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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

UNIT OUTLINE
Subject: Depth Study 3: Australians at War Course: Stage 5/ Year 9 History. The Making of the Modern World Number of Weeks: 10

Unit title: Australians at War: World War 1

Key Concepts/ Big Ideas The importance of this learning


 Continuity and change
 Cause and effect Throughout this unit of work, students will engage in a diverse range of activities designed to
 Perspectives promote historical inquiry in the classroom environment. The range of activities and included
 Empathetic understanding resources serve to address the key concepts associated with the study of history as outlined within
 Significance the NSW stage 5 syllabus. In this way, students are guided through an exploration of the causes of
 Contestability World War 1 and its effects, they examine different perspectives and experiences of the war, the
lasting significance of World War 1 for Australia and its contribution to Australia’s national identity.

Unit context within Scope and Sequence/Purpose Syllabus Outcomes


HT5-1- Explains and assesses the historical forces and factors that shaped the modern world and
This is a stage 5 unit of work for year 9, for use in Australia.
term 3 as of 2017.
HT5-2- Sequences and explains the significant patterns of continuity and change in the development
of the modern world and Australia.
This unit of work represents the first half of Depth
Study 3: Australians at War, with a focus on World HT5-4- Explains and analyses the causes and effects of events and developments in the modern
world and Australia.
War 1. The second half of the depth study, focused
on World War 2, is intended to be delivered in the HT5-5- Identifies and evaluates the usefulness of sources in the historical inquiry process.
term following this unit, in term 4. HT5-7- Explains different contexts, perspectives and interpretations of the modern world and
Australia.
In order to reflect the narrowing of the depth HT5-9- Applies a range of relevant historical terms and concepts when communicating an
study focus for this unit, the syllabus content understanding of the past.
imbedded throughout the unit of work, have been
HT5-10- Selects and uses appropriate oral, written, visual and digital forms to communicate
amended where necessary, to demonstrate this effectively about the past for different audiences.
units focus, which is solely on World War 1.

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

Related Life Skills outcomes: HTLS-3, HTLS-4, HTLS-6, HTLS-7, HTLS-9, HTLS-11, HTLS-12, HTLS-13

Literacy Focus Numeracy Focus ICT Focus Differentiation

Analysis of sources, Students develop ICT is implemented throughout the unit The approach taken to the differentiation of tasks
including both primary and numeracy skills through as a method of delivering complex and throughout the unit of work, is focused on the
secondary sources, to the mapping of key varied learning experiences to students. literacy levels of students within the classroom,
develop students’ reading, locations and conflicts The original ICT resource created to and the impact that literacy levels have on
writing and visual literacy associated with WW1 as accompany this unit of work, is a Prezi students’ engagement with lesson content.
skills. Incorporating; well as sequencing events presentation which can be viewed at Therefore, various written and comprehension
Images, photographs, in the format of a https://prezi.com/view/VpHRiEJARO2R2ww8XYz4/ based activities are differentiated to facilitate
posters and propaganda. timeline. student engagement across the full range of
Written accounts, letters, Integration of numerical Examples of ICT imbedded within the abilities. This involves the reduction of exit slip
songs and poems. data, including the unit, include historical videos and clips, activities from 100-word responses, to 50-word
Recreations and comparison of the total the oral histories and reflections of responses for students with low literacy levels,
dramatizations in clips, population of Australia, soldiers who were involved at Gallipoli. along with slightly altered expectations for these
videos and movies. with the statistics ICT is also used as a method of delivery activities, including summaries instead of
associated with for classroom content, allowing for the analyses.
enlistment data for men, projection of digital images, documents, Differentiation to cater for low level literacy
women and Indigenous websites and data, to facilitate class students is also evident in the types of activities
Australians. These analysis and discussion. imbedded throughout the unit, including mind
statistics are also The group research scaffold is also ICT maps, timelines and visual literacy exercises
compared with the based, with students required to including poster designs and drawing reflections.
casualty rates to complete scaffolded online research, Sources are also differentiated based on literacy
emphasise the impact of with the option to use ICT as a method of levels, with low literacy level students receiving
war on the Australian presenting their research task. shorter extracts and a reduced number of
population. extended text-based sources.

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

Week/ Syllabus Content Teaching and Learning Strategies including Resources


Sequence assessment for learning.

1 An overview of the causes of the war, The unit of work begins with students completing a
why men enlisted and where teacher modelled mind map activity based around
Australians fought. World War 1. This activity captures and represents
Students: students’ existing knowledge on the topic of World
 Outline the main causes of War 1 and also allows for the inclusion of
World War 1 information and beliefs that may be relevant to war
 Locate and sequence the in general, without specific reference to WW1. This
places where Australians is a knowledge sharing exercise that formatively
fought assesses student knowledge at the commencement
 Explain why Australians of the topic, whilst also facilitating the sharing of
enlisted to fight this knowledge with students unfamiliar with the
topic.

Videos sourced from ABC, SBS, BBC or Youtube, on Videos sourced from ABC, SBS, BBC or
the topic of the causes of World War 1, along with Youtube on the countries involved and the
the countries involved, are shown to the class. causes of World War 1.
Students complete closed-passage activities to Teacher designed closed-passage activities to
accompany the videos watched and to consolidate accompany selected videos.
the key facts of the causes of World War 1.

Class discussion to allow students to express any


new ideas and knowledge taken from the videos
with their classmates.

Whole class collaborative vocabulary list of


important terms, to be created in class. This list
should be based on terms and ideas that students
detected within their viewing of the Youtube
videos. This list will be used and built upon
throughout the unit, and should include;

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

Triple Alliance, Triple Entente, the Allies, the


Western Front, Gallipoli, trenches, etc.

