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AEROSPACE ENGINEERING

LAB 1
(MEC 2700)

LABORATORY
MANUAL

JULY 2007

Aerospace Engineering Lab 1 (MEC 2700)


Thermodynamics
Table of Contents

Experiment 1: Heat Capacity of Gases

Experiment 2: Thermal and Electrical Conductivity of Metals

Experiment 3: Heat Pump

Experiment 4: Heat Conduction

Experiment 5: Free and Forced Convection

Experiment 6: Thermal Radiation

Aerospace Engineering Lab 1 (MEC 2700)


Thermodynamics
Experiment 1: Heat Capacity of Gases

1. BACKGROUND

The first law of thermodynamics can be illustrated particularly well with an ideal gas.
This law describes the relationship between the change in internal intrinsic energy
ΔUi the heat exchanged with the surroundings ΔQ and the constant-pressure change
pdV.

dQ = dUi + pdV (1)

The molar heat capacity C of a substance results from the amount of absorbed heat
and the temperature change per mole:

(2)

n = number of moles

One differentiates between the molar heat capacity at constant volume CV and the
molar heat capacity at constant pressure Cp.

According to equations (1) and (2) and under isochoric conditions (V const., dV = 0),
the following is true:

(3)

and under isobaric conditions (p = const., dp = 0):

(4)

Taking the equation of state for ideal gases into consideration:

pV = n R T (5)

it follows that the difference between Cp and CV for ideal gases is equal to the
universal gas constant R.

Cp – CV = R (6)

It is obvious from equation (3) that the molar heat capacity CV is a function of the
internal intrinsic energy of the gas. The internal energy can be calculated with the aid
of the kinetic gas theory from the number of degrees of freedom f:

(7)
where

Aerospace Engineering Lab 1 (MEC 2700)


Thermodynamics
kB = 1.38 · 10-23 J/K (Boltzmann Constant)

NA = 6.02 · 1023 mol-1 (Avogadro's number)

Through substitution of

R = k B NA (8)

it follows that

(9)

and taking equation (6) into consideration:

(10)

The number of degrees of freedom of a molecule is a function of its structure. All


particles have 3 degrees of translational freedom. Diatomic molecules have an
additional two degrees of rotational freedom around the principal axes of inertia.
Triatomic molecules have three degrees of rotational freedom. Air consists primarily
of oxygen (approximately 20%) and nitrogen (circa 80%). As a first approximation,
the following can be assumed to be true for air:

f=5

CV = 2.5 R

CV = 20.8 J · K-1 · mol-1

and

Cp = 3.5 R

Cp = 29.1 J · K-1 · mol-1.

2. OBJECTIVE

The experiment aims to determine the molar heat capacities of air at constant volume
Cv and at constant pressure Cp.

3. EQUIPMENT

Aerospace Engineering Lab 1 (MEC 2700)


Thermodynamics
Precision manometer
Barometer/Manometer
Digital counter
Digital multimeter
Aspirator bottle (10000 ml)
Gas syringe (100 ml)
Stopcock, 1-way and 3-way
Rubber stopper, d = 32/26 mm, 3 holes
Rubber stopper, d = 59.5/50.5 mm, 1 hole
Rubber tubing, d = 6 mm
Nickel electrode
Chrome-nickel wire
Push-button switch

4. PROCEDURE

Part A – Determining the Constant Value Cv


i) The setup is as shown in Figure 1.
ii) To determine Cv, connect the precision manometer to the bottle
with a piece of tubing. The manometer should be positioned exactly
horizontally. Pressure increase has to be read immediately after the heating
process.
iii) Begin the measuring procedure by pressing the push button
switch. The measuring period should be less than a second.
iv) Take readings of the pressure (from the manometer), the current
and voltage.
v) Remove the air from the aspirator bottle after each
measurement.
vi) Repeat steps iii) to v) in order to obtain 10 sets of results. Vary
Δt within the given range.

Part B – Determining the Constant Value Cp


i) The setup is as shown in Figure 2.
ii) Replace the precision manometer with two syringes which are
connected to the aspirator bottle with the 3-way stopcock. One syringe is
mounted horizontally, whereas the other syringe is mounted vertically with
the plunger facing downwards.
iii) The vertical plunger is rotated before each measurement in order to
minimize static friction.
iv) The air pressure is determined with help of the syringe scale. Take note
of the initial volume of the syringe before performing the experiment.
v) Begin the measuring procedure by pressing the push button switch.
The measuring period should be less than a second but longer than 300ms.
vi) Take readings of the final volume (from the syringe), the current and
voltage. Take readings up to 1 decimal point if possible as the difference is
too small.
vii) Remove the air from the aspirator bottle after each measurement and
rotate the vertical plunger.

