress Router
DiffServ Routing
Flow identification Queues
Packet marking EF
Access control
Egress Routers AF1
Core Routers
AF2
Traffic scheduling
Per hop forwarding
- + Out
In AF3

Data Flows AF4

BE

EF: Expedited Forwarding


AF1-4: Assured Forwarding (x4)
BF1: Best Effort (lowest priority)

Key QoS control is managed at the Ingress router


• IP packets are marked and classified into categories or DSCP
• In charge of packet access, shaping and policing

Core routers just forward packets


• Fast routing to the next hop (rather than end-to-end management like in RSVP)
• Packet scheduling per DSCP. No previous signalling, no resource reservation
• End-to-end QoS built with PHBs

DiffServ does not guarantee a QoS but manages flows differently


• Simple and scalable solution

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Weighing the Options: Technology, QoS and Cost

ADS L

VPLS

r-E
VD

ie
2+

rr
S
H

Ca
SD

L2
FTT -
N NG
FTTH WDM

t l ed
alD
n s
I Voase
Market b
Mobile
ARPU TV
IPTV
VoD Budget
h
a
ItP Compe rwniedt
Doa
V t
BIann
e
d
Compe titors Financ
ia l
VPN VoD
QoS
titors VoIP
Cost
Servi
Voice c es

The right architecture depends on many factors. Each business case must be evaluated independly:
• Environmental: competition, culture, affordability, consumer behavior
• Segmentation: niche, mass, residential, enterprise
• Differentiation: services bundle, content, language, premium or value price
• Technology: QoS with new & existing technologies and low network deployment costs
• Time to Market: when and where to launch
• Service Costs: leadership or premium

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Triple Play Applications
Tele-applications

Hi-Fi CCTV
24 hours
Internet Datacom
MP3
104 VoD HDTV
connection time

Webinar
Gaming
1 hour 3 Data
10

VoIP
102

1 min
Graphics
101 Transactions
Surveillance
Data Storage

101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 1010 bit/s
1 kbit/s 1 Mbit/s 1Gbit/s
bit rate

Triple Play applications are often a combination of several types of information, and a number of
parameters such as bandwidth, source/destination relationship, type of routing, QoS, and symmetry

39 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
IP Television
Video Contribution Distribution network Access network Customer Premises

Live TV
Encoder STB
VoD IP / VPLS
TV device
Router

Broadcasters
PC

IPTV is made with at least four component:


1. Video contribution, which may include television and video on MPEG demand applications.
Contents is coded, formatted and streamed according the addressing scheme and the protocols
to transport the signal and distribute the programs across the subscribers.
2. UDP is the most common higher-layer envelope to forward packets across the network.
3. Access network, audio an video packets reach the customer premises thought the access network
which may be based on ADSL2, ADSL2+, VDSL2, FTTN, PON, or WiMax
4. Customer Premises, to reach the Set Top Box (STB) where are signals decoded and finally
displayed on a TV or a PC. The Internet Group Membership Protocol (IGMP) is used for channel
tuning.

40 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
IPTV delivery
VoD servers
Broadcast TV

STB
Head end H
FTT

ADSL2+
IP/MPLS Metro

FTT
N
TV studio
VoD
Contribution Distribution Aggregation Access CPE

The IP television is a recent achievement thanks to the development of the following technologies
1. Carrier Ethernet, that can guarantee seamless Video streaming over converged networks
2. New architectures for IP network to support differentiated QoS for video applications, and allow a
bidirectional or interactive service between the Content Provider and the Subscriber
3. Availability of a new generation of high performance IP routers and Ethernet switches
4. Evolution of First Mile technologies (xDSL, FTTx, Wireless) than can deliver several Mbit/s
5. Rich middleware software that can differentiate each IPTV service implementing options like video
on demand, pay-per-view, VCR, multiple definitions, etc.

41 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
VoD vs. IPTV
Millions Subscribers MEur Revenues
30 10

20
IPTV
5
10

2004 2006 2008 2004 2006 2008

Video on Demand (VoD)


• Unicast Service
• Real-time QoS is not a must
• Pause, Stop, Backwards, Forward, etc. options controlled with RTSP protocol
• Rich middleware like subscription VoD, network video recorder and personal video recorder

IP Television
• Multicast Service
• Real-time QoS is required
• RTP & RTCP protocols for quality control
• Channel zap with IGMP

42 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
IP Video Protocols

Signalling Video + Voice + Data

VoD IPTV WM9 MPEG-2 MPEG-4


Application
RTSP RTP/RTCP Transport Stream

IGMP TCP UDP


IP suite

IP

PPP Ethernet NG SDH Transport

ADSL2+ VDSL2 FTTx Fibre 802.3ah WiMax Access

Digital video is encoded in MPEG-2, MPEG-4 or WM9 coding schemes.