World map templates, preferably A3 size, to be A3 world map templates.


provided to students and used to visually locate,
identify and label information associated with the
war. This information will be taken from previously
watched videos and can be modelled by the teacher
on the smart board to ensure the accuracy of
students’ information. Information included in the
mapping activity should include but is not limited
to; The countries involved in World War 1 and the
alliances between those countries, the locations of
major Fronts and conflicts, including those battles
that involved Australian troops. When labelling
conflicts on their maps, students should include the
dates associated with these conflicts.

Sequencing of Australia’s involvement of World Timeline template.


War 1. Students should be divided into pairs and
provided with a timeline template. Using the
information previously detailed on their World War
1 maps, students transfer their developing
knowledge into a timeline format. Completed
timelines should detail the different conflicts
participated in by Australians, along with their
associated dates, with all conflicts ordered
chronologically. Other information to include in the
timelines are significant dates associated with the
outbreak of WW1.

Spend a lesson guiding students through an analysis Teacher’s chosen sources based on
of sources to establish the motivating factors for motivations for Australia’s involvement in

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

Australians’ participation in World War 1. WW1. These could include government


Propaganda images, enlistment advertisements, propaganda images, enlistment
letters home and soldiers’ diary entries are possible advertisements and soldiers’ diary entries
primary sources that can be utilised in the and letters home.
classroom. These sources should assist students’
conclusions that Australian soldiers at the start of
WW1 were largely unaware of the reality of war
and that enlistment was often based on
expectations of adventure, exploration and duty to
the Motherland.

2 The scope and nature of warfare. Comparative activities using statistical data. Statistical data on soldiers involved in WW1
Students: Teacher provides students with the statistics from various countries, including statistics of
 Outline the scope and nature necessary to compare the numbers of soldiers soldiers lost in the war.
of warfare in World War 1 involved in WW1 from different countries, along
with their overall population numbers. Countries
should include; Australia, Britain, France, Russia,
Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary. This data should
then be broadened to include statistical information
regarding the numbers of soldiers who never
returned home.

Think, pair, share activity which encourages


students to reflect on the extent of World War 1
and the impact that warfare had on populations
worldwide and in Australia. Students should be left
with an appreciation of the destructive nature of
war as represented in the unprecedented loss of
life.

Students complete an exit activity which requires


them to submit a brief summary of their learning

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

throughout the lesson base on one thing learnt, one


thing already known, and one thing that surprised
them.

Using primary source images, students look at the


new nature of warfare that developed throughout Primary source images selected by classroom
World War 1, including the new forms of weaponry, teacher, depicting the nature of warfare in
and the style of warfare that incorporated extensive WW1. This should include photographs and
trenches and stale-mates. accounts of trench conditions and weaponry
Primary source photographs of World War 1 used throughout the war.
trenches, projected for students to view, and Labelling template of trench features and
accompanying rudimentary templates of trenches, structures.
distributed to students. Students use the projected
photographs to label the various components of a
trench, including the dugouts where soldiers slept,
along with the defensive aspects of the trench and
the no-man’s land between the opposing lines of
trenches. This activity should incorporate a
discussion of the prevalence of disease and sickness
within the trenches, including trench-foot.

Students explore the conditions inside the trenches


through videos sourced from ABC, SBS, BBC or Videos sourced from ABC, SBS, BBC or
Youtube, which take students inside the trenches to Youtube, depicting the conditions within the
visually illustrate the interior structure of trenches trenches during WW1. This may include
and the conditions endured by soldiers throughout historical recreations and dramatizations,
the war. These may include historical recreations along with an exploration of trenches which
and dramatizations, along with explorations of still remain today.
trenches as they remain today with references to
the conditions during the war.

Copies of soldiers’ diaries and letters home, which


describe their experiences within the trenches.

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

Sources used for this literacy based activity can be Copies of ANZAC soldiers’ diary entries and
differentiated according to the literacy levels of letters home, referring to conditions inside
students within the classroom, with confident the trenches.
readers receiving more extended and detailed texts,
and low literacy level students receiving shorted
passages, excerpts or accounts. All resources should
reflect a focus on conditions experiences by soldiers
within the trenches.

Teacher created comprehension and closed passage


activities used to explore the types of weaponry
introduced during the war including submarines, Teacher created comprehension and closed-
automatic weapons, aeroplanes and tanks. passage activities on the types of weaponry
designed for and utilised throughout the war.
Revisit the mapping activity completed in week 1.
Teacher to provide students with an information
sheet outlining the casualty rates of soldiers at
specific sites of World War 1 conflicts. This
information should be assimilated by students into
their existing map to provide more a more detailed
representation about the scope of different
conflicts.

At the conclusion of the weeks’ lessons, students


each receive a post-it note and prior to exiting the
classroom, students are each required to record Post-it notes
one thing that has ‘stuck with them’ from this
weeks’ lessons. The post-it notes are displayed on a
designated portion of the classroom wall where
they can be viewed and revisited by students.

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

3 The scope and nature of warfare. ICT resource (see attached) to be used as an The original ICT resource designed to
(cont.) introduction to the battle of Gallipoli. This is an accompany this unit of work can be found at;
Students: original prezi resource which outlines, through the https://prezi.com/view/VpHRiEJARO2R2ww8XYz4/

 Describe the nature of use of visuals, including maps and photographs, and
warfare during the Gallipoli textual information, the fundamental information
campaign to introduce students to the conflict at Gallipoli.
This includes the location of Gallipoli, why
Australians were there, who they were there with,
the date of the Gallipoli landing and what happened
when they landed.
The information contained within this resource is
intended to be elaborated on by the teacher within
the classroom, through a more extensive
explanation of the content throughout the
presentation. This resource may be used within 1-2
lessons.