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Thermodynamics
viii) Repeat steps iv) to vii) in order to obtain 10 sets of results. Vary Δt within
the range 300ms to 1s.

5. REPORT

Part A – Determining the Constant Value Cv


a) Plot a graph of pressure versus time. Calculate the slope of the graph.

b) Given that, the indicator tube in the manometer has a radius of r = 2 mm and a
pressure change of p = 0.147 hPa causes an alteration of 1 cm in length,
calculate a.

ΔV = a · Δp

c) Calculate Cv.

where po = 1013 hPa


T0 = 273.2 K
V0 = 22.414 l/mol
p = atmospheric pressure

Part B – Determining the Constant Value Cp


a) Plot a graph of volume versus time. Calculate the slope of the graph.

b) Calculate Cp, given the following information.

where po = 1013hPa
T0 = 273.2K
V0 = 22.414 l/mol
p = pa – pk
pa = atmospheric pressure in hPa
pk = pressure reduction due to weight of plunger

mk  g
pk 
FK

Where mk = 0.1139 kg = mass of the plunger


g = acceleration of gravity
FK = 7.55 x 10-4 m2 = area of the plunger

c) Calculate R.

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Thermodynamics
R = Cp – Cv

d) Compare the calculated R to literature.

Figure 1: Experimental setup for Part A

Figure 2: Experimental setup for Part B

DATA COLLECTION

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Thermodynamics
Part A – Determining the Constant Value Cv
Time (ms) Pressure (Bar) Current (A) Voltage (V)

Part B – Determining the Constant Value Cp


Volume
Time (ms) Difference Current (A) Voltage (V)
Initial Final
(by calculation)

Experiment 2 – Thermal and Electrical Conductivity of Metals

Aerospace Engineering Lab 1 (MEC 2700)


Thermodynamics
1. BACKGROUND

If a temperature difference exists between different locations of a body, heat


conduction occurs. In this experiment there is a one-dimensional temperature
gradient along a rod. The quantity of heat dQ transported with time dt is a
function of the cross-sectional area a and the temperature gradient dT/dx
perpendicular to the surface.

(1)

λ is the heat conductivity of the substance.

The temperature distribution in a body is generally a function of location and


time and is in accordance with the Boltzmann transport equation

(2)

Where r is the density and c is the specific heat capacity of the substance.

After a time, a steady state

(3)

is achieved if the two ends of the metal rod having a length l are maintained at
constant temperatures T1 and T2, respectively, by two heat reservoirs.

Substituting equation (3) in equation (2), the following equation is obtained:


(4)

Aerospace Engineering Lab 1 (MEC 2700)


Thermodynamics
2. OBJECTIVE

 To determine the thermal conductivity of copper and aluminium is


determined in a constant temperature gradient from the calorimetrically
measured heat flow.
 The electrical conductivity of copper and aluminium is determined, and
the Wiedmann-Franz law is tested.

3. EQUIPMENT

Calorimeter vessel, 500 ml


Calor. vessel w. heat conduct. conn.
Heat conductivity rod, Cu
Heat conductivity rod, Al
Magn. stirrer, mini, controlable
Heat conductive paste, 50 g
Gauze bag
Rheostat, 10 Ohm , 5.7 A
Immers.heater, 300 W, 220-250VDC/AC
Temperature meter digital
Temperature probe, immers. type
Surface temperature probe
Stopwatch, digital, 1/100 sec.
Tripod base -PASS-
Bench clamp -PASS-
Support rod -PASS-, square, l 630 mm
Support rod -PASS-, square, l 1000 mm
Universal clamp
Right angle clamp -PASS-
Supporting block 1053105357 mm
Glass beaker, short, 400 ml
Multitap transf., 14VAC/12VDC, 5A
Digital multimeter
Universal measuring amplifier
Connecting cord, 500 mm, red
Connecting cord, 500 mm, blue

4. PROCEDURE

Part A – Heat Capacity of the Calorimeter

i) Weigh the lower calorimeter at room temperature


ii) Measure and record the room temperature.
iii) Prepare hot water and record its temperature.
iv) Pour the hot water into the lower calorimeter.