For transmission in IP networks, the multimedia transport stream must be packetized.
UDP is the most common transport layer protocol for IP video applications. RTP over UDP is an
alternative.

43 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
IP Video Protocols
Signalling IPTV (Video + Voice + Data)

MPEG-1 MPEG-2 MPEG-4 WM9


Application
RTSP RTP/RTCP Transport Stream

IGMP TCP UDP


IP suite

IP

PPP Ethernet NG SDH Transport

ADSL2+ VDSL2 FTTx Fibre 802.3ah WiMax Access

• Digital Video is encoded with the help of MPEG-2, MPEG-4, or WM9.


• Content – where, who and how
• Cost – competitive
• Quality – viewing experience
• Convenience – shifted time TV, PVR
• Coverage – accessibility (fixed line or mobile)
• DRM – business model

44 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Audio-visual Services and MPEG
The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) is a working body
within the ISO that is responsible for developing video and audio
encoding, compression and standards for digital television Mbit/s Uncompressed HDTV (1.49 Gbit/s)
delivery, IPTV, commercial advertisements and multimedia
digital video applications. 1000
1. MPEG-1 (1993), typical rates up to 1.856 Mbit/s Contribution HDTV MPEG-1/2 (140 Mbit/s)

• Coding of audio/video for digital storage media 100


Uncompressed SDTV (124-166 Mbit/s)

• Used in CD Video Contribution TV MPEG-1/2 (34-50 Mbit/s)


DVB satellite multiplex MPEG-2 TS (27-40 Mbit/s)
Video resolution, generally 352 x 240/288 Broadcast H_DTV MPEG-2 (12-20 Mbit/s)
10
• MP3 is the audio draft of MPEG-1 Professional TV PAL MPEG-2 (8-10 Mbit/s)

Broadcast TV PAL MPEG-2 (4-6 Mbit/s)


2. MPEG-2 (1995), typical rates from 2 to 9 Mbit/s VHS video MPEG-2 (1-2 Mbit/s)
1
• Rates generally around 4 Mbit/s with ADSL2+ .5
• Video resolution generally 720 x 480, 720 x 576 or 544 x 576 .25 Videoconference MPEG-4 (<0.384 Mbit/s)

• Used in Cable, DBS, DVD, VoD and HDTV 0


• When used with HDTV, MPEG-2 typically runs at 19.3 Mbit/s
3. MPEG-4 (1999), typical rates from 5 kbit/s to 10 Mbit/s
• Developed by the ITU to enable wireless single-user video services
• Mobile/POTS 5 kbit/s to 64 kbit/s
• Internet 64 kbit/s to 364 kbit/s
• Broadcast/VoD 364 kbit/s to 10 Mbit/s
• High efficiency for IPTV

45 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
MPEG2

lines

TV frame

f/s
25
pixels
Standard TV Digitalization (4:2:0 at 25 frames/s)
Luminance: 720 lines x 576 pixels x 25 fr x 8 bits = 82,94 Mbit/s
(+) = 124,5 Mbit/s
Crominance: 720 lines/2 x 576/2 x 25 fr x 16 bits = 41,47 Mbit/s

High Definition TV Digitalization


1920 lines x 1080 pixels x 25 fr x 8bits = 1.49 Gbit/s

Digital television requires that pictures be digitized so that they can be processed by computer hardware.
Each pixel is represented by:
• one luminance number, that describes the brightness
• two crominance numbers that describe the color of the pixel.
• 4:2:2 means crominance horizontally subsampled by a factor of 2 relative to the luminance, 4:2:0 the
factor is horizontal and vertically subsampled.

46 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
MPEG Compression
Lower SDTV SDTV Frames/s Lines/Frame Pixels/Line
Lower SDTV 24, 30 480 640
SDTV 24, 30, 60 480 704
HDTV HDTV 24, 30, 60 720 1280
Higher HDTV 24, 30, 60 1080 1920
Higher HDTV
.

Pixels Broadcast MPEG-2 MPEG-4 WM9


SDTV 704 x 480 6 Mbit/s 3.5 Mbit/s 2-3.2 Mbit/s 2-3.2 Mbit/s
HDTV 1920 x 1080 19.2 Mbit/s 15 Mbit/s 7.5-13 Mbit/s 7.5-13 Mbit/s

Compression is necessary to reduce the bandwidth requirements


• Lower SDTV: 24bit/pixel x 480x640pixels/frame x 30frames/s = 221,16 Mbit/s!
• Market moves toward HDTV therefore high efficient compression is necessary
• Pixel characteristics is correlated with neighbors then in some extend its value is predictable
• Human eye is less sensitive to detail near edges or around shot changes

MPEG uses two compression techniques:


• Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), for intra-frame codec
• Motion Compensation interframe prediction

47 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
MPEG Compression
1. 2. 3. 4.
eye sensitivity