Utilising the accounts of World War 1 Examples and extracts of war correspondence
correspondent Charles Bean, who accompanied the from Charles Bean.
landing of ANZAC troops at Gallipoli, have students
investigate what happened on the morning of the
ANZAC landing, including the navigational error
which forced the landing to take place in formidable
terrain and circumstances.
Think, pair, share activity during which students
share their growing knowledge of the Gallipoli
campaign. Students should share the information
they learnt from the Charles Bean accounts and

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

identify the source of their information within the


text.

Project images of the terrain faced by the ANZACs Images of the Gallipoli peninsula and terrain.
at the Gallipoli landing and have students identify Image selection is at the discretion of the
features of the landscape including the hills, ridges classroom teacher and can incorporate both
and the beach. Facilitate a class discussion/ debate historical and modern images of the
whereby students express their opinion on the landscape.
location of the landing and reflect on the difficulties
the soldiers would have faced when they came
ashore and as they advanced from the beach.

Play the BBC Radio 4, Voices of the First World War, BBC Radio 4, Voices of the First World War,
Gallipoli- Landing resource. Encourage students not Gallipoli- Landing. Can be found at;
to write but to simply listen to the voices of the http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b05zl6z0#play
soldiers who were there the day Allied soldiers
landed at Gallipoli. Students may elect to close their
eyes, rest their heads on desks, or to recline on the
carpet. This is a listening exercise that will build
students sense of empathy.

Have students write a brief explanation about what


happened at the Gallipoli landing, including the
consequences in the form of cost of life as detailed
by the Charles Bean extracts and the BBC Voices
resource.

4 The scope and nature of warfare. Videos sourced from ABC, SBS, BBC or Youtube on Videos sourced from ABC, SBS, BBC or
(cont.) the outcomes of the Gallipoli campaign, shown to Youtube on the outcomes of the Gallipoli
Students: class to provide closure for students regarding the campaign.
 Explain the outcome of the results of such an historic event in Australian
Gallipoli campaign military history.

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

Videos should depict the ultimate decision to


withdraw troops from the peninsula following the
eight-month conflict, in December 1915.

Present statistical data sourced from the Australian


War Memorial website, to class. Facilitate a class Statistical data sourced from the Australian
discussion through which students discuss the War Memorial website, depicting the cost of
consequences of the Gallipoli campaign on life of Australian soldiers during the Gallipoli
Australian soldiers, with specific reference to the campaign.
number of lives lost in a single campaign which
ultimately ended in withdrawal. Data comparisons
should explore the numbers of Australian troops
that landed at Gallipoli, with the number of soldiers
who survived.

Students design a visual representation of the


Gallipoli campaign. Students may elect to complete
this task using paper and basic stationary items, or
they may utilise their personal laptops/computers.
Students are encouraged to incorporate recreations
of maps, statistics and images that have been
explored in class, and which have informed their
understanding of the Gallipoli campaign. These
posters are visual representations of students’
engagement with classroom learning and facilitate
the demonstration of understanding through a
medium that is not reliant on traditional forms of
literacy. Posters are to be completed in class time
and can be displayed in the classroom.

Play BBC Radio 4, Voices of the First World War,


Gallipoli- Conditions and Evacuation. Students listen
to the compilation of aural accounts of soldiers’

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

experiences at Gallipoli, including reflections on Play BBC Radio 4, Voices of the First World
their withdrawal from the peninsula. This is a War, Gallipoli- Conditions and Evacuation.
listening activity and students are encouraged to Can be found at;
relax and appreciate the authenticity of the http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b05zlg6t
soldier’s accounts and descriptions of their
experiences.

Students to speak for one minute about the


significance of the ANZAC landing on the Gallipoli
peninsula. Students may choose to focus on the
impact on the individuals involved, or the lasting
impact of the campaign on the historical memory of
Australia. For students with low literacy levels, the
requirements for the speaking task can be
differentiated in multiple ways, including reducing
the length of their speaking time to 30 seconds, or
to have students exhibit and describe the content
of their previously created Gallipoli poster and
explain the content that they chose to include.

5 Significant events and the Teacher provides students with various sources Source based activity designed to accompany
experiences of Australians at war. including primary source photographs, documents, this unit of work (see attached).
 Using sources, students letters home, statistics, war correspondence and
investigate the following diary entries to allow students to explore the
features of war: experiences of war from different perspectives.
o The role of women
o Prisoners of war The first lesson of the week should be dedicated to
o A specific campaign, the delivery of the source based activity designed to
eg the Western front accompany this unit of work (see attached). This
1916 activity includes a selection of different sources and
accompanying questions, including images of a
knitting instruction and regulation booklet, the

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

words to a World War 1 poem by Violet Gillespie,


and an academic secondary source which explains
the uniform crisis during the war. The components
of this source based activity, are designed to
illustrate the experiences of Australian women
during World War 1, and the role that women
played in contributing to the war effort.
This source activity can be differentiated based on
students’ literacy levels. For low level literacy
students, it is suggested that they engage with
sources 1 and 2, while students of higher levels of
literacy, including gifted and talented students are
encouraged to analyse source 3 in addition to
sources 1 and 2.