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Thermodynamics
v) Immediately take the temperature readings of the hot water in the
calorimeter every 10 seconds for 5 minutes.
vi) Reweigh the calorimeter to determine the mass of water.

Part B – Ambient Heat

i) The calorimeter is then put under running tap water in order to get it
back to room temperature.
ii) The calorimeter is then filled with ice water. With the assistance of ice,
obtain water with a temperature of 0oC.
iii) When a temperature of 0oC is obtained, remove all the pieces of ice
and record the temperature every minute for 30 minutes.
iv) Reweigh the calorimeter to determine the mass of water.

Part C – Thermal Conductivity

i) The setup is as shown in Figure 1. In this experiment, the difference in


temperature between the upper and lower mediums are monitored, as
well as the temperature of the water in the lower calorimeter.
ii) The empty lower calorimeter is weighed.
iii) Fill the lower calorimeter with ice water. With the aid of ice, obtain a
temperature of 0oC.
iv) When a temperature of 0oC is obtained, pour hot water in the upper
calorimeter. Ensure that the upper calorimeter is well filled with hot
water.
v) Keep the temperature of water in lower calorimeter water at 0 oC with the
help of ice, until the difference in temperature between two points on
the rod, is steady.
vi) When a constant temperature gradient is obtained, remove all the ice in the
lower calorimeter and begin taking readings of the difference in
temperature and the temperature of the water in the lower calorimeter.
Readings should be taken every 30 seconds for 5 minutes.

Part D – Electrical Conductivity

i) The setup is as shown in Figure 2. The metal rod in the setup is


aluminium.
ii) Ensure that the voltage on the variable transformer is set to 6V.
iii) The amplifier must be calibrated to 0 in a voltage-free state to avoid a
collapse on the output voltage. Select the following amplifier settings:

Input Low Drift


Amplification 104
Time Constant 0

iv) Set the rheostat to its maximum value and slowly decrease the value
during the experiment.

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Thermodynamics
v) Collect readings of current and voltage for six rheostat settings.
vi) Repeat steps i) to v) with the copper rod from the Part B.

Figure 1: Experimental Set-up for Thermal Conductivity

Figure 2: Experimental Set-up for Electrical Conductivity

Aerospace Engineering Lab 1 (MEC 2700)


Thermodynamics
5. REPORT

Part A – Heat Capacity of the Calorimeter

i) From the results obtained, plot a graph of temperature vs. time.


ii) The temperature of the mixture,  m , is determined from extrapolating the
plotted curve, as sketched in figure below. The straight line parallel to
temperature axis was drawn such that the shaded parts are equal in area.

u = Temperature of the surrounding atmosphere


1 = Initial temperature
 m = Temperature of mixture

iii) Calculate the heat capacity of the calorimeter using the following
equation:
  M
C  c w  mw  w
M  R

where
cW = Specific heat capacity of water
mW = Mass of the water
W = Temperature of the hot water
 M = Mixing temperature
 R = Room temperature

Part B – Ambient Heat

i) Calculate the addition of heat from the surroundings.

Q  (cW  mW  C )  T

where
ΔT = T – T0
Aerospace Engineering Lab 1 (MEC 2700)
Thermodynamics
T0 = Temperature at time t = 0

ii) Draw a graph of temperature vs time for the cold water.


iii) Draw a graph of heat from surroundings vs time.
iv) Calculate the slope for the graph which will give you dQ/dtambient.

Part C – Thermal Conductivity

i) Calculate Q and draw the graph of Q vs t. Find the slope of this graph,
dQ
which will give you .
ambient.+ metal
dt
dQ
ii) Calculate metal , given that:
dt

dQ dQ dQ
metal = ambient.+ metal - ambient
dt dt dt

iii) Given the length of the rod as 31.5 cm and the area as 4.91x10 -4 m2,
calculate the heat conductivity of the rod, λ.

dQ T
  A 
dt x

Part C – Electrical Conductivity

i) Calculate the electrical conductivity using the following equation:

ii) The Wiedmann-Franz Law is as stated below:

l
 
A R


 LT

Calculate the Lorenz number in each case.

iii) Given that the value of L is as follows, calculate the error in each case.