10110100000000000001 10110110111
10101111101001001001 10101111101001001001
freq. 00001000000000000000 0000111101

ISO standard for Audio and Video compression and multiplexing


1. Spatial Processing or Intra-frame
• Using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) to remove high frequencies the human eye can’t see
2. Temporal processing or Inter-frame
• Looks for redundancies between consecutive frames to remove them
3. Variable Length Code
• Uses shortest encoding to reduce size
4. Run Length Encoding
• Large sequences of Zeroes are replaced

48 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Intra-Frame DCT coding
Image Macroblock Block DCT coefficients Weighting Compression
m x n pixels 8 bits/pixel 8 bits/pixel 11 bits/pixel
7F1 845 7F9 234 4F1 912 41 445 123 58 69 24 F 3 0 2 123 58 69 24 F 3 0 2

- vertical freq. +
478 645 437 458 306 877 817 B3 78 2E 21 6 1 4 3 1 78 2E 21 6 1 4 3 1
DCT 641 41E 51E 4A2 F5 456 428 52 25 1A 11 8 0 2 1 0

16 pixels
25 1A 11 8 0 2 1 0
Slide

8 pixels
282 564 252 52 67E 31C 1AE 11 1C 8 5 1 3 2 0 0 1C 8 5 1 3 2 0 0

IDCT 4A2 603 4A2 E39 23C 136 6 36 5 5 7 6 2 1 0 0 5 5 7 6 2 1 0 0


134 7F1 541 349 156 52 3 21 2 6 9 3 1 0 0 0 2 6 9 3 1 0 0 0
410 182 297 149 11 A1 2 1F 3 2 A 1 0 0 0 0 3 2 A 1 0 0 0 0
A7 49 10 1C 33 12 41 13 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

16 pixel 8 pixels - horizontal freq. + Human eye is less Zig/zag scan with
sensitive to high freq. detection of zeros
set 0 below perception Huffman encoding
and minimize high freq.
Sequence of Images

Human eye is less sensitive for high frequencies.


A two dimensional DCT is performed on small block of 8x8 pixels. The magnitude of each DCT coefficient
indicates the contribution of vertical and horizontal frequencies to the original image. Note that:
• DCT: Converts and image block into frequency component,
• DCT: does not reduce the size of the image, in fact increases it! from 8 bits/pixel to 11
• DCT tends to concentrate the energy into the low frequency coefficients matching eye sensitive
• The non uniform coefficient distribution is a result of spatial redundancy in the block
• The coefficient weight is done according human perception: high freq are coarsely quantized
• DC coefficient: is called when the value is 0
• The scanning and compression algorithm produces a variable length code
• The final coding results in a I-frame

49 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Frame Types

I Independent B-frames P-frames I-frames

Size: = =
P
6B 3P I

B
future pictures actual frame previous pictures

I-Frames: Intra-frame coded independly to other pictures.


• Compression is achieved with DCT reducing the spatial redundancy but not temporal.

P-Frame: Predicted pictures can use previous I or P pictures for motion compensation
• Each block can either be predicted or intra coded

B-Frames: Bidirectional predicted pictures from previous or later I or P frames (never B-frame) for motion
• Each block can either be forward/backward/bidirectional predicted or intra coded
• Forward prediction requires to change the natural frame order causing a reordering delay at reception
• B-frames achieve the highest degree of compression, I-frames the lowest

50 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Temporal processing or Inter-frame

future
B1 I3 previous
B2 B1
I3 B2
t11
B4 t11 P6
B5 B4
P6 B5
B7 P9
Gro B8 B7
up P9 P re
B8
of P
i ct u
BA sen
tatio
PC
Arr res BB n o rd
BA
ival
ord PC er BB
er

to to

reordering
Bitstream order Display order

A Group of Pictures (GOP) is described the number of pictures (N) and the spacing of P pictures (M) in
our sample GOP N=12 M=3.
• In theory, the number of B-frames that may occur between any two I- and P-frames is unlimited
• In practice, there are typically up to twelve P- and B-frames occurring between each I-frame.
• One I-frame will occur approximately every 0.4 seconds during video showtime.