Subsequent lessons involve the classroom teacher’s Classroom teacher’s selection of primary and
own selection of source materials for each feature secondary sources related to the experiences
of the war including prisoners of war and the of Prisoners of war and soldiers’ experiences
Western Front during 1916. on the Western Front in 1916.

Students complete an exit slip at the conclusion of


two chosen lessons throughout the week. These
exit slips should require students to respond to a
question about the experiences of Australians at
war. One slip should be based on experiences of
prisoners of war, and the other to the Western
Front in 1916. Responses should be 100 words in
length, reduced to 50 words for students with low
level literacy and comprehension abilities.

6 A continuation of the source-based work completed Classroom teacher’s selection of primary and
the previous week, with a new focus on the secondary sources related to the

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

Significant events and the participation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander participation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait
experiences of Australians at war. Peoples throughout the war, and the Battle of Islander peoples in the war, and soldiers’
(cont.) Hamel in 1918. experiences of the Battle of Hamel in 1918.
 Using sources, students A secondary resource may include the
investigate the following The Participation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Australian War Memorial’s article on the
features of war: Islander peoples, should be covered over two Battle of Hamel, which can be found at;
o Participation of lessons and should include whole class and smalls https://www.awm.gov.au/articles/blog/95th-
Aboriginal and Torres groups based analyses of statistical data relating to anniversary-battle-hamel-4-july-1918
Strait Islander the number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
peoples peoples who enlisted in the war, and a data
o A specific comparison which shows the loss of life. Primary
event/incident, eg source materials such as photographs of Indigenous
the Battle of Hamel soldiers, diary entries and letters home should be
1918 utilised.

Two lessons should be dedicated to exploring the


Battle of Hamel in 1918. The Australian War
Memorial website is to be used as an historical
secondary source account, and projected in class to
provide students with contextual information
regarding the battle including its purpose and
ultimate significance as a turning point of the war.
Teacher developed comprehension task should
accompany the information provided in the
website, allowing students to use this knowledge to
answer questions. Building upon this broad
knowledge of the battle of Hamel, students should
be organised into small groups and provided with
primary source images relating to the battle of
Hamel, including photographs of the terrain and the
soldiers, and map documents identifying where the
battle took place. In Groups students interrogate
these images using the following questions;

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

What does this image contain? What does it show


me? What does it tell me? How is it useful in
understanding the experiences of the battle of
Hamel in 1918?

Exit slip in which students briefly explain the


importance of primary source documents in
representing the experiences of war. This exit slip
should also provide students the opportunity to
request clarification of any concepts that have been
covered in previous lessons throughout the unit.

7&8 Impact of the war on Australia. Dedicate 1-2 classes in week 7 to refreshing, Research task scaffold. See attached.
Students: clarifying and consolidating student understanding
 Outline the Australian of the unit so far, based on the responses to the exit
governments’ control on the slip in week 6.
home front for each of the
following; Group research task;
o Conscription In groups of 3-4, students select one aspect of
o Use of government governmental control on the home front and
propaganda complete a scaffolded, collaborative research task.
o Changing roles of which incorporates the use of primary and
women secondary sources, to explore how being at war
o Enemy ‘aliens’ changed life at home in Australia.
o Wartime
controls/censorship Devote 1 lesson to a teacher guided overview of the
different topics available, as listed in the syllabus, to
provide students with an insight into each topic.
This lesson should involve the formation of groups
and establishment of teacher expectations for the
task. Each group selects one topic to focus their
research task on, according to group interest.

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

Students utilise class time throughout weeks 7 and


8, to complete the task and present their research
to the class. A check-point should be imposed at the
end of week 7, along with teacher-group
conferencing to check on research progress,
identify issues, answer questions and provide
direction.

At the conclusion of week 8, 1-2 lessons should be


dedicated to students’ presentation of their
research task to the class, in their chosen medium.

9 Significance of the war to Australia. Have students reflect on what they have learnt Teacher created short answer questions on
Students: about the nature of warfare in World War 1. the impact of the war on returned soldiers.
 Explain the impact of the Provide students with a list of short answer
wars on returned questions which requires students to contemplate
soldiers/civilians the impact that warfare would have had on the
soldiers who returned home.

Utilising soldiers’ written accounts and medical Primary and secondary source documents
records of returned WW1 soldiers, as a class selected by the classroom teacher, illustrating
examine the lasting impact of war. This should the nature of wounds and injuries suffered by
include exploration into the types of injuries returning soldiers.
suffered by soldiers, including wounds, loss of limbs Statistical information comparing the
and deformity. Using statistical data, compare the numbers of soldiers who were involved in the
statistics of soldiers who went to war, with those war, with soldiers killed, and soldiers
who were injured, and those who died. wounded.

Provide students with an illustration of an Illustration of World War 1 soldier.


Australian soldier from World War 1. Tell students
to imagine that this soldier is returning home from

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

the war, and that they may have been involved in


the conflicts at Gallipoli or Hamel. Have students
write down a series of questions that they would
like to ask this soldier if they could.

Based on previous explorations of the loss of Statistical information sourced from the
Australian life throughout World War 1, use the Australian War Memorial, detailing the
Australian War Memorial archives to locate number of Australian soldiers who remain in
information relating to the number of ANZAC unmarked graves overseas.
soldiers who remain in unmarked graves. Use this
information to facilitate a class discussion about the
impact of grief of soldiers’ families and the reality
that in many cases soldiers’ families do not know
where the remains of their loved ones lie.

