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ECE 422: Session 10; Page 1/10

Power Systems Analysis Spring 2018

Transient R-L Circuit Example


Given a 230kV:34kV, Y-Y, 100MVA transformer supplied supplied by a source with a short circuit MVA of 1000. The transformer
has a per unit reactance of 0.1pu on its ratings base. Both the transformer and the source impedance have an X/R ratio of 10.
Calculate the complete phase A fault current if a fault occurs on the LV side of the transformer at 70 degrees past the voltage peak.

Define Units:
MVA  1000kW SBASE  100MVA pu  1
Transformer parameters:

Srated  100MVA XoverR  10 Vhv  230kV Vlv  34.5kV


Xtrans
Xtrans  0.1pu Rtrans  Rtrans  0.01 pu
XoverR

 Find the transformer impedances referred to the LV side since the fault occurs on that side.
2
Vlv
ZBLV  RtransLV  Rtrans ZBLV RtransLV  0.119 Ω
Srated
XtransLV  Xtrans ZBLV XtransLV  1.19 Ω
ZBLV  11.9 Ω
XtransLV
LtransLV  LtransLV  3.157 mH
2 π 60Hz
Source impedance

MVAsc  1000MVA Vpu  1.0pu

MVAsc
MVAsc_pu  MVAsc_pu  10 pu
SBASE
ECE 422: Session 10; Page 2/10
Power Systems Analysis Spring 2018

2
Vpu
mZsource  mZsource  0.1 pu
MVAsc_pu

η  atan ( XoverR) η  84.29 deg

jη
Zsource  mZsource e Zsource  ( 0.01  0.0995i) pu

Source impedance in Ohms referred to LV side:

Zsource_Ohm  Zsource ZBLV Zsource_Ohm  ( 0.118  1.184i) Ω

Im  Zsource_Ohm
Lsource_LV  Lsource_LV  3.14 mH
( 2 π 60Hz)

If we wanted to find source impedance referred to LV side in 1 step:

  Vlv 2  j  atan ( XoverR )


 ( 0.118  1.184i) Ω
 MVAsc  e
 
Equivalent circuit (since this is a three phase fault we can use per phase analysis:

Rsrc Lsrc Rtrans Ltrans

VLN_LV Fault
ECE 422: Session 10; Page 3/10
Power Systems Analysis Spring 2018

Transient Current Solution:

Requiv  Re  Zsource_Ohm  RtransLV Requiv  0.24 Ω

Lequiv  Lsource_LV  LtransLV Lequiv  6.3 mH

Decay constant:

Lequiv
τ  τ  0.027 s
Requiv

Driving point voltage:

2
Vm   Vlv Vm  28.17 kV
3

Fault inception angle:

If we define our driving voltage as:


rad
v ( t) = Vm sin ( ω t  ϕ) ω  2 π 60Hz ω  376.99
s
 Since the fault occurs 70 degrees phase the peak of the voltage (for analytical solution let fault occur at time t = 0):

ϕ  90deg  70deg ϕ  160 deg

Initial condition:

i0  0A Switch is open
ECE 422: Session 10; Page 4/10
Power Systems Analysis Spring 2018

Equiavlent impedance:

Requiv   ω Lequiv
2 2
Zequiv_LV  Zequiv_LV  2.39 Ω

Create time vector:


4 4 v ( t)  Vm sin ( ω t  ϕ)
t  0sec 1 10 sec 
60Hz
 Vm 
iparticular ( t)     sin ( ω t  ϕ  η)
 Z equiv_LV 
t
 Vm  τ
ihomogeneous ( t)     sin ( ϕ  η)  e
 Zequiv_LV 
4
410

4
210
v ( t)

iparticular ( t) 0
ihomogeneous ( t)
4
 210

4
 410
0 0.02 0.04 0.06
t
ECE 422: Session 10; Page 5/10
Power Systems Analysis Spring 2018

4
1.510

4
110

ihomogeneous ( t)
3
510

0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06
t

i ( t)  iparticular ( t)  ihomogeneous ( t)

4
110

0
i ( t)
4
 110

4
 210

4
 310
0 0.02 0.04 0.06
t
ECE 422: Session 10; Page 6/10
Power Systems Analysis Spring 2018

Synchronous Machine Three Phase Fault Example


X''d  0.145pu X2  X''d T''d  0.035sec

X'd  0.240pu Xtran  0.1pu T'd  1sec

Xd  1.10pu Vterm  1.0pu Ta  0.2sec

Since unloaded: E''a  Vterm E'a  Vterm Ea  Vterm

E''a
I''a  I''a  4.08i pu
j  X''d  j  Xtran
E'a
I'a 
j  X'd  j  Xtran I'a  2.94i pu

Ea
Iss  Iss  0.83i pu  Less than rated load current
j  Xd  j  Xtran

E''a
Idcoffsetmax  2 Idcoffsetmax  5.77 pu
X''d  Xtran

4
t  0sec 1 10 sec  1sec

iss ( t)  2 Iss  cos ( ω t)


t

i.transient ( t)  e
T'd
  2 I'a  cos ( ω t) 
ECE 422: Session 10; Page 7/10
Power Systems Analysis Spring 2018

t

i.subtransient ( t)  e
T''d
  2 I''a  cos ( ω t) 
 Full symmetrical response:
 t t
 T''d 
  e   e
1 1 1 T'd 1 1
if ( t)  2 E''a        cos ( ω t)
 Xd  Xtran  X'd  Xtran Xd  Xtran   X''d  Xtran X'd  Xtran  

iss ( t)

i.transient ( t)
0
i.subtransient ( t)

5

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8


t
ECE 422: Session 10; Page 8/10
Power Systems Analysis Spring 2018

iss ( t)

i.transient ( t)
0
i.subtransient ( t)

5

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08


t

if ( t) 0

5

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1


t
t
T'd
idc ( t)  Idcoffsetmax e
ECE 422: Session 10; Page 9/10
Power Systems Analysis Spring 2018

idc ( t) 4

2
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
t

Generator Example 2: Repeat magnitude calculations with generator operating at rated full load (pf = 0.8
lagging for this machine).

ϕload  acos ( 0.8) ϕload  36.87 deg

j  ϕload
Sload  1pu e


 Sload 
Iload    Iload  ( 0.8  0.6i) pu Iload  1 pu
 Vterm 

E''a2  Vterm  Iload j  X''d E''a2  1.09 pu arg  E''a2  6.09 deg

E''a2
I''a2 
j  X''d  j  Xtran I''a2  4.46 pu arg  I''a2  83.91 deg
ECE 422: Session 10; Page 10/10
Power Systems Analysis Spring 2018

E'a2  Vterm  Iload j  X'd E'a2  1.16 pu arg  E'a2  9.53 deg

E'a2
I'a2 
j  X'd  j  Xtran I'a2  3.41 pu arg  I'a2  80.47 deg

Ea_2  Vterm  Iload j  Xd Ea_2  1.88 pu arg  Ea_2  27.93 deg

Ea_2
Ia_2 
j  Xd  j  Xtran Ia_2  1.57 pu arg  Ia_2  62.07 deg

E''a2
Idcoffsetmax_2  2 Idcoffsetmax_2  6.31 pu
j  X''d  j  Xtran