51 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
MPEG Stream Generation Scheme
Program 1 Encoders Packetizers Program
1 2 Multiplex
MPEG DVD reader
ES PES CD
Audio Physical Transport
ES PS
Video MPEG
Data ES
DVD
.
. PCR/SCR TV
. Clock Modulator
Program k
2 PES 3
Audio TS Distribution
Video Channel
Network
Data DVB STB

Codified Audio, Video, Data stream


ES: Elementary Stream 1
PES Header PES Packet

PES: Packetized Elementary Stream 2

TS: Transport Stream 3


Adaption Field TS Header TS Packet AF stuffing
with PCR (4 bytes) (144 bytes)

Two type of streams can be generated with the same source signal:
• Program Stream, intended media with low errors probability like CD-ROM
• Transport Stream, for noisy medias i.e. Satellites, IPTV uses shorter packets and independent clocks

52 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
MPEG-2 Transport Stream
Elementary Stream PAT table PMT table (per programme)
Video
Audio Transport - Network Info: PID=10 - Video: PID=160
Audio Packets - Audio Spa: PID=234
- Program H: PID=306 - Audio Fren: PID=233 PES
Data
- Program X: PID=032 - Subtitle Eng: PID=237
- Program Z: PID=510
Transport
Stream

4 bytes 184 bytes


Transport
Header Payload
Packet

8 1 1 1 13 2 2 2
TP Header PID

Adaption field
Continuity Counter
Adaption Field Control
Transport Scrambling Control
PID
Transport Priority
Payload Unit Start Indication
Transport error indication
Sync byte

• PID=000: PAT - Programme Association Table, lists the PIDs of tables describing each programme.
• PID=001: CAT - Conditional Access Table, defines the type of scrambling used + management info.
• PID=X: PMT - Programme Map Table, defines the set of PIDs associated with audio, video, data...
• PID=010: NIT - Network Information Table, contains details of the bearer network used
• PID=Y: PES - Packetized Elementary Stream, each independent sequence of voice, video or data

53 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
IGMP Snooping and Zapping Delay
Multicast
agent

without IGMP snooping with IGMP snooping

Multicast Originator
agent Switch
Join reply Originator

Join request

Multicast
agent

IGMP snooping is a method for intelligent forwarding of multicast packets within a layer-2 broadcast
domain. IGMP registration information is snooped to create a distribution list of workstations to know
which end-stations will receive packets with a certain multicast address.
Channel Zapping IGMP is a test used to measure the delay that occurs when a user joins or leaves a
specific multicasting group. In other words, it is an IPTV channel zapping measurement.

54 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Examples of TV Strategies
• Operator A: Targets high-end residential customers with busy life style for a premium
charge (4-10 times more than cable) for TSTV, VoD and HSI access.
• Operator B: Differentiates itself by delivering 25-50 Mbit/s VDSL2 bandwidth with
HDTV content at competitive rates to raise barriers to entry and strengthen its position
in the market.
• Operator C: Targets the mass market by using DTT for broadcasting, delivering
content via VoD to use less bandwidth and make QoS control easier. This significantly
reduces costs and risks in early deployment.
• Operator D: Delivers multicast services at lower prices than cable for the mass market,
with attractive content to boost market share and revenue for the time being.
• Operator E: Targets specific sport fans for mobile TV during major sports events. Uses
DVB-H technology to differentiate the service.
• Operator F: Targets enterprise customers by delivering educational content for the
campus via FTTx and LAN, to deploy the network at very low maintenance costs.

55 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
IETF VoIP Protocols
Signalling Voice over IP

SDP PINT IMP Audio Video

Application
Supplementary
Services

SIP RTP

Transmission
TCP UDP

Network
IP

• SIP is used at the control plane and RTP/UDP is used for the voice transport
• H.323 was the first, and still is the most used, easy internet-working POTS & ISDN
(but it is getting less popular)
• SIP, used for IP phones, is currently popular, as it is very flexible
• SIP can be integrated easily with PCs, e-mail, web and corporate platforms

56 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Voice over IP Network
Hi! PABX VPN
VoIP
Router Router
IP Network

Transcoding VoIP
Gateway

Voice Codec Framing Protocols


PSTN
Codec

IP is data-oriented, but can also support multiple applications based on voice and video.
Why VoIP?
• Subscribers: cheaper calls, integration with PCs and e-mail
• Carriers: convergence across a unique network
• Service providers: new business opportunity
• Manufactures: new market demands

VoIP uses known protocols such as:


• IP, TCP, UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
• RTP (Real Time Protocol), RTCP (Real-Time Control Protocol)
• SIP (Session Initiation Protocol), H.323 (ITU-T)

57 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Voice Codecs

MOS
5
LD-CELP 16 PCM
CELP (G.728) (G.711)
CS-ACELP 8
4 (G.729) ADPCM 32
(G.726)
ADPCM
LPC 4.8 ADPCM 24
3
(G.726)
VOCODERS
PCM
2
ADPCM 16
(G.726)

1
1 2 4 8 16 24 32 40 64 kbit/s

• Waveform codecs: PCM, ADPCM, CVSD


• Vocoders (synthetic voice): LPC
• Hybrids (waveform with synthesizer): CELP, ACELP, RPE-LTP, VSELP

58 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
SIP Protocol

IP
Router Router
Voice
IN
Caller Recipient
VI
TE
SIP Signalling
Domain A Domain B
SIP Proxy SIP Proxy
sip.caribean.com sip.trendcomms.com