Distribute copies of the Australian War Memorial’s An article of Ataturk, outlining his military
profile of ‘Ataturk’, including his tribute to the career and detailing his tribute to the
ANZAC soldiers whose lives were lost at Gallipoli. Australian soldiers who died at Gallipoli. This
Have students read about Ataturk’s military career can be found at;
and reflect on the compassion and respect shown https://www.awm.gov.au/articles/encyclopedia/ataturk
by a man who was positioned as an enemy
throughout the war. Suggest to students that in
war, death and grief do not discriminate; that not
only ANZAC soldiers lost their lives during World
War 1 but also soldiers from around the world.

Have students write a 100-word reflection on the


significance of the tribute to ANZAC soldiers given
by Ataturk. Encourage students to include the
importance of his speech, the comfort that it might
have provided soldier’s loved ones and the different
perspective that the speech provides to the ANZAC
legend. For students with low literacy levels, the

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

expectations of this task can be reduced to a 50-


word explanation of what Ataturk’s speech was
about.

10 Commemorations and the nature of Teacher facilitates the creation of a collaborative


the ANZAC legend. class mind map based around student
Students: understanding of ANZAC day.
 Explain how and why Prompting questions could include; When is ANZAC
Australians have day? What does ANZAC day mean in your family?
commemorated the war Do you commemorate/celebrate it? Have you ever
 Explain different perspectives been to a dawn service? Why do we commemorate
on the ANZAC legend ANZAC day?
Teacher can revisit the content of the ICT resource
to accompany this unit, outlining the significance of
April 25 1915 in Australia’s military history.

Teacher can present common motifs of ANZAC day Images and depictions associated with ANZAC
to the class, including the Australian slouch hat, the day.
flag at half-mast, medals, marches, the rising of the
dawn. Students think, pair, share what they believe
is the significance of each motif based on their
knowledge of Australia’s involvement in World War
1.

In class exploration of the order of service typically Order of service for a traditional ANZAC day
used in ANZAC day services. Teacher plays students commemorative ceremony.
the commemorative bugle calls associated with
ANZAC day and commemoration, including ‘The Recordings of bugle calls including ‘The Last
Last Post’, ‘Rouse’ and ‘Reveille’. Brief class Post’, ‘Rouse’ and ‘Reveille’.
discussion should follow each, allowing students to
express the thoughts and emotions that these bugle
calls produce.

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

At the commencement of this activity, students


should be provided with a sheet of paper onto
which they can record their reflections throughout
the various bugle calls. This activity can incorporate
words, text, images and drawings created by
students in response to what they hear and feel.

Whole class discussion of ‘The Ode’ and the A copy of ‘The Ode’
intention of the minute’s silence that is a core
tradition in all commemorative services.

A selection of secondary source materials provided Classroom teachers selection of secondary


to students which represent different perspectives source materials depicting different
on the ANZAC legend. These sources can be drawn perspectives on the ANZAC legend.
from articles, interviews and written reflections of
politicians, ANZAC soldiers and other sources
including Turkish soldiers and politicians. These
interpretations of the ANZAC legend should be read
by students and discussed as a class.

Select a perspective on the ANZAC legend and


explain it. Students may elect to write about their
own perspectives on the ANZAC legend, they may
select an ANZAC soldiers’ perspective or they may
choose an alternate perspective explored in class
such as a Turkish soldiers’.

Assessment Details Outcomes

Assessments for this unit of work are based on a


variety formative assessment strategies imbedded HT5-1- Explains and assesses the historical forces and factors that shaped the modern world and
Australia.
throughout the teaching and learning strategies
for each week. Together these formative

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

assessments in combination with the scaffolded HT5-2- Sequences and explains the significant patterns of continuity and change in the development
research project, ensure that students address of the modern world and Australia.
the necessary outcomes associated with this HT5-4- Explains and analyses the causes and effects of events and developments in the modern
depth study. world and Australia.
HT5-5- Identifies and evaluates the usefulness of sources in the historical inquiry process.
Week 1- Mind map on students’ existing
HT5-7- Explains different contexts, perspectives and interpretations of the modern world and
knowledge of World War l. Australia.
Class discussions
Mapping of important information, including HT5-9- Applies a range of relevant historical terms and concepts when communicating an
understanding of the past.
countries involved and locations of key conflicts.
Timeline of Australia’s participation in the war, HT5-10- Selects and uses appropriate oral, written, visual and digital forms to communicate
including conflicts ordered chronologically. effectively about the past for different audiences.
Week 2- Exit summary based on 1 thing learnt, 1
thing already known and 1 thing that was a
surprise.
Post-it note, ‘what stuck with me’ exit activity.
Week 3- Think, pair, share of information learnt
from the Charles Bean accounts of the Gallipoli
landing.
Discussion of the difficulties faced during the
landing at Gallipoli.
Explanation of Gallipoli landing including
consequences.
Week 4- Discussion of the cost of life across entire
Gallipoli campaign.
Student created visual representations of Gallipoli
campaign.
1 minute speaking exercise on significance of the
ANZAC landing at Gallipoli.
Week 5- Exit slip based on the experiences of
prisoners of war.
Exit slip on the experiences of soldiers at the
Western Front in 1916.

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

Week 6- Exit slip on the importance of primary


sources to understanding the experiences of war.
Student reflection on learning and request for
clarification of key concepts.
Weeks 7 and 8- Group research task designed to
scaffold and develop students’ historical inquiry
skills.
Week 9- Student questioning of returned soldier.
Class discussion on the loss of life in WW1 and the
grief experienced by families.
100-word reflection on the significance of
Ataturk’s tribute to ANZAC soldiers lost at
Gallipoli.
Week 10- Collaborative class mind-map of
students’ understanding of ANZAC day.
Think, pair, share activity on the motifs associated
with ANZAC day.
Students’ reflections on bugle calls.
Class discussion of ‘The Ode’.
Explanation of the ANZAC legend from a chosen
perspective.