 2 k2 W
L  2  2.4 10 8 2
3 e K

k – Universal gas constant = 1.38 · 10-23 J/K


e – Elementary unit charge = 1.602 · 10-19 AS
DATA COLLECTION

Part A – Heat Capacity of the Calorimeter

Aerospace Engineering Lab 1 (MEC 2700)


Thermodynamics
Hot water temperature before poured into calorimeter = ____________

Calorimeter Temperature (assume same to Room Temperature) = ___________

Hot Water
o
Time (seconds) Temperature ( C) Time (seconds) Temperature (oC)
0 160
10 170
20 180
30 190
40 200
50 210
60 220
70 230
80 240
90 250
100 260
110 270
120 280
130 290
140 300
150

Part B – Ambient Heat

Cold water
o
Time (mins) Temperature ( C) Time (mins) Temperature (oC)
0 0 16
1 17
2 18
3 19
4 20
5 21
6 22
7 23
8 24
9 25
10 26
11 27
12 28
13 29
14 30
15

Part C – Thermal Conductivity

Aerospace Engineering Lab 1 (MEC 2700)


Thermodynamics
Time (seconds) Water Temperature (oC) ΔT (oC)
0 0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300

Part C – Electrical Conductivity

Aluminium
Reading Current (A) Voltage (V)
1
2
3
4
5
6

Copper
Reading Current (A) Voltage (V)
1
2
3
4
5
6

Experiment 3 - Heat Pump

1. BACKGROUND
Aerospace Engineering Lab 1 (MEC 2700)
Thermodynamics
Pressures and temperatures in the circulation of the electrical compression heat
pump are measured as a function of time when it is operated as a water-water heat
pump. The energy taken up and released is calculated from the heating and
cooling of the two water baths. When it is operated as an air-water heat pump, the
coefficient of performance at different vaporizer temperatures is determined.

The Mollier (h, log p) diagram, in which p is the pressure and h the specific
enthalpy of the working substance, is used to describe the cyclic process in heat
technology. Fig. 1 shows an idealised representation of the heat pump circuit. The
curve running through the critical point K delineates the wet vapour zone in which
the liquid phase and gas phase coexist. In this zone the isotherms run parallel to
the h axis. Starting from point 1, the compressor compresses the working
substance up to point 2; in the ideal case this action proceeds without an exchange
of heat with the environment, i.e. isentropically (S = const.). On the way from
point 3 useful heat is released and the working substance condenses. Then the
working substance flows through the restrictor valve and reaches point 4. In an
ideal restricting action the enthalpy remains constant. As it passes from point 4 to
point 1, the working substance takes up energy from the environment and
vaporises. The specific amounts of energy q0 and q taken up and released per kg
and the specific compressor work w required can be read off directly as line
segments on the graph.

q0 = h1 – h3
q = h2 – h3
w = h2 – h1

For evaluation purposes the data for the working substance R 134a in the wet
vapour zone are set out in Table 1.

Figure 1: h, log p diagram of a heat pump, ideal curve.

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Thermodynamics
2. O
BJ
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C
TI
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E

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Water heat pump: To measure pressure and temperature in the circuit and in the
water reservoirs on the condenser side and the vaporizer side alternately. To

Aerospace Engineering Lab 1 (MEC 2700)


Thermodynamics
calculate energy taken up and released, also the volume concentration in the
circuit and the volumetric efficiency of the compressor.
ii) Air-water heat pump: To measure vaporizer temperature and water bath
temperature on the condenser side under different operating conditions on
the vaporizer side, ie. Natural air, cold blower and hot blower.
iii) To determine the electric power consumed by the compressor and calculate
the coefficient of performance.

3. EQUIPMENT

Heat pump, compressor principle


Lab thermometer, -10…+100C
Lab thermometer, w. stem, -10…+110C
Heat conductive paste, 50 g
Hot-/Cold air blower, 1000 W
Stopwatch, digital, 1/100 sec
Tripod base -PASS-
Support rod -PASS-, square, l 250 mm
Universal clamp with joint
Glass beaker
Glass rod

4. PROCEDURE

Part A – Water-water Heat Pump

i. Pour 4.5L of water into the two water reservoirs.


ii. Record all the initial pressures and temperatures before switching on the
heat pump.
iii. Start the stopwatch at the same time the heat pump is switched on. Record
the power reading and the pressure and temperatures on both the vaporizer
and condenser side every minute for approximately 30 minutes.

Part B – Air-water Heat Pump

i. Remove the water reservoir on the vaporizer side and dry the heat
exchanger coils.
ii. Obtain a temperature of 20oC for the 4.5L water on the condenser side.
iii. Record all the initial pressures and temperatures before switching on the
heat pump.
iv. Start the stopwatch at the same time the heat pump is switched on. Record
the power reading, and the temperatures at the vaporizer outlet and
condenser water temperature, every minute for approximately 20 minutes.
v. Repeat steps ii to iv but with a hot blower and a cold blower approximately
30cm away.