SIP Request SIP Response


(simplified trace) (simplified trace)
INVITE sip: pepe@trendcomms.com SIP/2.0 SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP mkt12.caribean.com; Via: SIP/2.0/UDP mkt12.caribean.com
To: pepon <sip:pepe@trendcomms.com> To: pepon <sip:pepon@trendcomms.com>;
From: Alice <sip:alice@caribean.com>;
From: leila <sip:leila@caribean.com>;
Contact: <sip:leila@mkt12.caribean.com>
Content-Length: 142
CSeq: 314159 INVITE
Content-Length: 131

SIP is the protocol used to establish IP sessions between users, to set up VoIP calls, as well as
multimedia conferences, multimedia distributions or multicast sessions. However, this protocol does not
transport voice or multimedia contents.

59 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Typical SIP Session
SIP protocol (IETF RFC 3261).
What it covers:
• User search Router Router
• Call Init, Control and Close Caller Recipient
• IP address, UDP/TCP IP
Network
• Changes during the session SIP Proxy
SIP Proxy
sip.ideal.com
• Supplementary services sip.trendcomms.com
Invite
What it doesn’t cover: Invite
Trying Invite
• Type of network to be used Trying
Ringing
• Type of codecs to be used SIP Ringing
• Session details (formats, Ringing OK
codecs...) OK
• Where and how the proxy, OK
ACK
registers, redirections etc.
are implemented
VoIP session
Note that the caller does not send VoIP
the Invite message directly to the
recipient, but to an SIP proxy that Bye
locates the user and starts
negotiating the session parameters. SIP OK

60 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Internet-Working with PSTN/ISDN
IP Network MGC PTSN / ISDN
Sig
Done by means of gateways. ign alling na lling
S
• Gateways translate the voice Vo ic Gateways
ic e
between the IP and the PSTN e
Vo
IP Phone Proxy Switch Legacy
network.
• Signalling, SIP to/from SS#7, has
to be translated as well. MG
Invite SIP ISUP
• Translated messages (often only Trying Invite
approximations to the original). Trying IAM
Ringing tone
There are two types of gateways: ACM
Session Progress
1. Media Gateways (MGs) convert Session Progress
One-way Circuit
data from the format required by a One-way RTP
communications
circuit-switched network to that
required by a packet-switched ANM Hello?

network. OK
OK
2. Media Gateway Controllers ACK
(MGCs) to handle all tasks related ACK
to call control and signalling. Two-way RTP
Communications Two-way Circuit Two-way Circuit

VoIP PCM

61 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
RTP and RTCP Basics

Hellooo!

IP

Voice stream RTP Packets ^ timestamps Packets with jitter RTP Voice stream

Encoder Voice
Clock Clock Decoder
Report Report Retimed stream

SR RTCP RR

Real Time Protocol (RTP) RFC 3550 Real-Time Control Protocol (RTCP)
• Used to transport voice and video signals RTCP complements the RTP protocol with
in real time information on the QoS received: delays, loss,
• Congestion produces jitter at the far end jitter, etc. It provides:
• RTP inserts a timestamp in all voice packets • persistent session information
• Timestamps are used to ensure that all voice • basic session management
packets that are delivered to the far end • performance feedback to communication
maintain the time that was originally generated. parties of intermediate probes
Note that RTP does not provide QoS, but just
transports timing signals.

62 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
TriplePlay Rollout/Maintenance
Delivering QoS water (yes!)

Town A
Some water is lost

Waster pumps

Town Z

The problem of delivering QoS in packet networks can be compared with water distribution.
• In the diagram, two pumps supply water for two towns, Town A and Town Z.
• Some water is lost in the pipelines between the pumps and the towns.

64 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Delivering QoS: Heavy Load

Town A Town M
Even more water is lost

Over-provisioning

Water supply to Town Z


is compromised

The water company now needs to deliver water to a third town, Town M.
• A new pump could theoretically supply water for Town M.
• As more water is pumped in the pipelines, more water is lost before it reaches its destination.
• The result is that now Town M can get the water it needs, but there is not enough water for Town Z.

65 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Delivering QoS: Over-Provisioning
An extra pump is added

Town A Town M
Much more water is lost

Over-provisioning
At least, the water supply can
now be guaranteed to town Z

• The water company solves the problem by installing a fourth pump.


• Now much more water is lost in the pipelines, but all three towns can receive the water they need.
• The ratio between water pumps and serviced towns is now 1.33 pumps / town.
• What would happen if it were necessary to deliver water to a fourth town?

66 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Delivering QoS: Fixing the Network

Town A Town M
Pipelines are fixed
Two pumps only

No more water is lost

Town Z

• There is an alternative to over-provisioning: fixing the distribution pipelines.