Evaluation of the Learning and Teaching

Evaluation of the teaching and learning processes takes place progressively throughout the unit of work, through the imbedded formative assessment
strategies and activities. These tasks enable students to reflect on the progression of their own learning, and identify areas of confusion and uncertainty.
These activities also facilitate teachers’ assessment of students’ developing knowledge and engagement throughout the unit and provide explicit
information for structuring student learning in future lessons and revisiting difficult and unclear topics.

Original ICT resource designed to accompany this unit of work, for use during week 3, is a digital presentation in the form of a Prezi. This resource can be
found at https://prezi.com/view/VpHRiEJARO2R2ww8XYz4/

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

Source Based Resource


Experiences of Australians at war- The role of women

Source 1
Source 1 questions

1. What is the title of the source 1 image?


2. What is the source about?
3. What do you think was the purpose of the
document contained in source 1?
4. What information can be learnt from source 1?
5. How can source 1 be used to understand the
experiences of women during WW1?

Woollen comforts from home [Image]. Retrieved


September 26, 2017 from
https://ww1.sl.nsw.gov.au/stories/woollen-
comforts-home

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

Source 2

One million pairs of socks: knitting for victory in the


first world war
August 11, 2014 12.33pm AEST

Socks for the boys


Coordinated though organisations
such as the Australian Comforts
Fund, groups formed at community
centres such as the Melbourne
Town Hall where every day up to
40 women would knit socks, vests,
balaclavas and kneepads to parcel
up and send to the home front.

Thousands of women and


schoolchildren knitted throughout
the war. Over 1.3 million pairs of
socks were sent overseas – often
with a small personal note inside
the sock informing the digger who
had knitted the garment along with
a brief message.

Cudgewa, Victoria, October 25 1916, photographer


unknown. State Library of NSW

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

In Victoria, when demand exceeded supply, bicycle spokes were turned into knitting needles and sold to other states. Knitting
provided comfort not only to the men who received the garments but also for the women who knitted. It was a meditative way to
pass the time and feel they were contributing to the war effort.

So ingrained was the daily activity of knitting while sitting by the radio waiting to hear news from overseas, that some women, in
the years after the war had ended, found themselves reaching instinctively for their needles as soon as the radio was turned on.

The perfect sock


To stop the “rogue knitting” of socks that might
be ill-fitting or not well-made the Soldiers’ Sock
Fund in Sydney provided instructional talks to
help knitters produce the perfect sock. They also
published The Grey Sock book in 1915.

Women volunteer workers doing up clothing parcels at the Australian


Comforts Fund rooms, Sydney, 1944, photographer Sam Hood. State Library
of NSW

After Australia joined the second world war,


government departments introduced knitting
patterns and clear guidelines about what
garments could be knitted, and what styles were
suited for the harsh conditions in the field.
Knitting book companies such as Patons and
Baldwins of Melbourne followed government
guidelines and produced booklets such as
the Patons Service Woolies: On Duty with the
Services, Specialty Knitting Book No 153, which
advised knitters to “buy wisely” when purchasing

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

the amount of wool, and to always use the recommended tension so the correct amount of wool would be used.

Along with standard patterns for socks, vest, jumpers and headwear, the pattern book included “Hospital Comforts”: a convalescent
jacket with a cutaway back to make lying in bed more comfortable.

Black, P. (2014, August 11). One million pairs of socks: Knitting for victory in the first world war. The Conversation: Academic Rigour, Journalistic Flair.
Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/one-million-pairs-of-socks-knitting-for-victory-in-the-first-world-war-30149

Source 2 questions

1. What is the title of source 2?


2. What does this title suggest was the purpose of women’s knitting during the war?
3. When was source 2 written?
4. How does this article build on your understanding of source 1?
5. Reflect on your knowledge of the prevalence of diseases in the trenches of World War 1, specifically trench foot. How do you think the knitting of
socks by Australian women throughout the war, aided Australian soldiers?

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

Source 3- Extension
Knit two and purl one;
Portrait of a Mother by Violet Gillespie Stir the fire and knit again.
And oh, my son, for another’s son
Knit two and purl one; My hands are working. The wind and rain
Stir the fire and knit again. Are shrill without. But you are gone
And oh, my son, my only son, To a quiet land. I shall come anon
I think of you in wind and rain, And find you, out of this wind and rain;
In rain and wind, 'neath fire and shell, But I’m working now for another’s son,
Going along the road to hell Knit two and purl one;
On earth in wind and rain. Stir the fire and knit again.
My little son, my only son . . .
Knit two and purl one;
Stir the fire and knit again. Crafty women and the Great War. (2014). Behind Their Lines: Poetry of
the Great War. Retrieved from
Knit two and purl one; http://behindtheirlines.blogspot.com.au/2014/10/crafty-women-and-
Knit again and stir the fire. great-war.html
And oh, my son, my only son,
I work for you and never tire; Source 3 questions
I never tire, but work and pray
Every hour of night and day. 1. Based on what you have learnt from sources 1 and 2, what do
Awake, asleep, I never tire, you think the poem in source 3 is about?
My little son, my only son . . . 2. What happens to the son during the poem?
Knit two and purl one; 3. What does source 3 suggest about the relationship between
Knit again and stir the fire. knitting and grief for women in Australia during the war?