Aerospace Engineering Lab 1 (MEC 2700)


Thermodynamics
5. REPORT

Part A – Water-water Heat Pump

i) Mass of water:
a) condenser = ____________
b) vaporizer = _____________

ii) Plot a graph of temperature vs time for all inlet and outlet.

iii) Calculations at t = 10mins:


Q2
a) Vaporizer heat flow, Q o
 c  mw 
T
Q
b) Condenser heat flow, Q  c  mw 
T
c) Average compressor power, P


Q
d) Performance at the condenser side,  
P

Q 0
e) Volume flow at the vaporizer side, V  v 
h1  h3

(v = specific volume of the vapour)

f) Geometrical volume flow, V g  V g  f

Given
Vg = 5.08 cm3
f = 1450 min-1
V
g) Volumetric efficiency of the compressor,   V
g

Part B – Air-water Heat Pump

i) Plot a graph of temperature versus time for all the results.


ii) Calculate the average vaporizer temperature.
iii) Calculate the condenser heat flow.
iv) Calculate the performance.
v) Compare the results for all the conditions and discuss.

DATA COLLECTION

Part A – Water-water Heat Pump

Aerospace Engineering Lab 1 (MEC 2700)


Thermodynamics
Time Power Condenser Vaporiser
(min) (W) P1 θ1 θci θco P2 θ2 θvi θvo
0

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Thermodynamics
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Part B – Air-water Heat Pump

Natural Air Hot Blower Cold Blower


Time
Power Power Power
(min) θ1 θvo θ1 θvo θ1 θvo
(W) (W) (W)
0
1
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Thermodynamics
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Experiment 4 – Heat Conduction

1. BACKGROUND

Thermal conduction is a mode of heat transfer which occurs in a material due to


the presence of temperature gradient. It is a transfer of energy from the more
energetic particles to the adjacent less energetic particles.

Aerospace Engineering Lab 1 (MEC 2700)


Thermodynamics
Generally, heat is defined as energy transfer due to the temperature gradients or
difference between two points. Heat energy can be transferred in three modes,
which are conduction, convection, and radiation. One of the most common heat
transfer modes, which is conduction heat transfer, is defined as heat transferred by
molecules that travel a very short distance (~0.65m) before colliding with
another molecule and exchanging energy.

In this experiment, both linear and radial conduction heat transfer methods are
studied. The entire system (insulated heater/specimen, air and laboratory
enclosure) are at room temperature initially (t = 0). The heater generates uniform
heat flux as switched on.

For linear conduction, an electrical heating element is bonded to one end of a


metal rod (heat source). Another end of the rod is exposed to heat discharge (heat
sink). The outer surface of the cylindrical rod is well insulated; thus yielding one-
dimensional linear heat conduction in the rod once the heating element is switched
on. Thermocouples are embedded in the rod, along its centerline, at x = 0, 12, and
24 mm from the heating element. A simple mimic diagram for heat conduction
along an well-insulated cylindrical rod is shown as below:

Insulation Ac

Imposed Hot Th Tc, Imposed Cold


Temperature Temperature
(Heat Source) qx dx (Heat Sink)
x

For radial conduction, the electrical heating element is bonded to the center
part of a circular brass plate (heat source). The cooling water flows through
the edge of the plate that acts as a heat sink for heat discharge. The other
surfaces of the plate are well insulated to simulate radial heat conduction from
the plate center to its edge when the heating element is switched on. The brass
plate has a radius, rplate = 60 mm and thickness, t = 3.2 mm. Thermocouples are
embedded in the circular plate, at r = 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 mm. A simple
mimic diagram for heat conduction along an well-insulated cylindrical rod is
shown as below:

Imposed cold temperature


(Heat Sink) r

Aerospace Engineering Lab 1 (MEC 2700)


Thermodynamics
Imposed hot temperature (Heat
Source)

2. OBJECTIVE

The aim of the experiment is to study the Fourier’s Law on linear and radial
conduction heat transfer, as well as to illustrate the transfer of heat by conduction
in solid materials while varying the parameters affecting conduction.

3. EQUIPMENT

The Heat Conduction Study Bench Model FF105 will be used in this experiment.