• Fixing the network can be more expensive than over-provisioning.
• The ratio between water pumps and serviced towns is now 0.66 pumps / town.

67 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Triple Play Testing

Internet
Internet
Cable

Data
IPTV Servers
IP Network
SDH NG
Gateway
STB
Modem
Telephones
DSLAM Proxy
VoIP

CPE Access IP Network Service


- Configurations - xDSL/cable/fibre faults - Packet loss, Delays - IP continuity
- Wiring - Bit rate expectations - QoS management - Service availability
- Hardware/Software - Security/Privacy - Core infrastructures - Contention
- Data Performance - DSLAM performance - Multicast - Performance
- Voice/Video quality

Triple Play is an application that runs over a large stack of telecom/datacom protocols.
This means that bad quality of service or loss of service can be caused by many different factors:
• CPE faults
• Access faults, depending on the technology used
• IP networks must support proper QoS and multicast requirements
• Service availability and performance

68 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Troubleshooting ADS2+ and VDSL

Mbit/s

100

VD
SL
Upstream

2
Tester DSLAM ADSL2+
Downstream

Downstream bit rate


ADSL2
10

VD
ADSL

S
L
Noise Crosstalk Broken or
1
Faulty misconfigured
equipment 1.5 3.0 4.5 6.0 km
lines
Reach

DSL service providers can choose between two possible configurations for the local loop:
• Fixed data rate: The transmission bandwidth between the customer premises and the CO is fixed.
The transmission performance (SNR and noise margin) may change. It must be checked that the
upstream and downstream rates match the configured values.
• Fixed SNR: The local loop performance (SNR and noise margin) is fixed. Transmission rates may
differ for each customer. It must be checked that the noise margin is 6 dB or better.

69 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Troubleshooting Optical Access
Subscribers

Splitter OLT
Fibre Fibre

ONU PON
Tester

Tester

DSL service providers can choose between two possible configurations for the local loop:
• Optical TDR: check the physical conditions of the fiber, including continuity.
• Optical characterization: evaluate attenuation and absolute power level during transmission.
• Bandwidth: PONs use a multipoint-to-point topology; the more subscribers there are,
the more critical the system is.
• Efficiency: The PON is a shared medium; the scheduling performance must be checked.
• Security: Downstream signals are encrypted for all subscribers, to guarantee privacy.

70 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Determining Up/Down Bit Rates

PUT GET

FTP
Server

MAN IP

Congestion
Noise Congestion
Tester Crosstalk QoS
issues QoS
issues

Access Network Transport Network Server Side


Issues Issues Issues

• During synchronization and training the modem and the DSLAM agree the upstream/downstream bit
rates in the local loop.
• The actual transmission rates can be smaller due to congestion in the network or in the remote system.
• The bit rate that the FTP client or server can send or receive depends on the local loop, the
transmission conditions of the whole network and the path between the client and the server.

71 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Layer-3 Continuity

CPE Access IP Network Service

Internet Internet
Modem

IP Network
Data SDH NG

IP ping
Trace Route Data Servers
address, time address, time address, time

In the case of service failure, the following should be tested:


• Physical layer continuity
- Copper pair
- Fibre optics
- Coaxial cable
• DSL synchronization
• IP Ping continuity
• Trace Route delays

72 (84)
TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Internet Access Test

CPE Access IP Network Service

Internet Internet
Modem

IP Network
Data SDH NG

Data Servers

The typical data applications (generally Internet-based) that need to be to checked are:
• Web browsing performance; a basic facility for residential customers
• FTP capacity for file uploading and downloading
• Traffic statistics compiled during data browsing
• PPP authentication

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
IPTV: The Subscriber’s Point of View
Coding error Sync error Packet Loss
PCR Jitter
Transport error
Continuity error
- Pixelation
Video - Freezing
Audio - Lip Sync
Audio IP Network - Blurring
Data - Distortion
Contribution STB - Zapping Delay

Packet Jitter
Packet Delay Packet Delay

QoS parameters User Experience QoE measurement

Quality of Service (QoS) Quality of Experience (QoE)


- PCR Jitter
Video: Blocking, blurring, visual noise, loss of colour,
Content Quality - Coding distortion
edge distortion, pixelization, audio/video sync...
- Server overload
- Packet loss Voice: Distortion, noise, echo, loss of interactivity,
Transport Quality - Latency and delay variation
- TCP Retransmissions interruptions, accessibility...

- IGMP latency (IPTV) Data: Low speed, low interactivity, wrong formatting,
Transaction Quality
- RTSP latency (VoD) authentication problems...

The QoE test aims is to measure how good the service is from the customer’s point of view. In practice
it is a combination of packet impairments and video content measurements.

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Verify the IPTV Service
Temporal error propagation

Spatial error propagation

Video rendering is important for qualitative video performance assessment.