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

Group Research Project Scaffold


Impact of World War 1 on Australia.

Outline the Australian governments’ control on the home front for one of the following.

In groups of 2-3, select one topic from the range discussed in class. Options include;

 Conscription
 Government propaganda
 Changing roles of women
 Enemy ‘aliens’
 Wartime controls/censorship

*Remember that based on your chosen topic, you are using research to find information and evidence relating to the Australian governments’ control over the home front
during World War 1.

This is a collaborative research task which requires you to coordinate and contribute to the research task as a group. The presentation of your research can
be in the medium of your choice and this decision should be made as a group. The results of your research will be presented to the class, in your chosen
medium, at the end of week 8, including a brief verbal explanation of the evidence and conclusions reached in your research.

Suggested mediums for the presentation of your group research could include,

 A Powerpoint or Prezi presentation


 A pamphlet or written article
 A poster or collage

With a focus on the topic selected by your group for this task, use the following questions to guide and inform your research;

1. What information do you already know?


2. What information do you still need to find out?
3. How/where can you find the information you need?

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

When you have found a source of information, consider;

4. What/who is the source of this information? Is it a reliable source of information?


5. What is this source telling you?
6. How does this information inform your understanding of your chosen topic?
7. Can this information be used as evidence to support the conclusions of your research?

Suggested websites

National Library of Australia- http://trove.nla.gov.au/

Australian War Memorial- https://www.awm.gov.au/

National Archives of Australia- http://www.naa.gov.au/

Australian Government: Australia at war- http://www.australia.gov.au/information-and-services/culture-and-arts/history/australia-at-war

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

Justification of Unit Planning

This unit of work is designed to adhere to the Stage 5 Core study- Depth Study 3: Australians at War. This unit is programmed as the year 9, term 3 unit of
work and is structured to focus exclusively on Australia’s involvement in World War 1. The corresponding focus on World War 2, imbedded within the
syllabus outline for depth study 3, is intended to be delivered in the subsequent term and build upon students’ established knowledge of Australia’s military
history in World War 1 (Board of Studies NSW, 2012). In this way, certain syllabus content points, which require students to address aspects of Australia’s
involvement in both World Wars, have been modified to focus exclusively on World War 1 (Board of Studies NSW, 2012).

Differentiation based on students’ literacy levels, is an integral part of the unit of work (Morgan, 2014). Throughout the teaching and learning strategies
listed for each week’s lessons and topic focuses, the diverse range of learner abilities have been catered for, through the differentiation of lesson content,
and expectations of student responses (Morgan, 2014). Specifically, this involves extensive visual source work, the inclusion of video and narrated historical
accounts, as well as opportunities for students to demonstrate their understanding creatively. Furthermore, the presence of varied primary and secondary
sources, mapping activities, student created timelines, visual representations of learning and the presence of ICT in the classroom, facilitates the
development of student knowledge and understanding that is deep, and connected to students’ lives outside the classroom (Ludwig & Gore, 2003; Fahey,
2012a; Boon, 2012). The diverse range of resources utilised throughout the unit plan are intended to provide a high level of student engagement through
authentic content and experience, and simultaneously eliminate obstacles to student participation based on levels of literacy (Fahey, 2012a). In
conjunction, these approaches to differentiation for student learning, ensure that all students are empowered to participate, produce work to the best of
their ability and demonstrate their achievements (Morgan, 2014; Fahey, 2012a).

Assessment for learning, in the form of formative assessment, is imbedded throughout the organisation of activities for this unit of work. These non-
invasive assessment strategies include exit slips, which vary from requiring students to reflect on their learning, to explanations of a selected topic or idea,
and involve students identifying gaps in their own knowledge and understanding (Taylor & Kriewaldt, 2012). Further assessment strategies include
classroom discussion and think, pair, share activities, collaborative whole class mind-mapping, having students represent information in different mediums,
including mapping, timeline and illustration activities, and asking students to identify one aspect of the lesson that ‘stuck with them’ (Taylor & Kriewaldt,

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

2012). Together these activities provide regular opportunities for student discussion and reflection on learning, whilst also facilitating teacher identification
of gaps in students’ historical knowledge, skills and understanding (Fahey, 2012a; Taylor, 2012a).

The group research scaffold designed to accompany this unit of work, focuses on the experiences of Australians on the home front, throughout World War
1. The strategies involved in the development of this task, emphasise an inquiry-based approach to historical learning, as premised on the understanding
that historical inquiry requires the interrogation of various sources to produce evidence (Taylor, 2012a). Furthermore, the sources incorporated into the
research process, must themselves be assessed based on the usefulness of their information to the purpose of the inquiry, and the questions being
answered (Taylor, 2012a; Fahey, 2012b). This is evident within the research project scaffold, as students are required to consider a series of guiding
questions, which reflect on students’ own existing knowledge on their chosen topic of inquiry, the information they are required to locate, the source of
their information, and ultimately, the usefulness of a source’s information in informing their understanding on their chosen topic (Taylor, 2012c; Taylor &
Boon, 2012). Once the progression from locating and validating information is complete, students are also required to structure their research evidence in a
medium of their choice, and present their conclusions in the form of a historical explanation (Fahey, 2012b; Taylor & Boon, 2012; Taylor, 2012b). Therefore,
this scaffolded approach to student directed learning, promotes historical literacy through students’ progressive reflections on their existing knowledge,
and the processes involved in developing their historical understanding through the historical inquiry process (Fahey, 2012b; Taylor, 2012a, 2012c; Taylor &
Boon, 2012).