4. PROCEDURE

Part A – Linear Conduction along a Homogeneous and Composite Bar

1. Clamp the 25mm diameter brass specimen into the intermediate section of the
linear module.
2. Insert the probes into the holes provided along the Homogeneous Bar, making
sure that each one is touching the rod. Remember to take note of the distance
between each thermocouple on the linear module (these are the x-values).
3. Ensure that the cooling water tubes are connected (supply and drain).
4. Turn on the cooling water.
5. Switch on the heater by turning the knob.
6. Set the heater power control knob to 10W (refer to the display, not the knob
settings).
7. By using the selector switch, take the temperature readings from T1 to T9.
This is done after time is allowed for the steady state to occur. This is after
about 20 to 30 minutes. Also, record the corresponding heater power input.
8. Repeat steps 1 to 7 using the 25mm diameter stainless steel and 13mm
diameter brass specimen.

* Note : During the assembly of the intermediate sections, ensure that the contact
surfaces are properly mated. Use the heat transfer compound provided to ensure
good contact.

Part B – Radial Conduction along Circular Metal Plate

1. Insert the thermocouples in the holes provided on the specimen, making sure
that each one is operating properly. Take note of the distance for each
thermocouple (r-values).
2. Ensure that there is water supply to the unit for simulating heat sink is turned
on.

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Thermodynamics
3. Turn on the heater and set the power to 10W.
4. Record the temperatures after a steady state is obtained, which is after about
20 to 30 minutes. Also, record the corresponding heater power input.
5. Repeat steps 1 to 4 for power settings of 20 W, 30 W and 40 W.

5. REPORT

1. Plot the temperature profile for both models as a function of distance and obtain
the slope dT/dx for linear conduction and dT/dr for radial conduction.

2. By using the slope of the graph plotted, calculate the thermal conductivity for each
specimen used.

3. Compare and discuss the thermal conductivity obtained from the two methods and
the typical values contained in tables of published data.

4. Compare and discuss the effect of changing the radius of the cylindrical rod for
the brass specimen.

5. Discuss all the results obtained, the graphs plotted and the problems faced.

DATA COLLECTION

Linear Conduction

Power (W) 10 10
Specimen 25 mm diameter Brass 13 mm diameter Brass

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Thermodynamics
T1 (oC)
T2 (oC)
T3 (oC)
T4 (oC)
T5 (oC)
T6 (oC)
T7 (oC)
T8 (oC)
T9 (oC)

Power (W) 10
Specimen 25 mm diameter Stainless Steel
T1 (oC)
T2 (oC)
T3 (oC)
T4 (oC)
T5 (oC)
T6 (oC)
T7 (oC)
T8 (oC)
T9 (oC)

Radial Conduction

Power (W) 10 20 30 40
R1 (oC)
R2 (oC)
R3 (oC)
R4 (oC)
R5 (oC)
R6 (oC)

Experiment 5 – Free and Forced Convection

5. BACKGROUND

Aerospace Engineering Lab 1 (MEC 2700)


Thermodynamics
Convection is a mode of energy transfer between a solid surface and the adjacent fluid in
motion. Convection heat transfer involves the combined effects of conduction and fluid
motion.

The transfer of heat by convection plays an important role in many areas of our daily life
as well as of industry.

Heat transfer by convection between a surface and the surrounding fluid can be increased,
by attaching thin strips of metal fins to the surface. When heat transfer takes place by
convection from both interior and exterior surfaces of a tube or a plate, generally fins are
used on the surfaces where the heat transfer coefficients are low.

Heat transfer by simultaneous conduction and convection, whether free or forced, forms
the basis of most industrial heat exchangers and related equipment. The measurement and
prediction of heat transfer coefficients for such circumstances is achieved in the free and
forced convection heat transfer apparatus by studying the temperature profiles and heat
flux in an air duct with associated flat and extended transfer surfaces.

In this experiment, students are required to perform free and force convection heat
transfer using different type extended surface plate.

A heated surface dissipates heat to the surrounding fluid primarily through a process
called convection. Heat is also dissipated by conduction and radiation, however these
effects are not considered in this experiment. Air in contact with the hot surface is heated
by the surface and rises due to reduction in density. The heated air is replaced by cooler
air, which is in turn heated by the surface, and rises. This process is called free
convection.

In free convection small movements of air generated by this heat limit the heat transfer
rate from the surface. Therefore more heat is transfer if the velocity is increase over the
heated surface. This process of assisting the movement of air over the heated surface is
called forced convection. A heated surface experiencing forced convection will have a
lower surface temperature than that of the same surface in free convection, for the same
power input.