A single lost packet in an MPEG-2 video stream is displayed as several errored pixels or even lines in
• a video frame (spacial error propagation),
• several video frames with errored pixels (temporal error propagation).

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Testing points

LAN WAN

IP Network

TV Modem/Router
STB

Tester Tester

The video preview test can be performed from different points in the customer premises or in the local
exchange:
• The WAN connection is used to test the service provider network, but not the subscriber network.
• The LAN connection is useful to test the combined performance of the subscriber network and the
service provider network.
• The LAN Connection can be used to diagnose problems in the modem/router in the customer
premises due to firewalls, NAT, and unicast or multicast routing.

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Video IGMP Delay

Tester
Multicast
agent Contents
Local loop servers

Leave Leave request

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Join request

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Join

How to check the video IGMP delay:


• Channel zap, checks the delay in receiving the image when the channel is changed.
• Transmission: TV channels are transmitted in IP networks by using multicast IP datagram flows.
• Joining/Leaving an IP multicast group is managed by the Internet Group Management Protocol
(IGMP). Joining/leaving multicast groups may take time. The user sees this as excessive delays and
degraded service.

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Testing SIP Across a NAT Firewall
LAN Internet

Trusted network Untrusted network


User agent Proxy
NAT firewall

UDP SIP requ


es t

Port opened: 5650

ons e
UDP SIP resp0
DST Port: 5 60

Port closed,
drop packet

Problems with NAT arise, because with SIP, there is some addressing information that is carried in the
application payload. This information is bypassed by devices that only work at layer 3.
• SIP responses may fail to find the way back to the originator of the transaction if the “Via” or “Contact”
fields of the SIP requests cannot be resolved to a public IP address.
• The media transport protocol, usually RTP, may fail to find the participants of a session if they are
behind a NAT router.

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Opinion Models (in-service test)
MOS R-factor
User Satisfaction
4.5 100 VoIP Router Router VoIP
4.4 Very satisfied 94
Desirable 4.3 90 Distribution
Satisfied Network
4.0 80
Acceptable Some users
dissatisfied
3.6 70
Many users
dissatisfied
3.1 60
Unacceptable Nearly all users Conversational MOS evaluation (Bidirectional)
for toll quality dissatisfied
2.6 50
Not recommended
1 0

MOS (Mean Opinion Score): To arrive at an MOS score, a tester assembles a panel of “expert listeners”
who rate the quality of speech samples that have been processed by the system under test.
• Ideally, a panel would consist of a mix of male and female listeners of various ages
• The samples should reflect a range of typical voice conversations
• Each panelist rates the quality of the system output from 1 to 5, with 1 indicating the worse and 5 the best
• The scores of the panelists are then averaged

E-Model: a computational model that uses transmission parameters (errors, packet loss, delay, echo...)
to predict the subjective quality of voice. Good for conversational MOS evaluation using R-factor.

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Speech Layer Models (out-of-service test)
VoIP PABX VoIP
Router Router
Distribution
Network

Listening MOS evaluation (Unidirectional)

PSQM (Perceptual Speech Quality Measure), defined by ITU-T P.861, uses pre-recorded voice signals
that are transmitted at the origin and compared at reception in the 300 - 3 400 Hz frequency range.
Created to evaluate codec performance, basically the distortion of the voice signal. PSQM is not
designed to reflect the effects of packet loss or jitter.
PAMS (Perceptual Analysis Measurement System) also compares an output signal with the input signal,
but using a different algorithm based on factors of human perception to measure voice quality, scoring
on a 1 to 5 scale that can be correlated to MOS.
PESQ (Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality), developed based upon PAMS and an improved
version of PSQM called PSQM+. Uses the best features of both: the robust time-alignment techniques of
PAMS with the accurate modelling of PSQM. It targets not only VoIP, but also ISDN, GSM and POTS.

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
VoIP Delays

Hellooo!

IP

Transmission

Encoding Buffering Ingress Egress Jitter buffer Decoding

ITU Internet, Satellite Half Duplex


ms
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

Rec. ITU-T G.114, unidirectional delay in ms:


• 0 - 150: acceptable for most applications
• 150 - 400: acceptable, but degrades the QoS
• > 400: unacceptable; only for voice messages or walkie-talkie gadgets

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TrendCommunications © 2007 Trend Communications - FTTx summit - Munich June 2007
Summary

1. In lightly loaded packet networks, delay, delay variation and packet loss ratio can be kept relatively
under control. However, under higher traffic loads, carriers must face a dilemma: increase
the capacity of their networks further or implement QoS policies.
2. MPLS is perhaps the best QoS solution among the currently available options, including
IntServ and DiffServ. It combines the features of Intserv and Diffserv with other features that are
very much appreciated by carriers: Connection oriented technology, traffic engineering, carrier-
class protection...
3. Providers must offer differential QoS both on a per customer basis and on a per service basis.
Every service has its own QoS needs. Providing QoS on a per service basis is not just a
problem of prioritization. The network must be prepared to fulfill the needs of every application.
4. QoS tests are performed as end-to-end measurements. For example, a tester can be used to
measure delay, delay variation and packet loss, for several services/subscribers, from the
customer premises.
5. Residential subscribers experience service deficiency rather than abstract QoS problems;
because they buy services rather than transmission facilities. This makes QoE testing an important
requirement of test equipment in residential applications.