The source based resource designed to complement this unit of work, emphasises an alternative point of view of Australians during the period of World
War 1, focusing on the efforts of Australian women to supplement the uniform supply for Australian soldiers. The sources included within this resource,
comprise a primary source image of the ‘Grey Sock Book’, which outlined the regulations associated with knitting socks for deployed soldiers, and provides
students with a tangible, authentic link to the role of women during the war (Woollen comforts from home, n.d.). The supplementary secondary source, is
an historical article, which outlines the significance of the knitted socks as comforts for soldiers, and explores the comfort that the process of knitting
provided to the wives, mothers and loved ones, of Australian soldiers (Black, 2014). The final source included in this document, is a poem written during the
period of World War 1 (Crafty women and the Great War, 2014). This source is an extension exercise for students with high literacy abilities, and requires

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Assessment 2 History Curriculum Spring 2017

students to engage with a historical narrative incorporating a maternal point of view on the consequences of war, and empathise with the emotion
depicted within the text (Morgan, 2014; Taylor & Boon, 2012). Together this combination of sources, engages students in the exploration of a historical
narrative from a specific point of view, with visuals and an accessible article, facilitating the engagement of low literacy level students, with the opportunity
for the extension of capable students (Boon, 2012). Each source is accompanied by a series of questions which require students to interrogate each source
based not only on content and topic, but also on the usefulness of their information in developing their knowledge. In this way, the source based resource
designed for this unit, develops students’ historical literacy through the interrogation of sources and reflections on their existing and developing knowledge
(Taylor, 2012a, 2012c; Fahey, 2012b).

Overall, this unit of work represents the authentic and engaging programming of depth-study 3: Australians at War (Board of Studies NSW, 2012).
Throughout the unit students engage with a diverse range of sources and activities, scaffolded to promote active student participation across a wide range
of abilities, and develop students’ historical knowledge and skills (Morgan, 2014; Fahey, 2012a). The imbedded opportunities for students’ reflection on
learning, and demonstration of their abilities through a range of modes, make this a critically thought-out unit of work, in accordance with syllabus
requirements and reflecting history specific pedagogical strategies (Fahey, 2012b).

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References
Black, P. (2014, August 11). One million pairs of socks: Knitting for victory in the first world war. The Conversation: Academic Rigour, Journalistic Flair.
Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/one-million-pairs-of-socks-knitting-for-victory-in-the-first-world-war-30149

Board of Studies NSW. (2012). NSW Syllabus for the Australian Curriculum: History K-10 Syllabus: Vol 2: History Years 7-10. Sydney, Australia: Board of
Studies NSW.

Boon, D. (2012). ICT in geography and history. In T. Taylor, C. Fahey, J. Kriewaldt & D. Boon (Eds.), Place and time: Explorations in teaching geography and
history (pp. 279-300). Frenchs Forest NSW, Australia: Pearson Australia.

Crafty women and the Great War. (2014). Behind Their Lines: Poetry of the Great War. Retrieved from
http://behindtheirlines.blogspot.com.au/2014/10/crafty-women-and-great-war.html

Fahey, C. (2012a). Planning for teaching and learning in geography and history. In T. Taylor, C. Fahey, J. Kriewaldt & D. Boon (Eds.), Place and time:
Explorations in teaching geography and history (pp. 165-176). Frenchs Forest NSW, Australia: Pearson Australia.

Fahey, C. (2012b). Developing thinking and understanding in secondary history. In T. Taylor, C. Fahey, J.
Kriewaldt & D. Boon (Eds.), Place and time: Explorations in teaching geography and history (pp. 102-122). Frenchs Forest NSW, Australia: Pearson Australia.

Ludwig, J., & Gore, J. (2003). Quality Teaching in NSW Public Schools A classroom practice guide. Retrieved from
http://www.rqt.edu.au/files/5514/1774/9895/NSW_DET_2003- Quality_Teaching_Guide.pdf

Morgan, H. (2014). Maximising student success with differentiated learning. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 87(1),
34-38. doi: 10.1080/00098655.2013.832130

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Taylor, T. (2012a). Why history matters. In T. Taylor, C. Fahey, J. Kriewaldt & D. Boon (Eds.), Place and time: Explorations in teaching geography and history
(pp. 27-53). Frenchs Forest NSW, Australia: Pearson Australia.

Taylor, T. (2012b). Progression in understanding in history. In T. Taylor, C. Fahey, J. Kriewaldt & D. Boon (Eds.), Place and time: Explorations in teaching
geography and history (pp. 191-215). Frenchs Forest NSW, Australia: Pearson Australia.

Taylor, T. (2012c). Introduction to inquiry-based learning. In T. Taylor, C. Fahey, J. Kriewaldt & D. Boon (Eds.), Place and time: Explorations in teaching
geography and history (pp. 123-128). Frenchs Forest NSW, Australia: Pearson Australia.

Taylor, T., & Boon, D. (2012). Historical inquiry. In T. Taylor, C. Fahey, J. Kriewaldt & D. Boon (Eds.), Place and time: Explorations in teaching geography and
history (pp. 147-164). Frenchs Forest NSW, Australia: Pearson Australia.

Taylor, T., & Kriewaldt, J. (2012). Assessment in geography and history. In T. Taylor, C. Fahey, J. Kriewaldt & D. Boon (Eds.), Place and time: Explorations in
teaching geography and history (pp. 216-242). Frenchs Forest NSW, Australia: Pearson Australia.

Woollen comforts from home [Image]. Retrieved September 26, 2017 from https://ww1.sl.nsw.gov.au/stories/woollen-comforts-home

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