Convection heat transfer from an object can be improved by increasing the surface area in
contact with the air. In practical it may be difficult to increase the size of the body to suit.
In these circumstances the surface area in contact with the air may be increased by adding
fins or pins normal to the surface. These features are called extended surfaces. A typical
example is the use of fins on the cylinder and head on an air-cooled petrol engine. The
effect of extended surfaces can be demonstrated by comparing finned and pinned surfaces
with a flat under the same conditions of power input and airflow

6. OBJECTIVE

The experiment aims to illustrate the transfer of heat by convection both naturally and by
force. The parameters that affect the heat transfer are also explored and comparisons
between different types of solid surfaces are made.

- To demonstrate the use of extended surfaces to improve heat transfer from a surface.
- To demonstrate convection heat transfer by using different type of extended surface.
- To see the effect of different flow velocity on the convection heat transfer.
- To determine the temperature distribution along an extended surface.

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Thermodynamics
7. EQUIPMENT

1. G.U.N.T. WL350 TEST UNIT, FREE AND FORCED CONVECTION


2. Heater inserts – flat plate, cylinder and fin
3. Thermocouple
4. Air measurement probe

Sketch diagram of Convention Heat Transfer Rig

8. PROCEDURE

PART A – Natural Convection (Fin and Cylinder Heater Insert)


1. Insert the fin heater insert. (Make sure that the heater power supply is first switched
off before replacing the heater insert. Beware of hot surfaces!!!)
2. Switch on the equipment. Ensure that the fan is switched off.
3. Set the heater to no. 7.
4. Allow sufficient time to achieve a steady state condition before taking the readings of
velocity and temperature as shown below:
a. Inlet flow rate, νin and the inlet temperature, Tin at TP1 (using a probe)
b. Outlet air flow rate, νout and the air temperature, Tout at TP12 (using a probe)
c. Temperatures T2, T3, T4 and T5 (using a thermocouple)
5. Repeat steps 1 to 4 for the pinned heater insert.
6. Remember to measure the distance of the access holes from the back plate of the
heater inserts.

Aerospace Engineering Lab 1 (MEC 2700)


Thermodynamics
PART B – Forced Convection (Fin and Pin Heater Insert)
1. Switch on the fan to no. 8 (do not run at a lower setting).
2. When steady state is achieved, take the readings as in the recent experiments.
3. Carry out this experiment for both the pinned and finned heater inserts.

PART C - Forced Convection (Fin and Pin Heater Insert) at Varying Flow Rates
1. Carry out the experiment the same way as in Part B, only, vary the fan speed to no. 7,
9 and 10.
2. Obtain steady state condition and note down the respective velocity and temperatures.

9. REPORT

1. Plot graphs of temperature against distance for each plate. Explain on the graphs
plotted.

2. Plot graphs of velocity against temperature for each of the plates. Explain on the
graphs plotted.

3. Plot graphs of extended surface temperature against distance from the back plate for
both heat exchangers at all the various air velocities.

4. Comments on the correlation between total surface area of the heat exchanger and the
temperature achieved. Which of the extended surfaces has greater surface area?

5. For a heat exchanger with 100 % efficiency, the whole of the extended surface should
be at the same temperature as the backplane, why this is not achievable in the
experiment?

6. Discuss the results and the graphs obtained.

DATA COLLECTION

Pin Heater Insert


Aerospace Engineering Lab 1 (MEC 2700)
Thermodynamics
Fan speed 7 8 9 10
νin (m/s)
Tin (oC)
νout (m/s)
Tout (oC)
T2 (oC)
T3 (oC)
T4 (oC)
T5 (oC)

Cylinder Heater Insert

Fan speed 7 8 9 10
νin (m/s)
Tin (oC)
νout (m/s)
Tout (oC)
T2 (oC)
T3 (oC)
T4 (oC)
T5 (oC)

Experiment 6 – Thermal Radiation

1. BACKGROUND

Thermal radiation is a transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves with its related laws
being different to those for conduction and convection. No medium of transfer is required
Aerospace Engineering Lab 1 (MEC 2700)
Thermodynamics
as exemplified by the energy of the sun reaching the earth and all bodies at temperatures
above absolute zero emit thermal radiation.

Two most important physical laws on thermal and optical radiation are Stefan
Boltzmann’s and Lambert’s distance laws.