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Acronym List
ACELP: Algebraic CELP IGMP: Internet Group Membership Protocol PSQM: Perceptual Speech Quality Measure
ADPCM: Adaptive Differential PCM IntServ: Integrated Services POTS: Plain Old Telephone System
ADM: Add/Drop Multiplexer IPTV: IP Television PWE3: PseudoWire edge-to-edge Emulation
ADSL: Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line ISP: Internet Service Provider QoE: Quality of Experience
ADSL2+: ultra-high-speed ADSL ISUP: ISDN User Part QoS: Quality of Service
APON: ATM PON LAN: Local Area Network R-Factor: 0 to 100 ratio for voice quality (ITU G.107)
ARPU: Average Revenue Per User LCAS: Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme RPE-LTP: Regular Pulse Excitation - Long Term Prediction
B-Frame: Bidirectional Prediction Frame LLC: Logical Link Control RSVP: Resource Reservation Protocol
BPON: Broadband PON LPC: Linear Predictive Coding RTCP: Real Time Control Protocol
CAT: Conditional Access Table LSP: Label-Switched Path RTP: Real Time Protocol
CELP: Code Excited Linear Prediction LSR: Label-Switched Router SAN: Storage Area Network
CPE: Customer Premises Equipment MAC: Media Access Layer SDH: Synchronous Digital Network
CVSD: Continuously Variable Slope Delta MGC: Media Gateway Controllers SDTV: Standard Definition TV
DiffServ: Differentiated Services MGCP: Media Gateway Control Protocol SLA: Service Level Agreement
DOCSIS: Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification MOS: Mean Opinion Square SNT: Signal to Noise Ratio
DSCP: Differentiated Services Code Point MPEG: Moving Picture Experts Group SIP: Simple Internet Protocol
DSLAM: Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer MPLS: Multiprotocol Label Switching SMS: Short Message Service
DTT: Digital Terrestrial Television MSPP: MultiService Provisioning Platform STB: Set Top Box
DVB: Digital Video Broadcast MSTP: MultiService Transport Platform STUN: Simple Traversal of UDP through NAT
DWDM: Dense WDM MSSP: MultiService Switching Platform PAT: Programme Association Table
EPON: Ethernet PON NAT: Network Address Table TP: Transport Packets
ES: Elementary Stream NG SDH: Next-Generation SDH TS: Transport Stream
ESCON: Enterprise Systems Connection NGN: Next-Generation Network TSTV: Time Shift Television
EVC: Ethernet Virtual Connection NIT: Network Information Table UTP: Unshielded Twisted Pair cable
EVPL: Ethernet Virtual Private Line OAM: Operation Administration and Maintenance VC: Virtual Concatenation
EVPLAN: Ethernet Virtual Private LAN OLT: Optical Line Termination VPN: Virtual Private Network
FR: Frame Relay ONU: Optical Network Unit VDSL: Very High Bit rate DSL
FTTB: Fibre To The Building OSPF: Open Shortest Path First VLAN: Virtual LAN
FTTC: Fibre To The Curb OTN: Optical Transport Network VPLS: Virtual Private LAN Service
FTTH: Fibre To The Home P-Frame: Prediction Frame VPWS: Virtual Private Wire Service
FTTN: Fibre To The Network PAMS: Perceptual Analysis Measurement System VoD: Video On Demand
FTTP: Fibre To The Premises PCM: Pulse Code Modulation VoIP: Voice over Internet Protocol
GEM: G-PON Encapsulation Mode PCR: Program Clock Reference VSELP: Vector-Sum Excited Linear Prediction
GFP: Generic Framing Protocol PES: Packetized Elementary Stream WDM: Wave-Division Multiplexing
GPRS: General Packet Radio Service PESQ: Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality WiFi: Wireless Fidelity
GPON: Gigabit PON PHB: Per Hop Behavior WiMAX: World-wide Inter operability for Microwave Access
GSM: Global System for Mobile communication PMT: Programme Map Table WIS: WAN Interface Sublayer
HDTV: High Definition TV PPP: Point to Point Protocol WLAN: Wireless Local Area Network
HFC: Hybrid Fibre/Coaxial network PON: Passive Optical Network WM: Windows Media
HSDPA: High Speed Downlink Packet Access PON: Private Optical Network
I-Frames: Intra Frame PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network
That’s all, thanks