As commonly known heat transfer due to a temperature difference. Heat can be


transferred in three different ways, which are known as conduction, convection and
radiation.

Any object that is hot gives off light known as Thermal Radiation. The hotter an object is,
the more light it emits. And, as the temperature of the object increase, it emits most of its
light at higher and higher energies. (Higher energy light means shorter wavelength light.)
In general, the net rate of energy transfer by thermal radiation between two surfaces
involves complicated relationships among the properties of the surface, their orientations
with respect to each other, the extent to which the intervening medium scatters, emits and
absorbs thermal radiation and other factors

In these experiments, we will prove some fundamental law relating to radiation.

Inverse square law of heat

The total energy dQ from an element dA can be imagined to flow through a hemisphere
of radius r. A surface element on this hemisphere dA 1 lies on a line making an angle
with the normal and the solid angle subtended by dA1 at dA is dw = dA1/r2

If the rate of flow of energy through dA 1 is dQthen dQ= idwdA where iis the
intensity of radiation in the direction

Figure 3.1 Solid Angle

The Stefan-Boltzmann Law states that :

q b= (Ts4 –Ta4)


Where qb = energy emitted by unit area of a black body surface (Wm -2)
(Note: Energy emitted by surface =3.040 X reading from radiometer

R – refer to Radiometer Data sheet for explanation)

Aerospace Engineering Lab 1 (MEC 2700)


Thermodynamics
 = Stefan-Boltzmann constant equal to 5.67 x 10-8 (Wm-2K-4)
Ts = Source temperature and surrounding = black plate temp. (K)
Ta = Temperature of radiometer and surrounding = room temp.(K)

2. OBJECTIVE

The experiment aims to demonstrate the most important physical laws on thermal and
optical radiation.

3. EQUIPMENT

Thermal Radiation Study Unit WL360

4. PROCEDURE

Part A - Inverse Square Law of Heat

1. Place the radiometer at a distance of 1000mm from the heat source.


2. Switch on the radiometer and observe and record the background readings i.e.
radiation and temperature. (Ensure that the load is switched off)
3. Switch on the load switch and set the power regulator to 5.
4. Wait for a steady temperature. Record the radiometer reading and the distance from
the heat source of the radiometer along the horizontal track for ten radiometer
positions.

Part B – Stefan-Boltzmann Law

1. Place the radiometer 150mm and the black plate 50mm from the heat source.
2. Record the black plate temperature and the radiometer reading at room temperature.
3. Then record the readings for selected increments of increasing temperature up to
100oC. Both readings should be calculated simultaneously at any given point.

Part C – Lambert’s Direct Law (Cosine Law)

1. Mount the luxmeter at a separation of L = 400mm from the light source. Ensure that
the luxmeter is connected to the measuring amplifier.
2. Switch on the measuring amplifier and note the background readings.
3. Mount the light source in position φ = 0o, switch it on and turn the power regulator to
setting no. 9.
4. Record the illuminance, E in Lux and repeat the procedure with increasing angle of
incidence, φ in steps of 10o (0o to 900).

5. REPORT

Part A - Inverse Square Law of Heat

1. Calculate the logarithm values (log10) of the data taken.

Aerospace Engineering Lab 1 (MEC 2700)


Thermodynamics
2. Plot a graph of radiometer reading vs. distance.

3. Plot a graph of Log10 R versus log10 X.

4. Determine the gradient of the slope for the graph of Log 10 R versus log10 X.

5. What does the gradient of slope determined indicate?

6. Discuss the results and graphs plotted.

Part B – Stefan-Boltzmann Law

1. Compare the emissivity of the black plate and Stefan Boltzmann Law. Discuss and
explain the trend and the discrepancy between both results.

2. Error analysis

3. Sample calculations.

Part C – Lambert’s Direct Law (Cosine Law)

1. Tabulate the values of background illuminance, measured illuminance, corrected


illuminance (measured – background) and normalized illuminance (corrected /
illuminance at φ = 0o) for every angle taken.

2. State the relation of Lambert’s Direct Law, E φ = En . cos φ where E n = normal


irradiance.

DATA COLLECTION

Part A - Inverse Square Law of Heat

Distance Radiometer Reading

Aerospace Engineering Lab 1 (MEC 2700)


Thermodynamics
Part B – Stefan-Boltzmann Law

Temperature Radiometer Reading Blackplate Reading

Part C – Lambert’s Direct Law (Cosine Law)

Angle Luxmeter Reading


0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90

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Thermodynamics